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Critical Reviews in Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30016175/recent-progress-in-bio-inspired-biofilm-resistant-polymeric-surfaces
#1
Cristina Cattò, Federica Villa, Francesca Cappitelli
Any surface of human interest can serve as a substrate for biofilm growth, sometimes with detrimental effects. The social and economic consequences of biofilm-mediated damage to surfaces are significant, the financial impact being estimated to be billions of dollars every year. After describing traditional biocide-based approaches for the remediation of biofilm-affected surfaces, this review deals with more recent developments in material science, focusing on non-toxic, eco-sustainable nature-inspired biomaterials with anti-biofilm properties superior to the conventional biocide-based approaches in terms of addressing the biofilm problem...
July 17, 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909724/e-coli-and-colorectal-cancer-a-complex-relationship-that-deserves-a-critical-mindset
#2
Trudy M Wassenaar
To the multiple factors that may eventually result in colorectal cancer (CRC), strains of E. coli have now been added, in particular strains producing colibactin from their polyketide synthesis (pks) locus. The evidence and mechanistic explanations for this unfortunate effect of what is in most cases a harmless commensal are discussed in the first part of this review. In the second part, observations are presented and discussed that do not fit with the hypothesis that colibactin-producing E. coli produce CRC...
June 17, 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790396/biosensor-for-the-detection-of-listeria-monocytogenes-emerging-trends
#3
Dharmendra Kumar Soni, Rafiq Ahmad, Suresh Kumar Dubey
The early detection of Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) and understanding the disease burden is of paramount interest. The failure to detect pathogenic bacteria in the food industry may have terrible consequences, and poses deleterious effects on human health. Therefore, integration of methods to detect and trace the route of pathogens along the entire food supply network might facilitate elucidation of the main contamination sources. Recent research interest has been oriented towards the development of rapid and affordable pathogen detection tools/techniques...
May 23, 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782199/bacteriolysis-a-mere-laboratory-curiosity
#4
Isaac Ginsburg, Erez Koren
The role of bacteriolysis in the pathophysiology of microbial infections dates back to 1893 when Buchner and Pfeiffer reported for the first time the lysis of bacteria by immune serum and related this phenomenon to the immune response. Later on, basic anti-microbial peptides and certain beta-lactam antibiotics have been shown not only to kill microorganisms but also to induce bacteriolysis and the release of cell-wall components. In 2009, a novel paradigm was offered suggesting that the main cause of death in sepsis is due to the exclusive release from activated human phagocytic neutrophils (PMNs) traps adhering upon endothelial cells of highly toxic nuclear histone...
May 21, 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749263/antimicrobial-photodynamic-therapy-what-we-know-and-what-we-don-t
#5
Fabian Cieplik, Dongmei Deng, Wim Crielaard, Wolfgang Buchalla, Elmar Hellwig, Ali Al-Ahmad, Tim Maisch
Considering increasing number of pathogens resistant towards commonly used antibiotics as well as antiseptics, there is a pressing need for antimicrobial approaches that are capable of inactivating pathogens efficiently without the risk of inducing resistances. In this regard, an alternative approach is the antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT). The antimicrobial effect of aPDT is based on the principle that visible light activates a per se non-toxic molecule, the so-called photosensitizer (PS), resulting in generation of reactive oxygen species that kill bacteria unselectively via an oxidative burst...
May 11, 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733249/alternative-antimicrobials-the-properties-of-fatty-acids-and-monoglycerides
#6
Colin P Churchward, Raid G Alany, Lori A S Snyder
With the rising antibiotic resistance of many bacterial species, alternative treatments are necessary to combat infectious diseases. The World Health Organization and the US Centres for Disease Control and Prevention have warned that some infections, such as those from Neisseria gonorrhoeae, may be untreatable within a few years. One avenue of exploration is the use of antimicrobial fatty acids and their derivatives for therapeutic prevention or treatment of bacterial infections. Several studies have explored the activity of fatty acids and their derivatives, including monoglycerides against a variety of bacterial species...
May 7, 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29293032/resistance-mechanisms-of-helicobacter-pylori-and-its-dual-target-precise-therapy
#7
Yuehua Gong, Yuan Yuan
Helicobacter pylori drug resistance presents a significant challenge to the successful eradication of this pathogen. To find strategies to improve the eradication efficacy of H. pylori, it is necessary to clarify the resistance mechanisms involved. The mechanisms of H. pylori drug resistance can be investigated from two angles: the pathogen and the host. A comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms of H. pylori resistance based on both pathogen and host would aid the implementation of precise therapy, or ideally "dual target precise therapy" (bacteria and host-specific target therapy)...
