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Behavioural Neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720981/cerebral-reorganization-in-subacute-stroke-survivors-after-virtual-reality-based-training-a-preliminary-study
#1
Xiang Xiao, Qiang Lin, Wai-Leung Lo, Yu-Rong Mao, Xin-Chong Shi, Ryan S Cates, Shu-Feng Zhou, Dong-Feng Huang, Le Li
BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a promising method for quantifying brain recovery and investigating the intervention-induced changes in corticomotor excitability after stroke. This study aimed to evaluate cortical reorganization subsequent to virtual reality-enhanced treadmill (VRET) training in subacute stroke survivors. METHODS: Eight participants with ischemic stroke underwent VRET for 5 sections per week and for 3 weeks. fMRI was conducted to quantify the activity of selected brain regions when the subject performed ankle dorsiflexion...
2017: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720980/efficacy-of-cognitive-rehabilitation-therapy-on-poststroke-depression-among-survivors-of-first-stroke-attack-in-ibadan-nigeria
#2
Olugbemi Olukolade, Helen O Osinowo
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Poststroke depression (PSD) is a common complication after stroke. There is no adequate treatment for PSD. This study examined efficacy of cognitive rehabilitation therapy (CRT) in the treatment of PSD among stroke survivors. METHODS: An experimental design, 30 participants with poststroke depression were randomly assigned into 3 groups of cognitive rehabilitation therapy (CRT), psychoeducation (PE), and the control group (CG). CRT consisted of nine sessions with three-phased sessions focusing on activity stimulation, negative thoughts, and people contacts, PE consisted of nine sessions focusing on knowledge on stroke and poststroke depression, and the CG group was on the waiting list...
2017: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701822/the-difference-of-neural-networks-between-bimanual-antiphase-and-in-phase-upper-limb-movements-a-preliminary-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#3
Qiang Lin, Hai Li, Yu-Rong Mao, Wai-Leung Lo, Jiang-Li Zhao, Ling Chen, Yan Leng, Dong-Feng Huang, Le Li
Most daily movements require some degree of collaboration between the upper limbs. The neural mechanisms are bimanual-condition specific and therefore should be different between different activities. In this study, we aimed to explore intraregional activation and interregional connectivity during bimanual movement by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Ten right-handed, normal subjects were recruited. The neural correlates of unimanual (right side) and bimanual (in-phase and antiphase) upper limb movements were investigated...
2017: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701821/an-exploratory-study-of-intensive-neurofeedback-training-for-schizophrenia
#4
Wenya Nan, Feng Wan, Lanshin Chang, Sio Hang Pun, Mang I Vai, Agostinho Rosa
Schizophrenia is a chronic and devastating brain disorder with ongoing cognitive, behavioral, and emotional deteriorated functions. Neurofeedback training, which enables the individuals to regulate their brain activity using a real-time feedback loop, is increasingly investigated as a potential alternative intervention for schizophrenia. This study aimed to explore the effect of short but intensive neurofeedback training for schizophrenic patients with difficulty for long-time training. A middle-aged woman with chronic schizophrenia completed the intensive training of alpha/beta2 (20-30 Hz) in four consecutive days with a total training duration of 13...
2017: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659661/different-cognitive-profiles-of-patients-with-severe-aphasia
#5
Chiara Valeria Marinelli, Simona Spaccavento, Angela Craca, Paola Marangolo, Paola Angelelli
Cognitive dysfunction frequently occurs in aphasic patients and primarily compromises linguistic skills. However, patients suffering from severe aphasia show heterogeneous performance in basic cognition. Our aim was to characterize the cognitive profiles of patients with severe aphasia and to determine whether they also differ as to residual linguistic abilities. We examined 189 patients with severe aphasia with standard language tests and with the CoBaGA (Cognitive Test Battery for Global Aphasia), a battery of nonverbal tests that assesses a wide range of cognitive domains such as attention, executive functions, intelligence, memory, visual-auditory recognition, and visual-spatial abilities...
2017: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659660/robotics-in-lower-limb-rehabilitation-after-stroke
#6
REVIEW
Xue Zhang, Zan Yue, Jing Wang
With the increase in the elderly, stroke has become a common disease, often leading to motor dysfunction and even permanent disability. Lower-limb rehabilitation robots can help patients to carry out reasonable and effective training to improve the motor function of paralyzed extremity. In this paper, the developments of lower-limb rehabilitation robots in the past decades are reviewed. Specifically, we provide a classification, a comparison, and a design overview of the driving modes, training paradigm, and control strategy of the lower-limb rehabilitation robots in the reviewed literature...
