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Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis

Dave S B Hoon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Kelly Huynh, Dave S B Hoon
The field of genomic biomarkers in melanoma has evolved dramatically in the past few decades. Whereas much of the prior focus was on molecular assessment of tumor tissue, circulating tumor cells (CTCs), and cell-free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) as sources of a "liquid biopsy" in cancer patients provide promising potential as a method to assess tumor progression, identify targets for therapy, and evaluate clinical response to treatment. Blood biomarker assays have the advantage of being noninvasive, allow for dynamic evaluation of disease over a serial time frame, and help to address the issue of tissue sampling bias and tumor heterogeneity...
2016: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Carolyn Hall, Lily Valad, Anthony Lucci
Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women, resulting in an estimated 40,000 deaths in 2014.1 Metastasis, a complex, multi-step process, remains the primary cause of death for these patients. Although the mechanisms involved in metastasis have not been fully elucidated, considerable evidence suggests that metastatic spread is mediated by rare cells within the heterogeneous primary tumor that acquire the ability to invade into the bloodstream. In the bloodstream, they can travel to distant sites, sometimes remaining undetected and in a quiescent state for an extended period of time before they establish distant metastases in the bone, lung, liver, or brain...
2016: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Humberto Lara-Guerra, Jack A Roth
Gene therapy was originally conceived to treat monogenic diseases. The replacement of a defective gene with a functional gene can theoretically cure the disease. In cancer, multiple genetic defects are present and the molecular profile changes during the course of the disease, making the replacement of all defective genes impossible. To overcome these difficulties, various gene therapy strategies have been adopted, including immune stimulation, transfer of suicide genes, inhibition of driver oncogenes, replacement of tumor-suppressor genes that could mediate apoptosis or anti-angiogenesis, and transfer of genes that enhance conventional treatments such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy...
2016: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Farin Amersi, Charles Forscher, Allan W Silberman
INTRODUCTION: Retroperitoneal sarcomas (RS) are rare malignant tumors characterized by high local recurrence rates and poor survival, Aggressive surgical resection may improve local recurrence rates and disease-specific survival (DSS), The aim of our study was to determine predictors of survival and local recurrence in primary RS. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis and identified 68 patients who underwent surgical resection of a primary RS between 1985 and 2010, Clinical and pathologic variables were used to create univariate and multivariate models for both survival and recurrence...
2016: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Steve D Colquhoun
As the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) continues to rise, so does our understanding of this disease and the number of available treatment options and strategies. Although surgical intervention often continues to play a central role, it must be placed in the proper context of what has rapidly become a multimodality, multidisciplinary disease. Understanding the nuances of managing HCC and its associations and treatment options are essential for making appropriate surgical decisions.
2016: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Mark C Kelley
Therapies targeting the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway can induce profound tumor regression in patients with advanced BRAF-mutated melanoma. Most patients develop resistance after several months of treatment, which is typically followed by rapid disease progression and death. BRAF- and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)-targeted therapies were initially thought to exert their therapeutic effects through direct inhibition of signaling within the tumor cell, resulting in cell death...
2016: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Peter C Jones, Reiko F Irie
Tumor-associated gangliosides have been investigated for their potential as antigenic targets for more than 35 years, culminating in the recent Food and Drug Administration approval of dinutuximab (Unituxin), an IgG antibody targeted against GD2, for the treatment of neuroblastoma in children. This review is focused on discoveries and development of therapeutic approaches involving human IgM antibodies directed against gangliosides, which occurred over the past 40 years at University of California-Los Angeles and the John Wayne Cancer Institute, where Dr...
2016: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Mark B Faries
The last few years have yielded exciting developments in immunotherapy for cancer. The promise of cancer immunotherapy has been well known for many years, but had generally produced limited or inconsistent benefit to patients. Intralesional therapies, which are in fact one of the oldest forms of immunotherapy, are also demonstrating benefits in the modern age. This review discusses the origins of intralesional immunotherapy and its underlying rationale. It also discusses the reemergence of this mode of therapy into the modern era, which is where Donald L...
2016: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Elizabeth A Grimm
Melanoma and many other cancers often express cells and molecular features of inflammation. Intrinsic to melanoma is the expression of a continuous cycle of cytokines and oxidative stress markers. The oxidative stress of inflammation is proposed to drive a metastatic process, not only of DNA adducts and crosslinks, but also of posttranslational oxidative modifications to lipids and proteins that we argue support growth and survival. Fortunately, numerous antioxidant agents are available clinically and we further propose that the pharmacological attenuation of these inflammatory processes, particularly the reactive nitrogen species, will restore the cancer cells to an apoptosis-permissive and growth-inhibitory state...
