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Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858038/liver-fibrosis-quantification-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#1
Léonie Petitclerc, Guillaume Gilbert, Bich N Nguyen, An Tang
Liver fibrosis is a hallmark of chronic liver disease characterized by the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins. Although liver biopsy is the reference standard for diagnosis and staging of liver fibrosis, it has some limitations, including potential pain, sampling variability, and low patient acceptance. Hence, there has been an effort to develop noninvasive imaging techniques for diagnosis, staging, and monitoring of liver fibrosis. Many quantitative techniques have been implemented on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for this indication...
August 28, 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961570/mri-for-the-staging-and-evaluation-of-response-to-therapy-in-breast-cancer
#2
Beatriz Elena Adrada, Rosalind Candelaria, Gaiane Margishvili Rauch
Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most sensitive of the available imaging modalities to characterize breast cancer. Breast MRI has gained clinical acceptance for screening high-risk patients, but its role in the preoperative imaging of breast cancer patients remains controversial. This review focuses on the current indications for staging breast MRI, the evidence for and against the role of breast MRI in the preoperative staging workup, and the evaluation of treatment response of breast cancer patients...
October 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961569/dwi-in-the-assessment-of-breast-lesions
#3
Savannah C Partridge, Nita Amornsiripanitch
Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) holds promise to address some of the shortcomings of routine clinical breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to expand the capabilities of imaging in breast cancer management. DWI reflects tissue microstructure, and provides unique information to aid in characterization of breast lesions. Potential benefits under investigation include improving diagnostic accuracy and guiding treatment decisions. As a result, DWI is increasingly being incorporated into breast MRI protocols and multicenter trials are underway to validate single-institution findings and to establish clinical guidelines...
October 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961568/mri-in-the-assessment-of-bi-rads%C3%A2-4-lesions
#4
Doris Leithner, Georg Wengert, Thomas Helbich, Elizabeth Morris, Katja Pinker
The American College of Radiology (ACR) Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon, which is used ubiquitously to standardize reporting of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), provides 7 BI-RADS assessment categories to indicate the level of suspicion of malignancy and guide further management. A BI-RADS category 4 assessment is assigned when an imaging abnormality does not fulfill the typical criteria for malignancy, but is suspicious enough to warrant a recommendation for biopsy. The BI-RADS category 4 assessment covers a wide range of probability of malignancy, from >2 to <95%...
October 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961567/abbreviated-mri-and-accelerated-mri-for-screening-and-diagnosis-of-breast-cancer
#5
Deepa Sheth, Hiroyuki Abe
Although published studies have revealed that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is by far the most effective imaging modality for cancer detection, it is currently considered cost-ineffective for screening women at an intermediate risk for breast cancer. The concept of an "abbreviated MRI" protocol has recently emerged as a possible solution for reducing the cost of MRI. The abbreviated MRI is a shortened version of the standard MRI, consisting of a single early phase dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) series. Several clinical studies have shown that this MRI protocol would not affect sensitivity or specificity for breast MRI screening purposes...
October 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961566/update-on-mri-of-the-breast
#6
Wei Tse Yang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777165/mr-venography-of-the-central-veins-of-the-thorax
#7
REVIEW
Brendan Cline, Lynne M Hurwitz, Charles Y Kim
While imaging of the central venous system has traditionally been performed with conventional venography, MR venography (MRV) has emerged as an important modality as techniques and validation studies have evolved over time. While magnetic resonance angiography has a very robust representation in the literature, the proportion representing MRV is relatively sparse. The purpose of this article is to review the indications, techniques, and dedicated studies validating MRV of the central veins of the thorax.
August 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777164/mr-imaging-of-mediastinal-masses
#8
REVIEW
Brett W Carter, Sonia L Betancourt, Marcelo F Benveniste
The mediastinum contains vital vascular and nonvascular structures and organs, and a wide variety of abnormalities may arise from this region of the thorax. Although mediastinal masses may be initially detected on chest radiography, cross-sectional imaging plays an important role in the identification and evaluation of mediastinal lesions, enabling the formulation of focused differential diagnoses and ultimately guiding management. Computed tomography (CT) is considered the imaging modality of choice for evaluating most mediastinal masses; however, the role of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging continues to expand, as it is superior to CT in differentiating between cystic and solid masses, identifying cystic and solid components within complex lesions, and distinguishing thymic hyperplasia and normal thymus from thymic epithelial neoplasms and other neoplasms...
August 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777163/magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-the-evaluation-of-pulmonary-embolism
#9
REVIEW
Donald G Benson, Mark L Schiebler, Scott K Nagle, Christopher J François
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a leading cause of acute cardiovascular death throughout the world. Although computed tomography angiography (CTA) is the primary imaging study used to diagnose acute PE, pulmonary magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is increasingly being used in patients with contraindications for CTA. This manuscript reviews the MRA techniques used for the diagnosis of PE and discuss how these techniques can be implemented in routine clinical practice. In addition, the efficacy and effectiveness of these techniques will be compared to other modalities...
August 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777162/mr-utilization-for-thoracic-imaging-a-case-for-the-expanding-role
#10
Lynne M Hurwitz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665889/mri-of-the-central-lymphatic-system-indications-imaging-technique-and-pre-procedural-planning
#11
REVIEW
Vishwan Pamarthi, Waleska M Pabon-Ramos, Vincent Marnell, Lynne M Hurwitz
Magnetic resonance imaging is increasingly being used to evaluate the lymphatic system. Advances in magnetic resonance (MR) software and hardware allow improved visualization of lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels. We describe how MR lymphangiography can be used to diagnose central lymphatic system anatomy and pathology, which can be used for diagnostic purposes or for pre-procedural planning.