2017: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584406/the-relationship-between-psychosocial-factors-and-cognition-in-multiple-sclerosis
#7
Fahad D Alosaimi, Alaa AlMulhem, Mario Moscovici, Hanan AlShalan, Mohammad Alqazlan, Abdulgader Aldaif, Sanjeev Sockalingam
INTRODUCTION: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common disorder in some regions of the world, with over 2.3 million people diagnosed worldwide. Cognitive impairment is one of the earliest symptoms to present in the course of the disease and can cause significant morbidity. We proposed a study to explore the psychosocial predictors of cognitive impairment in MS patients in Saudi Arabia, a previously unexplored patient population. METHODS: Demographic data, depression scale (PHQ9), symptom burden (PHQ15), anxiety (GAD7), disease duration, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA) scores were collected from 195 patients in a neurology clinic in Ryiadh, Saudi Arabia...
2017: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559646/assessing-cognitive-ability-and-simulator-based-driving-performance-in-poststroke-adults
#8
Alison Blane, Hoe C Lee, Torbjörn Falkmer, Tania Dukic Willstrand
Driving is an important activity of daily living, which is increasingly relied upon as the population ages. It has been well-established that cognitive processes decline following a stroke and these processes may influence driving performance. There is much debate on the use of off-road neurological assessments and driving simulators as tools to predict driving performance; however, the majority of research uses unlicensed poststroke drivers, making the comparability of poststroke adults to that of a control group difficult...
2017: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496293/the-effect-of-dopaminergic-medication-on-joint-kinematics-during-haptic-movements-in-individuals-with-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Kuan-Yi Li, Pei-Yi Chu, Kristen A Pickett
This study examined whether altered joint angular motion during haptic exploration could account for a decline in haptic sensitivity in individuals with PD by analyzing joint position data during haptic exploration of a curved contour. Each participant's hand was passively moved by a robotic arm along the edges of a virtual box (5 cm × 15 cm) with a curved left wall. After each trial, participants indicated whether the contour was curved or straight. Visual, auditory, and tactile cues were occluded, and an electrogoniometer recorded shoulder and elbow joint angles during each trial...
2017: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490836/prior-knowledge-of-target-direction-and-intended-movement-selection-improves-indirect-reaching-movement-decoding
#10
Hongbao Li, Yaoyao Hao, Shaomin Zhang, Yiwen Wang, Weidong Chen, Xiaoxiang Zheng
Objective. Previous studies have demonstrated that target direction information presented by the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) during movement planning could be incorporated into neural decoder for achieving better decoding performance. It is still unknown whether the neural decoder combined with only target direction could work in more complex tasks where obstacles impeded direct reaching paths. Methods. In this study, spike activities were collected from the PMd of two monkeys when performing a delayed obstacle-avoidance task...
2017: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408788/apathy-and-reduced-speed-of-processing-underlie-decline-in-verbal-fluency-following-dbs
#11
Jennifer A Foley, Tom Foltynie, Ludvic Zrinzo, Jonathan A Hyam, Patricia Limousin, Lisa Cipolotti
Objective. Reduced verbal fluency is a strikingly uniform finding following deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease (PD). The precise cognitive mechanism underlying this reduction remains unclear, but theories have suggested reduced motivation, linguistic skill, and/or executive function. It is of note, however, that previous reports have failed to consider the potential role of any changes in speed of processing. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine verbal fluency changes with a particular focus on the role of cognitive speed...
2017: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386162/neuroprotective-and-antiamnesic-effects-of-mitragyna-inermis-willd-rubiaceae-on-scopolamine-induced-memory-impairment-in-mice
#12
David Bougolla Pahaye, Elisabeth Ngo Bum, Germain Sotoing Taïwé, Gwladys Temkou Ngoupaye, Neteydji Sidiki, Fleur Clarisse Okomolo Moto, Nadège Kouemou, Stephanie Jacqueline Kameni Njapdounke, Gisele Nkantchoua, Antoine Kandeda, Jean Pierre Omam Omam, Veronique Mairaira, Josiane Lucie Ojong
Aim. To assess memory improvement and neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of Mitragyna inermis (M. inermis) leaf decoction on the central nervous system. Methodology. Leaf decoction of M. inermis was tested on learning and memory in normal and scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in mice using memory behavioral tests such as the Morris water maze, object recognition task, and elevated plus maze. Oxidative stress enzymes-catalase, superoxide dismutase, and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, a product of lipid peroxidation-were quantified...
2017: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348458/vascular-cognitive-impairment-through-the-looking-glass-of-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#13
REVIEW
Giuseppe Lanza, Placido Bramanti, Mariagiovanna Cantone, Manuela Pennisi, Giovanni Pennisi, Rita Bella
In the last years, there has been a significant growth in the literature exploiting transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with the aim at gaining further insights into the electrophysiological and neurochemical basis underlying vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). Overall, TMS points at enhanced brain cortical excitability and synaptic plasticity in VCI, especially in patients with overt dementia, and neurophysiological changes seem to correlate with disease process and progress. These findings have been interpreted as part of a glutamate-mediated compensatory effect in response to vascular lesions...
