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Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30289832/cerebellar-ataxia-in-children-a-clinical-and-mri-approach-to-the-differential-diagnosis
#1
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30289831/advances-and-future-direction-of-magnetic-resonance-elastography
#2
Huiming Dong, Richard D White, Arunark Kolipaka
The mechanical properties of soft tissues are closely associated with a variety of diseases. This motivates the development of elastography techniques in which tissue mechanical properties are quantitatively estimated through imaging. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a noninvasive phase-contrast MR technique wherein shear modulus of soft tissue can be spatially and temporally estimated. MRE has recently received significant attention due to its capability in noninvasively estimating tissue mechanical properties, which can offer considerable diagnostic potential...
October 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30289830/quantifying-tumor-stiffness-with-magnetic-resonance-elastography-the-role-of-mechanical-properties-for-detection-characterization-and-treatment-stratification-in-oncology
#3
Kay M Pepin, Kiaran P McGee
The viscoelastic properties of tissue are significantly altered with the development of tumors and these alterations can be assessed with magnetic resonance elastography (MRE). Accurate detection and characterization of malignant and benign lesions can be obtained by quantifying tumor stiffness, improving the specificity and diagnostic accuracy of conventional magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, MRE can be used to stratify patients for treatment based on risk of normal tissue toxicity and surgical considerations including consistency and adherence of the tumor to surrounding structures...
October 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30289829/new-and-emerging-applications-of-magnetic-resonance-elastography-of-other-abdominal-organs
#4
Jin Wang, Ying Deng, Danielle Jondal, David M Woodrum, Yu Shi, Meng Yin, Sudhakar K Venkatesh
Increasing clinical experience and ongoing research in the field of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is leading to exploration of its applications in other abdominal organs. In this review, the current research progress of MRE in prostate, uterus, pancreas, spleen, and kidney will be discussed. The article will describe patient preparation, modified technical approach including development of passive drivers, modification of sequences, and inversion. The potential clinical application of MRE in the evaluation of several disease processes affecting these organs will be discussed...
October 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30289828/magnetic-resonance-elastography-of-liver-current-update
#5
Safa Hoodeshenas, Meng Yin, Sudhakar Kundapur Venkatesh
The first clinical application of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) was in the evaluation of chronic liver disease (CLD) for detection and staging of liver fibrosis. In the past 10 years, MRE has been incorporated seamlessly into a standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) liver protocol worldwide. Liver MRE is a robust technique for evaluation of liver stiffness and is currently the most accurate noninvasive imaging technology for evaluation of liver fibrosis. Newer MRE sequences including spin-echo MRE and 3 dimensional MRE have helped in reducing the technical limitations of clinical liver MRE that is performed with 2D gradient recalled echo (GRE) MRE...
October 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30289827/stiffness-and-beyond-what-mr-elastography-can-tell-us-about-brain-structure-and-function-under-physiologic-and-pathologic-conditions
#6
Ziying Yin, Anthony J Romano, Armando Manduca, Richard L Ehman, John Huston
Brain magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) was developed on the basis of a desire to "palpate by imaging" and is becoming a powerful tool in the investigation of neurophysiological and neuropathological states. Measurements are acquired with a specialized MR phase-contrast pulse sequence that can detect tissue motion in response to an applied external or internal excitation. The tissue viscoelasticity is then reconstructed from the measured displacement. Quantitative characterization of brain viscoelastic behaviors provides us an insight into the brain structure and function by assessing the mechanical rigidity, viscosity, friction, and connectivity of brain tissues...
