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Behavioural Neurology

Elisabeth Ruppert, Hélène Zagala, Juliette Chambe, Henri Comtet, Ulker Kilic-Huck, François Lefebvre, Marc Bataillard, Carmen Schroder, Laurent Calvel, Patrice Bourgin
Narcolepsy type 1 is a rare disabling sleep disorder mainly characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy, an emotion-triggered sudden loss of muscle tone. Patients have a selective degeneration of hypocretin-producing neurons in the dorsolateral posterior hypothalamus with growing evidence supporting the hypothesis of an autoimmune mechanism. Few case studies that reported intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIg) suggest the efficacy of IVIg when administered early after disease onset, but the results are controversial...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Mohammed S Jilani, Dexter Tagwireyi, Louis L Gadaga, Charles C Maponga, Cosmas Mutsimhu
Crinum macowanii is a bulbous plant indigenous to many parts of Southern Africa. Extracts of C. macowanii have gained interest since the discovery of various alkaloids, few of which possess acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of a crude hydroethanolic extract of C. macowanii against aluminum chloride-induced memory impairment in mice using the Morris water maze and the novel object recognition task. C. macowanii (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg p.o) was administered daily for five weeks, while donepezil (3 mg/kg p...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Theresa M Smith, Monique R Pappadis, Shilpa Krishnan, Timothy A Reistetter
Approximately 800,000 people in the United States have a stroke annually. Up to two thirds of stroke survivors have some visual problems, which result in disability and can affect survivors' overall rehabilitation outcomes. Although some post-stroke visual impairments can be corrected and respond well to intervention, ocular signs can be subtle and may not be recognized or reported by the stroke survivor but rather by a vigilant caregiver. The purpose of this study was to explore the post-stroke visual concerns and consequences expressed by stroke survivors and caregivers...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Mariana F Granato, Alexandre A Ferraro, Denise M Lellis, Erasmo B Casella
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been found to co-occur frequently with obesity, although the reasons for this association are unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the nutritional profile of a Brazilian cohort of ADHD patients with that of the general population and to analyze the association between ADHD drug treatment (with methylphenidate), nutritional status, and height of these individuals. In the first phase of the study, we designed the nutritional and height profile of 93 ADHD patients (5...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Tivadar Lucza, Zsuzsanna Ascherman, Márton Kovács, Attila Makkos, Márk Harmat, Annamária Juhász, József Janszky, Sámuel Komoly, Norbert Kovács, Krisztina Dorn, Kázmér Karádi
Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by numerous motor and nonmotor symptoms. Neurocognitive disorders (NCD) are one of the most troublesome problems and their diagnosis is often challenging. Methods: We compared the sensitivity and specificity of several versions of Addenbrooke Cognitive Examination (ACE, ACE-III, and Mini-ACE) on 552 subjects with PD. Normal cognition, mild and major NCD were judged in accordance with the respective criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th edition...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Stéphane Zingue, Harquin Simplice Foyet, Sefirin Djiogue, Yannick Ezo'o Ezo'o, Hervé Hervé Ngatanko Abaïssou, Pafroumi Fachagbo, Dieudonné Njamen
The present work was undertaken to evaluate the ability of F. umbellata aqueous extract and its major component 7-methoxycoumarin (MC) to improve scopolamine-induced spatial memory impairment in ovariectomized Wistar rats. For this to be done, 10 sham-operated and 30 postmenopausal-like rats were randomly distributed in eight groups ( n = 5) and treated with distilled water (2 mL/250 g), estradiol valerate (1 mg/kg BW), piracetam (1.5 mg/kg BW), F. umbellata aqueous extract (50 and 200 mg/kg BW), or MC (1 mg/kg BW) for 21 consecutive days...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Peyton Teutsch, Carolyn E Jones, Mara E Kaiser, Natasha Avalon Gardner, Miranda M Lim