2017: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280289/peptide-selank-enhances-the-effect-of-diazepam-in-reducing-anxiety-in-unpredictable-chronic-mild-stress-conditions-in-rats
#14
Anastasiya Kasian, Timur Kolomin, Lyudmila Andreeva, Elena Bondarenko, Nikolay Myasoedov, Petr Slominsky, Maria Shadrina
It was shown that the anxiolytic effect of Selank is comparable to that of classical benzodiazepine drugs and that the basis of their mechanism of action may be similar. These data suggest that the presence of Selank may change the action of classical benzodiazepine drugs. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the anxiolytic activity of Selank and diazepam in rats both under conditions of unpredictable chronic mild stress and in its absence, after the individual and combined administration of these compounds using the elevated plus maze test...
2017: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255200/optimizing-neuropsychological-assessments-for-cognitive-behavioral-and-functional-impairment-classification-a-machine-learning-study
#15
Petronilla Battista, Christian Salvatore, Isabella Castiglioni
Subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD) show loss of cognitive functions and change in behavioral and functional state affecting the quality of their daily life and that of their families and caregivers. A neuropsychological assessment plays a crucial role in detecting such changes from normal conditions. However, despite the existence of clinical measures that are used to classify and diagnose AD, a large amount of subjectivity continues to exist. Our aim was to assess the potential of machine learning in quantifying this process and optimizing or even reducing the amount of neuropsychological tests used to classify AD patients, also at an early stage of impairment...
2017: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133419/mice-with-catalytically-inactive-cathepsin-a-display-neurobehavioral-alterations
#16
O Y Calhan, V Seyrantepe
The lysosomal carboxypeptidase A, Cathepsin A (CathA), is a serine protease with two distinct functions. CathA protects β-galactosidase and sialidase Neu1 against proteolytic degradation by forming a multienzyme complex and activates sialidase Neu1. CathA deficiency causes the lysosomal storage disease, galactosialidosis. These patients present with a broad range of clinical phenotypes, including growth retardation, and neurological deterioration along with the accumulation of the vasoactive peptide, endothelin-1, in the brain...
2017: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082766/vestibular-migraine-clinical-challenges-and-opportunities-for-multidisciplinarity
#17
REVIEW
Isabel Luzeiro, Leonel Luís, Freire Gonçalves, Isabel Pavão Martins
Migraine and vertigo are two very prevalent conditions in general population. The coexistence of both in the same subject is a significant clinical challenge, since it is not always possible to understand whether they are causally related or associated by chance, requiring different diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. In this review we analyze and summarize the actual knowledge about vestibular migraine (VM), focusing on the new concepts proposed by the International Classification of Headache Disorders 3-beta and by the Bárány Society and also addressing the former concepts, which are still present in clinical practice...
2016: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074078/pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-and-autism-elucidating-shared-mechanisms
#18
REVIEW
Rahul Singh, Ryan C Turner, Linda Nguyen, Kartik Motwani, Michelle Swatek, Brandon P Lucke-Wold
Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are two serious conditions that affect youth. Recent data, both preclinical and clinical, show that pediatric TBI and ASD share not only similar symptoms but also some of the same biologic mechanisms that cause these symptoms. Prominent symptoms for both disorders include gastrointestinal problems, learning difficulties, seizures, and sensory processing disruption. In this review, we highlight some of these shared mechanisms in order to discuss potential treatment options that might be applied for each condition...
2016: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053370/antiepileptic-drug-nonadherence-and-its-predictors-among-people-with-epilepsy
#19
Asmamaw Getnet, Solomon Meseret Woldeyohannes, Lulu Bekana, Tesfa Mekonen, Wubalem Fekadu, Melak Menberu, Solomon Yimer, Adisu Assaye, Amsalu Belete, Habte Belete
Introduction. Antiepileptic drugs are effective in the treatment of epilepsy to the extent that about 70% of people with epilepsy can be seizure-free, but poor adherence to medication is major problem to sustained remission and functional restoration. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of antiepileptic drug nonadherence. Methods. Cross-sectional study was conducted on 450 individuals who were selected by systematic random sampling method. Antiepileptic drug nonadherence was measured by Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS) and logistic regression was used to look for significant associations...
2016: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042202/influence-of-binasal-and-uninasal-inhalations-of-essential-oil-of-abies-koreana-twigs-on-electroencephalographic-activity-of-human
#20
Min Seo, Kandhasamy Sowndhararajan, Songmun Kim
Objectives. The present work investigates the effect of essential oil from the twigs of Abies koreana on electroencephalographic (EEG) activity of human brain in order to understand the influence of binasal and uninasal inhalations. Methods. To accomplish this study, the essential oil from the twigs of A. koreana (AEO) was isolated by steam distillation and the EEG readings were recorded using QEEG-8 system from 8 grounding electrodes according to the International 10-20 System. Results. D-Limonene (25.29%), bornyl acetate (19...
2016: Behavioural Neurology
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