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Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI

Sara Reis Teixeira, Fabrício Guimarães Gonçalves, Carolina A Servin, Kshitij Mankad, Giulio Zuccoli
Abusive head trauma (AHT) is a form of inflicted head injury. AHT is more frequent in 2-year-old or younger children. It is an important cause of neurological impairment and the major cause of death from head trauma in this age group. Brain magnetic resonance imaging allows the depiction of retinal hemorrhages, injured bridging veins, and identifying and localizing extra- and intra-axial bleeds, contusions, lacerations, and strokes. The diagnosis of AHT is a multidisciplinary team effort which includes a careful evaluation of social, clinical, laboratory, and radiological findings...
December 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Guilherme de Souza E Cassia, César Augusto Pinheiro Ferreira Alves, Ajay Taranath, Nicolás Sgarbi López, Ozgur Oztekin, Fabrício Guimarães Gonçalves, Zoltan Patay
Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant solid tumor in childhood and the most common embryonal neuroepithelial tumor of the central nervous system. Several morphological variants are recognized: classic medulloblastoma, large cell/anaplastic medulloblastoma, desmoplastic/nodular medulloblastoma, and medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity. Recent advances in transcriptome and methylome profiling of these tumors led to a molecular classification that includes 4 major genetically defined groups. Accordingly, the 2016 revision of the World Health Organization's Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System recognizes the following medulloblastoma entities: Wingless (WNT)-activated, Sonic hedgehog (SHH)-activated, Group 3, and Group 4...
December 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Giulio Zuccoli, Charles Fitz, Stephanie Greene, Samuel A Lindner, Raffaele Nardone, Abdullah S Khan, Deepa Rajan, Dana D Cummings
Vascular injury is increasingly recognized as an important cause of mortality and morbidity in children (29 days to 18 years of age). Since vascular brain injury in children appears to be less common than in adults, the index of suspicion for vascular brain injury is usually lower. In this review article, we describe frequent and rare conditions underlying pediatric stroke including cardioembolic, viral, autoimmune, post-traumatic, and genetic etiologies. Furthermore, we provide a neuroimaging correlate for clinical mimics of pediatric stroke...
December 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Felipe S Barros, Victor Hugo R Marussi, Lázaro L F Amaral, Antônio José da Rocha, Christiane M S Campos, Leonardo F Freitas, Thierry A G M Huisman, Bruno P Soares
Phakomatoses, also known as neurocutaneous disorders, comprise a vast number of entities that predominantly affect structures originated from the ectoderm such as the central nervous system and the skin, but also the mesoderm, particularly the vascular system. Extensive literature exists about the most common phakomatoses, namely neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, von Hippel-Lindau and Sturge-Weber syndrome. However, recent developments in the understanding of the molecular underpinnings of less common phakomatoses have sparked interest in these disorders...
December 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Sniya Valsa Sudhakar, Karthik Muthusamy, Manohar Shroff
Brain has been considered as an immune-privileged site for centuries owing to the presence of blood-brain barrier, absent lymphatic drainage, and antigen-presenting cells. However, the present prevailing concept is of immune surveillance where brain is continuously surveyed by immune cells. However, the presence of immune cells in central nervous system (CNS) brings the risk of inflammation and autoimmunity involving both T and B cell mediated pathways. These mechanisms form the underlying pathology in a wide spectrum of pediatric CNS diseases manifesting as acquired neurological deficits...
December 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Fabrício G Gonçalves, Tomás de Andrade L Freddi, Ajay Taranath, Rahul Lakshmanan, Robert Goetti, Fabricio S Feltrin, Kshitij Mankad, Sara R Teixeira, Prasad B Hanagandi, Filippo Arrigoni
Mutations causing dysfunction of the tubulins and microtubule-associated proteins, otherwise known as tubulinopathies, are a group of recently described entities, that lead to complex brain malformations. An understanding of the fundamental principles of operation of the cytoskeleton and compounds in particular microtubules, actin, and microtubule-associated proteins, can assist in the interpretation of the imaging findings of tubulinopathies. Somewhat consistent morphological imaging patterns have been described in tubulinopathies such as dysmorphic basal ganglia-the hallmark (found in 75% of cases), callosal dysgenesis, cerebellar hypoplasia/dysplasia, and cortical malformations, most notably lissencephaly...
December 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Fabrício Guimarães Gonçalves, Suraj D Serai, Giulio Zuccoli
Synthetic magnetic resonance imaging is a novel imaging technique that allows generating multiple contrast-weighted images based on relaxivity measurements of tissue properties in a single acquisition using a multiecho, multidelay saturation recovery spin-echo sequence. The synthetic images can be generated postacquisition from the parametric tissue maps, which can be beneficial to reduce scan time and improve patient throughput. Based on relaxometry maps, synthetic magnetic resonance imaging can also perform brain tissue segmentation and myelin quantification without additional scan time...
December 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Huiming Dong, Richard D White, Arunark Kolipaka
The mechanical properties of soft tissues are closely associated with a variety of diseases. This motivates the development of elastography techniques in which tissue mechanical properties are quantitatively estimated through imaging. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a noninvasive phase-contrast MR technique wherein shear modulus of soft tissue can be spatially and temporally estimated. MRE has recently received significant attention due to its capability in noninvasively estimating tissue mechanical properties, which can offer considerable diagnostic potential...
October 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Kay M Pepin, Kiaran P McGee
The viscoelastic properties of tissue are significantly altered with the development of tumors and these alterations can be assessed with magnetic resonance elastography (MRE). Accurate detection and characterization of malignant and benign lesions can be obtained by quantifying tumor stiffness, improving the specificity and diagnostic accuracy of conventional magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, MRE can be used to stratify patients for treatment based on risk of normal tissue toxicity and surgical considerations including consistency and adherence of the tumor to surrounding structures...
