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Critical Reviews in Toxicology

D Lison, S van den Brule, G Van Maele-Fabry
This article summarizes recent experimental and epidemiological data on the genotoxic and carcinogenic activities of cobalt compounds. Emphasis is on the respiratory system, but endogenous exposure from Co-containing alloys used in endoprostheses, and limited data on nanomaterials and oral exposures are also considered. Two groups of cobalt compounds are differentiated on the basis of their mechanisms of toxicity: (1) those essentially involving the solubilization of Co(II) ions, and (2) metallic materials for which both surface corrosion and release of Co(II) ions act in concert...
September 11, 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Linda Schenk, Gunnar Johanson
Decision on the safety margin, for instance by using uncertainty factors (UFs), is a key aspect in setting Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs). We analyzed the UFs in 128 OEL recommendations from the European Commission's Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limits (SCOEL). We investigated factors expected to potentially influence the UFs, as well as a selection of factors that might influence how expert groups perceive quality or reliability of key studies. We extracted UFs explicitly stated in the recommendations (EUFs) and, when EUFs were missing, calculated an implicit safety margin (ISM) by dividing the point of departure (PoD) by the OEL...
July 10, 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Wenchao Li, A Robert Schnatter
Epidemiologic findings play an important role in benzene risk assessment, which is utilized to guide the selection of recommended benzene exposure levels to prevent adverse health effects. For decades, excess leukemia risk, especially that in the Pliofilm® cohort, has been the focus of benzene risk assessment. While more stringent benzene standards, often ≤1 ppm, have been promulgated to protect workers from developing leukemia, recent epidemiologic studies have reported elevated risk of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)...
July 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Hedwig M Braakhuis, Wout Slob, Evelyn D Olthof, Gerrit Wolterink, Edwin P Zwart, Eric R Gremmer, Emiel Rorije, Jan van Benthem, Ruud Woutersen, Jan Willem van der Laan, Mirjam Luijten
Non-genotoxic carcinogens (NGTXCs) do not cause direct DNA damage but induce cancer via other mechanisms. In risk assessment of chemicals and pharmaceuticals, carcinogenic risks are determined using carcinogenicity studies in rodents. With the aim to reduce animal testing, REACH legislation states that carcinogenicity studies are only allowed when specific concerns are present; risk assessment of compounds that are potentially carcinogenic by a non-genotoxic mode of action is usually based on subchronic toxicity studies...
July 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Paolo Boffetta, Vimi Desai
No systematic reviews are available on data from humans on cancer risk from exposure to permethrin, a widely used insecticide for which some animal studies have reported positive findings based on mechanisms that may not be relevant to humans. We identified potentially relevant articles through a search of electronic databases which included all studies of pesticide exposure and human cancer. A total of 18 articles were selected, including six identified from the list of references of other articles. Most articles were based on analyzes of the Agriculture Health Study (AHS); they provided no evidence of an increased risk of cancers of colon, rectum, pancreas, lung, melanoma, female breast, prostate, urinary bladder, as well as non-Hodgkin lymphoma (including its main subtypes), and leukemia...
July 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Heinz-Peter Gelbke, Marcy Banton, Christian Block, Gordon Dawkins, Edgar Leibold, Mark Pemberton, Atsunobu Sakoda, Atsushi Yasukawa
Oligomers of styrene have been identified in polystyrene (PS) polymer samples intended for food packaging. Such oligomers contribute to nonintentionally added substances (NIAS) that may migrate into food or food simulants and therefore have to be assessed for the potential risk to health. No oligomers larger than dimers and trimers of styrene have been found to be present in PS. Some in vivo and in vitro information indicative of an endocrine activity for some specific oligomers suggest concerns for their potential for endocrine disruption in humans...
July 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
James J Collins, Elizabeth Delzell
Previous epidemiology reviews of exposure to styrene and the risk of cancer considered studies published through 13 November 2013. Since then, additional relevant research has been published. No review has included meta-analyses. The current systematic review considered research published through June 2017; included meta-analyses of the relationship between any exposure to styrene and cancers identified as being of concern, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), leukemia and cancers of the esophagus, pancreas, lung and kidney; and evaluated several other forms of cancer...
July 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Lynne T Haber, Michael L Dourson, Bruce C Allen, Richard C Hertzberg, Ann Parker, Melissa J Vincent, Andrew Maier, Alan R Boobis
Benchmark dose (BMD) modeling is now the state of the science for determining the point of departure for risk assessment. Key advantages include the fact that the modeling takes account of all of the data for a particular effect from a particular experiment, increased consistency, and better accounting for statistical uncertainties. Despite these strong advantages, disagreements remain as to several specific aspects of the modeling, including differences in the recommendations of the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)...
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Sebastian Hoffmann, Nicole Kleinstreuer, Nathalie Alépée, David Allen, Anne Marie Api, Takao Ashikaga, Elodie Clouet, Magalie Cluzel, Bertrand Desprez, Nichola Gellatly, Carsten Goebel, Petra S Kern, Martina Klaric, Jochen Kühnl, Jon F Lalko, Silvia Martinozzi-Teissier, Karsten Mewes, Masaaki Miyazawa, Rahul Parakhia, Erwin van Vliet, Qingda Zang, Dirk Petersohn
Cosmetics Europe, the European Trade Association for the cosmetics and personal care industry, is conducting a multi-phase program to develop regulatory accepted, animal-free testing strategies enabling the cosmetics industry to conduct safety assessments. Based on a systematic evaluation of test methods for skin sensitization, five non-animal test methods (DPRA (Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay), KeratinoSensTM , h-CLAT (human cell line activation test), U-SENSTM , SENS-IS) were selected for inclusion in a comprehensive database of 128 substances...
