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Critical Reviews in Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171327/a-review-of-the-evidence-for-endocrine-disrupting-effects-of-current-use-chemicals-on-wildlife-populations
#1
Peter Matthiessen, James R Wheeler, Lennart Weltje
This review critically examines the data on claimed endocrine-mediated adverse effects of chemicals on wildlife populations. It focuses on the effects of current-use chemicals, and compares their apparent scale and severity with those of legacy chemicals which have been withdrawn from sale or use, although they may still be present in the environment. The review concludes that the effects on wildlife of many legacy chemicals with endocrine activity are generally greater than those caused by current-use chemicals, with the exception of ethinylestradiol and other estrogens found in sewage effluents, which are causing widespread effects on fish populations...
November 24, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130357/biological-effects-of-metal-degradation-in-hip-arthroplasties
#2
Donatella Granchi, Lucia Maria Savarino, Gabriela Ciapetti, Nicola Baldini
Metals and metal alloys are the most used materials in orthopedic implants. The focus is on total hip arthroplasty (THA) that, though well tolerated, may be associated with local and remote adverse effects in the medium-long term. This review aims to summarize data on the biological consequences of the metal implant degradation that have been attributed predominantly to metal-on-metal (MoM) THA. Local responses to metals consist of a broad clinical spectrum ranging from small asymptomatic tissue lesions to severe destruction of bone and soft tissues, which are designated as metallosis, adverse reactions to metal debris (ARMD), aseptic lymphocytic vasculitis associated lesion (ALVAL), and pseudotumors...
November 13, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095661/evaluating-the-evidence-on-genotoxicity-and-reproductive-toxicity-of-carbon-black-a-critical-review
#3
Ishrat Chaudhuri, Claudia Fruijtier-Pölloth, Yufanyi Ngiewih, Len Levy
Carbon black is produced industrially by the partial combustion or thermal decomposition of gaseous or liquid hydrocarbons under controlled conditions. It is considered a poorly soluble, low toxicity (PSLT) particle. Recently, results from a number of published studies have suggested that carbon black may be directly genotoxic, and that it may also cause reproductive toxicity. Here, we review the evidence from these studies to determine whether carbon black is likely to act as a primary genotoxicant or reproductive toxicant in humans...
November 2, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095660/assessing-cancer-hazards-of-bitumen-emissions-a-case-study-for-complex-petroleum-substances
#4
Anthony J Kriech, Ceinwen A Schreiner, Linda V Osborn, Anthony J Riley
When assessing cancer hazard and risk associated with a complex petroleum substance, like bitumen emissions, there are often conflicting results related to human, animal and mechanistic studies. Validation of the complex composition to assure that it matches real-world exposures and control of confounders are pivotal factors in study design to allow the necessary read-across during assessments. Several key studies on bitumen emissions in two-year dermal cancer assays reported variable outcomes ranging from high cancer incidence to no cancer incidence...
November 2, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035126/re-byber-et%C3%A2-al-in-critical-reviews-in-toxicology-2016-46-191-240
#5
Carl-Gustaf Elinder, Gunnar F Nordberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035119/response-to-letter-to-the-editor-from-elinder-and-nordberg-concerning-byber-et%C3%A2-al-2016-cadmium-or-cadmium-compounds-and-chronic-kidney-disease-in-workers-and-the-general-population-a-systematic-review-crit-rev-toxicol-46-3-191-240-doi-0-3109-10408444-2015
#6
Katarzyna Byber, Dominique Lison, Violaine Verougstraete, Holger Dressel, Philipp Hotz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937307/weight-of-evidence-analysis-for-assessing-the-genotoxic-potential-of-carbon-nanotubes
#7
Peter Møller, Nicklas Raun Jacobsen
Carbon nanotube (CNT) is a nanomaterial that has received interest because of its high-tensile strength and low weight. Although CNTs differ substantially in physico-chemical properties, they share high aspect ratio which resembles that of asbestos and other fibers causing lung cancer and mesothelioma. One type of multi-walled CNTs (i.e. MWCNT-7) has been classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans by IARC (Group 2B) based on experimental animal data, whereas other types of MWCNTs and single-walled CNTs (SWCNT) could not be classified due to lack of data from epidemiologic studies and insufficient mechanistic evidence...
September 22, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929839/capturing-ecology-in-modeling-approaches-applied-to-environmental-risk-assessment-of-endocrine-active-chemicals-in-fish
#8
Kate S Mintram, A Ross Brown, Samuel K Maynard, Pernille Thorbek, Charles R Tyler
Endocrine active chemicals (EACs) are widespread in freshwater environments and both laboratory and field based studies have shown reproductive effects in fish at environmentally relevant exposures. Environmental risk assessment (ERA) seeks to protect wildlife populations and prospective assessments rely on extrapolation from individual-level effects established for laboratory fish species to populations of wild fish using arbitrary safety factors. Population susceptibility to chemical effects, however, depends on exposure risk, physiological susceptibility, and population resilience, each of which can differ widely between fish species...