Study Objectives: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) commonly cooccur. Approaches to research and treatment of these disorders have been segregated, despite overlapping symptomology. We and others have hypothesized that comorbid TBI + PTSD generates worse symptoms than either condition alone. We present a mouse model of comorbid TBI + PTSD to further explore this condition. Methods: A mouse model of TBI + PTSD was generated using the single prolonged stress (SPS) protocol in combination with the controlled cortical impact (CCI) protocol...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Lan Wen, Suxia Wang, Lei Liu, Lin Chen, Jia Geng, Lei Kuang, Gangzhen Qian, Junjie Su, Kangning Chen, Zhenhua Zhou
Compared to carotid endarterectomy, carotid artery stenting (CAS) is reportedly associated with higher perioperative risks in elderly patients. To verify the long-term safety and efficacy of CAS with embolic protection in elderly patients, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with carotid stenosis treated between January 2003 and March 2010 at the Department of Neurology of a large university hospital in China. We included patients with symptomatic, moderate, or severe carotid stenosis of atherosclerotic etiology (other etiologies were excluded), with a disability score ≤ 3 on the modified Rankin Scale, and who received CAS instead of carotid endarterectomy...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Batya Engel-Yeger, Tamara Tse, Naomi Josman, Carolyn Baum, Leeanne M Carey
Participation is a central concept in health and well-being and healthcare, yet operationalizing this concept has been difficult. Its definition, uses in healthcare, and impacts on recovery require ongoing research. Our review question goes like this: from the longitudinal evidence investigating participation among stroke survivors, what are the patterns of participation recovery in stroke survivors over time, and what interventions are used to improve participation? To fully understand these questions, we also ask, how is participation defined in the stroke literature, and what are the measures of participation used in the stroke literature? A systematic scoping review was undertaken using the search terms "stroke," "longitudinal," "participation," and "outcome" in seven databases...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Zongya Zhao, Yaqing Cheng, Zhenxin Li, Yi Yu
At present, little is known about brain functional connectivity and its small-world topologic properties in first-episode schizophrenia (SZ) patients during cool executive function task. In this paper, the Trail Making Test-B (TMT-B) task was used to evaluate the cool executive function of first-episode SZ patients and electroencephalography (EEG) data were recorded from 14 first-episode SZ patients and 14 healthy controls during this cool executive function task. Brain functional connectivity between all pairs of EEG channels was constructed based on mutual information (MI) analysis...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Nathan J Wilson, Hoe C Lee, Sharmila Vaz, Priscilla Vindin, Reinie Cordier
Gaining a driver's licence represents increased independence and can lead to improved quality of life for individuals and their families. Learning to drive a motor vehicle and maintaining safe on-road skills are often more difficult for people on the autism spectrum. Many countries currently have no autism-specific licencing requirements for learner drivers, and there is a general lack of ASD-specific support and training packages for individuals, their families, and driving instructors. This review synthesises the peer-reviewed literature about the driving characteristics of drivers on the spectrum and driver training available for the cohort...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Elias Koutsoukos, Elias Angelopoulos
This study is aimed at investigating probable disruption of the metastable balance relevant to a disruption of the mental processes observed in the neurophenomenal level. This disruption was found to occur under dense auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) which are accompanied by thought blocking (TB) phenomena. The entropy that quantifies the complexity of the spontaneous coupling has been used to describe the observed transitions. According to our findings, the high synchrony-derived entropy (SE) defines a metastable state, where formations of cortical areas are able to coordinate transiently under the demands of stimulus-oriented processes or other internal cognitive associations...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Lin Chen, Jialu Huang, Suxia Wang, Hong Ran, Lan Wen, Kangning Chen, Zhenhua Zhou