October 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Jin Wang, Ying Deng, Danielle Jondal, David M Woodrum, Yu Shi, Meng Yin, Sudhakar K Venkatesh
Increasing clinical experience and ongoing research in the field of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is leading to exploration of its applications in other abdominal organs. In this review, the current research progress of MRE in prostate, uterus, pancreas, spleen, and kidney will be discussed. The article will describe patient preparation, modified technical approach including development of passive drivers, modification of sequences, and inversion. The potential clinical application of MRE in the evaluation of several disease processes affecting these organs will be discussed...
October 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Safa Hoodeshenas, Meng Yin, Sudhakar Kundapur Venkatesh
The first clinical application of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) was in the evaluation of chronic liver disease (CLD) for detection and staging of liver fibrosis. In the past 10 years, MRE has been incorporated seamlessly into a standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) liver protocol worldwide. Liver MRE is a robust technique for evaluation of liver stiffness and is currently the most accurate noninvasive imaging technology for evaluation of liver fibrosis. Newer MRE sequences including spin-echo MRE and 3 dimensional MRE have helped in reducing the technical limitations of clinical liver MRE that is performed with 2D gradient recalled echo (GRE) MRE...
October 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Ziying Yin, Anthony J Romano, Armando Manduca, Richard L Ehman, John Huston
Brain magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) was developed on the basis of a desire to "palpate by imaging" and is becoming a powerful tool in the investigation of neurophysiological and neuropathological states. Measurements are acquired with a specialized MR phase-contrast pulse sequence that can detect tissue motion in response to an applied external or internal excitation. The tissue viscoelasticity is then reconstructed from the measured displacement. Quantitative characterization of brain viscoelastic behaviors provides us an insight into the brain structure and function by assessing the mechanical rigidity, viscosity, friction, and connectivity of brain tissues...
October 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Sudhakar K Venkatesh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
César Augusto Pinheiro Ferreira Alves, Diego Cardoso Fragoso, Fabrício Guimarães Gonçalves, Victor Hugo Marussi, Lázaro Luís Faria do Amaral
: The cerebellum has long been recognized as a fundamental structure in motor coordination. Structural cerebellar abnormalities and diseases involving the cerebellum are relatively common in children. The not always specific clinical presentation of ataxia, incoordination, and balance impairment can often be a challenge to attain a precise diagnosis. Continuous advances in genetic research and moreover the constant development in neuroimaging modalities, particularly in the field of magnetic resonance imaging, have promoted a better understanding of cerebellar diseases and led to several modifications in their classification in recent years...
August 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Felice D'Arco, Prasad Hanagandi, Mario Ganau, Pradeep Krishnan, Ajay Taranath
Lysosomal storage disorders are a heterogeneous group of genetic diseases characterized by defective function in one of the lysosomal enzymes. In this review paper, we describe neuroradiological findings and clinical characteristics of neuronopathic lysosomal disorders with a focus on differential diagnosis. New insights regarding pathogenesis and therapeutic perspectives are also briefly discussed.
August 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Ai Peng Tan, Fabrício Guimarães Gonçalves, Abeer Almehdar, Bruno Passebon Soares
Peroxisomes play vital roles in a broad spectrum of cellular metabolic pathways. Defects in genes encoding peroxisomal proteins can result in a wide array of disorders, depending upon the metabolic pathways affected. These disorders can be broadly classified into 2 main groups; peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBDs) and single peroxisomal enzyme deficiencies. Peroxisomal enzyme deficiencies are result of dysfunction of a specific metabolic pathway, while PBDs are due to generalized peroxisomal dysfunction. Mutations in PEX1 gene are the most common cause of PBDs, accounting for two-thirds of cases...
August 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
César Augusto Pinheiro Ferreira Alves, Fabrício Guimarães Gonçalves, Dominik Grieb, Leandro Tavares Lucato, Amy C Goldstein, Giulio Zuccoli
Mitochondrial diseases are a complex and heterogeneous group of genetic disorders that occur as a result of either nuclear DNA or mitochondrial DNA pathogenic variants, leading to a decrease in oxidative phosphorylation and cellular energy (ATP) production. Increasing knowledge about molecular, biochemical, and genetic abnormalities related to mitochondrial dysfunction has expanded the neuroimaging phenotypes of mitochondrial disorders. As a consequence of this growing field, the imaging recognition patterns of mitochondrial cytopathies are continually evolving...
August 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Ai Peng Tan, Kshitij Mankad, Fabrício Guimarães Gonçalves, Giacomo Talenti, Egloff Alexia
Macrocephaly is a relatively common clinical condition affecting up to 5% of the pediatric population. It is defined as an abnormally large head with an occipitofrontal circumference greater than 2 standard deviations above the mean for a given age and sex. Megalencephaly refers exclusively to brain overgrowth exceeding twice the standard deviation. Macrocephaly can be isolated and benign or may be the first indication of an underlying congenital, genetic, or acquired disorder, whereas megalencephaly is more often syndromic...
August 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Kshitij Mankad, Giacomo Talenti, Ai Peng Tan, Fabrício Guimarães Gonçalves, Carlos Robles, Elaine Y L Kan, Ata Siddiqui
There is an extensive and diverse set of medical conditions affecting the neonatal brain within the spectrum of neurometabolic disorders. As such, their clinical presentations can be rather nonspecific, and can often mimic acquired entities such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and sepsis. Similarly, the radiological findings in these entities can also be frequently nonspecific, but a more detailed analysis of imaging findings (especially magnetic resonance imaging) alongside the relevant clinical details can be a rewarding experience, thus enabling a timely and targeted diagnosis...
August 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
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