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Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI

César Augusto Pinheiro Ferreira Alves, Diego Cardoso Fragoso, Fabrício Guimarães Gonçalves, Victor Hugo Marussi, Lázaro Luís Faria do Amaral
: The cerebellum has long been recognized as a fundamental structure in motor coordination. Structural cerebellar abnormalities and diseases involving the cerebellum are relatively common in children. The not always specific clinical presentation of ataxia, incoordination, and balance impairment can often be a challenge to attain a precise diagnosis. Continuous advances in genetic research and moreover the constant development in neuroimaging modalities, particularly in the field of magnetic resonance imaging, have promoted a better understanding of cerebellar diseases and led to several modifications in their classification in recent years...
August 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Felice D'Arco, Prasad Hanagandi, Mario Ganau, Pradeep Krishnan, Ajay Taranath
Lysosomal storage disorders are a heterogeneous group of genetic diseases characterized by defective function in one of the lysosomal enzymes. In this review paper, we describe neuroradiological findings and clinical characteristics of neuronopathic lysosomal disorders with a focus on differential diagnosis. New insights regarding pathogenesis and therapeutic perspectives are also briefly discussed.
August 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Ai Peng Tan, Fabrício Guimarães Gonçalves, Abeer Almehdar, Bruno Passebon Soares
Peroxisomes play vital roles in a broad spectrum of cellular metabolic pathways. Defects in genes encoding peroxisomal proteins can result in a wide array of disorders, depending upon the metabolic pathways affected. These disorders can be broadly classified into 2 main groups; peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBDs) and single peroxisomal enzyme deficiencies. Peroxisomal enzyme deficiencies are result of dysfunction of a specific metabolic pathway, while PBDs are due to generalized peroxisomal dysfunction. Mutations in PEX1 gene are the most common cause of PBDs, accounting for two-thirds of cases...
August 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
César Augusto Pinheiro Ferreira Alves, Fabrício Guimarães Gonçalves, Dominik Grieb, Leandro Tavares Lucato, Amy C Goldstein, Giulio Zuccoli
Mitochondrial diseases are a complex and heterogeneous group of genetic disorders that occur as a result of either nuclear DNA or mitochondrial DNA pathogenic variants, leading to a decrease in oxidative phosphorylation and cellular energy (ATP) production. Increasing knowledge about molecular, biochemical, and genetic abnormalities related to mitochondrial dysfunction has expanded the neuroimaging phenotypes of mitochondrial disorders. As a consequence of this growing field, the imaging recognition patterns of mitochondrial cytopathies are continually evolving...
August 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Ai Peng Tan, Kshitij Mankad, Fabrício Guimarães Gonçalves, Giacomo Talenti, Egloff Alexia
Macrocephaly is a relatively common clinical condition affecting up to 5% of the pediatric population. It is defined as an abnormally large head with an occipitofrontal circumference greater than 2 standard deviations above the mean for a given age and sex. Megalencephaly refers exclusively to brain overgrowth exceeding twice the standard deviation. Macrocephaly can be isolated and benign or may be the first indication of an underlying congenital, genetic, or acquired disorder, whereas megalencephaly is more often syndromic...
August 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Kshitij Mankad, Giacomo Talenti, Ai Peng Tan, Fabrício Guimarães Gonçalves, Carlos Robles, Elaine Y L Kan, Ata Siddiqui
There is an extensive and diverse set of medical conditions affecting the neonatal brain within the spectrum of neurometabolic disorders. As such, their clinical presentations can be rather nonspecific, and can often mimic acquired entities such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and sepsis. Similarly, the radiological findings in these entities can also be frequently nonspecific, but a more detailed analysis of imaging findings (especially magnetic resonance imaging) alongside the relevant clinical details can be a rewarding experience, thus enabling a timely and targeted diagnosis...
August 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Christine E Boone, Teresa Wojtasiewicz, Emile Moukheiber, Ankur Butala, Ligia Jordao, Kelly A Mills, Haris Sair, William S Anderson
Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) is increasingly implemented for image-guided procedures in functional neurosurgery. iMRI facilitates accurate electrode implantation for deep brain stimulation (DBS) and is currently an alternative method for DBS electrode targeting. The application of iMRI also allows for greater accuracy and precision in laser-induced thermal therapy (LITT). The expanding use of functional neurosurgical procedures makes safety and feasibility of iMRI important considerations, particularly in patients with comorbidities or complex medical histories...
June 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Jakob Weiss, Rüdiger Hoffmann, Stephan Clasen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Won Kyu Choi, Christopher R Bailey, Jan Fritz, Clifford R Weiss
Low-flow vascular malformations are congenital lesions that can occur throughout the body. Treatment of these lesions is indicated to ameliorate pain, cosmetic disfigurement, and functional impairment. The first-line treatment of low-flow vascular malformations is percutaneous sclerotherapy. Traditionally, sclerotherapy is performed with a combination of ultrasound and fluoroscopy. However, malformations that are deep in the abdomen and pelvis or are obscured by overlying fascia or scar may be difficult to be visualized with ultrasound and fluoroscopy...
June 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
David A Woodrum, Krzysztof R Gorny, Lance A Mynderse
Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed noncutaneous cancer and second leading cause of death in men. Many patients with clinically organ-confined prostate cancer undergo definitive treatment of the whole gland, including radical prostatectomy, radiation therapy, and cryosurgery. Active surveillance is a growing alternative option for patients with documented low-volume and low-grade prostate cancer. However, many patients are wanting a less morbid focal treatment alternative. With recent advances in software and hardware of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), multiparametric MRI of the prostate has been shown to improve the accuracy in detecting and characterizing clinically significant prostate cancer...
