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Critical Reviews in Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834107/a-critical-review-of-the-literature-to-conduct-a-toxicity-assessment-for-oral-exposure-to-methyl-salicylate
#1
Tracy Greene, Sarah Rogers, Allison Franzen, Robinan Gentry
Methyl salicylate is the predominant constituent of oil of wintergreen and is used as a pesticide, a denaturant, an external analgesic, a fragrance ingredient, and a flavoring agent in products such as chewing gum, baked goods, syrups, candy, beverages, ice cream, and tobacco products; and it occurs naturally in some vegetables and berries. Methyl salicylate is of interest to the tobacco industry as oil of wintergreen is used as a flavorant in tobacco products. The purpose of this investigation was to conduct a critical review of the available literature for oral exposure to methyl salicylate, incorporating an analysis of the quality of the studies available and the current understanding of the mode of action...
November 11, 2016: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805866/a-general-theory-of-effect-size-and-its-consequences-for-defining-the-benchmark-response-bmr-for-continuous-endpoints
#2
Wout Slob
A general theory on effect size for continuous data predicts a relationship between maximum response and within-group variation of biological parameters, which is empirically confirmed by results from dose-response analyses of 27 different biological parameters. The theory shows how effect sizes observed in distinct biological parameters can be compared and provides a basis for a generic definition of small, intermediate and large effects. While the theory is useful for experimental science in general, it has specific consequences for risk assessment: it solves the current debate on the appropriate metric for the Benchmark response in continuous data...
November 2, 2016: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766926/comparing-rat-and-rabbit-embryo-fetal-developmental-toxicity-data-for-379-pharmaceuticals-on-systemic-dose-and-developmental-effects
#3
Peter T Theunissen, Sonia Beken, Bruce Beyer, William J Breslin, Gregg D Cappon, Connie L Chen, Gary Chmielewski, Luc de Schaepdrijver, Brian Enright, Jennifer E Foreman, Wafa Harrouk, Kok-Wah Hew, Alan M Hoberman, Julia Y Hui, Thomas B Knudsen, Susan B Laffan, Susan L Makris, Matthew Martin, Mary Ellen McNerney, Christine L Siezen, Dinesh J Stanislaus, Jane Stewart, Kary E Thompson, Belen Tornesi, Jan Willem Van der Laan, Gerhard F Weinbauer, Sandra Wood, Aldert H Piersma
A database of embryo-fetal developmental toxicity (EFDT) studies of 379 pharmaceutical compounds in rat and rabbit was analyzed for species differences based on toxicokinetic parameters of area under the curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (Cmax) at the developmental lowest adverse effect level (dLOAEL). For the vast majority of cases (83% based on AUC of n = 283), dLOAELs in rats and rabbits were within the same order of magnitude (less than 10-fold different) when compared based on available data on AUC and Cmax exposures...
October 21, 2016: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648750/methodological-considerations-when-conducting-in-vitro-air-liquid-interface-exposures-to-engineered-nanoparticle-aerosols
#4
Lynn E Secondo, Nathan J Liu, Nastassja A Lewinski
Little consistency exists in the methodology for toxicological testing of aerosolized nanoparticles used in in vitro, air-interfaced culture (AIC) exposure systems for engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) risk-assessment, preventing inter-laboratory comparisons to identify dose thresholds for adverse effects. These inconsistencies result from heterogeneity in particle types, exposure durations, exposure systems, and dose metrics reported. We screened 10,241 studies in the literature for toxicological assessment of ENPs, resulting in 110 publications included after meeting eligibility criteria...
