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Critical Reviews in Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816105/thiazolidinedione-drugs-in-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-past-present-and-future
#1
Melissa A Davidson, Donald R Mattison, Laurent Azoulay, Daniel Krewski
Thiazolidinedione (TZD) drugs used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have proven effective in improving insulin sensitivity, hyperglycemia, and lipid metabolism. Though well tolerated by some patients, their mechanism of action as ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) results in the activation of several pathways in addition to those responsible for glycemic control and lipid homeostasis. These pathways, which include those related to inflammation, bone formation, and cell proliferation, may lead to adverse health outcomes...
August 17, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741979/systematic-review-of-the-literature-on-triclosan-and-health-outcomes-in-humans
#2
Michael Goodman, Daniel Q Naiman, Judy S LaKind
The ability of epidemiologic evidence to inform regulatory decisions is largely dependent on the coherence and quality of the published literature. This systematic review examines the quality and consistency of studies assessing health outcomes associated with exposure to triclosan (TCS), an antimicrobial chemical with a short physiologic half-life. We used elements of the Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-Lived Chemicals instrument to evaluate aspects of study quality. Each methodological domain - overall design, exposure assessment, and data analysis - was categorized according to three tiers where Tier 1 indicated the highest quality...
July 25, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722535/persistence-of-mercury-induced-motor-and-sensory-neurotoxicity-systematic-review-of-workers-previously-exposed-to-mercury-vapor
#3
Cheryl A Fields, Jonathan Borak, Elan D Louis
Elemental mercury (Hg(0)) is a well-recognized neurotoxicant, but it is uncertain whether and for how long its neurotoxicity persists. Among studies that evaluated previously-exposed workers, only one examined workers during and also years after exposure had ceased. The objective of this review is to create a series of 'synthetic' longitudinal studies to address the question of persistence of Hg(0) neurotoxicity in occupationally exposed workers. We systematically reviewed studies describing objective motor and sensory effects in previously-exposed mercury workers...
July 19, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718354/mercury-induced-motor-and-sensory-neurotoxicity-systematic-review-of-workers-currently-exposed-to-mercury-vapor
#4
Cheryl A Fields, Jonathan Borak, Elan D Louis
The neurotoxicity of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) is well-recognized, but it is uncertain whether and for how long neurotoxicity persists; among studies that evaluated previously exposed workers, only one examined workers during and also years after exposure ceased. The aim of this review is to document the type, frequency, and dose-relatedness of objective neurological effects in currently exposed mercury workers and thereby provide first approximations of the effects one would have expected in previously exposed workers evaluated during exposure...
July 18, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691548/characterizing-chronic-and-acute-health-risks-of-residues-of-veterinary-drugs-in-food-latest-methodological-developments-by-the-joint-fao-who-expert-committee-on-food-additives
#5
Alan Boobis, Carl Cerniglia, Alan Chicoine, Vittorio Fattori, Markus Lipp, Rainer Reuss, Philippe Verger, Angelika Tritscher
The risk assessment of residues of veterinary drugs in food is a field that continues to evolve. The toxicological end-points to be considered are becoming more nuanced and in light of growing concern about the development of antimicrobial resistance, detailed analysis of the antimicrobial activity of the residues of veterinary drugs in food is increasingly incorporated in the assessment. In recent years, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) has refined its approaches to provide a more comprehensive and fit-for-purpose risk assessment...
July 10, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681680/evolution-of-chemical-specific-adjustment-factors-csaf-based-on-recent-international-experience-increasing-utility-and-facilitating-regulatory-acceptance
#6
Virunya S Bhat, M E Bette Meek, Mathieu Valcke, Caroline English, Alan Boobis, Richard Brown
The application of chemical-specific toxicokinetic or toxicodynamic data to address interspecies differences and human variability in the quantification of hazard has potential to reduce uncertainty and better characterize variability compared with the use of traditional default or categorically-based uncertainty factors. The present review summarizes the state-of-the-science since the introduction of the World Health Organization/International Programme on Chemical Safety (WHO/IPCS) guidance on chemical-specific adjustment factors (CSAF) in 2005 and the availability of recent applicable guidance including the WHO/IPCS guidance on physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling in 2010 as well as the U...
July 6, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675057/multiple-receptors-shape-the-estrogen-response-pathway-and-are-critical-considerations-for-the-future-of-in-vitro-based-risk-assessment-efforts
#7
Michelle M Miller, Patrick D McMullen, Melvin E Andersen, Rebecca A Clewell
Current in life toxicity testing paradigms are being challenged as the future of risk assessment moves towards more comprehensive mode of action/adverse outcome pathway based approaches. In particular, endocrine disruption screening is now a global activity and key initiatives in the United States focus on the use of high throughput in vitro assays to prioritize compounds for further testing of estrogen, androgen or thyroid disruption. Of these pathways, much of the emphasis to date has been on high-throughput methods for estrogenic activity primarily using ligand binding and trans-activation assays...