August 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520657/ct-based-techniques-for-brain-perfusion
#12
REVIEW
Pradeep Krishnan, Amanda Murphy, Richard I Aviv
Recent rapid advances in endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke highlight the crucial role of neuroimaging especially multimodal computed tomography (CT) including CT perfusion in stroke triage and management decisions. With an increasing focus on changes in cerebral physiology along with time-based matrices in clinical decisions for acute ischemic stroke, CT perfusion provides a rapid and practical modality for assessment and identification of salvageable tissue at risk and infarct core and provides a better understanding of the changes in cerebral physiology...
June 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277464/clot-imaging-in-large-vessel-occlusion-strokes
#13
REVIEW
Johnny H Wong, Michael P Marks
Advances in mechanical thrombectomy techniques have resulted in improved, recanalization and functional outcomes in acute stroke, as demonstrated in recent, randomized trials comparing mechanical thrombectomy with thrombolysis. In conjunction with the technological advancements in thrombectomy devices, there has been better appreciation of stricter patient selection criteria for endovascular therapy based on pre-procedural imaging, including clot location, infarct volume, and penumbral territory at risk. Pre-procedural imaging performed to assess suitability for endovascular therapy commonly provides information on clot characteristics, such as clot location, length, density, and susceptibility, which can influence and may predict the efficacy of intravenous and endovascular treatments...
June 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277463/intravenous-and-arterial-treatments-for-acute-ischemic-stroke-indications-and-the-role-of-imaging
#14
REVIEW
Haris Kamal, Sunil A Sheth
Acute ischemic stroke continues to be a leading cause of disability in adults and the fifth leading cause of mortality worldwide. In the past few years, acute ischemic stroke diagnosis and management has advanced by leaps and bounds, with the lengthening of the time window for intravenous tissue plasminogen activator and the establishment of endovascular stroke therapy. As a result of these changes, the focus today has shifted from proving efficacy to expanding indications and identifying all patients who may benefit from these therapies...
June 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277462/wake-up-stroke-current-understanding
#15
REVIEW
Jenny P Tsai, Gregory W Albers
Patients with wake-up strokes account for approximately 1 in 5 individuals presenting with an acute ischemic stroke. However, they are commonly excluded from acute stroke treatment. This article reviews the current understanding of wake-up strokes. A comparison of wake-up and awake-onset strokes demonstrated that they are physiologically, clinically, and radiologically similar. Use of advanced CT and MRI techniques may help extend acute stroke treatment options to patients with wake-up stroke.
June 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277460/aspects-ct-in-acute-ischemia-review-of-current-data
#16
REVIEW
Supada Prakkamakul, Albert J Yoo
The Alberta Stroke Program Early CT score (ASPECTS) is a 10-point semiquantitative topographic scoring system developed for the assessment of early ischemic changes (EICs) on noncontrast-enhanced computed tomography (NCCT) in patients with acute ischemic stroke involving the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory. One point is subtracted from a total score of 10, if an EIC is present in any part of each of the ASPECTS regions. Higher ASPECTS has been associated with better outcomes and a lower risk of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage...
June 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277455/ischemic-stroke-treatment-trials-neuroimaging-advancements-and-implications
#17
REVIEW
Vivek P Patel, Jeremy J Heit
There have been significant advancements in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke in the last 2 decades. Recent trials have placed a significant emphasis on minimizing the time from symptom onset to stroke treatment by reperfusion therapies, which decreases the cerebral infarct volume and improves clinical outcomes. These clinical advances have paralleled and been aided by advances in neuroimaging. However, controversy remains regarding how much time should be spent on neuroimaging evaluation versus expediting patient treatment...
June 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375950/guest-editorial
#18
Jeremy J Heit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277465/understanding-the-neurophysiology-and-quantification-of-brain-perfusion
#19
REVIEW
Elizabeth Tong, Leo Sugrue, Max Wintermark
Newer neuroimaging technology has moved beyond pure anatomical imaging and ventured into functional and physiological imaging. Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (PWI), which depicts hemodynamic conditions of the brain at the microvascular level, has an increasingly important role in clinical central nervous system applications. This review provides an overview of the established role of PWI in brain tumor and cerebrovascular imaging, as well as some emerging applications in neuroimaging. PWI allows better characterization of brain tumors, grading, and monitoring...
April 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277461/imaging-brain-collaterals-quantification-scoring-and-potential-significance
#20
REVIEW
Scott B Raymond, Pamela W Schaefer
Leptomeningeal collaterals provide the primary source of perfusion to ischemic brain tissue following the onset of acute ischemic stroke and are becoming an important imaging biomarker for stroke therapy triage. Collateral circulation is predictive of infarct growth, end infarct volume, and response to endovascular therapy. The strength of the collateral circulation varies among patients and is partially dependent on genetic and modifiable risk factors. Collateral circulation may be assessed by standard angiographic techniques, including digital subtraction angiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance (MR) angiography, as well as a growing array of advanced MR techniques including arterial spin labeling and dynamic MR angiography...
April 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
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