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Critical Reviews in Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524743/nanoparticle-exposures-from-nano-enabled-toner-based-printing-equipment-and-human-health-state-of-science-and-future-research-needs
#1
Sandra Vanessa Pirela, John Martin, Dhimiter Bello, Philip Demokritou
Toner formulations used by laser printers (LP) and photocopiers (PC), collectively called "toner-based printing equipment" (TPE), are nano-enabled products (NEP) because they contain several engineered nanomaterials (ENM) that improve toner performance. It has been shown that during consumer use (printing), these ENM are released in the air, together with other semi-volatile organic nanoparticles, and newly formed gaseous co-pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOC). The aim of this review is to detail and analyze physico-chemical and morphological (PCM), as well as the toxicological properties of particulate matter (PM) emissions from TPE...
May 19, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513256/do-current-oels-for-silica-protect-from-obstructive-lung-impairment-a-critical-review-of-epidemiological-data
#2
Perrine Hoet, Laure Desvallées, Dominique Lison
Inhalation of respirable crystalline silica (RCS) can lead to serious health effects such as silicosis and lung cancer. There also seems to be a general consensus to consider that RCS exposure is associated with obstructive lung impairment or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a leading cause of mortality, morbidity, and disability worldwide. It is, however, not clear whether occupational exposure levels (OELs), generally set to prevent silicosis, also protect workers from developing an obstructive impairment...
May 17, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510487/origin-of-the-ttc-values-for-compounds-that-are-genotoxic-and-or-carcinogenic-and-an-approach-for-their-re-evaluation
#3
Alan Boobis, Paul Brown, Mark Timothy David Cronin, James Edwards, Corrado Lodovico Galli, Jay Goodman, Abigail Jacobs, David Kirkland, Mirjam Luijten, Cyril Marsaux, Matthew Martin, Chihae Yang, Heli Miriam Hollnagel
The threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) approach is a resource-effective de minimis method for the safety assessment of chemicals, based on distributional analysis of the results of a large number of toxicological studies. It is being increasingly used to screen and prioritize substances with low exposure for which there is little or no toxicological information. The first step in the approach is the identification of substances that may be DNA-reactive mutagens, to which the lowest TTC value is applied...
May 16, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462599/does-occupational-exposure-to-formaldehyde-cause-hematotoxicity-and-leukemia-specific-chromosome-changes-in-cultured-myeloid-progenitor-cells
#4
Kenneth A Mundt, Alexa E Gallagher, Linda D Dell, Ethan A Natelson, Paolo Boffetta, P Robinan Gentry
Several cross-sectional studies of a single population of workers exposed to formaldehyde at one of two factories using or producing formaldehyde-melamine resins in China have concluded that formaldehyde exposure induces damage to hematopoietic cells that originate in the bone marrow. Moreover, the investigators interpret observed differences between groups as evidence that formaldehyde induces myeloid leukemias, although the mechanisms for inducing these diseases are not obvious and recently published scientific findings do not support causation...
May 2, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436314/metabolomic-approaches-in-the-discovery-of-potential-urinary-biomarkers-of-drug-induced-liver-injury-dili
#5
Ana Margarida Araújo, Márcia Carvalho, Félix Carvalho, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Paula Guedes de Pinho
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major safety issue during drug development, as well as the most common cause for the withdrawal of drugs from the pharmaceutical market. The identification of DILI biomarkers is a labor-intensive area. Conventional biomarkers are not specific and often only appear at significant levels when liver damage is substantial. Therefore, new biomarkers for early identification of hepatotoxicity during the drug discovery process are needed, thus resulting in lower development costs and safer drugs...
April 24, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617201/a-comprehensive-review-of-regulatory-test-methods-for-endocrine-adverse-health-effects
#6
M K Manibusan, L W Touart
Development of new endocrine disruption-relevant test methods has been the subject of intensive research efforts for the past several decades, prompted in part by mandates in the 1996 Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA). While scientific understanding and test methods have advanced, questions remain on whether current scientific methods are capable of adequately addressing the complexities of the endocrine system for regulatory health and ecological risk assessments. The specific objective of this article is to perform a comprehensive, detailed evaluation of the adequacy of current test methods to inform regulatory risk assessments of whether a substance has the potential to perturb endocrine-related pathways resulting in human adverse effects...
July 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617200/exposure-to-pfoa-and-pfos-and-fetal-growth-a-critical-merging-of-toxicological-and-epidemiological-data
#7
Eva Negri, Francesca Metruccio, Valentina Guercio, Luca Tosti, Emilio Benfenati, Rossella Bonzi, Carlo La Vecchia, Angelo Moretto
Toxicological and epidemiological evidence on the association between perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) or perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and birth/fetal weight was assessed. An extensive search for toxicological information in rats and mice, and a systematic search for epidemiological evidence were conducted. The linear regression coefficient (LRC) of birth weight (BrthW) on PFOA/PFOS was considered, and separate random effects meta-analyses for untransformed (i.e. not mathematically transformed) and log-transformed values were performed...