September 20, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885868/evaluating-the-moa-human-relevance-framework-for-f-344-rat-liver-epithelioid-granulomas-with-mineral-oil-hydrocarbons
#9
REVIEW
David Adenuga, Katy Goyak, R Jeffrey Lewis
Toxicology feeding studies of mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOHs), within the carbon number range C22-C28, results in species-specific epithelioid granulomas in the liver of F-344 rats but not in other rat strains, or species. While MOH has been detected, and some pathological effects have been shown to occur in other organs/tissues of F-344 rats and other rat strains/species, it is generally accepted that the effect of toxicological concern is species-specific inflammatory liver granuloma. As oil retention and other MOH-related nontoxic pathological changes in the liver are observed in humans, some have hypothesized that the potential for oil accumulation over a lifetime, through dietary sources, may predispose humans to similar liver effects as observed in F-344 rats...
October 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681680/evolution-of-chemical-specific-adjustment-factors-csaf-based-on-recent-international-experience-increasing-utility-and-facilitating-regulatory-acceptance
#10
REVIEW
Virunya S Bhat, M E Bette Meek, Mathieu Valcke, Caroline English, Alan Boobis, Richard Brown
The application of chemical-specific toxicokinetic or toxicodynamic data to address interspecies differences and human variability in the quantification of hazard has potential to reduce uncertainty and better characterize variability compared with the use of traditional default or categorically-based uncertainty factors. The present review summarizes the state-of-the-science since the introduction of the World Health Organization/International Programme on Chemical Safety (WHO/IPCS) guidance on chemical-specific adjustment factors (CSAF) in 2005 and the availability of recent applicable guidance including the WHO/IPCS guidance on physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling in 2010 as well as the U...
October 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661217/a-comprehensive-framework-for-evaluating-the-environmental-health-and-safety-implications-of-engineered-nanomaterials
#11
REVIEW
William K Boyes, Brittany Lila M Thornton, Souhail R Al-Abed, Christian P Andersen, Dermont C Bouchard, Robert M Burgess, Elaine A Cohen Hubal, Kay T Ho, Michael F Hughes, Kirk Kitchin, Jay R Reichman, Kim R Rogers, Jeffrey A Ross, Paul T Rygiewicz, Kirk G Scheckel, Sheau-Fung Thai, Richard G Zepp, Robert M Zucker
Engineered nanomaterials (ENM) are a growing aspect of the global economy, and their safe and sustainable development, use, and eventual disposal requires the capability to forecast and avoid potential problems. This review provides a framework to evaluate the health and safety implications of ENM releases into the environment, including purposeful releases such as for antimicrobial sprays or nano-enabled pesticides, and inadvertent releases as a consequence of other intended applications. Considerations encompass product life cycles, environmental media, exposed populations, and possible adverse outcomes...
October 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524743/nanoparticle-exposures-from-nano-enabled-toner-based-printing-equipment-and-human-health-state-of-science-and-future-research-needs
#12
REVIEW
Sandra Vanessa Pirela, John Martin, Dhimiter Bello, Philip Demokritou
Toner formulations used by laser printers (LP) and photocopiers (PC), collectively called "toner-based printing equipment" (TPE), are nano-enabled products (NEP) because they contain several engineered nanomaterials (ENM) that improve toner performance. It has been shown that during consumer use (printing), these ENM are released in the air, together with other semi-volatile organic nanoparticles, and newly formed gaseous co-pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOC). The aim of this review is to detail and analyze physico-chemical and morphological (PCM), as well as the toxicological properties of particulate matter (PM) emissions from TPE...
September 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513256/do-current-oels-for-silica-protect-from-obstructive-lung-impairment-a-critical-review-of-epidemiological-data
#13
REVIEW
Perrine Hoet, Laure Desvallées, Dominique Lison
Inhalation of respirable crystalline silica (RCS) can lead to serious health effects such as silicosis and lung cancer. There also seems to be a general consensus to consider that RCS exposure is associated with obstructive lung impairment or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a leading cause of mortality, morbidity, and disability worldwide. It is, however, not clear whether occupational exposure levels (OELs), generally set to prevent silicosis, also protect workers from developing an obstructive impairment...