October 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30289826/magnetic-resonance-elastography-an-update
#7
EDITORIAL
Sudhakar K Venkatesh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30086112/cerebellar-ataxia-in-children-a-clinical-and-mri-approach-to-the-differential-diagnosis
#8
César Augusto Pinheiro Ferreira Alves, Diego Cardoso Fragoso, Fabrício Guimarães Gonçalves, Victor Hugo Marussi, Lázaro Luís Faria do Amaral
: The cerebellum has long been recognized as a fundamental structure in motor coordination. Structural cerebellar abnormalities and diseases involving the cerebellum are relatively common in children. The not always specific clinical presentation of ataxia, incoordination, and balance impairment can often be a challenge to attain a precise diagnosis. Continuous advances in genetic research and moreover the constant development in neuroimaging modalities, particularly in the field of magnetic resonance imaging, have promoted a better understanding of cerebellar diseases and led to several modifications in their classification in recent years...
August 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30086111/neuroimaging-findings-in-lysosomal-disorders-2018-update
#9
Felice D'Arco, Prasad Hanagandi, Mario Ganau, Pradeep Krishnan, Ajay Taranath
Lysosomal storage disorders are a heterogeneous group of genetic diseases characterized by defective function in one of the lysosomal enzymes. In this review paper, we describe neuroradiological findings and clinical characteristics of neuronopathic lysosomal disorders with a focus on differential diagnosis. New insights regarding pathogenesis and therapeutic perspectives are also briefly discussed.
August 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30086110/clinical-and-neuroimaging-spectrum-of-peroxisomal-disorders
#10
Ai Peng Tan, Fabrício Guimarães Gonçalves, Abeer Almehdar, Bruno Passebon Soares
Peroxisomes play vital roles in a broad spectrum of cellular metabolic pathways. Defects in genes encoding peroxisomal proteins can result in a wide array of disorders, depending upon the metabolic pathways affected. These disorders can be broadly classified into 2 main groups; peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBDs) and single peroxisomal enzyme deficiencies. Peroxisomal enzyme deficiencies are result of dysfunction of a specific metabolic pathway, while PBDs are due to generalized peroxisomal dysfunction. Mutations in PEX1 gene are the most common cause of PBDs, accounting for two-thirds of cases...
August 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30086109/neuroimaging-of-mitochondrial-cytopathies
#11
César Augusto Pinheiro Ferreira Alves, Fabrício Guimarães Gonçalves, Dominik Grieb, Leandro Tavares Lucato, Amy C Goldstein, Giulio Zuccoli
Mitochondrial diseases are a complex and heterogeneous group of genetic disorders that occur as a result of either nuclear DNA or mitochondrial DNA pathogenic variants, leading to a decrease in oxidative phosphorylation and cellular energy (ATP) production. Increasing knowledge about molecular, biochemical, and genetic abnormalities related to mitochondrial dysfunction has expanded the neuroimaging phenotypes of mitochondrial disorders. As a consequence of this growing field, the imaging recognition patterns of mitochondrial cytopathies are continually evolving...
August 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30086108/macrocephaly-solving-the-diagnostic-dilemma
#12
Ai Peng Tan, Kshitij Mankad, Fabrício Guimarães Gonçalves, Giacomo Talenti, Egloff Alexia
Macrocephaly is a relatively common clinical condition affecting up to 5% of the pediatric population. It is defined as an abnormally large head with an occipitofrontal circumference greater than 2 standard deviations above the mean for a given age and sex. Megalencephaly refers exclusively to brain overgrowth exceeding twice the standard deviation. Macrocephaly can be isolated and benign or may be the first indication of an underlying congenital, genetic, or acquired disorder, whereas megalencephaly is more often syndromic...
August 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30086107/neurometabolic-disorders-of-the-newborn
#13
Kshitij Mankad, Giacomo Talenti, Ai Peng Tan, Fabrício Guimarães Gonçalves, Carlos Robles, Elaine Y L Kan, Ata Siddiqui
There is an extensive and diverse set of medical conditions affecting the neonatal brain within the spectrum of neurometabolic disorders. As such, their clinical presentations can be rather nonspecific, and can often mimic acquired entities such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and sepsis. Similarly, the radiological findings in these entities can also be frequently nonspecific, but a more detailed analysis of imaging findings (especially magnetic resonance imaging) alongside the relevant clinical details can be a rewarding experience, thus enabling a timely and targeted diagnosis...
