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Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI

Christine E Boone, Teresa Wojtasiewicz, Emile Moukheiber, Ankur Butala, Ligia Jordao, Kelly A Mills, Haris Sair, William S Anderson
Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) is increasingly implemented for image-guided procedures in functional neurosurgery. iMRI facilitates accurate electrode implantation for deep brain stimulation (DBS) and is currently an alternative method for DBS electrode targeting. The application of iMRI also allows for greater accuracy and precision in laser-induced thermal therapy (LITT). The expanding use of functional neurosurgical procedures makes safety and feasibility of iMRI important considerations, particularly in patients with comorbidities or complex medical histories...
June 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Jakob Weiss, Rüdiger Hoffmann, Stephan Clasen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Won Kyu Choi, Christopher R Bailey, Jan Fritz, Clifford R Weiss
Low-flow vascular malformations are congenital lesions that can occur throughout the body. Treatment of these lesions is indicated to ameliorate pain, cosmetic disfigurement, and functional impairment. The first-line treatment of low-flow vascular malformations is percutaneous sclerotherapy. Traditionally, sclerotherapy is performed with a combination of ultrasound and fluoroscopy. However, malformations that are deep in the abdomen and pelvis or are obscured by overlying fascia or scar may be difficult to be visualized with ultrasound and fluoroscopy...
June 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
David A Woodrum, Krzysztof R Gorny, Lance A Mynderse
Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed noncutaneous cancer and second leading cause of death in men. Many patients with clinically organ-confined prostate cancer undergo definitive treatment of the whole gland, including radical prostatectomy, radiation therapy, and cryosurgery. Active surveillance is a growing alternative option for patients with documented low-volume and low-grade prostate cancer. However, many patients are wanting a less morbid focal treatment alternative. With recent advances in software and hardware of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), multiparametric MRI of the prostate has been shown to improve the accuracy in detecting and characterizing clinically significant prostate cancer...
June 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Kamran Ahrar, Sharjeel H Sabir, Steven M Yevich, Rahul A Sheth, Judy U Ahrar, Alda L Tam, Jason R Stafford
Image-guided interventions in the musculoskeletal system require accurate detection and characterization of lesions involving bone and soft tissues. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has superior soft tissue contrast resolution particularly in bone and soft tissues where computed tomography and ultrasonography have significant limitations. In addition, the multiplanar imaging capabilities of MRI facilitate targeting lesions and tracking interventional devices. Although conventional diagnostic MRI sequences suffer from motion sensitivity and prolonged imaging time, recently developed fast imaging sequences allow for rapid acquisition of high-quality images, rendering MRI more suitable for image-guided interventions...
June 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Kuberan Pushparajah, Henry Chubb, Reza Razavi
Diagnostic and interventional cardiac catheterization is routinely used in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart disease. There are well-established concerns regarding the risk of radiation exposure to patients and staff, particularly in children given the cumulative effects of repeat exposure. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers the advantage of being able to provide better soft tissue visualization, tissue characterization, and quantification of ventricular volumes and vascular flow. Initial work using MRI catheterization employed fusion of x-ray and MRI techniques, with x-ray fluoroscopy to guide catheter placement and subsequent MRI assessment for anatomical and hemodynamic assessment...
June 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Clifford R Weiss, Jan Fritz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
John P Lichtenberger, Adam R Dulberger, Paul E Gonzales, Juliana Bueno, Brett W Carter
Cardiac masses present a diagnostic challenge given their relative rarity and the overall difficulty imaging the heart. With the increasing frequency and quality of imaging in general, however, the incidental discovery of cardiac masses is increasing. Cardiac masses seldom produce symptoms, and they are more commonly found during imaging for noncardiac indications. While echocardiography is useful in the initial evaluation of a suspected mass, cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the best imaging modality to characterize cardiac tumors due to its superior tissue characterization and its higher contrast resolution...
April 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
John P Lichtenberger, Derek F Franco, Jason S Kim, Brett W Carter
A number of congenital defects and acquired disease processes affect the thoracic aorta, and traditionally, computed tomography (CT) has been the mainstay of imaging, especially in evaluation of the acute aorta. However, recent advances in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging such as electrocardiographically (ECG) triggered breath-hold sequences and ultrafast 3-dimensional MR angiography (MRA) are bringing MR imaging to the forefront of imaging of the thoracic aorta. By providing high-resolution morphological imaging and sophisticated vascular flow analysis for functional data, this modality can provide a comprehensive, reproducible evaluation of the thoracic aorta...
April 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Juliana Bueno, John P Lichtenberger, Gregory Rauch, Brett W Carter
Primary chest wall neoplasms are uncommon and comprise a heterogeneous group of lesions that may be challenging to classify and diagnose. These tumors may be primary or secondary, malignant or benign, and arise from cartilaginous/osseous structures or soft tissues. The role of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the evaluation of chest wall tumors continues to expand given its superior soft tissue contrast relative to computed tomography. MR imaging can facilitate differentiation of neoplasms from normal chest wall structures and other disease processes due to infection and inflammation, and can fully characterize abnormalities by demonstrating the various internal components of complex lesions...
