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Critical Reviews in Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30277423/critical-review-of-renal-tubule-karyomegaly-in-non-clinical-safety-evaluation-studies-and-its-significance-for-human-risk-assessment
#1
Gordon C Hard
Scientific databases were searched for terms applicable to karyomegaly in renal tubules of laboratory animals used in preclinical safety evaluation studies, and in humans. Renal tubule karyomegaly was more frequently reported in the rat in response to chemical exposure compared to other laboratory animal species. Renal tubule karyomegaly also occurred in the mouse in response to chemical insult, but much less commonly than in the rat. This nuclear lesion was recorded infrequently for hamster, dog, guinea pig, rabbit, pig, and non-human primate...
October 2, 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30257604/corrigendum
#2
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 26, 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30257603/corrigendum
#3
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 26, 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30257598/corrigendum
#4
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 26, 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30257127/use-of-proteomics-to-detect-sex-related-differences-in-effects-of-toxicants-implications-for-using-proteomics-in-toxicology
#5
Ivonne M C M Rietjens, Jacques Vervoort, Anna Maslowska-Górnicz, Nico Van den Brink, Karsten Beekmann
This review provides an overview of results obtained when using proteome analysis for detecting sex-based differences in response to toxicants. It reveals implications to be taken into account when considering the use of proteomics in toxicological studies. It appears that results may differ when studying the same chemical in the same species in different target tissues. Another result of interest is the limited dose-response behavior of differential abundance patterns observed in studies where more than one dose level is tested...
September 26, 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30256708/expression-of-concern
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 26, 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30226392/acute-chemical-skin-injuries-in-the-united-states-a-review
#7
Alan H Hall, Laurence Mathieu, Howard I Maibach
The objective was to perform a thorough review of published and other available data to elucidate the extent of chemical skin injuries in the US. Chemical skin injuries differ significantly from skin lesions produced by other injury mechanisms, so this review was restricted to the former. Retrieval of relevant published data was performed in PubMed and Google. Other data were retrieved from the American College of Surgeons National Trauma Databank, American Burn Association National Burn Repository, US Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics, websites of all 50 US States Departments of Health, and the National Poison Data System of the American Association of Poison Control Centers...
September 18, 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30226107/the-tryptophan-derivative-6-formylindolo-3-2-b-carbazole-ficz-a-dynamic-mediator-of-endogenous-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-signaling-balances-cell-growth-and-differentiation
#8
Agneta Rannug, Ulf Rannug
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is not essential to survival, but does act as a key regulator of many normal physiological events. The role of this receptor in toxicological processes has been studied extensively, primarily employing the high-affinity ligand 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). However, regulation of physiological responses by endogenous AHR ligands remains to be elucidated. Here, we review developments in this field, with a focus on 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ), the endogenous ligand with the highest affinity to the receptor reported to date...
September 18, 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30203727/cobalt-and-its-compounds-update-on-genotoxic-and-carcinogenic-activities
#9
D Lison, S van den Brule, G Van Maele-Fabry
This article summarizes recent experimental and epidemiological data on the genotoxic and carcinogenic activities of cobalt compounds. Emphasis is on the respiratory system, but endogenous exposure from Co-containing alloys used in endoprostheses, and limited data on nanomaterials and oral exposures are also considered. Two groups of cobalt compounds are differentiated on the basis of their mechanisms of toxicity: (1) those essentially involving the solubilization of Co(II) ions, and (2) metallic materials for which both surface corrosion and release of Co(II) ions act in concert...
September 11, 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29987986/use-of-uncertainty-factors-by-the-european-commission-scientific-committee-on-occupational-exposure-limits-a-follow-up
#10
Linda Schenk, Gunnar Johanson
Decision on the safety margin, for instance by using uncertainty factors (UFs), is a key aspect in setting Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs). We analyzed the UFs in 128 OEL recommendations from the European Commission's Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limits (SCOEL). We investigated factors expected to potentially influence the UFs, as well as a selection of factors that might influence how expert groups perceive quality or reliability of key studies. We extracted UFs explicitly stated in the recommendations (EUFs) and, when EUFs were missing, calculated an implicit safety margin (ISM) by dividing the point of departure (PoD) by the OEL...
July 10, 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745826/benzene-risk-assessment-does-new-evidence-on-myelodysplastic-syndrome-justify-a-new-approach
#11
Wenchao Li, A Robert Schnatter
Epidemiologic findings play an important role in benzene risk assessment, which is utilized to guide the selection of recommended benzene exposure levels to prevent adverse health effects. For decades, excess leukemia risk, especially that in the Pliofilm® cohort, has been the focus of benzene risk assessment. While more stringent benzene standards, often ≤1 ppm, have been promulgated to protect workers from developing leukemia, recent epidemiologic studies have reported elevated risk of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)...
July 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745287/is-current-risk-assessment-of-non-genotoxic-carcinogens-protective
#12
Hedwig M Braakhuis, Wout Slob, Evelyn D Olthof, Gerrit Wolterink, Edwin P Zwart, Eric R Gremmer, Emiel Rorije, Jan van Benthem, Ruud Woutersen, Jan Willem van der Laan, Mirjam Luijten
Non-genotoxic carcinogens (NGTXCs) do not cause direct DNA damage but induce cancer via other mechanisms. In risk assessment of chemicals and pharmaceuticals, carcinogenic risks are determined using carcinogenicity studies in rodents. With the aim to reduce animal testing, REACH legislation states that carcinogenicity studies are only allowed when specific concerns are present; risk assessment of compounds that are potentially carcinogenic by a non-genotoxic mode of action is usually based on subchronic toxicity studies...
