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Behavioural Neurology

Sameh A Abd El Naby, Yahya M Naguib
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most prevalent neurobehavioral disorders affecting children worldwide. The prevalence of ADHD is higher in children with epilepsy. Despite the plethora of conducted work, the precise cause of ADHD is not identified yet. We studied here the sociodemographic, clinical, electrophysiological, and biochemical profiles of children with ADHD, epilepsy, and ADHD with epilepsy. Subjects were divided into 4 groups (25 child/group): I-control, II-ADHD, III-epilepsy, and IV-ADHD with epilepsy...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Abadi Kahsu Gebre, Amdemicheal Haylay
Background: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by unprovoked recurrent seizure episodes. The disease has detrimental effects on social, cognitive, psychological, and physical components of life consequently quality of life of the patients. The level of the effect of the disease on quality life is influenced by different factors including the use of antiepileptic medications. Objectives: The study was aimed at assessing quality of life in patients with epilepsy and the variables affecting it in Mekelle city, northern Ethiopia...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Peih-Ling Tsaih, Ming-Jang Chiu, Jer-Junn Luh, Yea-Ru Yang, Jiu-Jenq Lin, Ming-Hsia Hu
Objectives: To investigate the effects of practice variability combined with task-oriented electromyographic biofeedback (EMGBFB) on strength and balance in people with chronic stroke. Methods: Thirty-three participants were randomly assigned into the constant force EMGBFB tibialis anterior (TA) exercise (constant) group, the variable force EMGBFB tibialis anterior exercise (variable) group, or the upper extremity exercise without EMGBFB (control) group. Subjects in each group received 6 weekly sessions of exercise training (18 sessions, 40 minutes each)...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Cerine C Hansen, Hanna Ljung, Eylert Brodtkorb, Arne Reimers
Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are effective against seizures, but their use is often limited by adverse effects, among them psychiatric and behavioral ones including aggressive behavior (AB). Knowledge of the incidence, risk factors, and the underlying mechanisms of AB induced by AEDs may help to facilitate management and reduce the risk of such side effects. The exact incidence of AB as an adverse effect of AEDs is difficult to estimate, but frequencies up to 16% have been reported. Primarily, levetiracetam (LEV), perampanel (PER), and topiramate (TPM), which have diverse mechanisms of action, have been associated with AB...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Woon-Man Kung, Ying-Jui Ho, Hiroshi Yoshizawa, Shinro Matsuo, Cheng-Yu Wei
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Susan Woolley, Ray Goetz, Pam Factor-Litvak, Jennifer Murphy, Jonathan Hupf, Catherine Lomen-Hoerth, Howard Andrews, Daragh Heitzman, Richard Bedlack, Jonathan Katz, Richard Barohn, Eric Sorenson, Bjorn Oskarsson, Americo Fernandes Filho, Edward Kasarskis, Tahseen Mozaffar, Sharon Nations, Andrea Swenson, Agnes Koczon-Jaremko, Georgia Christodoulou, Hiroshi Mitsumoto
Objective: To evaluate longitudinal cognitive/behavioral change over 12 months in participants enrolled in the ALS Multicenter Cohort Study of Oxidative Stress (ALS COSMOS). Methods: We analyzed data from 294 ALS participants, 134 of whom were studied serially. Change over time was evaluated controlling for age, sex, symptom duration, education, race, and ethnicity. Using multiple regression, we evaluated associations among decline in ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) scores, forced vital capacity (FVC), and cognitive/behavioral changes...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Hailiang Tang, Anatol Manaenko, Qin Hu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Cinzia Femiano, Francesca Trojsi, Giuseppina Caiazzo, Mattia Siciliano, Carla Passaniti, Antonio Russo, Alvino Bisecco, Mario Cirillo, Maria Rosaria Monsurrò, Fabrizio Esposito, Gioacchino Tedeschi, Gabriella Santangelo
Apathy is recognized as the most common behavioral change in several neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a multisystem neurodegenerative disorder. Particularly, apathy has been reported to be associated with poor ALS prognosis. However, the brain microstructural correlates of this behavioral symptom, reported as the most common in ALS, have not been completely elucidated. Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS), here we aimed to quantify the correlation between brain microstructural damage and apathy scores in the early stages of ALS...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Elisabeth Ruppert, Hélène Zagala, Juliette Chambe, Henri Comtet, Ulker Kilic-Huck, François Lefebvre, Marc Bataillard, Carmen Schroder, Laurent Calvel, Patrice Bourgin
