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Critical Reviews in Microbiology

Raíssa Mesquita Braga, Gabriel Padilla, Welington Luiz Araújo
Epicoccum is a genus of ubiquitous fungi typically found in air, in soil, and on decaying vegetation. They also commonly display an endophytic lifestyle and are isolated from diverse plant tissues. The fungi from the genus Epicoccum are mainly known for their use as biocontrol agents against phytopathogens and for their ability to produce many secondary metabolites with potential biotechnological applications, such as antioxidant, anticancer,r and antimicrobial compounds. Among the bioactive compounds produced by Epicoccum spp...
October 28, 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Jesús Cámara-Almirón, Joaquin Caro-Astorga, Antonio de Vicente, Diego Romero
Intense research has confirmed the formerly theoretical distribution of amyloids in nature, and studies on different systems have illustrated the role of these proteins in microbial adaptation and in interactions with the environment. Two lines of research are expanding our knowledge on functional amyloids: (i) structural studies providing insights into the molecular machineries responsible for the transition from monomer to fibers and (ii) studies showing the way in which these proteins might participate in the microbial fitness in natural settings...
October 25, 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Ekaterina Mirskaya, Igor E Agranovski
The primary purpose of this study was to critically review published data related to the sources and mechanisms of aerosolization of microorganisms, their fragments and metabolites in a variety of occupational environments. The processes and mechanisms considered in the review include bursting bubbles; liquid dispersion as the result of irrigation, separation, high pressure cleaning and technological water recycling; manual and automated handling of contaminated material in agriculture, waste processing and industrial processes; as well as high temperature industrial processes...
October 14, 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Marta Garcia-Montojo, Tara Doucet-O'Hare, Lisa Henderson, Avindra Nath
The human genome contains a large number of retroviral elements acquired over the process of evolution, some of which are specific to primates. However, as many of these are defective or silenced through epigenetic changes, they were historically considered "junk DNA" and their potential role in human physiology or pathological circumstances have been poorly studied. The most recently acquired, human endogenous retrovirus-K (HERV-K), has multiple copies in the human genome and some of them have complete open reading frames that are transcribed and translated, especially in early embryogenesis...
October 14, 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Rita Pombinho, Sandra Sousa, Didier Cabanes
Innate immunity is the most broadly effective host defense, being essential to clear the majority of microbial infections. Scavenger Receptors comprise a family of sensors expressed in a multitude of host cells, whose dual role during microbial pathogenesis gained importance over recent years. SRs regulate the recruitment of immune cells and control both host inflammatory response and bacterial load. In turn, pathogens have evolved different strategies to overcome immune response, avoid recognition by SRs and exploit them to favor infection...
October 14, 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Alex Fiori Silva, Anabela Borges, Efstathios Giaouris, Jane Martha Graton Mikcha, Manuel Simões
Foodborne microbial diseases are still considered a growing public health problem worldwide despite the global continuous efforts to ensure food safety. The traditional chemical and thermal-based procedures applied for microbial growth control in the food industry can change the food matrix and lead to antimicrobial resistance. Moreover, currently applied disinfectants have limited efficiency against biofilms. Therefore, antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has become a novel alternative for controlling foodborne pathogenic bacteria in both planktonic and sessile states...
October 14, 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Cristina Cattò, Federica Villa, Francesca Cappitelli
Any surface of human interest can serve as a substrate for biofilm growth, sometimes with detrimental effects. The social and economic consequences of biofilm-mediated damage to surfaces are significant, the financial impact being estimated to be billions of dollars every year. After describing traditional biocide-based approaches for the remediation of biofilm-affected surfaces, this review deals with more recent developments in material science, focusing on non-toxic, eco-sustainable nature-inspired biomaterials with anti-biofilm properties superior to the conventional biocide-based approaches in terms of addressing the biofilm problem...
September 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Trudy M Wassenaar
To the multiple factors that may eventually result in colorectal cancer (CRC), strains of E. coli have now been added, in particular strains producing colibactin from their polyketide synthesis (pks) locus. The evidence and mechanistic explanations for this unfortunate effect of what is in most cases a harmless commensal are discussed in the first part of this review. In the second part, observations are presented and discussed that do not fit with the hypothesis that colibactin-producing E. coli produce CRC...
September 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Dharmendra Kumar Soni, Rafiq Ahmad, Suresh Kumar Dubey
The early detection of Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) and understanding the disease burden is of paramount interest. The failure to detect pathogenic bacteria in the food industry may have terrible consequences, and poses deleterious effects on human health. Therefore, integration of methods to detect and trace the route of pathogens along the entire food supply network might facilitate elucidation of the main contamination sources. Recent research interest has been oriented towards the development of rapid and affordable pathogen detection tools/techniques...
September 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Isaac Ginsburg, Erez Koren
The role of bacteriolysis in the pathophysiology of microbial infections dates back to 1893 when Buchner and Pfeiffer reported for the first time the lysis of bacteria by immune serum and related this phenomenon to the immune response. Later on, basic anti-microbial peptides and certain beta-lactam antibiotics have been shown not only to kill microorganisms but also to induce bacteriolysis and the release of cell-wall components. In 2009, a novel paradigm was offered suggesting that the main cause of death in sepsis is due to the exclusive release from activated human phagocytic neutrophils (PMNs) traps adhering upon endothelial cells of highly toxic nuclear histone...
