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Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI

Urte Kägebein, Oliver Speck, Frank Wacker, Bennet Hensen
The unique ability of magnetic resonance imaging to measure temperature noninvasively, in vivo, makes it an attractive tool for monitoring interventional procedures, such as radiofrequency or microwave ablation in real-time. The most frequently used approach for magnetic resonance-based temperature measurement is proton resonance frequency (PRF) thermometry. Although it has many advantages, including tissue-independence and real-time capability, the main drawback is its motion sensitivity. This is likely the reason PRF thermometry in moving organs, such as the liver, is not commonly used in the clinical arena...
February 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Karun V Sharma, Pavel S Yarmolenko, Avinash Eranki, Ari Partanen, Haydar Celik, AeRang Kim, Matthew Oetgen, Peter C W Kim
Magnetic resonance imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is a novel technology that integrates magnetic resonance imaging with therapeutic ultrasound. This unique approach provides a completely noninvasive method for precise thermal ablation of targeted tissues with real-time imaging feedback. Over the past 2 decades, MR-HIFU has shown clinical success in several adult applications ranging from treatment of painful bone metastases to uterine fibroids to prostate cancer and essential tremor...
February 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Roberto Blanco Sequeiros, Juha-Jaakko Sinikumpu, Risto Ojala, Jyri Järvinen, Jan Fritz
Minimally invasive procedures play a crucial role in the diagnosis and treatment of many pediatric musculoskeletal conditions. Although computed tomography and fluoroscopy are commonly used for image guidance, the associated exposure to ionizing radiation is especially concerning in pediatric patients. Ultrasonography may be used successfully in a subset of interventions, but it is often not useful for complex, deep, and osseous targets. Interventional magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) facilitates targeting and treatment of musculoskeletal lesions at many locations with high accuracy due to its excellent tissue contrast...
February 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Roberto Luigi Cazzato, Julien Garnon, Behnam Shaygi, Georgia Tsoumakidou, Jean Caudrelier, Guillaume Koch, Afshin Gangi
In the last decade, the spectrum of interventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided procedures, including percutaneous ablation, has substantially grown, and among the available MRI-compatible ablative techniques, cryoablation is progressively gaining a predominant position.The aim of the present narrative review is to discuss the technical requirements necessary to perform a percutaneous MRI-guided cryoablation in a closed-bore machine; to highlight the relative advantages and drawbacks; and to briefly summarize the results available in the literature...
February 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Sherif G Nour, Jonathan S Lewin
The expansive technological developments that occurred over the past decades have clearly moved the field of Interventional MRI beyond the arena of the "proof of concept" to a viable option for minimally invasive diagnosis and therapy. State-of-the-art MRI technology can currently be employed to identify an occult target pathology, confidently steer an interventional device into complex anatomy, accurately deliver a device, drug, or energy, and/or monitor the real time effect of a treatment. Implementing a full-scope interventional MRI service requires substantial physical and conceptual modifications of the traditional diagnostic MRI environment...
February 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Nobuhiko Hata, Pedro Moreira, Gregory Fischer
Robots have been found to be a useful tool in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided intervention. The utility of robots in MRI-guided therapy ranges from aid for precision targeting to high-dexterity surgical tools to improve or even enable new MRI-guided therapy options. The objective of this article is to review the technical aspects of robotics in MRI-guided interventions, highlight the role of MRI robots in prostate interventions, and finally discuss the future contribution of emerging robotics technology useful in MRI-guided intervention...
February 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Harald Busse, Thomas Kahn, Michael Moche
Efficient image guidance is the basis for minimally invasive interventions. In comparison with X-ray, computed tomography (CT), or ultrasound imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides the best soft tissue contrast without ionizing radiation and is therefore predestined for procedural control. But MRI is also characterized by spatial constraints, electromagnetic interactions, long imaging times, and resulting workflow issues. Although many technical requirements have been met over the years-most notably magnetic resonance (MR) compatibility of tools, interventional pulse sequences, and powerful processing hardware and software-there is still a large variety of stand-alone devices and systems for specific procedures only...
February 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Farzad Sedaghat, Kemal Tuncali
The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for image-guided intervention poses both great opportunity and challenges. Although MRI is distinguished by its excellent contrast resolution and lack of ionizing radiation, it was not till the 1990s that technologic innovations allowed for adoption of MRI as a guidance modality for intervention. With advances in magnet, protocol, coil, biopsy needle, and ablation probe design, MRI has emerged as a viable, and increasingly, preferable alternative to other image guidance modalities...
