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Critical Reviews in Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971711/epigenetic-regulation-in-bacterial-infections-targeting-histone-deacetylases
#1
Aleksander M Grabiec, Jan Potempa
Pathogens have developed sophisticated strategies to evade the immune response, among which manipulation of host cellular epigenetic mechanisms plays a prominent role. In the last decade, modulation of histone acetylation in host cells has emerged as an efficient strategy of bacterial immune evasion. Virulence factors and metabolic products of pathogenic microorganisms alter expression and activity of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) to suppress transcription of host defense genes through epigenetic changes in histone acetylation marks...
October 3, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920507/navigating-the-structure-function-evolutionary-relationship-of-csaa-chaperone-in-archaea
#2
Archana Sharma, Shikha Rani, Manisha Goel
CsaA is a protein involved in the post-translational translocation of proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane. It is considered to be a functional homolog of SecB which participates in the Sec-dependent translocation pathway in an analogous manner. CsaA has also been reported to act as a molecular chaperone, preventing aggregation of unfolded proteins. It is essentially a prokaryotic protein which is absent in eukaryotes, but found extensively in bacteria and earlier thought to be widely present in archaea...
September 18, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903617/review-of-egg-related-salmonellosis-and-reduction-strategies-in-united-states-australia-united-kingdom-and-new-zealand
#3
Kapil Chousalkar, Richard Gast, Francesca Martelli, Vivek Pande
Globally, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica is one of the most commonly reported causes of foodborne illness in humans. Contaminated food products of animal origin, particularly egg and egg products are frequently implicated in outbreaks of human salmonellosis. Salmonella enteritidis is frequently involved in egg and egg products-associated foodborne outbreaks in the USA and UK. However, in Australia and New Zealand, human infections caused by this serovar occur as a result of infection acquired while overseas travel, with Salmonella typhimurium being a predominant cause of local foodborne outbreaks...
September 14, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891362/alternatives-to-antibiotics-in-poultry-feed-molecular-perspectives
#4
Gayatri Suresh, Ratul Kumar Das, Satinder Kaur Brar, Tarek Rouissi, Antonio Avalos Ramirez, Younes Chorfi, Stephane Godbout
The discovery of the growth promoting property of antibiotics led to their use as antibiotic feed additives (AFAs) in animal feed at sub-therapeutic doses. Although this has been beneficial for animal health and productivity, it has been, essentially, a double-edged sword. The continued and non-judicious use of AFAs has led to the selection and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant strains of poultry pathogens such as Salmonella, Campylobacter and Escherichia coli. The rapid spread of drug-resistant pathogens as well as emergence of antibiotic-related environmental pollutants is of global concern...
September 11, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885059/viral-deubiquitinases-role-in-evasion-of-anti-viral-innate-immunity
#5
Puja Kumari, Himanshu Kumar
Host anti-viral innate-immune signalling pathways are regulated by a variety of post-translation modifications including ubiquitination, which is critical to regulate various signalling pathways for synthesis of anti-viral molecules. A homeostasis of host immune responses, induced due to viral infection and further ubiquitination, is maintained by the action of deubiquitinases (DUB). Infecting viruses utilize the process of deubiquitination for tricking host immune system wherein viral DUBs compete with host DUBs for inhibition of innate-immune anti-viral signalling pathways, which instead of maintaining an immune homeostasis bring about virus-mediated pathogenesis...
September 8, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816070/correction-to-rossi-e-et%C3%A2-al-it-s-a-gut-feeling-escherichia-coli-biofilm-formation-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-environment
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 17, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741415/gram-negative-bacterial-membrane-vesicle-release-in-response-to-the-host-environment-different-threats-same-trick
#7
Charlotte Volgers, Paul H M Savelkoul, Frank R M Stassen
Bacteria are confronted with a multitude of stressors when occupying niches within the host. These stressors originate from host defense mechanisms, other bacteria during niche competition or result from physiological challenges such as nutrient limitation. To counteract these stressors, bacteria have developed a stress-induced network to mount the adaptations required for survival. These stress-induced adaptations include the release of membrane vesicles from the bacterial envelope. Membrane vesicles can provide bacteria with a plethora of immediate and ultimate benefits for coping with environmental stressors...