July 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687728/exposure-to-permethrin-and-cancer-risk-a-systematic-review
#13
Paolo Boffetta, Vimi Desai
No systematic reviews are available on data from humans on cancer risk from exposure to permethrin, a widely used insecticide for which some animal studies have reported positive findings based on mechanisms that may not be relevant to humans. We identified potentially relevant articles through a search of electronic databases which included all studies of pesticide exposure and human cancer. A total of 18 articles were selected, including six identified from the list of references of other articles. Most articles were based on analyzes of the Agriculture Health Study (AHS); they provided no evidence of an increased risk of cancers of colon, rectum, pancreas, lung, melanoma, female breast, prostate, urinary bladder, as well as non-Hodgkin lymphoma (including its main subtypes), and leukemia...
July 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648919/oligomers-of-styrene-are-not-endocrine-disruptors
#14
Heinz-Peter Gelbke, Marcy Banton, Christian Block, Gordon Dawkins, Edgar Leibold, Mark Pemberton, Atsunobu Sakoda, Atsushi Yasukawa
Oligomers of styrene have been identified in polystyrene (PS) polymer samples intended for food packaging. Such oligomers contribute to nonintentionally added substances (NIAS) that may migrate into food or food simulants and therefore have to be assessed for the potential risk to health. No oligomers larger than dimers and trimers of styrene have been found to be present in PS. Some in vivo and in vitro information indicative of an endocrine activity for some specific oligomers suggest concerns for their potential for endocrine disruption in humans...
July 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589466/a-systematic-review-of-epidemiologic-studies-of-styrene-and-cancer
#15
James J Collins, Elizabeth Delzell
Previous epidemiology reviews of exposure to styrene and the risk of cancer considered studies published through 13 November 2013. Since then, additional relevant research has been published. No review has included meta-analyses. The current systematic review considered research published through June 2017; included meta-analyses of the relationship between any exposure to styrene and cancers identified as being of concern, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), leukemia and cancers of the esophagus, pancreas, lung and kidney; and evaluated several other forms of cancer...
July 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516780/benchmark-dose-bmd-modeling-current-practice-issues-and-challenges
#16
Lynne T Haber, Michael L Dourson, Bruce C Allen, Richard C Hertzberg, Ann Parker, Melissa J Vincent, Andrew Maier, Alan R Boobis
Benchmark dose (BMD) modeling is now the state of the science for determining the point of departure for risk assessment. Key advantages include the fact that the modeling takes account of all of the data for a particular effect from a particular experiment, increased consistency, and better accounting for statistical uncertainties. Despite these strong advantages, disagreements remain as to several specific aspects of the modeling, including differences in the recommendations of the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)...
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474128/non-animal-methods-to-predict-skin-sensitization-i-the-cosmetics-europe-database
#17
Sebastian Hoffmann, Nicole Kleinstreuer, Nathalie Alépée, David Allen, Anne Marie Api, Takao Ashikaga, Elodie Clouet, Magalie Cluzel, Bertrand Desprez, Nichola Gellatly, Carsten Goebel, Petra S Kern, Martina Klaric, Jochen Kühnl, Jon F Lalko, Silvia Martinozzi-Teissier, Karsten Mewes, Masaaki Miyazawa, Rahul Parakhia, Erwin van Vliet, Qingda Zang, Dirk Petersohn
Cosmetics Europe, the European Trade Association for the cosmetics and personal care industry, is conducting a multi-phase program to develop regulatory accepted, animal-free testing strategies enabling the cosmetics industry to conduct safety assessments. Based on a systematic evaluation of test methods for skin sensitization, five non-animal test methods (DPRA (Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay), KeratinoSensTM , h-CLAT (human cell line activation test), U-SENSTM , SENS-IS) were selected for inclusion in a comprehensive database of 128 substances...
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474122/non-animal-methods-to-predict-skin-sensitization-ii-an-assessment-of-defined-approaches
#18
Nicole C Kleinstreuer, Sebastian Hoffmann, Nathalie Alépée, David Allen, Takao Ashikaga, Warren Casey, Elodie Clouet, Magalie Cluzel, Bertrand Desprez, Nichola Gellatly, Carsten Göbel, Petra S Kern, Martina Klaric, Jochen Kühnl, Silvia Martinozzi-Teissier, Karsten Mewes, Masaaki Miyazawa, Judy Strickland, Erwin van Vliet, Qingda Zang, Dirk Petersohn
Skin sensitization is a toxicity endpoint of widespread concern, for which the mechanistic understanding and concurrent necessity for non-animal testing approaches have evolved to a critical juncture, with many available options for predicting sensitization without using animals. Cosmetics Europe and the National Toxicology Program Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods collaborated to analyze the performance of multiple non-animal data integration approaches for the skin sensitization safety assessment of cosmetics ingredients...
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469605/mundt-et-al-paper-does-occupational-exposure-to-formaldehyde-cause-hematotoxicity-and-leukemia-specific-chromosome-changes-in-cultured-myeloid-progenitor-cells
#19
Bernard D Goldstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460663/response-to-dr-bernard-d-goldstein-s-letter-to-the-editor
#20
Kenneth A Mundt, Alexa E Gallagher, Linda D Dell, Ethan A Natelson, Paolo Boffetta, P Robinan Gentry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
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