September 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Fabian Cieplik, Dongmei Deng, Wim Crielaard, Wolfgang Buchalla, Elmar Hellwig, Ali Al-Ahmad, Tim Maisch
Considering increasing number of pathogens resistant towards commonly used antibiotics as well as antiseptics, there is a pressing need for antimicrobial approaches that are capable of inactivating pathogens efficiently without the risk of inducing resistances. In this regard, an alternative approach is the antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT). The antimicrobial effect of aPDT is based on the principle that visible light activates a per se non-toxic molecule, the so-called photosensitizer (PS), resulting in generation of reactive oxygen species that kill bacteria unselectively via an oxidative burst...
September 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Colin P Churchward, Raid G Alany, Lori A S Snyder
With the rising antibiotic resistance of many bacterial species, alternative treatments are necessary to combat infectious diseases. The World Health Organization and the US Centres for Disease Control and Prevention have warned that some infections, such as those from Neisseria gonorrhoeae, may be untreatable within a few years. One avenue of exploration is the use of antimicrobial fatty acids and their derivatives for therapeutic prevention or treatment of bacterial infections. Several studies have explored the activity of fatty acids and their derivatives, including monoglycerides against a variety of bacterial species...
September 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Alberto A Esteves-Ferreira, Masami Inaba, Antoine Fort, Wagner L Araújo, Ronan Sulpice
Cyanobacteria are one of the earliest branching groups of organisms on the planet, and during their evolutionary history were submitted to varying selective pressures. Nowadays, cyanobacteria can grow in a variety of conditions, using a large number of nitrogen sources. The control of the nitrogen metabolism in cyanobacteria depends on a fine-tuning regulatory network involving 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG), PII, PipX, and NtcA. This network answers to the cellular 2-OG levels, which reflects the cellular carbon/nitrogen balance, and as an output regulates gene expression, translation, protein activities and thus metabolic pathways...
September 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Yeping Sun, Jing Li, George F Gao, Po Tien, Wenjun Liu
The Bunyavirales order is one of the largest groups of segmented negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, which includes many pathogenic strains that cause severe human diseases. The RNA segments of the bunyavirus genome are separately encapsidated by multiple copies of nucleoprotein (N), and both termini of each N-encapsidated genomic RNA segment bind to one copy of the viral L polymerase protein. The viral genomic RNA, N and L protein together form the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex that constitutes the molecular machinery for viral genome replication and transcription...
September 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Ilka Engelmann, Enagnon Kazali Alidjinou, Antoine Bertin, Famara Sane, Didier Hober
During the last years, it has become evident that miRNAs are important players in almost all physiological and pathological processes, including viral infections. Enterovirus infections range from mild to severe acute infections concerning several organ systems and are also associated with chronic diseases. In this review, we summarize the findings on the impact of acute and persistent enterovirus infection on the expression of cellular miRNAs. Furthermore, the currently available data on the regulation of cellular or viral targets by the dysregulated miRNAs are reviewed...
August 14, 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Habib Bokhari
Emerging infectious diseases remain among the leading causes of global mortality. Traditional laboratory diagnostic approaches designed to detect and track infectious disease agents provide a framework for surveillance of bio threats. However, surveillance and outbreak investigations using such time-consuming approaches for early detection of pathogens remain the major pitfall. Hence, reasonable real-time surveillance systems to anticipate threats to public health and environment are critical for identifying specific aetiologies and preventing the global spread of infectious disease...
August 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Wesley de Jong, Musofa Rusli, Soerajja Bhoelan, Sofie Rohde, Fedik A Rantam, Purwati A Noeryoto, Usman Hadi, Eric C M van Gorp, Marco Goeijenbier
Being the largest archipelago country in the world, with a tropical climate and a unique flora and fauna, Indonesia habitats one of the most diverse biome in the world. These characteristics make Indonesia a popular travel destination, with tourism numbers increasing yearly. These characteristics also facilitate the transmission of zoonosis and provide ideal living and breading circumstances for arthropods, known vectors for viral diseases. A review of the past 10 years of literature, reports of the Ministry of Health, Republic of Indonesia and ProMED-mail shows a significant increase in dengue infection incidence...
August 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Cheng-Bei Zhou, Jing-Yuan Fang
Metabolism regulation is crucial in colorectal cancer (CRC) and has emerged as a remarkable field currently. The cellular metabolism of glucose, amino acids and lipids in CRC are all reprogrammed. Each of them changes tumour microenvironment, modulates bacterial composition and activity, and eventually promotes CRC development. Metabolites such as short chain fatty acids, secondary bile acids, N-nitroso compounds, hydrogen sulphide, polyphenols and toxins like fragilysin, FadA, cytolethal distending toxin and colibactin play a dual role in CRC...
August 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Michelle N Chamoun, Antje Blumenthal, Matthew J Sullivan, Mark A Schembri, Glen C Ulett
Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in the control of many different disorders, including autoimmune, oncogenic, and diverse infectious diseases. In the context of infectious diseases, IL-17 protects the host against various classes of microorganisms but, intriguingly, can also exacerbate the severity of some infections. The regulation of IL-17 expression stems, in part, from the activity of Interleukin-23 (IL-23), which drives the maturation of different classes of IL-17-producing cells that can alter the course of infection...
August 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Manlu Zhu, Xiongfeng Dai
In nature, the maximal growth rates vary widely among different bacteria species. Fast-growing bacteria species such as Escherichia coli can have a shortest generation time of 20 min. Slow-growing bacteria species are perhaps best known for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a human pathogen with a generation time being no less than 16 h. Despite of the significant progress made on understanding the pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis, we know little on the origin of its intriguingly slow growth. From a global view, the intrinsic constraint of the maximal growth rate of bacteria remains to be a fundamental question in microbiology...
August 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
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