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185372/recent-advances-in-the-microbiological-diagnosis-of-bloodstream-infections
#8
Walter Florio, Paola Morici, Emilia Ghelardi, Simona Barnini, Antonella Lupetti
Rapid identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of the causative agent(s) of bloodstream infections (BSIs) are essential for the prompt administration of an effective antimicrobial therapy, which can result in clinical and financial benefits. Immediately after blood sampling, empirical antimicrobial therapy, chosen on clinical and epidemiological data, is administered. When ID and AST results are available, the clinician decides whether to continue or streamline the antimicrobial therapy, based on the results of the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the pathogen...
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971711/epigenetic-regulation-in-bacterial-infections-targeting-histone-deacetylases
#9
Aleksander M Grabiec, Jan Potempa
Pathogens have developed sophisticated strategies to evade the immune response, among which manipulation of host cellular epigenetic mechanisms plays a prominent role. In the last decade, modulation of histone acetylation in host cells has emerged as an efficient strategy of bacterial immune evasion. Virulence factors and metabolic products of pathogenic microorganisms alter expression and activity of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) to suppress transcription of host defense genes through epigenetic changes in histone acetylation marks...
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920507/navigating-the-structure-function-evolutionary-relationship-of-csaa-chaperone-in-archaea
#10
Archana Sharma, Shikha Rani, Manisha Goel
CsaA is a protein involved in the post-translational translocation of proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane. It is considered to be a functional homolog of SecB which participates in the Sec-dependent translocation pathway in an analogous manner. CsaA has also been reported to act as a molecular chaperone, preventing aggregation of unfolded proteins. It is essentially a prokaryotic protein which is absent in eukaryotes, but found extensively in bacteria and earlier thought to be widely present in archaea...
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903617/review-of-egg-related-salmonellosis-and-reduction-strategies-in-united-states-australia-united-kingdom-and-new-zealand
#11
Kapil Chousalkar, Richard Gast, Francesca Martelli, Vivek Pande
Globally, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica is one of the most commonly reported causes of foodborne illness in humans. Contaminated food products of animal origin, particularly egg and egg products are frequently implicated in outbreaks of human salmonellosis. Salmonella enteritidis is frequently involved in egg and egg products-associated foodborne outbreaks in the USA and UK. However, in Australia and New Zealand, human infections caused by this serovar occur as a result of infection acquired while overseas travel, with Salmonella typhimurium being a predominant cause of local foodborne outbreaks...
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891362/alternatives-to-antibiotics-in-poultry-feed-molecular-perspectives
#12
Gayatri Suresh, Ratul Kumar Das, Satinder Kaur Brar, Tarek Rouissi, Antonio Avalos Ramirez, Younes Chorfi, Stephane Godbout
The discovery of the growth promoting property of antibiotics led to their use as antibiotic feed additives (AFAs) in animal feed at sub-therapeutic doses. Although this has been beneficial for animal health and productivity, it has been, essentially, a double-edged sword. The continued and non-judicious use of AFAs has led to the selection and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant strains of poultry pathogens such as Salmonella, Campylobacter and Escherichia coli. The rapid spread of drug-resistant pathogens as well as emergence of antibiotic-related environmental pollutants is of global concern...
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885059/viral-deubiquitinases-role-in-evasion-of-anti-viral-innate-immunity
#13
Puja Kumari, Himanshu Kumar
Host anti-viral innate-immune signalling pathways are regulated by a variety of post-translation modifications including ubiquitination, which is critical to regulate various signalling pathways for synthesis of anti-viral molecules. A homeostasis of host immune responses, induced due to viral infection and further ubiquitination, is maintained by the action of deubiquitinases (DUB). Infecting viruses utilize the process of deubiquitination for tricking host immune system wherein viral DUBs compete with host DUBs for inhibition of innate-immune anti-viral signalling pathways, which instead of maintaining an immune homeostasis bring about virus-mediated pathogenesis...
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741415/gram-negative-bacterial-membrane-vesicle-release-in-response-to-the-host-environment-different-threats-same-trick
#14
Charlotte Volgers, Paul H M Savelkoul, Frank R M Stassen
Bacteria are confronted with a multitude of stressors when occupying niches within the host. These stressors originate from host defense mechanisms, other bacteria during niche competition or result from physiological challenges such as nutrient limitation. To counteract these stressors, bacteria have developed a stress-induced network to mount the adaptations required for survival. These stress-induced adaptations include the release of membrane vesicles from the bacterial envelope. Membrane vesicles can provide bacteria with a plethora of immediate and ultimate benefits for coping with environmental stressors...