July 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425344/20-years-of-fish-immunotoxicology-what-we-know-and-where-we-are
#8
Kristina Rehberger, Inge Werner, Bettina Hitzfeld, Helmut Segner, Lisa Baumann
Despite frequent field observations of impaired immune response and increased disease incidence in contaminant-exposed wildlife populations, immunotoxic effects are rarely considered in ecotoxicological risk assessment. The aim of this study was to review the literature on immunotoxic effects of chemicals in fish to quantitatively evaluate (i) which experimental approaches were used to assess immunotoxic effects, (ii) whether immune markers exist to screen for potential immunotoxic activities of chemicals, and (iii) how predictive those parameters are for adverse alterations of fish immunocompetence and disease resistance...
July 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326907/skin-sensitizers-in-cosmetics-and-beyond-potential-multiple-mechanisms-of-action-and-importance-of-t-cell-assays-for-in-vitro-screening
#9
Stanislav Vukmanović, Nakissa Sadrieh
Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction induced by repeated contact with sensitizers. The ability of a chemical to act as a sensitizer has most frequently been tested in animals. As the use of animals for these purposes is gradually and globally being phased out, there is a need for reliable in vitro surrogate assays. Currently proposed in vitro assays are designed to test four key events of the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) involving covalent modification of self-proteins by sensitizers (haptenation) and presentation of new antigens (hapten/carrier complexes) to the immune system...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303741/weight-of-the-evidence-evaluation-of-2-4-d-potential-for-interactions-with-the-estrogen-androgen-and-thyroid-pathways-and-steroidogenesis
#10
B H Neal, J Bus, M S Marty, K Coady, A Williams, J Staveley, J C Lamb
A comprehensive weight-of-the-evidence evaluation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was conducted for potential interactions with the estrogen, androgen and thyroid pathways and with steroidogenesis. This assessment was based on an extensive database of high quality in vitro, in vivo ecotoxicological and in vivo mammalian toxicological studies. Epidemiological studies were also considered. Toxicokinetic data provided the basis for determining rational cutoffs above which exposures were considered irrelevant to humans based on exceeding thresholds for saturation of renal clearance (TSRC); extensive human exposure and biomonitoring data support that these boundaries far exceed human exposures and provide ample margins of exposure...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766926/comparing-rat-and-rabbit-embryo-fetal-developmental-toxicity-data-for-379-pharmaceuticals-on-systemic-dose-and-developmental-effects
#11
Peter T Theunissen, Sonia Beken, Bruce Beyer, William J Breslin, Gregg D Cappon, Connie L Chen, Gary Chmielewski, Luc de Schaepdrijver, Brian Enright, Jennifer E Foreman, Wafa Harrouk, Kok-Wah Hew, Alan M Hoberman, Julia Y Hui, Thomas B Knudsen, Susan B Laffan, Susan L Makris, Matthew Martin, Mary Ellen McNerney, Christine L Siezen, Dinesh J Stanislaus, Jane Stewart, Kary E Thompson, Belen Tornesi, Jan Willem Van der Laan, Gerhard F Weinbauer, Sandra Wood, Aldert H Piersma
A database of embryo-fetal developmental toxicity (EFDT) studies of 379 pharmaceutical compounds in rat and rabbit was analyzed for species differences based on toxicokinetic parameters of area under the curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (Cmax) at the developmental lowest adverse effect level (dLOAEL). For the vast majority of cases (83% based on AUC of n = 283), dLOAELs in rats and rabbits were within the same order of magnitude (less than 10-fold different) when compared based on available data on AUC and Cmax exposures...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328293/history-of-knowledge-and-evolution-of-occupational-health-and-regulatory-aspects-of-asbestos-exposure-science-1900-1975
#12
Christy A Barlow, Jennifer Sahmel, Dennis J Paustenbach, John L Henshaw
The understanding by industrial hygienists of the hazards of asbestos and appropriate ways to characterize and control exposure has evolved over the years. Here, a detailed analysis of the evolution of industrial hygiene practices regarding asbestos and its health risks, from the early 1900s until the advent of the national occupational health and safety regulatory structure currently in place in the US (early-to-mid 1970s) is presented. While industrial hygienists recognized in the early 1900s that chronic and high-level exposures to airborne concentrations of asbestos could pose a serious health hazard, it was not until the mid-1950s that the carcinogenic nature of asbestos began to be characterized and widespread concern followed...
March 22, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322593/a-retrospective-analysis-of-the-added-value-of-1-year-dog-studies-in-pesticide-human-health-risk-assessments
#13
Brenda Linke, Sara Mohr, Deborah Ramsingh, Yadvinder Bhuller
The 1-year dog toxicity study is no longer required by certain pesticide regulatory jurisdictions, including the United States and the European Union. Health Canada's Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) examined its current requirement for this study to determine if it could be refined or eliminated. A retrospective analysis was conducted to examine the impact of the 1-year dog study on human health risk assessment. The Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI), a measure of the amount of a pesticide in food that can be ingested on a daily basis over a lifetime without an appreciable health risk, was the metric for this analysis...
