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Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849655/introduction
#1
Diego R Martin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849654/how-to-manage-treat-immediate-type-adverse-reactions-to-gbca
#2
Henrik S Thomsen
Acute nonrenal adverse reactions to gadolinium-based contrast agents are infrequent and occur often unexpectedly. Most reactions are self-limiting and do not require treatment. The remaining adverse reactions are either moderate or severe and they require medical treatment. Prompt and effective treatment is very important and requires knowledge, training, and preparation.
December 2016: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748716/pathophysiology-of-immediate-reactions-to-injectable-gadolinium-based-contrast-agents
#3
Tara F Carr
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to review the classification of adverse drug reactions, highlight the known pathophysiology of immediate hypersensitivity reactions, and discuss the utility of diagnostic testing for immunologically mediated immediate reactions to gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). METHODS: Current literature on immediate reactions to GBCA was reviewed and summarized. RESULTS: Adverse drug reactions to GBCA are rare, and can be attributed to physiologic, immunologic, and nonimmunologic processes...
December 2016: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748715/preventing-allergic-reactions-to-gadolinium-based-contrast-agents
#4
Ashkan Heshmatzadeh Behzadi, Martin R Prince
Although the low incidence of immediate-type gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) allergic reactions is widely known, preventing these reactions and properly managing them to reduce their adverse sequel can improve the already exceedingly favorable GBCA safety profile. This review article should help those who order, supervise, or administer GBCA contrast agents, including recognizing and handling allergic reaction risks intrinsic to their use. Areas of focus include factors indicating increased allergic reaction risk, patient selection strategies, skin testing, premedication, and treatment of adverse events...
December 2016: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748714/incidence-and-risk-factors-for-gadolinium-based-contrast-agent-immediate-reactions
#5
James R Costello, Bobby Kalb, Diego R Martin
Since their clinical introduction in 1988, gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) have demonstrated an excellent safety profile with a reported acute adverse reaction rate ranging from 0.01% to 2%. By comparison, the acute adverse reaction rate of low osmolar nonionic computed tomography contrast agents (CTCs) ranges from 0.7% to 3.1%. Many of the risk factors associated with CTC reactions (drug allergies, asthma, atopy, prior contrast reaction) also point toward an increased incidence of acute adverse events to GBCAs...
December 2016: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748713/cellular-and-molecular-imaging-using-chemical-exchange-saturation-transfer
#6
Michael T McMahon, Assaf A Gilad
Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) is a powerful new tool well suited for molecular imaging. This technology enables the detection of low concentration probes through selective labeling of rapidly exchanging protons or other spins on the probes. In this review, we will highlight the unique features of CEST imaging technology and describe the different types of CEST agents that are suited for molecular imaging studies, including CEST theranostic agents, CEST reporter genes, and CEST environmental sensors...
October 2016: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748712/click-chemistry-in-the-development-of-contrast-agents-for-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#7
Sudath Hapuarachchige, Dmitri Artemov
Click chemistry provides fast, convenient, versatile, and reliable chemical reactions that take place between pairs of functional groups of small molecules that can be purified without chromatographic methods. Due to the fast kinetics and low or no elimination of byproducts, click chemistry is a promising approach that is rapidly gaining acceptance in drug discovery, radiochemistry, bioconjugation, and nanoscience applications. Increasing use of click chemistry in synthetic procedures or as a bioconjugation technique in diagnostic imaging is occurring because click reactions are fast, provide a quantitative yield, and produce a minimal amount of nontoxic byproducts...
October 2016: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748711/mr-molecular-imaging-of-brain-cancer-metabolism-using-hyperpolarized-13c-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#8
Chloé Najac, Sabrina M Ronen
Metabolic reprogramming is an important hallmark of cancer. Alterations in many metabolic pathways support the requirement for cellular building blocks that are essential for cancer cell proliferation. This metabolic reprogramming can be imaged using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). H MRS can inform on alterations in the steady-state levels of cellular metabolites, but the emergence of hyperpolarized C MRS has now also enabled imaging of metabolic fluxes in real-time, providing a new method for tumor detection and monitoring of therapeutic response...
October 2016: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748710/dce-mri-dw-mri-and-mrs-in-cancer-challenges-and-advantages-of-implementing-qualitative-and-quantitative-multi-parametric-imaging-in-the-clinic
#9
Jessica M Winfield, Geoffrey S Payne, Alex Weller, Nandita M deSouza
Multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) offers a unique insight into tumor biology by combining functional MRI techniques that inform on cellularity (diffusion-weighted MRI), vascular properties (dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI), and metabolites (magnetic resonance spectroscopy) and has scope to provide valuable information for prognostication and response assessment. Challenges in the application of mpMRI in the clinic include the technical considerations in acquiring good quality functional MRI data, development of robust techniques for analysis, and clinical interpretation of the results...
October 2016: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748709/investigating-the-vascular-phenotype-of-subcutaneously-and-orthotopically-propagated-pc3-prostate-cancer-xenografts-using-combined-carbogen-ultrasmall-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-mri
#10
Jake S Burrell, Simon Walker-Samuel, Jessica K R Boult, Lauren C J Baker, Yann Jamin, Jane Halliday, John C Waterton, Simon P Robinson
The aim of this study was to use the combined carbogen-ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (CUSPIO) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method, which uses spatial correlations in independent susceptibility imaging biomarkers, to investigate and compare the impact of tumor size and anatomical site on vascular structure and function in vivo. Mice bearing either subcutaneous or orthotopic PC3 LN3 prostate tumors were imaged at 7 T, using a multi-gradient echo sequence to quantify R2, before and during carbogen (95% O2/5% CO2) breathing, and subsequently following intravenous administration of USPIO particles...