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528259/nitrogen-metabolism-in-cyanobacteria-metabolic-and-molecular-control-growth-consequences-and-biotechnological-applications
#15
Alberto A Esteves-Ferreira, Masami Inaba, Antoine Fort, Wagner L Araújo, Ronan Sulpice
Cyanobacteria are one of the earliest branching groups of organisms on the planet, and during their evolutionary history were submitted to varying selective pressures. Nowadays, cyanobacteria can grow in a variety of conditions, using a large number of nitrogen sources. The control of the nitrogen metabolism in cyanobacteria depends on a fine-tuning regulatory network involving 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG), PII, PipX, and NtcA. This network answers to the cellular 2-OG levels, which reflects the cellular carbon/nitrogen balance, and as an output regulates gene expression, translation, protein activities and thus metabolic pathways...
March 12, 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516765/bunyavirales-ribonucleoproteins-the-viral-replication-and-transcription-machinery
#16
Yeping Sun, Jing Li, George F Gao, Po Tien, Wenjun Liu
The Bunyavirales order is one of the largest groups of segmented negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, which includes many pathogenic strains that cause severe human diseases. The RNA segments of the bunyavirus genome are separately encapsidated by multiple copies of nucleoprotein (N), and both termini of each N-encapsidated genomic RNA segment bind to one copy of the viral L polymerase protein. The viral genomic RNA, N and L protein together form the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex that constitutes the molecular machinery for viral genome replication and transcription...
March 8, 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513060/exploitation-of-microbial-forensics-and-nanotechnology-for-the-monitoring-of-emerging-pathogens
#17
Habib Bokhari
Emerging infectious diseases remain among the leading causes of global mortality. Traditional laboratory diagnostic approaches designed to detect and track infectious disease agents provide a framework for surveillance of bio threats. However, surveillance and outbreak investigations using such time-consuming approaches for early detection of pathogens remain the major pitfall. Hence, reasonable real-time surveillance systems to anticipate threats to public health and environment are critical for identifying specific aetiologies and preventing the global spread of infectious disease...
March 7, 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609211/bioprospecting-of-functional-cellulases-from-metagenome-for-second-generation-biofuel-production-a-review
#18
Rameshwar Tiwari, Lata Nain, Nikolaos E Labrou, Pratyoosh Shukla
Second generation biofuel production has been appeared as a sustainable and alternative energy option. The ultimate aim is the development of an industrially feasible and economic conversion process of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuel molecules. Since, cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer and also represented as the photosynthetically fixed form of carbon, the efficient hydrolysis of cellulose is the most important step towards the development of a sustainable biofuel production process. The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by suites of hydrolytic enzymes underlines the importance of cellulase enzyme system in whole hydrolysis process...
March 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609183/farnesol-signalling-in-candida-albicans-more-than-just-communication
#19
Melanie Polke, Ines Leonhardt, Oliver Kurzai, Ilse D Jacobsen
Candida albicans is a successful colonizer of the human host, which can, under certain circumstances cause a range of clinically diverse infections. Important virulence-associated traits of the fungus, such as the dimorphic switch and biofilm formation, are controlled by the quorum sensing molecule farnesol. Given the potential of farnesol as a novel antifungal drug, there has been increasing research into the mechanism underlying farnesol sensing and action in C. albicans. However, despite the identification of various factors involved in farnesol signalling, its exact mode of action remains largely unclear...
March 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604247/brucella-central-carbon-metabolism-an-update
#20
T Barbier, A Zúñiga-Ripa, S Moussa, H Plovier, J F Sternon, L Lázaro-Antón, R Conde-Álvarez, X De Bolle, M Iriarte, I Moriyón, J J Letesson
The brucellae are facultative intracellular pathogens causing brucellosis, an important zoonosis. Here, we review the nutritional, genetic, proteomic and transcriptomic studies on Brucella carbon uptake and central metabolism, information that is needed for a better understanding of Brucella virulence. There is no uniform picture across species but the studies suggest primary and/or secondary transporters for unknown carbohydrates, lactate, glycerol phosphate, erythritol, xylose, ribose, glucose and glucose/galactose, and routes for their incorporation to central metabolism, including an erythritol pathway feeding the pentose phosphate cycle...
March 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
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