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Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis

Michael Grunert, Rebecca Kassubek, Burkhardt Danz, Burkhard Klemenz, Sebastian Hasslacher, Sebastien Stroh, Lukas Schneele, Julia Langhans, Stephanie Ströbele, Sara E Barry, Shaoxia Zhou, Klaus-Michael Debatin, Mike-Andrew Westhoff
The use of radiation is an essential part of both modern cancer diagnostic assessment and treatment. Next-generation imaging devices create 3D visualizations, allowing for better diagnoses and improved planning of precision treatment. This is particularly important for primary brain cancers such as diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma or the most common primary brain tumor, glioblastoma, because radiotherapy is often the only treatment modality that offers a significant improvement in survival and quality of life...
2018: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Noel J Aherne, Brona M Murphy
Radiation therapy has been a cornerstone of cancer management for many decades and is an integral part of the multi-modality care of patients with brain tumors. The known serious side effects of radiation therapy on the head or central nervous system are uncommon and include radiation necrosis, microangiopathy, and progressive leukencephalopathy. In addition, there have been descriptions of radiation-induced tumors including sarcomas, gliomas, lymphomas, and carcinomas of the thyroid. Patients who have received radiation therapy of the head or face may rarely develop radiation-induced tumors, a majority of which are meningiomas, followed by radiation-induced gliomas (RIGs) and sarcomas...
2018: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Elizabeth K Balcer-Kubiczek, John G Eley
Although modern radiation therapy delivers a localized distribution of ionizing energy that can be used to cure primary cancers for many patients, the inevitable radiation exposure to non-targeted normal tissue leads to a risk of a radiation-related new cancer. Modern therapies often produce a complex spectrum of secondary particles, both charged and uncharged, that must be considered both in their physical radiation transport throughout the patient and their potential to induce biological damage, which depends on the microscopic energy deposition from the cascade of primary, secondary, and downstream particles...
2018: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Emiliya A Domina, Alex Philchenkov, Anna Dubrovska
Radiation therapy remains one of the most effective cancer treatments. Nevertheless, biology-driven personalized radiation therapy that enables treatment according to the biological characteristics of the individual tumors and normal tissues still needs to be implemented in the clinic. Understanding the mechanisms of radiation response in both tumors and normal tissues is necessary to develop reliable predictive biomarkers for tumor radioresistance and normal tissue toxicity as well as to exploit new therapeutic opportunities for tumor radiosensitization...
2018: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Luksana Chaiswing, Heidi L Weiss, Rani D Jayswal, Daret K St Clair, Natasha Kyprianou
Radiation therapy (RT) is commonly used for the treatment of localized prostate cancer (PCa). However, cancer cells often develop resistance to radiation through unknown mechanisms and pose an intractable challenge. Radiation resistance is highly unpredictable, rendering the treatment less effective in many patients and frequently causing metastasis and cancer recurrence. Understanding the molecular events that cause radioresistance in PCa will enable us to develop adjuvant treatments for enhancing the efficacy of RT...
2018: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Alex Philchenkov
Currently, more than half of newly diagnosed cancer patients receive radiation treatment. However, the radioresistance of tumor cells as well as the early and late side effects limit the beneficial outcome of radiotherapy. Accordingly, the innovative approaches to maximize tumor killing and/or minimize radiation toxicity remain a major focus of interest. In the past decade, several pieces of evidence have shown the importance of different modes of regulated cell death (RCD) in the radioresponse of malignant and normal tissues...
2018: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Isabelle R Miousse, Laura E Ewing, Kristy R Kutanzi, Robert J Griffin, Igor Koturbash
Ionizing radiation is a valuable tool in many spheres of human life. At the same time, it is a genotoxic agent with a well-established carcinogenic potential. Progress achieved in the last two decades has demonstrated convincingly that ionizing radiation can also target the cellular epigenome. Epigenetics is defined as heritable changes in the expression of genes that are not due to alterations of DNA sequence but consist of specific covalent modifications of chromatin components, such as methylation of DNA, histone modifications, and control performed by non-coding RNAs...
2018: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Shujun Huang, Nilubon Kurubanjerdjit, Wayne Xu
In this review, we introduce a new vision of cancer describing opposing effects that control progression. Cancer is a paradigm of opposing of "Yin" and "Yang," with Yin being the effect to promote cancer and Yang that to maintain the normal state. This Yin Yang hypothesis has been used to select Yin and Yang genes to develop multigene signatures for determining prognosis in lung and breast cancer. Most of the Yin genes are involved in cell survival, growth, and proliferation, whereas most Yang genes are involved in cell apoptosis...
2017: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Fengyuan Chen, Hao Sun, Yu Zhao, Huating Wang
Yin Yang1 (YY1) is a ubiquitous expressed transcription factor that modulates a variety of biologic processes with prominent roles in cellular differentiation and tissue development. Recent advances in molecular biology, mouse genetics, and particularly high-throughput sequencing have greatly enhanced our understanding of YY1 functions and underlying mechanisms in regulating transcription and epigenetics. In this review, we summarize findings on the roles of YY1 in cell differentiation and tissue development, in particular in muscle, nerve, and immune cells/tissues...
2017: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Raed Rizkallah, Myra M Hurt
The multifunctional protein Yin Yang 1 (YY1) plays critical roles in tumorigenesis. YY1 has been shown to be involved in the development, progression, resistance, and invasiveness of many types of cancers. Today, the value of YY1 as a prognostic marker and as a potential target in cancer therapy is being explored by multiple research groups around the world. Over the past 25 years, we have accumulated a wealth of information about the wide-ranging biological functions of YY1 at the molecular, cellular, and organismal levels...