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Nicole C Kleinstreuer, Sebastian Hoffmann, Nathalie Alépée, David Allen, Takao Ashikaga, Warren Casey, Elodie Clouet, Magalie Cluzel, Bertrand Desprez, Nichola Gellatly, Carsten Göbel, Petra S Kern, Martina Klaric, Jochen Kühnl, Silvia Martinozzi-Teissier, Karsten Mewes, Masaaki Miyazawa, Judy Strickland, Erwin van Vliet, Qingda Zang, Dirk Petersohn
Skin sensitization is a toxicity endpoint of widespread concern, for which the mechanistic understanding and concurrent necessity for non-animal testing approaches have evolved to a critical juncture, with many available options for predicting sensitization without using animals. Cosmetics Europe and the National Toxicology Program Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods collaborated to analyze the performance of multiple non-animal data integration approaches for the skin sensitization safety assessment of cosmetics ingredients...
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Bernard D Goldstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Kenneth A Mundt, Alexa E Gallagher, Linda D Dell, Ethan A Natelson, Paolo Boffetta, P Robinan Gentry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Iara Dantas de Souza, Abraão Silveira de Andrade, Rodrigo Juliani Siqueira Dalmolin
Lead is an important heavy metal used worldwide in several applications, especially in industry. People exposed to lead can develop a wide range of symptoms associated with lead poisoning. Many effects of lead poisoning are reported in the literature, showing a compromising of whole body health, with symptoms related to cardiovascular, immune, bone, reproductive, hematological, renal, gastrointestinal, and nervous system. However, the molecular lead targets as well as the pathways affected by lead poisoning are not completely described...
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Martha M Moore, Rita S Schoeny, Richard A Becker, Kimberly White, Lynn H Pottenger
Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are frameworks starting with a molecular initiating event (MIE), followed by key events (KEs) linked by KE relationships (KERs), ultimately resulting in a specific adverse outcome. Relevant data for the pathway and each KE/KER are evaluated to assess biological plausibility, weight-of-evidence, and confidence. We aimed to describe an AOP relevant to chemicals directly inducing mutation in cancer critical gene(s), via the formation of chemical-specific pro-mutagenic DNA adduct(s), as an early critical step in tumor etiology...
April 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Carol J Burns, Timothy P Pastoor
Pyrethroids are commonly used around the home and in agricultural production to control insects. Human contact to one or more pyrethroid insecticides is likely. Numerous epidemiology studies have evaluated the association between health outcomes in humans and pyrethroid exposure. The purpose of this review was to identify and evaluate the quality of pyrethroid-related epidemiology studies that addressed chronic health effects, and compare findings with animal toxicology studies. We evaluated the quality of 61 studies published between 2000 and 2016 by using elements of outcome, exposure metric, exposure level, and study design...
April 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Graham F Whale, James Dawick, Christopher B Hughes, Delina Lyon, Peter J Boogaard
Gas-to-liquid (GTL) products are synthetic hydrocarbons produced from natural gas using a catalytic process known as the Fischer-Tropsch process. This process yields a synthetic crude oil that consists of saturated hydrocarbons which can subsequently be refined to a range of products analogous to those obtained from petroleum refining. However, in contrast to their petroleum-derived analogs, GTL products are essentially free of unsaturated or aromatic compounds and do not contain any sulfur-, oxygen-, or nitrogen-containing compounds...
April 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Sherilyn A Gross, Dennis J Paustenbach
The Shanghai Health Study (SHS) was a large epidemiology study conducted as a joint effort between the University of Colorado and Fudan University in Shanghai, China. The study was funded by members of the American Petroleum Institute between 2001 and 2009 and was designed to evaluate the human health effects associated with benzene exposure. Two arms of the SHS included: an occupational-based molecular epidemiology study and several hospital-based case control studies. Consistent with historical literature, following sufficient exposure to relatively high airborne concentrations and years of exposure, the SHS concluded that exposure to benzene resulted in an increased risk of various blood and bone marrow abnormalities such as benzene poisoning, aplastic anemia (AA), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and acute myeloid leukemia (AML)...
March 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Helinor J Johnston, Rachel Verdon, Suzanne Gillies, David M Brown, Teresa F Fernandes, Theodore B Henry, Adriano G Rossi, Lang Tran, Carl Tucker, Charles R Tyler, Vicki Stone
Assessing the safety of engineered nanomaterials (NMs) is paramount to the responsible and sustainable development of nanotechnology, which provides huge societal benefits. Currently, there is no evidence that engineered NMs cause detrimental health effects in humans. However, investigation of NM toxicity using in vivo, in vitro, in chemico, and in silico models has demonstrated that some NMs stimulate oxidative stress and inflammation, which may lead to adverse health effects. Accordingly, investigation of these responses currently dominates NM safety assessments...
March 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Peter Matthiessen, James R Wheeler, Lennart Weltje
This review critically examines the data on claimed endocrine-mediated adverse effects of chemicals on wildlife populations. It focuses on the effects of current-use chemicals, and compares their apparent scale and severity with those of legacy chemicals which have been withdrawn from sale or use, although they may still be present in the environment. The review concludes that the effects on wildlife of many legacy chemicals with endocrine activity are generally greater than those caused by current-use chemicals, with the exception of ethinylestradiol and other estrogens found in sewage effluents, which are causing widespread effects on fish populations...
March 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
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