July 4, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661217/a-comprehensive-framework-for-evaluating-the-environmental-health-and-safety-implications-of-engineered-nanomaterials
#8
William K Boyes, Brittany Lila M Thornton, Souhail R Al-Abed, Christian P Andersen, Dermont C Bouchard, Robert M Burgess, Elaine A Cohen Hubal, Kay T Ho, Michael F Hughes, Kirk Kitchin, Jay R Reichman, Kim R Rogers, Jeffrey A Ross, Paul T Rygiewicz, Kirk G Scheckel, Sheau-Fung Thai, Richard G Zepp, Robert M Zucker
Engineered nanomaterials (ENM) are a growing aspect of the global economy, and their safe and sustainable development, use, and eventual disposal requires the capability to forecast and avoid potential problems. This review provides a framework to evaluate the health and safety implications of ENM releases into the environment, including purposeful releases such as for antimicrobial sprays or nano-enabled pesticides, and inadvertent releases as a consequence of other intended applications. Considerations encompass product life cycles, environmental media, exposed populations, and possible adverse outcomes...
June 29, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657395/do-causal-concentration-response-functions-exist-a-critical-review-of-associational-and-causal-relations-between-fine-particulate-matter-and-mortality
#9
Louis Anthony Tony Cox
Concentration-response (C-R) functions relating concentrations of pollutants in ambient air to mortality risks or other adverse health effects provide the basis for many public health risk assessments, benefits estimates for clean air regulations, and recommendations for revisions to existing air quality standards. The assumption that C-R functions relating levels of exposure and levels of response estimated from historical data usefully predict how future changes in concentrations would change risks has seldom been carefully tested...
June 28, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617201/a-comprehensive-review-of-regulatory-test-methods-for-endocrine-adverse-health-effects
#10
M K Manibusan, L W Touart
Development of new endocrine disruption-relevant test methods has been the subject of intensive research efforts for the past several decades, prompted in part by mandates in the 1996 Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA). While scientific understanding and test methods have advanced, questions remain on whether current scientific methods are capable of adequately addressing the complexities of the endocrine system for regulatory health and ecological risk assessments. The specific objective of this article is to perform a comprehensive, detailed evaluation of the adequacy of current test methods to inform regulatory risk assessments of whether a substance has the potential to perturb endocrine-related pathways resulting in human adverse effects...
July 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617200/exposure-to-pfoa-and-pfos-and-fetal-growth-a-critical-merging-of-toxicological-and-epidemiological-data
#11
Eva Negri, Francesca Metruccio, Valentina Guercio, Luca Tosti, Emilio Benfenati, Rossella Bonzi, Carlo La Vecchia, Angelo Moretto
Toxicological and epidemiological evidence on the association between perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) or perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and birth/fetal weight was assessed. An extensive search for toxicological information in rats and mice, and a systematic search for epidemiological evidence were conducted. The linear regression coefficient (LRC) of birth weight (BrthW) on PFOA/PFOS was considered, and separate random effects meta-analyses for untransformed (i.e. not mathematically transformed) and log-transformed values were performed...
July 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425344/20-years-of-fish-immunotoxicology-what-we-know-and-where-we-are
#12
Kristina Rehberger, Inge Werner, Bettina Hitzfeld, Helmut Segner, Lisa Baumann
Despite frequent field observations of impaired immune response and increased disease incidence in contaminant-exposed wildlife populations, immunotoxic effects are rarely considered in ecotoxicological risk assessment. The aim of this study was to review the literature on immunotoxic effects of chemicals in fish to quantitatively evaluate (i) which experimental approaches were used to assess immunotoxic effects, (ii) whether immune markers exist to screen for potential immunotoxic activities of chemicals, and (iii) how predictive those parameters are for adverse alterations of fish immunocompetence and disease resistance...
July 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524743/nanoparticle-exposures-from-nano-enabled-toner-based-printing-equipment-and-human-health-state-of-science-and-future-research-needs
#13
Sandra Vanessa Pirela, John Martin, Dhimiter Bello, Philip Demokritou
Toner formulations used by laser printers (LP) and photocopiers (PC), collectively called "toner-based printing equipment" (TPE), are nano-enabled products (NEP) because they contain several engineered nanomaterials (ENM) that improve toner performance. It has been shown that during consumer use (printing), these ENM are released in the air, together with other semi-volatile organic nanoparticles, and newly formed gaseous co-pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOC). The aim of this review is to detail and analyze physico-chemical and morphological (PCM), as well as the toxicological properties of particulate matter (PM) emissions from TPE...
May 19, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513256/do-current-oels-for-silica-protect-from-obstructive-lung-impairment-a-critical-review-of-epidemiological-data
#14
Perrine Hoet, Laure Desvallées, Dominique Lison
Inhalation of respirable crystalline silica (RCS) can lead to serious health effects such as silicosis and lung cancer. There also seems to be a general consensus to consider that RCS exposure is associated with obstructive lung impairment or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a leading cause of mortality, morbidity, and disability worldwide. It is, however, not clear whether occupational exposure levels (OELs), generally set to prevent silicosis, also protect workers from developing an obstructive impairment...