July 25, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346030/antimicrobial-activity-of-eugenol-and-essential-oils-containing-eugenol-a-mechanistic-viewpoint
#8
Anna Marchese, Ramona Barbieri, Erika Coppo, Ilkay Erdogan Orhan, Maria Daglia, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Morteza Izadi, Mohammad Abdollahi, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Marjan Ajami
Eugenol is a hydroxyphenyl propene, naturally occurring in the essential oils of several plants belonging to the Lamiaceae, Lauraceae, Myrtaceae, and Myristicaceae families. It is one of the major constituents of clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry, Myrtaceae) oil and is largely used in both foods and cosmetics as a flavoring agent. A large body of recent scientific evidence supports claims from traditional medicine that eugenol exerts beneficial effects on human health. These effects are mainly associated with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities...
November 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581361/the-study-of-h-pylori-putative-candidate-factors-for-single-and-multi-component-vaccine-development
#9
Nasrin Mirzaei, Farkhondeh Poursina, Sharareh Moghim, Niloufar Rashidi, Hajieh Ghasemian Safaei
Helicobacter pylori has grown to colonize inside the stomach of nearly half of the world's population, turning into the most prevalent infections in the universe. Medical care failures noticeably confirm the need for a vaccine to hinder or deal with H. pylori. This review is planned to discuss the most known factors as a vaccine candidate, including single (AhpC, BG, CagA, KatA, Fla, Hsp, HWC, Lpp, LPS, NAP, OMP, OMV, SOD, Tpx, Urease, VacA) and multi-component vaccines. Many promising results in the field of single and multivalent vaccine can be seen, but there is no satisfactory outcome and neither a prophylactic nor a therapeutic vaccine to treat or eradicate the infection in human has been acquired...
September 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581360/the-role-of-biofilms-in-persistent-infections-and-factors-involved-in-ica-independent-biofilm-development-and-gene-regulation-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#10
Agnes Marie Sá Figueiredo, Fabienne Antunes Ferreira, Cristiana Ossaille Beltrame, Marina Farrel Côrtes
Staphylococcus aureus biofilms represent a unique micro-environment that directly contribute to the bacterial fitness within hospital settings. The accumulation of this structure on implanted medical devices has frequently caused the development of persistent and chronic S. aureus-associated infections, which represent an important social and economic burden worldwide. ica-independent biofilms are composed of an assortment of bacterial products and modulated by a multifaceted and overlapping regulatory network; therefore, biofilm composition can vary among S...
September 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502225/genomics-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-current-status-and-potential-applications
#11
Chongde Wu, Jun Huang, Rongqing Zhou
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used for the production of a variety of foods and feed raw materials where they contribute to flavor and texture of the fermented products. In addition, specific LAB strains are considered as probiotic due to their health-promoting effects in consumers. Recently, the genome sequencing of LAB is booming and the increased amount of published genomics data brings unprecedented opportunity for us to reveal the important traits of LAB. This review describes the recent progress on LAB genomics and special emphasis is placed on understanding the industry-related physiological features based on genomics analysis...
August 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502224/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-paediatric-tuberculosis-an-insight-review
#12
Nityananda Mandal, Parveen Kumar Anand, Subhash Gautam, Shritam Das, Tahziba Hussain
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem, invading all age groups world-wide. It is an opportunistic infection affecting the individuals alone or with co-infections. Childhood TB is a neglected aspect and a significant health problem in epidemic areas. It constitutes more than 20% of TB incidence. Pediatric TB exists in the shadow of adult TB. The clinicians concentrate on pulmonary manifestation of TB, whereas it is a major problem in both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary infections. The rate of infection with this disease is mostly associated with poverty, social disruption and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection...
August 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609211/bioprospecting-of-functional-cellulases-from-metagenome-for-second-generation-biofuel-production-a-review
#13
Rameshwar Tiwari, Lata Nain, Nikolaos E Labrou, Pratyoosh Shukla
Second generation biofuel production has been appeared as a sustainable and alternative energy option. The ultimate aim is the development of an industrially feasible and economic conversion process of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuel molecules. Since, cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer and also represented as the photosynthetically fixed form of carbon, the efficient hydrolysis of cellulose is the most important step towards the development of a sustainable biofuel production process. The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by suites of hydrolytic enzymes underlines the importance of cellulase enzyme system in whole hydrolysis process...
June 13, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609183/farnesol-signalling-in-candida-albicans-more-than-just-communication
#14
Melanie Polke, Ines Leonhardt, Oliver Kurzai, Ilse D Jacobsen
Candida albicans is a successful colonizer of the human host, which can, under certain circumstances cause a range of clinically diverse infections. Important virulence-associated traits of the fungus, such as the dimorphic switch and biofilm formation, are controlled by the quorum sensing molecule farnesol. Given the potential of farnesol as a novel antifungal drug, there has been increasing research into the mechanism underlying farnesol sensing and action in C. albicans. However, despite the identification of various factors involved in farnesol signalling, its exact mode of action remains largely unclear...