June 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Kamran Ahrar, Sharjeel H Sabir, Steven M Yevich, Rahul A Sheth, Judy U Ahrar, Alda L Tam, Jason R Stafford
Image-guided interventions in the musculoskeletal system require accurate detection and characterization of lesions involving bone and soft tissues. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has superior soft tissue contrast resolution particularly in bone and soft tissues where computed tomography and ultrasonography have significant limitations. In addition, the multiplanar imaging capabilities of MRI facilitate targeting lesions and tracking interventional devices. Although conventional diagnostic MRI sequences suffer from motion sensitivity and prolonged imaging time, recently developed fast imaging sequences allow for rapid acquisition of high-quality images, rendering MRI more suitable for image-guided interventions...
June 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Kuberan Pushparajah, Henry Chubb, Reza Razavi
Diagnostic and interventional cardiac catheterization is routinely used in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart disease. There are well-established concerns regarding the risk of radiation exposure to patients and staff, particularly in children given the cumulative effects of repeat exposure. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers the advantage of being able to provide better soft tissue visualization, tissue characterization, and quantification of ventricular volumes and vascular flow. Initial work using MRI catheterization employed fusion of x-ray and MRI techniques, with x-ray fluoroscopy to guide catheter placement and subsequent MRI assessment for anatomical and hemodynamic assessment...
June 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Clifford R Weiss, Jan Fritz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
John P Lichtenberger, Adam R Dulberger, Paul E Gonzales, Juliana Bueno, Brett W Carter
Cardiac masses present a diagnostic challenge given their relative rarity and the overall difficulty imaging the heart. With the increasing frequency and quality of imaging in general, however, the incidental discovery of cardiac masses is increasing. Cardiac masses seldom produce symptoms, and they are more commonly found during imaging for noncardiac indications. While echocardiography is useful in the initial evaluation of a suspected mass, cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the best imaging modality to characterize cardiac tumors due to its superior tissue characterization and its higher contrast resolution...
April 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
John P Lichtenberger, Derek F Franco, Jason S Kim, Brett W Carter
A number of congenital defects and acquired disease processes affect the thoracic aorta, and traditionally, computed tomography (CT) has been the mainstay of imaging, especially in evaluation of the acute aorta. However, recent advances in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging such as electrocardiographically (ECG) triggered breath-hold sequences and ultrafast 3-dimensional MR angiography (MRA) are bringing MR imaging to the forefront of imaging of the thoracic aorta. By providing high-resolution morphological imaging and sophisticated vascular flow analysis for functional data, this modality can provide a comprehensive, reproducible evaluation of the thoracic aorta...
April 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Juliana Bueno, John P Lichtenberger, Gregory Rauch, Brett W Carter
Primary chest wall neoplasms are uncommon and comprise a heterogeneous group of lesions that may be challenging to classify and diagnose. These tumors may be primary or secondary, malignant or benign, and arise from cartilaginous/osseous structures or soft tissues. The role of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the evaluation of chest wall tumors continues to expand given its superior soft tissue contrast relative to computed tomography. MR imaging can facilitate differentiation of neoplasms from normal chest wall structures and other disease processes due to infection and inflammation, and can fully characterize abnormalities by demonstrating the various internal components of complex lesions...
April 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Brett W Carter, Sonia L Betancourt, Girish S Shroff, John P Lichtenberger
The pleura may be affected by primary tumors or metastatic spread of intrathoracic or extrathoracic neoplasms. Primary pleural neoplasms represent ∼10% of all pleural tumors, and malignant lesions are more common than benign lesions. The most common primary tumors include malignant pleural mesothelioma and solitary fibrous tumor. Although pleural neoplasms may initially be evaluated with computed tomography (CT) and/or fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET)/CT, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is complementary to these other imaging modalities for disease staging and evaluation of patients...
April 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Brett W Carter, John P Lichtenberger, Marcelo F Benveniste
Thymic epithelial neoplasms are malignant lesions that originate from the thymus and include thymoma, thymic carcinoma, and thymic neuroendocrine tumors. Although computed tomography (CT) is typically considered the imaging modality of choice for identifying thymic tumors, characterizing the primary neoplasm, and staging of disease, the role of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging continues to expand. MR imaging is effective in distinguishing thymic epithelial neoplasms and other malignant tumors from benign lesions in the prevascular mediastinum, can be used to characterize and stage thymic tumors in those patients with contraindications to contrast-enhanced CT, and can reveal morphologic features of thymic tumors...
April 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Brett W Carter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Urte Kägebein, Oliver Speck, Frank Wacker, Bennet Hensen
The unique ability of magnetic resonance imaging to measure temperature noninvasively, in vivo, makes it an attractive tool for monitoring interventional procedures, such as radiofrequency or microwave ablation in real-time. The most frequently used approach for magnetic resonance-based temperature measurement is proton resonance frequency (PRF) thermometry. Although it has many advantages, including tissue-independence and real-time capability, the main drawback is its motion sensitivity. This is likely the reason PRF thermometry in moving organs, such as the liver, is not commonly used in the clinical arena...
February 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
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