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Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis

Shujun Huang, Nilubon Kurubanjerdjit, Wayne Xu
In this review, we introduce a new vision of cancer describing opposing effects that control progression. Cancer is a paradigm of opposing of "Yin" and "Yang," with Yin being the effect to promote cancer and Yang that to maintain the normal state. This Yin Yang hypothesis has been used to select Yin and Yang genes to develop multigene signatures for determining prognosis in lung and breast cancer. Most of the Yin genes are involved in cell survival, growth, and proliferation, whereas most Yang genes are involved in cell apoptosis...
2017: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Fengyuan Chen, Hao Sun, Yu Zhao, Huating Wang
Yin Yang1 (YY1) is a ubiquitous expressed transcription factor that modulates a variety of biologic processes with prominent roles in cellular differentiation and tissue development. Recent advances in molecular biology, mouse genetics, and particularly high-throughput sequencing have greatly enhanced our understanding of YY1 functions and underlying mechanisms in regulating transcription and epigenetics. In this review, we summarize findings on the roles of YY1 in cell differentiation and tissue development, in particular in muscle, nerve, and immune cells/tissues...
2017: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Raed Rizkallah, Myra M Hurt
The multifunctional protein Yin Yang 1 (YY1) plays critical roles in tumorigenesis. YY1 has been shown to be involved in the development, progression, resistance, and invasiveness of many types of cancers. Today, the value of YY1 as a prognostic marker and as a potential target in cancer therapy is being explored by multiple research groups around the world. Over the past 25 years, we have accumulated a wealth of information about the wide-ranging biological functions of YY1 at the molecular, cellular, and organismal levels...
2017: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Carlo Ruosi, Gianluca Colella, Flavio Fazioli, Roberta Miceli, Michele Gallo, Mariano Giuseppe Di Salvatore, Amelia Cimmino, Filomena de Nigris
Yin Yang 1 (YY1) belongs to the polycomb group (PcG) of proteins that modify chromatin epigenetically during dynamic regulation of their target genes. The predominant feature of YY1 is the zinc finger, an ancient structural motif that mediates protein-protein interactions and is capable of interacting with both DNA and RNA. Evidence reveals that YY1 acts predominantly as an epigenetic modulator, influencing the activity and/or localization of epigenetic modifiers molecules such as DNA methylation transferases, histone deacetylases, or non-coding RNAs...
2017: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Małgorzata Figiel, Andrzej Górecki
Yin Yang 1 (YY1)'s interaction with DNA can result in various, even contradicting, effects on transcription in the form of initiation, activation, or repression. This surprising activity can be explained in the context of the YY1-DNA's complex structure. YY1's DNA-binding domain is formed by four zinc finger motifs. However, the sequence of both the zinc fingers and the linkers is non-canonical, which impairs their docking to the DNA duplex. Short linkers between the zinc fingers impose a concerted binding mechanism...
2017: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Samantha Kaufhold, Nabil Aziz, Benjamin Bonavida
The transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) has been reported to be overexpressed in the majority of human cancers and that overexpression has prognostic significance. YY1 regulates several properties associated with cancer cells, including cell survival, cell proliferation, endothelial-mesenchymal transition, metastases, and resistance to both chemotherapeutics and immunotherapeutics. Although the majority of published reports focus on YY1 levels, little has been reported on the expression and activity of YY1 family member Yin Yang 2 (YY2)...
2017: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Anne Arah Cho, Benjamin Bonavida
There have been recent developments in the treatment of various cancers, in particular non-metastatic cancers. However, many of the responding patients often relapse initially through the development of spread micro and macro-metastases. Unfortunately, there are very few therapeutic modalities for the treatment of metastatic cancers. The development of cancer metastasis has been proposed to involve the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), in which the tumor cells with the EMT phenotype exhibit various phenotypic markers and molecular modifications that are manifested to resist most conventional therapies...
2017: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Benjamin Bonavida
Various targeted therapies for cancer have resulted in a significant prolongation of survival and a better quality of life. However, unfortunately, a small subset of cancer patients responds to such therapies initially and then develops resistance after the initial therapies. Based on resistant mechanisms, it should be possible to develop new and specific targeted therapies effective against unresponsive patients. Our investigations and those of others have identified a gene product, Yin Yang 1 (YY1), a transcription factor that is overexpressed in many cancers and that was shown to be involved in the regulation of cell survival, cell proliferation, cell invasion, metastasis, and resistance...
2017: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Nicholas R Galloway, Kathryn F Ball, TessaRae Stiff, Nathan R Wall
Despite significant clinical and basic science advancements, cancer remains a devastating disease that affects people of all ages, races, and backgrounds. The pathogenesis of cancer has recently been described to result from eight biological capabilities or hallmarks and two enabling characteristics. These eight hallmarks are: deregulation of cellular energetics, avoiding immune destruction, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, and activating invasion and metastasis...
2017: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Neeraj Agarwal, Dan Theodorescu
The transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a ubiquitously expressed protein involved in several biological functions, including embryogenesis, differentiation, replication, and cellular proliferation. YY1 can both activate and repress transcription depending on its interactions with other transcription factors and co-factors. It affects the transcription of a large number of mammalian and viral genes. In this review, we focus on the role of YY1 in cancer biology, including its expression, function, regulation by other upstream factors, and some of its more significant downstream effectors...