Narcolepsy type 1 is a rare disabling sleep disorder mainly characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy, an emotion-triggered sudden loss of muscle tone. Patients have a selective degeneration of hypocretin-producing neurons in the dorsolateral posterior hypothalamus with growing evidence supporting the hypothesis of an autoimmune mechanism. Few case studies that reported intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIg) suggest the efficacy of IVIg when administered early after disease onset, but the results are controversial...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Mohammed S Jilani, Dexter Tagwireyi, Louis L Gadaga, Charles C Maponga, Cosmas Mutsimhu
Crinum macowanii is a bulbous plant indigenous to many parts of Southern Africa. Extracts of C. macowanii have gained interest since the discovery of various alkaloids, few of which possess acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of a crude hydroethanolic extract of C. macowanii against aluminum chloride-induced memory impairment in mice using the Morris water maze and the novel object recognition task. C. macowanii (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg p.o) was administered daily for five weeks, while donepezil (3 mg/kg p...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Theresa M Smith, Monique R Pappadis, Shilpa Krishnan, Timothy A Reistetter
Approximately 800,000 people in the United States have a stroke annually. Up to two thirds of stroke survivors have some visual problems, which result in disability and can affect survivors' overall rehabilitation outcomes. Although some post-stroke visual impairments can be corrected and respond well to intervention, ocular signs can be subtle and may not be recognized or reported by the stroke survivor but rather by a vigilant caregiver. The purpose of this study was to explore the post-stroke visual concerns and consequences expressed by stroke survivors and caregivers...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Mariana F Granato, Alexandre A Ferraro, Denise M Lellis, Erasmo B Casella
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been found to co-occur frequently with obesity, although the reasons for this association are unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the nutritional profile of a Brazilian cohort of ADHD patients with that of the general population and to analyze the association between ADHD drug treatment (with methylphenidate), nutritional status, and height of these individuals. In the first phase of the study, we designed the nutritional and height profile of 93 ADHD patients (5...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Tivadar Lucza, Zsuzsanna Ascherman, Márton Kovács, Attila Makkos, Márk Harmat, Annamária Juhász, József Janszky, Sámuel Komoly, Norbert Kovács, Krisztina Dorn, Kázmér Karádi
Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by numerous motor and nonmotor symptoms. Neurocognitive disorders (NCD) are one of the most troublesome problems and their diagnosis is often challenging. Methods: We compared the sensitivity and specificity of several versions of Addenbrooke Cognitive Examination (ACE, ACE-III, and Mini-ACE) on 552 subjects with PD. Normal cognition, mild and major NCD were judged in accordance with the respective criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th edition...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Stéphane Zingue, Harquin Simplice Foyet, Sefirin Djiogue, Yannick Ezo'o Ezo'o, Hervé Hervé Ngatanko Abaïssou, Pafroumi Fachagbo, Dieudonné Njamen
The present work was undertaken to evaluate the ability of F. umbellata aqueous extract and its major component 7-methoxycoumarin (MC) to improve scopolamine-induced spatial memory impairment in ovariectomized Wistar rats. For this to be done, 10 sham-operated and 30 postmenopausal-like rats were randomly distributed in eight groups ( n = 5) and treated with distilled water (2 mL/250 g), estradiol valerate (1 mg/kg BW), piracetam (1.5 mg/kg BW), F. umbellata aqueous extract (50 and 200 mg/kg BW), or MC (1 mg/kg BW) for 21 consecutive days...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Peyton Teutsch, Carolyn E Jones, Mara E Kaiser, Natasha Avalon Gardner, Miranda M Lim