Background: Carotid artery morphological variations (CAMV) are common variations on medical imaging; the effects of CAMV on cognition were still unknown. This study is aimed at investigating whether carotid artery morphological variations (CAMV) cause cognitive impairment. Methods: Hospitalized patients from March 2017 to October 2017 who underwent digital subtract angiography (DSA) were divided into non-CAMV group, T-type group, K-type group, and C-type group according to their carotid artery morphology...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Heng Yang, Wei Ni, Hanqiang Jiang, Yu Lei, Jiabin Su, Yuxiang Gu, Liangfu Zhou
Objectives: To investigate the role of Scriptaid in reducing brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in mice. Methods: An ICH model was constructed by injecting autologous blood into the right basal ganglia in mice. The animals were administered 3.5 mg/kg of Scriptaid intraperitoneally after ICH. The hematoma volume and hemoglobin level were measured to examine hematoma resolution. A behavior test and brain edema and white matter injury examinations indicated brain injury after ICH...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Daqiang Ke, Feng Zhou, Hui Liang, Yang Xu, Haiyan Lou
Intracranial hemorrhage or microbleeds and leukoaraiosis have an overlap in biology. Hyperlipidemia may reduce the risk of ICH or cerebral microbleeds; studies focusing on the relationship between different lipid profiles and severity of periventricular hyperintensities (PVH) and subcortical white matter lesions (SWMLs) in the cerebral small vessel disease are limited. Methods . Patients with recent first lacunar infarct were recruited. PVH and SWMLs were accessed on MRI with the Fazekas scale, and lipid levels were measured...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Bei-Lei Zhu, Chen-Long Xie, Ning-Ning Hu, Xin-Bo Zhu, Chun-Feng Liu
Background and Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the role of DL-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI) mice model. The involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway was also investigated. Methods: All mice were divided into five groups: sham-operated group, CIRI group, NBP pretreatment group, NBP treatment group, and NBP pretreatment + treatment group. The CIRI mice model was established by the use of the Pulsinelli four-vessel occlusion method...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Ying-Jui Ho, Jun-Cheng Weng, Chih-Li Lin, Mei-Shiuan Shen, Hsin-Hua Li, Wen-Chieh Liao, Nu-Man Tsai, Ching-Sui Hung, Te-Jen Lai, I-Yen Lee
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is characterized by neuronal deficits and α -synuclein inclusions in the brain. Ceftriaxone (CEF), a β -lactam antibiotic, has been suggested as a therapeutic agent in several neurodegenerative disorders for its abilities to counteract glutamate-mediated toxicity and to block α -synuclein polymerization. By using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) and immunohistochemistry, we measured the effects of CEF on neuronal activity and α -synuclein accumulation in the brain in a DLB rat model...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Niki Pandria, Alkinoos Athanasiou, Nikos Terzopoulos, Evangelos Paraskevopoulos, Maria Karagianni, Charis Styliadis, Chrysoula Kourtidou-Papadeli, Athanasia Pataka, Evgenia Lymperaki, Panagiotis D Bamidis
Smoking and stress cooccur in different stages of a nicotine addiction cycle, affecting brain function and showing additive impact on different physiological responses. Resting-state functional connectivity has shown potential in identifying these alterations. Nicotine addiction has been associated with detrimental effects on functional integrity of the central nervous system, including the organization of resting-state networks. Prolonged stress may result in enhanced activation of the default mode network (DMN)...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Francesca Trojsi, Foteini Christidi, Raffaella Migliaccio, Hernando Santamaría-García, Gabriella Santangelo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Yang Xu, Ji Zhang, Lingsong Ma, Shoucai Zhao, Shizun Li, Tingting Huang, Zhaohu Chu
Necroptosis is the best-described form of regulated necrosis at present, which is widely recognized as a component of caspase-independent cell death mediated by the concerted action of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) and receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3). Mixed-lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) was phosphorylated by RIPK3 at the threonine 357 and serine 358 residues and then formed tetramers and translocated onto the plasma membrane, which destabilizes plasma membrane integrity leading to cell swelling and membrane rupture...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
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