May 17, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510487/origin-of-the-ttc-values-for-compounds-that-are-genotoxic-and-or-carcinogenic-and-an-approach-for-their-re-evaluation
#15
Alan Boobis, Paul Brown, Mark Timothy David Cronin, James Edwards, Corrado Lodovico Galli, Jay Goodman, Abigail Jacobs, David Kirkland, Mirjam Luijten, Cyril Marsaux, Matthew Martin, Chihae Yang, Heli Miriam Hollnagel
The threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) approach is a resource-effective de minimis method for the safety assessment of chemicals, based on distributional analysis of the results of a large number of toxicological studies. It is being increasingly used to screen and prioritize substances with low exposure for which there is little or no toxicological information. The first step in the approach is the identification of substances that may be DNA-reactive mutagens, to which the lowest TTC value is applied...
May 16, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462599/does-occupational-exposure-to-formaldehyde-cause-hematotoxicity-and-leukemia-specific-chromosome-changes-in-cultured-myeloid-progenitor-cells
#16
Kenneth A Mundt, Alexa E Gallagher, Linda D Dell, Ethan A Natelson, Paolo Boffetta, P Robinan Gentry
Several cross-sectional studies of a single population of workers exposed to formaldehyde at one of two factories using or producing formaldehyde-melamine resins in China have concluded that formaldehyde exposure induces damage to hematopoietic cells that originate in the bone marrow. Moreover, the investigators interpret observed differences between groups as evidence that formaldehyde induces myeloid leukemias, although the mechanisms for inducing these diseases are not obvious and recently published scientific findings do not support causation...
May 2, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326907/skin-sensitizers-in-cosmetics-and-beyond-potential-multiple-mechanisms-of-action-and-importance-of-t-cell-assays-for-in-vitro-screening
#17
Stanislav Vukmanović, Nakissa Sadrieh
Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction induced by repeated contact with sensitizers. The ability of a chemical to act as a sensitizer has most frequently been tested in animals. As the use of animals for these purposes is gradually and globally being phased out, there is a need for reliable in vitro surrogate assays. Currently proposed in vitro assays are designed to test four key events of the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) involving covalent modification of self-proteins by sensitizers (haptenation) and presentation of new antigens (hapten/carrier complexes) to the immune system...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303741/weight-of-the-evidence-evaluation-of-2-4-d-potential-for-interactions-with-the-estrogen-androgen-and-thyroid-pathways-and-steroidogenesis
#18
B H Neal, J Bus, M S Marty, K Coady, A Williams, J Staveley, J C Lamb
A comprehensive weight-of-the-evidence evaluation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was conducted for potential interactions with the estrogen, androgen and thyroid pathways and with steroidogenesis. This assessment was based on an extensive database of high quality in vitro, in vivo ecotoxicological and in vivo mammalian toxicological studies. Epidemiological studies were also considered. Toxicokinetic data provided the basis for determining rational cutoffs above which exposures were considered irrelevant to humans based on exceeding thresholds for saturation of renal clearance (TSRC); extensive human exposure and biomonitoring data support that these boundaries far exceed human exposures and provide ample margins of exposure...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766926/comparing-rat-and-rabbit-embryo-fetal-developmental-toxicity-data-for-379-pharmaceuticals-on-systemic-dose-and-developmental-effects
#19
Peter T Theunissen, Sonia Beken, Bruce Beyer, William J Breslin, Gregg D Cappon, Connie L Chen, Gary Chmielewski, Luc de Schaepdrijver, Brian Enright, Jennifer E Foreman, Wafa Harrouk, Kok-Wah Hew, Alan M Hoberman, Julia Y Hui, Thomas B Knudsen, Susan B Laffan, Susan L Makris, Matthew Martin, Mary Ellen McNerney, Christine L Siezen, Dinesh J Stanislaus, Jane Stewart, Kary E Thompson, Belen Tornesi, Jan Willem Van der Laan, Gerhard F Weinbauer, Sandra Wood, Aldert H Piersma
A database of embryo-fetal developmental toxicity (EFDT) studies of 379 pharmaceutical compounds in rat and rabbit was analyzed for species differences based on toxicokinetic parameters of area under the curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (Cmax) at the developmental lowest adverse effect level (dLOAEL). For the vast majority of cases (83% based on AUC of n = 283), dLOAELs in rats and rabbits were within the same order of magnitude (less than 10-fold different) when compared based on available data on AUC and Cmax exposures...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436314/metabolomic-approaches-in-the-discovery-of-potential-urinary-biomarkers-of-drug-induced-liver-injury-dili
#20
Ana Margarida Araújo, Márcia Carvalho, Félix Carvalho, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Paula Guedes de Pinho
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major safety issue during drug development, as well as the most common cause for the withdrawal of drugs from the pharmaceutical market. The identification of DILI biomarkers is a labor-intensive area. Conventional biomarkers are not specific and often only appear at significant levels when liver damage is substantial. Therefore, new biomarkers for early identification of hepatotoxicity during the drug discovery process are needed, thus resulting in lower development costs and safer drugs...
April 24, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
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