August 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870469/mr-guided-functional-neurosurgery-laser-ablation-and-deep-brain-stimulation
#14
REVIEW
Christine E Boone, Teresa Wojtasiewicz, Emile Moukheiber, Ankur Butala, Ligia Jordao, Kelly A Mills, Haris Sair, William S Anderson
Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) is increasingly implemented for image-guided procedures in functional neurosurgery. iMRI facilitates accurate electrode implantation for deep brain stimulation (DBS) and is currently an alternative method for DBS electrode targeting. The application of iMRI also allows for greater accuracy and precision in laser-induced thermal therapy (LITT). The expanding use of functional neurosurgical procedures makes safety and feasibility of iMRI important considerations, particularly in patients with comorbidities or complex medical histories...
June 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870468/mr-guided-liver-interventions
#15
REVIEW
Jakob Weiss, Rüdiger Hoffmann, Stephan Clasen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870467/mr-guided-sclerotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-low-flow-vascular-malformations
#16
REVIEW
Won Kyu Choi, Christopher R Bailey, Jan Fritz, Clifford R Weiss
Low-flow vascular malformations are congenital lesions that can occur throughout the body. Treatment of these lesions is indicated to ameliorate pain, cosmetic disfigurement, and functional impairment. The first-line treatment of low-flow vascular malformations is percutaneous sclerotherapy. Traditionally, sclerotherapy is performed with a combination of ultrasound and fluoroscopy. However, malformations that are deep in the abdomen and pelvis or are obscured by overlying fascia or scar may be difficult to be visualized with ultrasound and fluoroscopy...
June 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870466/mr-guided-prostate-interventions
#17
REVIEW
David A Woodrum, Krzysztof R Gorny, Lance A Mynderse
Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed noncutaneous cancer and second leading cause of death in men. Many patients with clinically organ-confined prostate cancer undergo definitive treatment of the whole gland, including radical prostatectomy, radiation therapy, and cryosurgery. Active surveillance is a growing alternative option for patients with documented low-volume and low-grade prostate cancer. However, many patients are wanting a less morbid focal treatment alternative. With recent advances in software and hardware of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), multiparametric MRI of the prostate has been shown to improve the accuracy in detecting and characterizing clinically significant prostate cancer...
June 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870465/mri-guided-interventions-in-musculoskeletal-system
#18
REVIEW
Kamran Ahrar, Sharjeel H Sabir, Steven M Yevich, Rahul A Sheth, Judy U Ahrar, Alda L Tam, Jason R Stafford
Image-guided interventions in the musculoskeletal system require accurate detection and characterization of lesions involving bone and soft tissues. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has superior soft tissue contrast resolution particularly in bone and soft tissues where computed tomography and ultrasonography have significant limitations. In addition, the multiplanar imaging capabilities of MRI facilitate targeting lesions and tracking interventional devices. Although conventional diagnostic MRI sequences suffer from motion sensitivity and prolonged imaging time, recently developed fast imaging sequences allow for rapid acquisition of high-quality images, rendering MRI more suitable for image-guided interventions...
June 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870464/mr-guided-cardiac-interventions
#19
Kuberan Pushparajah, Henry Chubb, Reza Razavi
Diagnostic and interventional cardiac catheterization is routinely used in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart disease. There are well-established concerns regarding the risk of radiation exposure to patients and staff, particularly in children given the cumulative effects of repeat exposure. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers the advantage of being able to provide better soft tissue visualization, tissue characterization, and quantification of ventricular volumes and vascular flow. Initial work using MRI catheterization employed fusion of x-ray and MRI techniques, with x-ray fluoroscopy to guide catheter placement and subsequent MRI assessment for anatomical and hemodynamic assessment...
June 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870463/the-state-of-the-art-of-interventional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-part-2
#20
EDITORIAL
Clifford R Weiss, Jan Fritz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
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