2016: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
David W Ollila, Nicole E Lopez, Eddy C Hsueh
There is an increasing body of literature that strongly suggests that complete metastasectomy for stage IV melanoma can improve overall survival. Before 2011, the efficacy of systemic therapy for melanoma was poor, making surgical resection the mainstay for treatment and the only realistic chance for cure. Now, in just a short time span (2011-2014), we have six Food & Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs for patients with stage IV metastatic melanoma. In the absence of prospective clinical trials evaluating the most advantageous sequence and timing for systemic therapy and surgical resection in the setting of stage IV melanoma, the treating surgical and medical oncologists must jointly devise individual treatment plans that take into account the advantages and disadvantages of each modality...
2016: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Vernon K Sondak, Damon Reed, Jane L Messina
Pediatric melanoma has been rising in incidence in recent years and its management poses challenges that are frequently exacerbated by diagnostic uncertainty about the benign or malignant nature of many pediatric melanocytic neoplasms. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), originally described by Dr. Donald L. Morton, has been incorporated selectively into the management of pediatric atypical melanocytic neoplasms (AMNs), but its value and significance in this scenario have been controversial. Herein, we describe a comprehensive approach to the evaluation and management of pediatric AMNs that involves SLNB as a diagnostic, staging, and potentially therapeutic tool...
2016: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Steven L Chen
Lymphatic mapping continues to grow in utility both as a diagnostic aid and as a method for performing less morbid, potentially therapeutic lymphadenectomies. Its use in breast cancer has become the standard of care for staging and sentinel lymph node dissection is considered sufficiently therapeutic for low-volume axillary disease. Lymphatic mapping has re-emphasized the importance of adequate lymphatic staging both in terms of the amount of lymph nodes resected and the amount of each lymph node that is assessed...
2016: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Roger F Uren, Omgo E Nieweg, John F Thompson
Donald Morton was a truly amazing man: a remarkable scientist and an outstanding, inspirational surgical oncologist. For those of us who had the great fortune to know him personally, it was an experience that we will always remember with warmth and gratitude. Hundreds of thousands, possibly millions, of patients in the future will also be grateful to him when they benefit from his original but simple idea that has so dramatically improved the surgical approach to patients with cancers that may metastasize to regional lymph nodes: the sentinel lymph node biopsy concept...
2016: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Charles M Balch, Dave S B Hoon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Dave S B Hoon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Andrew R Mendelsohn, Jennifer L Lei, Devasis Chatterjee
Every cell type capable of proliferation can be malignantly transformed. However, there appears to be no naturally occurring universal set of genetic mutations capable of converting every cell type to a malignant state. Any specific cell type is generally resistant to transformation by the cancer mutations accumulated by cells of different lineages, presumably due to epigenetic differences. Evidence for this idea derives from experiments in which the developmental fates of cancer cells are altered to reduce malignancy...
2015: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Katharine A Whartenby
Gene therapy for cancer is a still evolving approach that resulted from a long history of studies into genetic modification of organisms. The fascination with manipulating gene products has spanned hundreds if not thousands of years, beginning with observations of the hereditary nature of traits in plants and culminating to date in the alteration of genetic makeup in humans via modern technology. From early discoveries noting the potential for natural mobility of genetic material to the culmination of clinical trials in a variety of disease, gene transfer has had an eventful and sometimes tumultuous course...
2015: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Theresa M LaVallee, Diego Alvarado, Andrew J Garton, E Sergio Trombetta, Richard Gedrich, Gerald McMahon
Protein kinases play a critical regulatory role in essentially every aspect of cell biology. Of the 518 known kinases, the most successful class for drug targeting is the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family consisting of 58 distinct and diverse members. RTKs regulate a broad range of cellular functions, including proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis and have been intensively studied in development and cancer. Targeting of RTKs has resulted in many marketed small molecule and antibody-based drugs in a number of different solid tumors and hematological malignancies, and more recently in inflammatory diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis...
2015: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Anna C Sundborger, Jenny E Hinshaw
Dynamins and BAR proteins are crucial in a wide variety of cellular processes for their ability to mediate membrane remodeling, such as membrane curvature and membrane fission and fusion. In this review, we highlight dynamins and BAR proteins and the cellular mechanisms that are involved in the initiation and progression of cancer. We specifically discuss the roles of the seproteinsin endocytosis, endo-lysosomal trafficking, autophagy, and apoptosis as these processes are all tightly linked to membrane remodeling and cancer...
2015: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
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