September 20, 2016: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618215/erratum
#5
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 12, 2016: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848394/critical-reviews-in-toxicology-volume-46-supplement-abstracts
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848393/comparison-of-rat-and-rabbit-embryo-fetal-developmental-toxicity-data-for-379-pharmaceuticals-on-the-nature-and-severity-of-developmental-effects
#7
Peter T Theunissen, Sonja Beken, Bruce K Beyer, William J Breslin, Gregg D Cappon, Connie L Chen, Gary Chmielewski, Luc De Schaepdrijver, Brian Enright, Jennifer E Foreman, Wafa Harrouk, Kok-Wah Hew, Alan M Hoberman, Julia Y Hui, Thomas B Knudsen, Susan B Laffan, Susan L Makris, Matt Martin, Mary Ellen McNerney, Christine L Siezen, Dinesh J Stanislaus, Jane Stewart, Kary E Thompson, Belen Tornesi, Jan Willem Van der Laan, Gerhard F Weinbauer, Sandra Wood, Aldert H Piersma
Regulatory non-clinical safety testing of human pharmaceuticals typically requires embryo-fetal developmental toxicity (EFDT) testing in two species (one rodent and one non-rodent). The question has been raised whether under some conditions EFDT testing could be limited to one species, or whether the testing in a second species could be decided on a case-by-case basis. As part of a consortium initiative, we built and queried a database of 379 compounds with EFDT studies (in both rat and rabbit animal models) conducted for marketed and non-marketed pharmaceuticals for their potential for adverse developmental and maternal outcomes, including EFDT incidence and the nature and severity of adverse findings...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848392/reviewers-for-crt-manuscripts-for-year-2016
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805461/response-to-letter-to-the-editor-from-chappelle-spence-and-tury-concerning-wolf-et%C3%A2-al-2016-illustrative-case-using-the-risk21-roadmap-and-matrix-prioritization-for-evaluation-of-chemicals-found-in-drinking-water-2016-crit-rev-toxicol-vol-46-43-53
#9
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750465/letter-to-the-editor-re-wolf-et%C3%A2-al-1
#10
Anne Harman Chappelle, Mark Spence, Bernard Tury
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705071/sarin-gb-o-isopropyl-methylphosphonofluoridate-neurotoxicity-critical-review
#11
Mohamed B Abou-Donia, Briana Siracuse, Natasha Gupta, Ashly Sobel Sokol
Sarin (GB, O-isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is a potent organophosphorus (OP) nerve agent that inhibits acetylcholinesterase (AChE) irreversibly. The subsequent build-up of acetylcholine (ACh) in the central nervous system (CNS) provokes seizures and, at sufficient doses, centrally-mediated respiratory arrest. Accumulation of ACh at peripheral autonomic synapses leads to peripheral signs of intoxication and overstimulation of the muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, which is described as "cholinergic crisis" (i...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685317/problem-formulation-for-risk-assessment-of-combined-exposures-to-chemicals-and-other-stressors-in-humans
#12
Keith R Solomon, Martin F Wilks, Ammie Bachman, Alan Boobis, Angelo Moretto, Timothy P Pastoor, Richard Phillips, Michelle R Embry
When the human health risk assessment/risk management paradigm was developed, it did not explicitly include a "problem formulation" phase. The concept of problem formulation was first introduced in the context of ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the pragmatic reason to constrain and focus ERAs on the key questions. However, this need also exists for human health risk assessment, particularly for cumulative risk assessment (CRA), because of its complexity. CRA encompasses the combined threats to health from exposure via all relevant routes to multiple stressors, including biological, chemical, physical and psychosocial stressors...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643517/fipronil-insecticide-toxicology-oxidative-stress-and-metabolism
#13
Xu Wang, María Aránzazu Martínez, Qinghua Wu, Irma Ares, María Rosa Martínez-Larrañaga, Arturo Anadón, Zonghui Yuan
Fipronil (FIP) is widely used across the world as a broad-spectrum phenylpyrazole insecticide and veterinary drug. FIP was the insecticide to act by targeting the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor and has favorable selective toxicity towards insects rather than mammals. However, because of accidental exposure, incorrect use of FIP or widespread FIP use leading to the contamination of water and soil, there is increasing evidence that FIP could cause a variety of toxic effects on animals and humans, such as neurotoxic, hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, reproductive, and cytotoxic effects on vertebrate and invertebrates...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347635/a-predictive-data-driven-framework-for-endocrine-prioritization-a-triazole-fungicide-case-study
#14
Katie Paul Friedman, Sabitha Papineni, M Sue Marty, Kun Don Yi, Amber K Goetz, Reza J Rasoulpour, Pat Kwiatkowski, Douglas C Wolf, Ann M Blacker, Richard C Peffer
The US Environmental Protection Agency Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) is a tiered screening approach to determine the potential for a chemical to interact with estrogen, androgen, or thyroid hormone systems and/or perturb steroidogenesis. Use of high-throughput screening (HTS) to predict hazard and exposure is shifting the EDSP approach to (1) prioritization of chemicals for further screening; and (2) targeted use of EDSP Tier 1 assays to inform specific data needs. In this work, toxicology data for three triazole fungicides (triadimefon, propiconazole, and myclobutanil) were evaluated, including HTS results, EDSP Tier 1 screening (and other scientifically relevant information), and EPA guideline mammalian toxicology study data...