Study Objectives: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) commonly cooccur. Approaches to research and treatment of these disorders have been segregated, despite overlapping symptomology. We and others have hypothesized that comorbid TBI + PTSD generates worse symptoms than either condition alone. We present a mouse model of comorbid TBI + PTSD to further explore this condition. Methods: A mouse model of TBI + PTSD was generated using the single prolonged stress (SPS) protocol in combination with the controlled cortical impact (CCI) protocol...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Lan Wen, Suxia Wang, Lei Liu, Lin Chen, Jia Geng, Lei Kuang, Gangzhen Qian, Junjie Su, Kangning Chen, Zhenhua Zhou
Compared to carotid endarterectomy, carotid artery stenting (CAS) is reportedly associated with higher perioperative risks in elderly patients. To verify the long-term safety and efficacy of CAS with embolic protection in elderly patients, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with carotid stenosis treated between January 2003 and March 2010 at the Department of Neurology of a large university hospital in China. We included patients with symptomatic, moderate, or severe carotid stenosis of atherosclerotic etiology (other etiologies were excluded), with a disability score ≤ 3 on the modified Rankin Scale, and who received CAS instead of carotid endarterectomy...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Batya Engel-Yeger, Tamara Tse, Naomi Josman, Carolyn Baum, Leeanne M Carey
Participation is a central concept in health and well-being and healthcare, yet operationalizing this concept has been difficult. Its definition, uses in healthcare, and impacts on recovery require ongoing research. Our review question goes like this: from the longitudinal evidence investigating participation among stroke survivors, what are the patterns of participation recovery in stroke survivors over time, and what interventions are used to improve participation? To fully understand these questions, we also ask, how is participation defined in the stroke literature, and what are the measures of participation used in the stroke literature? A systematic scoping review was undertaken using the search terms "stroke," "longitudinal," "participation," and "outcome" in seven databases...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Zongya Zhao, Yaqing Cheng, Zhenxin Li, Yi Yu
At present, little is known about brain functional connectivity and its small-world topologic properties in first-episode schizophrenia (SZ) patients during cool executive function task. In this paper, the Trail Making Test-B (TMT-B) task was used to evaluate the cool executive function of first-episode SZ patients and electroencephalography (EEG) data were recorded from 14 first-episode SZ patients and 14 healthy controls during this cool executive function task. Brain functional connectivity between all pairs of EEG channels was constructed based on mutual information (MI) analysis...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Nathan J Wilson, Hoe C Lee, Sharmila Vaz, Priscilla Vindin, Reinie Cordier
Gaining a driver's licence represents increased independence and can lead to improved quality of life for individuals and their families. Learning to drive a motor vehicle and maintaining safe on-road skills are often more difficult for people on the autism spectrum. Many countries currently have no autism-specific licencing requirements for learner drivers, and there is a general lack of ASD-specific support and training packages for individuals, their families, and driving instructors. This review synthesises the peer-reviewed literature about the driving characteristics of drivers on the spectrum and driver training available for the cohort...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Elias Koutsoukos, Elias Angelopoulos
This study is aimed at investigating probable disruption of the metastable balance relevant to a disruption of the mental processes observed in the neurophenomenal level. This disruption was found to occur under dense auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) which are accompanied by thought blocking (TB) phenomena. The entropy that quantifies the complexity of the spontaneous coupling has been used to describe the observed transitions. According to our findings, the high synchrony-derived entropy (SE) defines a metastable state, where formations of cortical areas are able to coordinate transiently under the demands of stimulus-oriented processes or other internal cognitive associations...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
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