2017: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Wenmeng Wang, Dangdang Li, Guangchao Sui
Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a member of the GLI-Kruppel family of zinc finger proteins that plays vital roles in many biological processes, especially tumorigenesis. To date, ample evidence suggests a critical regulatory role of YY1 in tumor cell metastasis. The potential of YY1 as a valuable biomarker for cancer metastasis has been increasingly known. Here, we review the studies related to the expression, regulatory network, and clinical application of YY1 in cancer metastasis. We first summarize YY1 expression patterns in metastatic tumors...
2017: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Cynthia Reyes-Barron, W Richard Burack, Paul G Rothberg, Yi Ding
Monitoring minimal residual disease (MRD) is an important predictor of outcome in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and is used in risk stratification, prognosis determination, and therapy guidance. Several laboratory techniques have proven utility for characterizing leukemic cells and following MRD through diagnosis, remission and possible recurrence. Methods for determining MRD are based on the detection of leukemia-specific aberrant immunophenotypes by mulitparameter flow cytometry or the evaluation of leukemia-specific rearranged immunoglobulin or T-cell receptor sequences by quantitative real-time PCR...
2017: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Ruifang Sun, Jinfen Wang, Ken H Young
Lymphoma is characterized by heterogeneous biology, pathologic features, and clinical outcome. This has been proven by accumulating pathologic and molecular evidence attributed to underlying aberrant alterations at genetic, epigenetic, transcriptional, protein, microenvironmental levels, and dysregulated oncogenic signaling pathways. In the era of precision medicine, targeting oncogenic pathways to design drugs and to optimize treatment regimens for the lymphoma patients is feasible and clinically significant...
2017: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Kenneth A Iczkowski
Our understanding of genomic pathology and biomarkers for prostate cancer is continually growing. Some promising and useful tissue markers are GSTP1, HOXD3, cell cycle proteins, chromatin remodeling proteins, androgen receptor, Stat5a/b, ERG, and PTEN. Serum and urine markers are mostly either prostate-specific antigen or newer tests using one or more other kallikreins or sarcosine. The data and evidence for all of these markers and the commercial tests using them are reviewed here.
2017: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Jun Du, Xiao-Jun Zhou
Thymic epithelial tumors (TETs), including thymoma and thymic carcinoma, are rare malignant tumors. The mainstay of treatment patients with TET is surgical resection, and chemotherapy is necessary for patients with tumor invasion or metastasis who are unable to undergo complete radical excision. However, for those patients who are resistant to chemotherapy, targeted therapy has become the most popular tumor treatment program, as well as for thymic tumors. Many genes implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis have also been reported to be therapeutic targets in thymic malignancies...
2017: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Xiaodie Zhou, Pin Tu, Xiao Chen, Shuwei Guo, Jiandong Wang
Eph/ephrin signaling plays important roles both in embryonic development and human disease. The Eph receptors are involved in tumor development, progression, metastasis, and prognosis. The tumor microenvironment plays a critical role in tumor initiation, progression, metastasis, and resistance to therapy. Increasing data show that Ephs and ephrins mediate cell-cell interactions both in tumor cells and in tumor microenvironment. This review focuses on recent advances in dissecting the role of Eph and ephrin in tumor cells, tumor angiogenesis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, hypoxia, and inflammation...
2017: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Xiao-Tong Wang, Qiu-Yuan Xia, Xiao-Jun Zhou, Qiu Rao
The TFE3 gene is one of four members of the micropathalima-associated transcription factor family, along with TFEB, TFEC, and MiTF, located on chromosome Xp11.2. The site is notable for its involvement in translocation in Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and the mesenchymal counterparts, including Xp11 neoplasm with melanocytic differentiation/TFE3 rearrangement-associated perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa)/ melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancer/melanotic Xp11 neoplasm, and alveolar soft-part sarcoma...
2017: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Claudio Luchini, Alessia Nottegar
Recent studies have definitively established that chromatin remodeling is a crucial epigenetic mechanism not only in physiological conditions but also in influencing cancer biology. It is a dynamic process in which the chromatin, the functional entity of DNA, can undergo specific modifications by obtaining transcriptional activation or transcriptional silencing. One of the most important recent discoveries in cancer genetics and genomics is that the genes involved in the establishment of chromatin structure, the so called chromatin remodelers, are frequently mutated in different types of human cancer...
2017: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Ru Fang, Xiao-Tong Wang, Qiu-Yuan Xia, Xiao-Jun Zhou, Qiu Rao
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is an indispensable tool for molecular pathological diagnosis. It has been applied in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant tumors, the determination of tumor origin, cell differentiation, and the detection of microorganisms. By enabling the detection of proteins, IHC offers a platform for the assessment of genetic information from tumor genes and molecular pathological changes. Compared with other molecular pathology detection tools, IHC is cheaper, less time-consuming, and less labor-intensive and can be applied in routine pathological diagnosis efficiently...
2017: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Alessia Cimadamore, Silvia Gasparrini, Marina Scarpelli, Andrea Doria, Roberta Mazzucchelli, Francesco Massari, Liang Cheng, Antonio Lopez-Beltran, Rodolfo Montironi
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common malignancies in men. Its clinical behavior ranges from indolent to aggressive. The clinical and morphological methods and features currently adopted show a low predictive value concerning the definition of its level of aggressiveness. Investigations have been led to understand its complex genomic landscape to improve diagnosis and prognosis as well as to define the potential role of new therapeutic targets. Epigenetic changes, including modifications in DNA methylation and histone acetylation, can contribute to the clinical behavior of PCa...
2017: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
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