October 2016: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27340745/the-pros-and-cons-of-ecological-risk-assessment-based-on-data-from-different-levels-of-biological-organization
#15
Jason R Rohr, Christopher J Salice, Roger M Nisbet
Ecological risk assessment (ERA) is the process used to evaluate the safety of manufactured chemicals to the environment. Here we review the pros and cons of ERA across levels of biological organization, including suborganismal (e.g., biomarkers), individual, population, community, ecosystem and landscapes levels. Our review revealed that level of biological organization is often related negatively with ease at assessing cause-effect relationships, ease of high-throughput screening of large numbers of chemicals (it is especially easier for suborganismal endpoints), and uncertainty of the ERA because low levels of biological organization tend to have a large distance between their measurement (what is quantified) and assessment endpoints (what is to be protected)...
October 2016: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27268162/perfluoroalkyl-and-polyfluoroalkyl-substances-and-measures-of-human-fertility-a-systematic-review
#16
Cathrine Carlsen Bach, Anne Vested, Kristian Tore Jørgensen, Jens Peter Ellekilde Bonde, Tine Brink Henriksen, Gunnar Toft
Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are found widespread in the environment and humans. The relation of PFASs to fertility has now been examined in a relatively large number of epidemiologic studies and a synthesis is in order. The aim of this study was to assess the current human epidemiologic evidence on the association between exposure to PFASs and measures of human fertility, with particular emphasis on perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). Systematic literature searches were initially conducted in MEDLINE and EMBASE and subsequently in references and citations of included papers...
October 2016: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677670/genotoxicity-expert-panel-review-weight-of-evidence-evaluation-of-the-genotoxicity-of-glyphosate-glyphosate-based-formulations-and-aminomethylphosphonic-acid
#17
David Brusick, Marilyn Aardema, Larry Kier, David Kirkland, Gary Williams
In 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) published a monograph concluding there was strong evidence for genotoxicity of glyphosate and glyphosate formulations and moderate evidence for genotoxicity of the metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). These conclusions contradicted earlier extensive reviews supporting the lack of genotoxicity of glyphosate and glyphosate formulations. The IARC Monograph concluded there was strong evidence of induction of oxidative stress by glyphosate, glyphosate formulations, and AMPA...
September 2016: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677669/glyphosate-rodent-carcinogenicity-bioassay-expert-panel-review
#18
Gary M Williams, Colin Berry, Michele Burns, Joao Lauro Viana de Camargo, Helmut Greim
Glyphosate has been rigorously and extensively tested for carcinogenicity by administration to mice (five studies) and to rats (nine studies). Most authorities have concluded that the evidence does not indicate a cancer risk to humans. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), however, evaluated some of the available data and concluded that glyphosate probably is carcinogenic to humans. The expert panel convened by Intertek assessed the findings used by IARC, as well as the full body of evidence and found the following: (1) the renal neoplastic effects in males of one mouse study are not associated with glyphosate exposure, because they lack statistical significance, strength, consistency, specificity, lack a dose-response pattern, plausibility, and coherence; (2) the strength of association of liver hemangiosarcomas in a different mouse study is absent, lacking consistency, and a dose-response effect and having in high dose males only a significant incidence increase which is within the historical control range; (3) pancreatic islet-cell adenomas (non-significant incidence increase), in two studies of male SD rats did not progress to carcinomas and lacked a dose-response pattern (the highest incidence is in the low dose followed by the high dose); (4) in one of two studies, a non-significant positive trend in the incidence of hepatocellular adenomas in male rats did not lead to progression to carcinomas; (5) in one of two studies, the non-significant positive trend in the incidence of thyroid C-cell adenomas in female rats was not present and there was no progression of adenomas to carcinomas at the end of the study...
September 2016: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677668/glyphosate-epidemiology-expert-panel-review-a-weight-of-evidence-systematic-review-of-the-relationship-between-glyphosate-exposure-and-non-hodgkin-s-lymphoma-or-multiple-myeloma
#19
John Acquavella, David Garabrant, Gary Marsh, Tom Sorahan, Douglas L Weed
We conducted a systematic review of the epidemiologic literature for glyphosate focusing on non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and multiple myeloma (MM) - two cancers that were the focus of a recent review by an International Agency for Research on Cancer Working Group. Our approach was consistent with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for systematic reviews. We evaluated each relevant study according to a priori criteria for study quality: adequacy of study size, likelihood of confounding, potential for other biases and adequacy of the statistical analyses...
September 2016: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677667/glyphosate-in-the-general-population-and-in-applicators-a-critical-review-of-studies-on-exposures
#20
Keith R Solomon
The recent classification of glyphosate as a probable human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) was arrived at without a detailed assessment of exposure. Glyphosate is widely used as an herbicide, which might result in exposures of the general public and applicators. Exposures were estimated from information in the open literature and unpublished reports provided by Monsanto Company. Based on the maximum measured concentration in air, an exposure dose of 1.04 × 10 (-) (6 )mg/kg body mass (b...
September 2016: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
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