2017: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Carlo Ruosi, Gianluca Colella, Flavio Fazioli, Roberta Miceli, Michele Gallo, Mariano Giuseppe Di Salvatore, Amelia Cimmino, Filomena de Nigris
Yin Yang 1 (YY1) belongs to the polycomb group (PcG) of proteins that modify chromatin epigenetically during dynamic regulation of their target genes. The predominant feature of YY1 is the zinc finger, an ancient structural motif that mediates protein-protein interactions and is capable of interacting with both DNA and RNA. Evidence reveals that YY1 acts predominantly as an epigenetic modulator, influencing the activity and/or localization of epigenetic modifiers molecules such as DNA methylation transferases, histone deacetylases, or non-coding RNAs...
2017: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Małgorzata Figiel, Andrzej Górecki
Yin Yang 1 (YY1)'s interaction with DNA can result in various, even contradicting, effects on transcription in the form of initiation, activation, or repression. This surprising activity can be explained in the context of the YY1-DNA's complex structure. YY1's DNA-binding domain is formed by four zinc finger motifs. However, the sequence of both the zinc fingers and the linkers is non-canonical, which impairs their docking to the DNA duplex. Short linkers between the zinc fingers impose a concerted binding mechanism...
2017: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Samantha Kaufhold, Nabil Aziz, Benjamin Bonavida
The transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) has been reported to be overexpressed in the majority of human cancers and that overexpression has prognostic significance. YY1 regulates several properties associated with cancer cells, including cell survival, cell proliferation, endothelial-mesenchymal transition, metastases, and resistance to both chemotherapeutics and immunotherapeutics. Although the majority of published reports focus on YY1 levels, little has been reported on the expression and activity of YY1 family member Yin Yang 2 (YY2)...
2017: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Anne Arah Cho, Benjamin Bonavida
There have been recent developments in the treatment of various cancers, in particular non-metastatic cancers. However, many of the responding patients often relapse initially through the development of spread micro and macro-metastases. Unfortunately, there are very few therapeutic modalities for the treatment of metastatic cancers. The development of cancer metastasis has been proposed to involve the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), in which the tumor cells with the EMT phenotype exhibit various phenotypic markers and molecular modifications that are manifested to resist most conventional therapies...
2017: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Benjamin Bonavida
Various targeted therapies for cancer have resulted in a significant prolongation of survival and a better quality of life. However, unfortunately, a small subset of cancer patients responds to such therapies initially and then develops resistance after the initial therapies. Based on resistant mechanisms, it should be possible to develop new and specific targeted therapies effective against unresponsive patients. Our investigations and those of others have identified a gene product, Yin Yang 1 (YY1), a transcription factor that is overexpressed in many cancers and that was shown to be involved in the regulation of cell survival, cell proliferation, cell invasion, metastasis, and resistance...
2017: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Nicholas R Galloway, Kathryn F Ball, TessaRae Stiff, Nathan R Wall
Despite significant clinical and basic science advancements, cancer remains a devastating disease that affects people of all ages, races, and backgrounds. The pathogenesis of cancer has recently been described to result from eight biological capabilities or hallmarks and two enabling characteristics. These eight hallmarks are: deregulation of cellular energetics, avoiding immune destruction, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, and activating invasion and metastasis...
2017: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Neeraj Agarwal, Dan Theodorescu
The transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a ubiquitously expressed protein involved in several biological functions, including embryogenesis, differentiation, replication, and cellular proliferation. YY1 can both activate and repress transcription depending on its interactions with other transcription factors and co-factors. It affects the transcription of a large number of mammalian and viral genes. In this review, we focus on the role of YY1 in cancer biology, including its expression, function, regulation by other upstream factors, and some of its more significant downstream effectors...
2017: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Wenmeng Wang, Dangdang Li, Guangchao Sui
Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a member of the GLI-Kruppel family of zinc finger proteins that plays vital roles in many biological processes, especially tumorigenesis. To date, ample evidence suggests a critical regulatory role of YY1 in tumor cell metastasis. The potential of YY1 as a valuable biomarker for cancer metastasis has been increasingly known. Here, we review the studies related to the expression, regulatory network, and clinical application of YY1 in cancer metastasis. We first summarize YY1 expression patterns in metastatic tumors...
2017: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Cynthia Reyes-Barron, W Richard Burack, Paul G Rothberg, Yi Ding
Monitoring minimal residual disease (MRD) is an important predictor of outcome in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and is used in risk stratification, prognosis determination, and therapy guidance. Several laboratory techniques have proven utility for characterizing leukemic cells and following MRD through diagnosis, remission and possible recurrence. Methods for determining MRD are based on the detection of leukemia-specific aberrant immunophenotypes by mulitparameter flow cytometry or the evaluation of leukemia-specific rearranged immunoglobulin or T-cell receptor sequences by quantitative real-time PCR...
2017: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Ruifang Sun, Jinfen Wang, Ken H Young
Lymphoma is characterized by heterogeneous biology, pathologic features, and clinical outcome. This has been proven by accumulating pathologic and molecular evidence attributed to underlying aberrant alterations at genetic, epigenetic, transcriptional, protein, microenvironmental levels, and dysregulated oncogenic signaling pathways. In the era of precision medicine, targeting oncogenic pathways to design drugs and to optimize treatment regimens for the lymphoma patients is feasible and clinically significant...
2017: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
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