October 2016: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748708/metabolic-imaging-in-humans
#11
Taylor L Fuss, Leo L Cheng
Metabolic imaging enhances understanding of disease metabolisms and holds great potential as a measurement tool for evaluating disease prognosis and treatment effectiveness. Advancement of techniques, such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy, positron emission tomography, and mass spectrometry, allows for improved accuracy for quantification of metabolites and present unique possibilities for use in clinic. This article reviews and discusses literature reports of metabolic imaging in humans published since 2010 according to disease type, including cancer, degenerative disorders, psychiatric disorders, and others, as well as the current application of the various related techniques...
October 2016: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748707/cellular-imaging-with-mri
#12
Ashley V Makela, Donna H Murrell, Katie M Parkins, Jenna Kara, Jeffrey M Gaudet, Paula J Foster
Cellular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an evolving field of imaging with strong translational and research potential. The ability to detect, track, and quantify cells in vivo and over time allows for studying cellular events related to disease processes and may be used as a biomarker for decisions about treatments and for monitoring responses to treatments. In this review, we discuss methods for labeling cells, various applications for cellular MRI, the existing limitations, strategies to address these shortcomings, and clinical cellular MRI...
October 2016: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748706/magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-spectroscopy-in-cancer-theranostic-imaging
#13
Marie-France Penet, Jiefu Jin, Zhihang Chen, Zaver M Bhujwalla
With its exquisite anatomical resolution and wide-ranging functional imaging capabilities, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has found multiple applications in detection, staging, and monitoring treatment response in cancer. The metabolic information provided by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is being actively investigated to complement MRI parameters, as well as existing biomarkers, in cancer detection and in monitoring response to treatment. Located at the interface of detection and therapy, theranostic imaging is a rapidly expanding new field that is showing significant promise for precision medicine of cancer...
October 2016: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27367315/mri-contrast-agents-update-on-clinical-trial-data-and-impact-on-current-practice
#14
Ashok Srinivasan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27367314/adverse-effects-of-gadolinium-based-contrast-agents-changes-in-practice-patterns
#15
Reza Forghani
Gadolinium-based contrast agents have been used for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations since the late 1980s with an excellent overall cumulative safety record. Initially favored for use in patients with renal impairment because of lack of significant nephrotoxic effect at clinical doses, in 2006, multiple reports convincingly linked the rare but serious disease nephrogenic systemic fibrosis to the administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents in patients with severe renal failure. This in turn led to new policies on administration of these agents, resulting in changes in practice patterns that have virtually resulted in the elimination of the disease after the year 2009...
August 2016: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27367313/mri-contrast-agents-evolution-of-clinical-practice-and-dose-optimization
#16
Rihan Khan
Accurate detection of lesions throughout the body is of paramount importance in contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Optimal contrast agent performance is therefore of great importance and given the number of MRI contrast agent options today, this topic is of much ongoing study. The goal of this review article is to bring the read up to date on pertinent articles that relate to the evolution of radiological clinical practice and dose optimization pertaining to gadolinium contrast agents.
August 2016: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27367312/alternatives-to-gbca-are-we-there-yet
#17
Jeffrey R Wesolowski, Andrew Kaiser
Gadolinium has been widely used as the contrast agent of choice for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, gadolinium administration is not always desired due to its inherent enhancement properties and potential side effects (nephrogenic systemic fibrosis). This article reviews gadolinium alternatives, iron-, and manganese- based agents, and their current clinical usage for contrast-enhanced MRI examinations.
August 2016: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27367311/role-of-contrast-in-mr-imaging
#18
Tushar Chandra, Suyash Mohan
Magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agents have been widely used over the last 3 decades in routine clinical practice. Paul Lauterbur recognized the presence of these contrast agents, which act as paramagnetic catalysts that accelerate the T1 relaxation process. The first MR contrast agent to be approved for clinical use was in 1988, and since then, it is estimated that 200 million doses have been administered worldwide. These contrast agents have diverse clinical as well as research applications, involving almost all the body organs...
August 2016: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27187168/in-bore-mr-guided-biopsy-systems-and-utility-of-pi-rads
#19
Jurgen J Fütterer, Michael Moche, Harald Busse, Derya Yakar
A diagnostic dilemma exists in cases wherein a patient with clinical suspicion for prostate cancer has a negative transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy session. Although transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy is the standard of care, a paradigm shift is being observed. In biopsy-naive patients and patients with at least 1 negative biopsy session, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is being utilized for tumor detection and subsequent targeting. Several commercial devices are now available for targeted prostate biopsy ranging from transrectal ultrasound-MR fusion biopsy to in bore MR-guided biopsy...
June 2016: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27187167/clinical-perspective-of-prostate-cancer
#20
Nilesh Patil, Krishnanath Gaitonde
Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous cancer affecting men today. It largely affects men in the fifth and sixth decade of life. Screening for prostate cancer, though controversial, is still the only way to detect early prostate cancer. Multiple newer options such as blood tests and genetic markers are being used in the clinical domain today to improve cancer detection and avoid unnecessary biopsies. To date, biopsy of the prostate remains the only modality to stratify the grade of cancer. Significant improvements in the imaging technology have improved localizing and detecting the disease...
June 2016: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
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