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Critical Reviews in Microbiology

Kalavathy Rajan, Zhaohao Shi, Steven C Ricke
One of the leading causes of foodborne illness in poultry products is Salmonella enterica. Salmonella hazards in poultry may be estimated and possible control methods modeled and evaluated through the use of quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) models and tools. From farm to table, there are many possible routes of Salmonella dissemination and contamination in poultry. From the time chicks are hatched through growth, transportation, processing, storage, preparation, and finally consumption, the product could be contaminated through exposure to different materials and sources...
November 21, 2016: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Urvish Trivedi, Jonas S Madsen, Kendra P Rumbaugh, Randall D Wolcott, Mette Burmølle, Søren J Sørensen
Medical science is pitted against an ever-increasing rise in antibiotic tolerant microorganisms. Concurrently, during the past decade, biofilms have garnered much attention within research and clinical practice. Although the significance of clinical biofilms is becoming very apparent, current methods for diagnostics and direction of therapy plans in many hospitals do not reflect this knowledge; with many of the present tools proving to be inadequate for accurately mimicking the biofilm phenomenon. Based on current findings, we address some of the fundamental issues overlooked by clinical labs: the paradigm shifts that need to occur in assessing chronic wounds; better simulation of physiological conditions in vitro; and the importance of incorporating polymicrobial populations into biofilm models...
November 21, 2016: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Xiaomei Hu, Zhijin Chen, Kun Xiong, Jing Wang, Xiancai Rao, Yanguang Cong
Vi capsular polysaccharide, a linear homopolymer of α-1,4-linked N-acetylgalactosaminuronate, is characteristically produced by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. The Vi capsule covers the surface of the producing bacteria and serves as an virulence factor via inhibition of complement-mediated killing and promoting resistance against phagocytosis. Furthermore, Vi also represents a predominant protective antigen and plays a key role in the development of vaccines against typhoid fever. Herein, we reviewed the latest advances associated with the Vi polysaccharide, from its synthesis and transport within bacterial cells, mechanisms involved in virulence, immunological characteristics, and applications in vaccine, as well as its purification and detection methods...
November 21, 2016: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Joana Azeredo, Nuno F Azevedo, Romain Briandet, Nuno Cerca, Tom Coenye, Ana Rita Costa, Mickaël Desvaux, Giovanni Di Bonaventura, Michel Hébraud, Zoran Jaglic, Miroslava Kačániová, Susanne Knøchel, Anália Lourenço, Filipe Mergulhão, Rikke Louise Meyer, George Nychas, Manuel Simões, Odile Tresse, Claus Sternberg
Biofilms are widespread in nature and constitute an important strategy implemented by microorganisms to survive in sometimes harsh environmental conditions. They can be beneficial or have a negative impact particularly when formed in industrial settings or on medical devices. As such, research into the formation and elimination of biofilms is important for many disciplines. Several new methodologies have been recently developed for, or adapted to, biofilm studies that have contributed to deeper knowledge on biofilm physiology, structure and composition...
November 21, 2016: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Ganesan Sathiyanarayanan, Ganesan Saibaba, George Seghal Kiran, Yung-Hun Yang, Joseph Selvin
Marine sponges are filter feeding porous animals and usually harbor a remarkable array of microorganisms in their mesohyl tissues as transient and resident endosymbionts. The marine sponge-microbial interactions are highly complex and, in some cases, the relationships are thought to be truly symbiotic or mutualistic rather than temporary associations resulting from sponge filter-feeding activity. The marine sponge-associated bacteria are fascinating source for various biomolecules that are of potential interest to several biotechnological industries...
November 8, 2016: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Susan B Watson, Friedrich Jüttner
Volatile Organic Sulfur Compounds (VOSCs) are instrumental in global S-cycling and greenhouse gas production. VOSCs occur across a diversity of inland waters, and with widespread eutrophication and climate change, are increasingly linked with malodours in organic-rich waterbodies and drinking-water supplies. Compared with marine systems, the role of VOSCs in biogeochemical processes is far less well characterized for inland waters, and often involves different physicochemical and biological processes. This review provides an updated synthesis of VOSCs in inland waters, focusing on compounds known to cause malodours...