April 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Brett W Carter, Sonia L Betancourt, Girish S Shroff, John P Lichtenberger
The pleura may be affected by primary tumors or metastatic spread of intrathoracic or extrathoracic neoplasms. Primary pleural neoplasms represent ∼10% of all pleural tumors, and malignant lesions are more common than benign lesions. The most common primary tumors include malignant pleural mesothelioma and solitary fibrous tumor. Although pleural neoplasms may initially be evaluated with computed tomography (CT) and/or fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET)/CT, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is complementary to these other imaging modalities for disease staging and evaluation of patients...
April 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Brett W Carter, John P Lichtenberger, Marcelo F Benveniste
Thymic epithelial neoplasms are malignant lesions that originate from the thymus and include thymoma, thymic carcinoma, and thymic neuroendocrine tumors. Although computed tomography (CT) is typically considered the imaging modality of choice for identifying thymic tumors, characterizing the primary neoplasm, and staging of disease, the role of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging continues to expand. MR imaging is effective in distinguishing thymic epithelial neoplasms and other malignant tumors from benign lesions in the prevascular mediastinum, can be used to characterize and stage thymic tumors in those patients with contraindications to contrast-enhanced CT, and can reveal morphologic features of thymic tumors...
April 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Brett W Carter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Urte Kägebein, Oliver Speck, Frank Wacker, Bennet Hensen
The unique ability of magnetic resonance imaging to measure temperature noninvasively, in vivo, makes it an attractive tool for monitoring interventional procedures, such as radiofrequency or microwave ablation in real-time. The most frequently used approach for magnetic resonance-based temperature measurement is proton resonance frequency (PRF) thermometry. Although it has many advantages, including tissue-independence and real-time capability, the main drawback is its motion sensitivity. This is likely the reason PRF thermometry in moving organs, such as the liver, is not commonly used in the clinical arena...
February 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Karun V Sharma, Pavel S Yarmolenko, Avinash Eranki, Ari Partanen, Haydar Celik, AeRang Kim, Matthew Oetgen, Peter C W Kim
Magnetic resonance imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is a novel technology that integrates magnetic resonance imaging with therapeutic ultrasound. This unique approach provides a completely noninvasive method for precise thermal ablation of targeted tissues with real-time imaging feedback. Over the past 2 decades, MR-HIFU has shown clinical success in several adult applications ranging from treatment of painful bone metastases to uterine fibroids to prostate cancer and essential tremor...
February 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Roberto Blanco Sequeiros, Juha-Jaakko Sinikumpu, Risto Ojala, Jyri Järvinen, Jan Fritz
Minimally invasive procedures play a crucial role in the diagnosis and treatment of many pediatric musculoskeletal conditions. Although computed tomography and fluoroscopy are commonly used for image guidance, the associated exposure to ionizing radiation is especially concerning in pediatric patients. Ultrasonography may be used successfully in a subset of interventions, but it is often not useful for complex, deep, and osseous targets. Interventional magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) facilitates targeting and treatment of musculoskeletal lesions at many locations with high accuracy due to its excellent tissue contrast...
February 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Roberto Luigi Cazzato, Julien Garnon, Behnam Shaygi, Georgia Tsoumakidou, Jean Caudrelier, Guillaume Koch, Afshin Gangi
In the last decade, the spectrum of interventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided procedures, including percutaneous ablation, has substantially grown, and among the available MRI-compatible ablative techniques, cryoablation is progressively gaining a predominant position.The aim of the present narrative review is to discuss the technical requirements necessary to perform a percutaneous MRI-guided cryoablation in a closed-bore machine; to highlight the relative advantages and drawbacks; and to briefly summarize the results available in the literature...
February 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Sherif G Nour, Jonathan S Lewin
The expansive technological developments that occurred over the past decades have clearly moved the field of Interventional MRI beyond the arena of the "proof of concept" to a viable option for minimally invasive diagnosis and therapy. State-of-the-art MRI technology can currently be employed to identify an occult target pathology, confidently steer an interventional device into complex anatomy, accurately deliver a device, drug, or energy, and/or monitor the real time effect of a treatment. Implementing a full-scope interventional MRI service requires substantial physical and conceptual modifications of the traditional diagnostic MRI environment...
February 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Nobuhiko Hata, Pedro Moreira, Gregory Fischer
Robots have been found to be a useful tool in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided intervention. The utility of robots in MRI-guided therapy ranges from aid for precision targeting to high-dexterity surgical tools to improve or even enable new MRI-guided therapy options. The objective of this article is to review the technical aspects of robotics in MRI-guided interventions, highlight the role of MRI robots in prostate interventions, and finally discuss the future contribution of emerging robotics technology useful in MRI-guided intervention...
February 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Harald Busse, Thomas Kahn, Michael Moche
Efficient image guidance is the basis for minimally invasive interventions. In comparison with X-ray, computed tomography (CT), or ultrasound imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides the best soft tissue contrast without ionizing radiation and is therefore predestined for procedural control. But MRI is also characterized by spatial constraints, electromagnetic interactions, long imaging times, and resulting workflow issues. Although many technical requirements have been met over the years-most notably magnetic resonance (MR) compatibility of tools, interventional pulse sequences, and powerful processing hardware and software-there is still a large variety of stand-alone devices and systems for specific procedures only...
February 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
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