September 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510487/origin-of-the-ttc-values-for-compounds-that-are-genotoxic-and-or-carcinogenic-and-an-approach-for-their-re-evaluation
#14
REVIEW
Alan Boobis, Paul Brown, Mark Timothy David Cronin, James Edwards, Corrado Lodovico Galli, Jay Goodman, Abigail Jacobs, David Kirkland, Mirjam Luijten, Cyril Marsaux, Matthew Martin, Chihae Yang, Heli Miriam Hollnagel
The threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) approach is a resource-effective de minimis method for the safety assessment of chemicals, based on distributional analysis of the results of a large number of toxicological studies. It is being increasingly used to screen and prioritize substances with low exposure for which there is little or no toxicological information. The first step in the approach is the identification of substances that may be DNA-reactive mutagens, to which the lowest TTC value is applied...
September 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436314/metabolomic-approaches-in-the-discovery-of-potential-urinary-biomarkers-of-drug-induced-liver-injury-dili
#15
REVIEW
Ana Margarida Araújo, Márcia Carvalho, Félix Carvalho, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Paula Guedes de Pinho
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major safety issue during drug development, as well as the most common cause for the withdrawal of drugs from the pharmaceutical market. The identification of DILI biomarkers is a labor-intensive area. Conventional biomarkers are not specific and often only appear at significant levels when liver damage is substantial. Therefore, new biomarkers for early identification of hepatotoxicity during the drug discovery process are needed, thus resulting in lower development costs and safer drugs...
September 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816105/thiazolidinedione-drugs-in-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-past-present-and-future
#16
Melissa A Davidson, Donald R Mattison, Laurent Azoulay, Daniel Krewski
Thiazolidinedione (TZD) drugs used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have proven effective in improving insulin sensitivity, hyperglycemia, and lipid metabolism. Though well tolerated by some patients, their mechanism of action as ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) results in the activation of several pathways in addition to those responsible for glycemic control and lipid homeostasis. These pathways, which include those related to inflammation, bone formation, and cell proliferation, may lead to adverse health outcomes...
August 17, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675057/multiple-receptors-shape-the-estrogen-response-pathway-and-are-critical-considerations-for-the-future-of-in-vitro-based-risk-assessment-efforts
#17
REVIEW
Michelle M Miller, Patrick D McMullen, Melvin E Andersen, Rebecca A Clewell
Current in life toxicity testing paradigms are being challenged as the future of risk assessment moves towards more comprehensive mode of action/adverse outcome pathway based approaches. In particular, endocrine disruption screening is now a global activity and key initiatives in the United States focus on the use of high throughput in vitro assays to prioritize compounds for further testing of estrogen, androgen or thyroid disruption. Of these pathways, much of the emphasis to date has been on high-throughput methods for estrogenic activity primarily using ligand binding and trans-activation assays...
August 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657395/do-causal-concentration-response-functions-exist-a-critical-review-of-associational-and-causal-relations-between-fine-particulate-matter-and-mortality
#18
REVIEW
Louis Anthony Tony Cox
Concentration-response (C-R) functions relating concentrations of pollutants in ambient air to mortality risks or other adverse health effects provide the basis for many public health risk assessments, benefits estimates for clean air regulations, and recommendations for revisions to existing air quality standards. The assumption that C-R functions relating levels of exposure and levels of response estimated from historical data usefully predict how future changes in concentrations would change risks has seldom been carefully tested...
August 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632039/thiocyanate-a-review-and-evaluation-of-the-kinetics-and-the-modes-of-action-for-thyroid-hormone-perturbations
#19
REVIEW
Marie-Emilie Willemin, Annie Lumen
Exposure of the population to thiocyanate is predominantly through the diet and cigarette smoke. Thiocyanate is a potential thyroid disruptor due to its capacity to inhibit the uptake of iodide by the thyroid. Thiocyanate also interacts with the enzymatic reactions associated with iodide organification and thyroid hormone synthesis. Quantification of the dose-response relationships of thiocyanate and alteration in thyroid hormone levels is important for evaluating the risk of exposure to thiocyanate in humans...
August 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462599/does-occupational-exposure-to-formaldehyde-cause-hematotoxicity-and-leukemia-specific-chromosome-changes-in-cultured-myeloid-progenitor-cells
#20
REVIEW
Kenneth A Mundt, Alexa E Gallagher, Linda D Dell, Ethan A Natelson, Paolo Boffetta, P Robinan Gentry
Several cross-sectional studies of a single population of workers exposed to formaldehyde at one of two factories using or producing formaldehyde-melamine resins in China have concluded that formaldehyde exposure induces damage to hematopoietic cells that originate in the bone marrow. Moreover, the investigators interpret observed differences between groups as evidence that formaldehyde induces myeloid leukemias, although the mechanisms for inducing these diseases are not obvious and recently published scientific findings do not support causation...
August 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
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