November 8, 2016: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Víctor Antonio García-Angulo
Riboflavin derivatives are essential cofactors for a myriad of flavoproteins. In bacteria, flavins importance extends beyond their role as intracellular protein cofactors, as secreted flavins are a key metabolite in a variety of physiological processes. Bacteria obtain riboflavin through the endogenous riboflavin biosynthetic pathway (RBP) or by the use of importer proteins. Bacteria frequently encode multiple paralogs of the RBP enzymes and as for other micronutrient supply pathways, biosynthesis and uptake functions largely coexist...
November 8, 2016: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Nargis Khan, Aurobind Vidyarthi, Mohammed Amir, Khurram Mushtaq, Javed Naim Agrewala
T-cells play an important role in immunity but when these cells are overexposed to specific antigens, their function may decline. This state is usually referred to as exhaustion and the T-cells show reduced proliferation and functions such as cytokine release. T-cell exhaustion has been observed in several cancers as well as in chronic infections such as tuberculosis (TB). In chronic Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, T-cells may express the exhaustion phenotype and show a progressive loss of secretion of IL-2, IFN-γ and TNF-α...
November 1, 2016: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Femke Feenstra, Piet A van Rijn
Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes the hemorrhagic disease bluetongue (BT) in ruminants. The best way to control outbreaks is vaccination. Currently, conventionally modified-live and inactivated vaccines are commercially available, which have been successfully used to control BT, but nonetheless have their specific shortcomings. Therefore, there is a need for improved BT vaccines. The ideal BT vaccine is efficacious, safe, affordable, protective against multiple serotypes and enables the differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals...
November 1, 2016: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Heidi Barth, Morgane Solis, Quentin Lepiller, Charlotte Sueur, Eric Soulier, Sophie Caillard, Françoise Stoll-Keller, Samira Fafi-Kremer
Nearly 45 years after the discovery of the first two human polyomaviruses BK and JC, their life-long persistence and mechanisms of pathogenesis remain poorly understood and efficient antiviral treatments are severely lacking. In this review, we sought to provide an update on recent advances in understanding the life cycle of these two viruses, particularly focusing on their interaction with the host immune system and pathogenesis. We have also discussed novel treatment approaches and highlighted areas of future research...
November 1, 2016: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Duncan R Smith
The sudden dramatic emergence of the mosquito transmitted flavivirus Zika virus has bought to the world's attention a relatively obscure virus that was previously only known to specialist researchers. The genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae contains a number of well-known mosquito transmitted human pathogenic viruses including the dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis and West Nile viruses. However, the genus also contains a number of lesser known human pathogenic viruses transmitted by mosquitoes including Wesselsbron virus, Ilheus virus, St...
November 1, 2016: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Charlotte Cordonnier, Jonathan Thévenot, Lucie Etienne-Mesmin, Monique Alric, Valérie Livrelli, Stéphanie Blanquet-Diot
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are major food-borne pathogens that constitute a serious public health threat. Currently, there is no specific treatment available for EHEC infections in human creating an urgent need for the development of alternative therapeutic strategies. Among them, one of the most promising approaches is the use of probiotic microorganisms. Even if many studies have shown the antagonistic effects of probiotic bacteria or yeast on EHEC survival, virulence, adhesion on intestinal epithelium or pathogen-induced inflammatory responses, mechanisms mediating their beneficial effects remain unclear...
November 1, 2016: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Manon Vouga, David Baud, Gilbert Greub
Simkania negevensis is a Chlamydia-related bacterium discovered in 1993 and represents the founding member of the Simkaniaceae family within the Chlamydiales order. As other Chlamydiales, it is an obligate intracellular bacterium characterized by a biphasic developmental cycle. Its similarities with the pathogenic Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae make it an interesting bacterium. So far, little is known about its biology, but S. negevensis harbors various microbiological characteristics of interest, including a strong association of the Simkania-containing vacuole with the ER and the presence of an intron in the 23S rRNA encoding gene...