June 13, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604247/brucella-central-carbon-metabolism-an-update
#15
T Barbier, A Zúñiga-Ripa, S Moussa, H Plovier, J F Sternon, L Lázaro-Antón, R Conde-Álvarez, X De Bolle, M Iriarte, I Moriyón, J J Letesson
The brucellae are facultative intracellular pathogens causing brucellosis, an important zoonosis. Here, we review the nutritional, genetic, proteomic and transcriptomic studies on Brucella carbon uptake and central metabolism, information that is needed for a better understanding of Brucella virulence. There is no uniform picture across species but the studies suggest primary and/or secondary transporters for unknown carbohydrates, lactate, glycerol phosphate, erythritol, xylose, ribose, glucose and glucose/galactose, and routes for their incorporation to central metabolism, including an erythritol pathway feeding the pentose phosphate cycle...
June 12, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578640/inorganic-and-metal-nanoparticles-and-their-antimicrobial-activity-in-food-packaging-applications
#16
Mahmoud Hoseinnejad, Seid Mahdi Jafari, Iman Katouzian
Nanotechnology has revolutionized almost all the fields of science and technology, particularly the food packaging industry. Accordingly, some nanoparticles can be used in food contact materials to preserve food products for longer periods. To date, many inorganic and metal nanoparticles have been implemented to synthesize active food packaging materials and to extend the shelf-life of foods. Packaging with nanocomposites containing these nanoparticles offers advantages, such as reduction in the usage of preservatives and higher rate of reactions to inhibit the microbial growth...
June 3, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562180/the-multi-omics-promise-in-context-from-sequence-to-microbial-isolate
#17
Johanna Gutleben, Maryam Chaib De Mares, Jan Dirk van Elsas, Hauke Smidt, Jörg Overmann, Detmer Sipkema
The numbers and diversity of microbes in ecosystems within and around us is unmatched, yet most of these microorganisms remain recalcitrant to in vitro cultivation. Various high-throughput molecular techniques, collectively termed multi-omics, provide insights into the genomic structure and metabolic potential as well as activity of complex microbial communities. Nonetheless, pure or defined cultures are needed to (1) decipher microbial physiology and thus test multi-omics-based ecological hypotheses, (2) curate and improve database annotations and (3) realize novel applications in biotechnology...
May 31, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557577/the-next-chapter-for-group-b-meningococcal-vaccines
#18
N Y Wang, A J Pollard
The majority of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in the developed world is caused by capsular group B Neisseria meningitidis, however success with vaccination against organisms bearing this capsule has previously been restricted to control of geographically limited clonal outbreaks. As we enter a new era, with the first routine program underway to control endemic group B meningococcal disease for infants in the UK, it is timely to review the key landmarks in group B vaccine development, and discuss the issues determining whether control of endemic group B disease will be achieved...
May 30, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539074/nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-review-for-clinicians
#19
Krishna Bajee Sriram, Amanda J Cox, Robert L Clancy, Mary P E Slack, Allan W Cripps
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the lower airways of COPD patients, bacterial infection is a common phenomenon and Haemophilus influenzae is the most commonly identified bacteria. Haemophilus influenzae is divided into typeable and nontypeable (NTHi) strains based on the presence or absence of a polysaccharide capsule. While NTHi is a common commensal in the human nasopharynx, it is associated with considerable inflammation when it is present in the lower airways of COPD patients, resulting in morbidity due to worsening symptoms and increased frequency of COPD exacerbations...
May 25, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539069/real-world-challenges-for-hepatitis-c-virus-medications-a-critical-overview
#20
Imran Shahid, Waleed Hassan AlMalki, Sajida Hassan, Muhammad Hassan Hafeez
From 2010, the landscape of hepatitis C therapeutics has been changed rapidly, and today we are standing at a cusp of a pharmacological revolution where highly effective and interferon (IFN)-free direct acting antivirals (DAAs) are already on the market. Such treatment paradigms attain 90-95% sustained virologic response (SVR; undetectable viral load at week 12 or 24 at the end of therapy) rates in treated individuals compared to 50-70% with treatment completion of dual-therapy-pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) and ribavirin (RBV)...
May 25, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
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