March 21, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632039/thiocyanate-a-review-and-evaluation-of-the-kinetics-and-the-modes-of-action-for-thyroid-hormone-perturbations
#14
Marie-Emilie Willemin, Annie Lumen
Exposure of the population to thiocyanate is predominantly through the diet and cigarette smoke. Thiocyanate is a potential thyroid disruptor due to its capacity to inhibit the uptake of iodide by the thyroid. Thiocyanate also interacts with the enzymatic reactions associated with iodide organification and thyroid hormone synthesis. Quantification of the dose-response relationships of thiocyanate and alteration in thyroid hormone levels is important for evaluating the risk of exposure to thiocyanate in humans...
March 6, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322628/a-critical-review-of-the-relationship-between-occupational-exposure-to-diesel-emissions-and-lung-cancer-risk
#15
Matthias Möhner, Andrea Wendt
In 2012, a working group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified diesel exhaust (DE) as a human carcinogen (Group 1). This decision was primarily based on the findings of the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS). The disparity between the results of various methodological approaches applied to the DEMS led to several critical commentaries. An expert panel was subsequently set up by the Health Effects Institute to evaluate the DEMS results, together with a large study in the trucking industry...
March 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648750/methodological-considerations-when-conducting-in-vitro-air-liquid-interface-exposures-to-engineered-nanoparticle-aerosols
#16
Lynn E Secondo, Nathan J Liu, Nastassja A Lewinski
Little consistency exists in the methodology for toxicological testing of aerosolized nanoparticles used in in vitro, air-interfaced culture (AIC) exposure systems for engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) risk-assessment, preventing inter-laboratory comparisons to identify dose thresholds for adverse effects. These inconsistencies result from heterogeneity in particle types, exposure durations, exposure systems, and dose metrics reported. We screened 10,241 studies in the literature for toxicological assessment of ENPs, resulting in 110 publications included after meeting eligibility criteria...
March 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266262/using-exposure-bands-for-rapid-decision-making-in-the-risk21-tiered-exposure-assessment
#17
M Dellarco, R Zaleski, B J Gaborek, H Qian, C A Bellin, P Egeghy, N Heard, O Jolliet, D R Lander, N Sunger, K S Stylianou, J Y Tanir
The ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) Risk Assessment in the Twenty-first Century (RISK21) project was initiated to address and catalyze improvements in human health risk assessment. RISK21 is a problem formulation-based conceptual roadmap and risk matrix visualization tool, facilitating transparent evaluation of both hazard and exposure components. The RISK21 roadmap is exposure-driven, that is, exposure is used as the second step (after problem formulation) to define and focus the assessment...
February 10, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834107/a-critical-review-of-the-literature-to-conduct-a-toxicity-assessment-for-oral-exposure-to-methyl-salicylate
#18
Tracy Greene, Sarah Rogers, Allison Franzen, Robinan Gentry
Methyl salicylate is the predominant constituent of oil of wintergreen and is used as a pesticide, a denaturant, an external analgesic, a fragrance ingredient, and a flavoring agent in products such as chewing gum, baked goods, syrups, candy, beverages, ice cream, and tobacco products; and it occurs naturally in some vegetables and berries. Methyl salicylate is of interest to the tobacco industry as oil of wintergreen is used as a flavorant in tobacco products. The purpose of this investigation was to conduct a critical review of the available literature for oral exposure to methyl salicylate, incorporating an analysis of the quality of the studies available and the current understanding of the mode of action...
February 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685779/a-framework-for-cumulative-risk-assessment-in-the-21st-century
#19
Angelo Moretto, Ammie Bachman, Alan Boobis, Keith R Solomon, Timothy P Pastoor, Martin F Wilks, Michelle R Embry
The ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) has developed a framework to support a transition in the way in which information for chemical risk assessment is obtained and used (RISK21). The approach is based on detailed problem formulation, where exposure drives the data acquisition process in order to enable informed decision-making on human health safety as soon as sufficient evidence is available. Information is evaluated in a transparent and consistent way with the aim of optimizing available resources...
February 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685449/do-chromosome-changes-in-blood-cells-implicate-formaldehyde-as-a-leukemogen
#20
Richard J Albertini, Debra A Kaden
Formaldehyde (FA) is a mutagenic chemical - a property mitigated in vivo by rapid detoxification and limited tissue distribution following inhalation of the free agent. Endogenously produced FA is necessary for life and required for one-carbon transfer reactions; however, FA derived from external sources (exogenous FA), which may be in the form of methanol, may increase in vivo concentrations above naturally occurring physiological levels. Both endogenous and exogenous FA produce DNA monoadducts, DNA-DNA and DNA-protein cross-links (DDX and DPX) but, when exposed to exogenously-derived free FA, DNA monoadducts, DDX, and DPX are only produced at initial sites of contact...
February 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
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