October 27, 2016: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Cláudia Gomes, Sandra Martínez-Puchol, Noemí Palma, Gertrudis Horna, Lidia Ruiz-Roldán, Maria J Pons, Joaquim Ruiz
From its introduction in 1952 onwards, the clinical use of macrolides has been steadily increasing, both in human and veterinary medicine. Although initially designed to the treatment of Gram-positive microorganisms, this antimicrobial family has also been used to treat specific Gram-negative bacteria. Some of them, as azithromycin, are considered in the armamentarium against Enterobacteriaceae infections. However, the facility that this bacterial genus has to gain or develop mechanisms of antibiotic resistance may compromise the future usefulness of these antibiotics to fight against Enterobacteriaceae infections...
October 27, 2016: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Yang He, Qu Wen, Fangfang Yao, Dong Xu, Yuancheng Huang, Junshuai Wang
Gut microbiota interacts with host immune system in ways that influence the development of disease. Advances in respiratory immune system also broaden our knowledge of the interaction between host and microbiome in the lung. Increasing evidence indicated the intimate relationship between the gastrointestinal tract and respiratory tract. Exacerbations of chronic gut and lung disease have been shown to share key conceptual features with the disorder and dysregulation of the microbial ecosystem. In this review, we discuss the impact of gut and lung microbiota on disease exacerbation and progression, and the recent understanding of the immunological link between the gut and the lung, the gut-lung axis...
October 26, 2016: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Panchanathan Manivasagan, Seung Yun Nam, Junghwan Oh
The use of marine microorganisms as potential biofactories for green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is a relatively new field of research with considerable prospects. This method is eco-friendly, time saving, and inexpensive and can be easily scaled up for large-scale synthesis. The increasing need to develop simple, nontoxic, clean, and environmentally safe production methods for nanoparticles and to decrease environmental impact, minimize waste, and increase energy productivity has become important in this field...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Konrad Krysiak-Baltyn, Gregory J O Martin, Anthony D Stickland, Peter J Scales, Sally L Gras
The use of phages to control and reduce numbers of unwanted bacteria can be traced back to the early 1900s, when phages were explored as a tool to treat infections before the wide scale use of antibiotics. Recently, phage therapy has received renewed interest as a method to treat multiresistant bacteria. Phages are also widely used in the food industry to prevent the growth of certain bacteria in foods, and are currently being explored as a tool for use in bioremediation and wastewater treatment. Despite the large body of biological research on phages, relatively little attention has been given to computational modeling of the population dynamics of phage and bacterial interactions...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Jennifer L Edwards, Michael P Jennings, Michael A Apicella, Kate L Seib
Gonorrhea is a major, global public health problem for which there is no vaccine. The continuing emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains raises concerns that untreatable Neisseria gonorrhoeae may become widespread in the near future. Consequently, there is an urgent need for increased efforts towards the development of new anti-gonococcal therapeutics and vaccines, as well as suitable models for potential pre-clinical vaccine trials. Several current issues regarding gonorrhea are discussed herein, including the global burden of disease, the emergence of antibiotic-resistance, the status of vaccine development and, in particular, a focus on the model systems available to evaluate drug and vaccine candidates...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Bijender Singh, Marcio J Poças-Fonseca, B N Johri, Tulasi Satyanarayana
Thermophilic molds thrive in a variety of natural habitats including soils, composts, wood chip piles, nesting materials of birds and other animals, municipal refuse and others, and ubiquitous in their distribution. These molds grow in simple media containing carbon and nitrogen sources and mineral salts. Polyamines are synthesized in these molds and the composition of lipids varies considerably, predominantly containing palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids with low levels of lauric, palmiotoleic and stearic acids...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Stefanie Roberfroid, Jos Vanderleyden, Hans Steenackers
During the last decade it has been shown that among cell variation in gene expression plays an important role within clonal populations. Here, we provide an overview of the different mechanisms contributing to gene expression variability in clonal populations. These are ranging from inherent variations in the biochemical process of gene expression itself, such as intrinsic noise, extrinsic noise and bistability to individual responses to variations in the local micro-environment, a phenomenon called phenotypic plasticity...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
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