February 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Clare Tempany, Jon S Lewin, Thomas Kahn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Jan Fritz, Clifford R Weiss
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Ananth J Madhuranthakam, Qing Yuan, Ivan Pedrosa
Recent improvements in arterial spin labeled (ASL) and vastly undersampled dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisitions are providing a new opportunity to explore the routine use of quantitative perfusion imaging for evaluation of a variety of abdominal diseases in clinical practice. In this review, we discuss different approaches for the acquisition and data analysis of ASL and DCE MRI techniques for quantification of tissue perfusion and present various clinical applications of these techniques in both neoplastic and non-neoplastic conditions in the abdomen...
December 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Myles T Taffel, Evan J Johnson, Hersh Chandarana
Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is increasingly incorporated into routine body magnetic resonance imaging protocols. DWI can assist with lesion detection and even in characterization. Quantitative DWI has exhibited promise in the discrimination between benign and malignant pathology, in the evaluation of the biologic aggressiveness, and in the assessment of the response to treatment. Unfortunately, inconsistencies in DWI acquisition parameters and analysis have hampered widespread clinical utilization. Focusing primarily on liver applications, this article will review the basic principles of quantitative DWI...
December 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Cheng William Hong, Soudabeh Fazeli Dehkordy, Jonathan C Hooker, Gavin Hamilton, Claude B Sirlin
Fatty liver disease is characterized histologically by hepatic steatosis, the abnormal accumulation of lipid in hepatocytes. It is classified into alcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and is an increasingly important cause of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. Assessing the severity of hepatic steatosis in these conditions is important for diagnostic and prognostic purposes, as hepatic steatosis is potentially reversible if diagnosed early. The criterion standard for assessing hepatic steatosis is liver biopsy, which is limited by sampling error, its invasive nature, and associated morbidity...
December 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Mustafa R Bashir
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Léonie Petitclerc, Guillaume Gilbert, Bich N Nguyen, An Tang
Liver fibrosis is a hallmark of chronic liver disease characterized by the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins. Although liver biopsy is the reference standard for diagnosis and staging of liver fibrosis, it has some limitations, including potential pain, sampling variability, and low patient acceptance. Hence, there has been an effort to develop noninvasive imaging techniques for diagnosis, staging, and monitoring of liver fibrosis. Many quantitative techniques have been implemented on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for this indication...
December 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Beatriz Elena Adrada, Rosalind Candelaria, Gaiane Margishvili Rauch
Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most sensitive of the available imaging modalities to characterize breast cancer. Breast MRI has gained clinical acceptance for screening high-risk patients, but its role in the preoperative imaging of breast cancer patients remains controversial. This review focuses on the current indications for staging breast MRI, the evidence for and against the role of breast MRI in the preoperative staging workup, and the evaluation of treatment response of breast cancer patients...
October 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Savannah C Partridge, Nita Amornsiripanitch
Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) holds promise to address some of the shortcomings of routine clinical breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to expand the capabilities of imaging in breast cancer management. DWI reflects tissue microstructure, and provides unique information to aid in characterization of breast lesions. Potential benefits under investigation include improving diagnostic accuracy and guiding treatment decisions. As a result, DWI is increasingly being incorporated into breast MRI protocols and multicenter trials are underway to validate single-institution findings and to establish clinical guidelines...
October 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Doris Leithner, Georg Wengert, Thomas Helbich, Elizabeth Morris, Katja Pinker
The American College of Radiology (ACR) Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon, which is used ubiquitously to standardize reporting of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), provides 7 BI-RADS assessment categories to indicate the level of suspicion of malignancy and guide further management. A BI-RADS category 4 assessment is assigned when an imaging abnormality does not fulfill the typical criteria for malignancy, but is suspicious enough to warrant a recommendation for biopsy. The BI-RADS category 4 assessment covers a wide range of probability of malignancy, from >2 to <95%...
October 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Deepa Sheth, Hiroyuki Abe
Although published studies have revealed that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is by far the most effective imaging modality for cancer detection, it is currently considered cost-ineffective for screening women at an intermediate risk for breast cancer. The concept of an "abbreviated MRI" protocol has recently emerged as a possible solution for reducing the cost of MRI. The abbreviated MRI is a shortened version of the standard MRI, consisting of a single early phase dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) series. Several clinical studies have shown that this MRI protocol would not affect sensitivity or specificity for breast MRI screening purposes...
October 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Wei Tse Yang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
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