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Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease

Simon Dingsdag, Stephen Nelson, Nicholas V Coleman
BACKGROUND: Previously, we demonstrated that bacteria reside in apparently healed alveolar bone, using culture and Sanger sequencing techniques. Bacteria in apparently healed alveolar bone may have a role in peri-implantitis and dental implant failure. OBJECTIVE: To compare bacterial communities associated with apical periodontitis, those colonising a failed implant and alveolar bone with reference biofilm samples from healthy teeth. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study consisted of 196 samples collected from 40 patients undergoing routine dental implant insertion or rehabilitation...
2016: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Awa Diop, Saber Khelaifia, Nicholas Armstrong, Noémie Labas, Pierre-Edouard Fournier, Didier Raoult, Matthieu Million
BACKGROUND: Microbial culturomics represents an ongoing revolution in the characterization of environmental and human microbiome. METHODS: By using three media containing high salt concentration (100, 150, and 200 g/L), the halophilic microbial culturome of a commercial table salt was determined. RESULTS: Eighteen species belonging to the Terrabacteria group were isolated including eight moderate halophilic and 10 halotolerant bacteria. Gracilibacillus massiliensis sp...
2016: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Pirje Hütt, Eleri Lapp, Jelena Štšepetova, Imbi Smidt, Heleri Taelma, Natalja Borovkova, Helen Oopkaup, Ave Ahelik, Tiiu Rööp, Dagmar Hoidmets, Külli Samuel, Andres Salumets, Reet Mändar
BACKGROUND: Vaginal lactobacilli offer protection against recurrent urinary infections, bacterial vaginosis, and vaginal candidiasis. OBJECTIVE: To characterise the isolated vaginal lactobacilli strains for their probiotic properties and to compare their probiotic potential. METHODS: The Lactobacillus strains were isolated from vaginal samples by conventional culturing and identified by sequencing of the 16S rDNA fragment. Several functional properties were detected (production of hydrogen peroxide and lactic acid; antagonistic activity against Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, and Gardnerella vaginalis; auto-aggregation and adhesiveness) as well as safety (haemolytic activity, antibiotic susceptibility, presence of transferrable resistance genes)...
2016: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Catrine Ahlen, Marianne Aas, Jadwiga Krusnell, Ole-Jan Iversen
BACKGROUND: Recurrent legionella outbreaks at one and the same location are common. We have identified a single Legionella pneumophila genotype associated with recurrent Legionella outbreaks over 6 years. METHODS: Field emergency surveys following Legionella outbreaks were performed on a vessel in 2008, 2009 and 2013. Water samples from both the distribution and technical parts of the potable water system were analyzed with respect to L. pneumophila [Real-Time PCR, cultivation, serotyping and genotyping (PFGE)] and free-living amoebae, (FLA)...
2016: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Alexander V Oleskin, Boris A Shenderov
The symbiotic gut microbiota plays an important role in the development and homeostasis of the host organism. Its physiological, biochemical, behavioral, and communicative effects are mediated by multiple low molecular weight compounds. Recent data on small molecules produced by gut microbiota in mammalian organisms demonstrate the paramount importance of these biologically active molecules in terms of biology and medicine. Many of these molecules are pleiotropic mediators exerting effects on various tissues and organs...
2016: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Yuri N Perlamutrov, Kira B Olhovskaya, Svetlana A Zakirova
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an immune mediated disease with complex pathogenesis characterised by persistency, frequent exacerbations, and inefficacy of existing therapies. Damaged or weakened intestinal microbiocenosis is considered as an important aetiological factor of AD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of medical preparation Lactofiltrum (lactulose and sorbent (lignin hydrolysed)) in comparison with placebo in complex with standard therapy of AD...
2016: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Arnold Berstad, Jan Raa, Tore Midtvedt, Jørgen Valeur
It is tempting to look at bacteria from our human egocentric point of view and label them as either 'good' or 'bad'. However, a microbial society has its own system of government - 'microcracy' - and its own rules of play. Lactic acid bacteria are often referred to as representatives of the good ones, and there is little doubt that those belonging to the normal intestinal flora are beneficial for human health. But we should stop thinking of lactic acid bacteria as always being 'friendly' - they may instead behave like fledgling cuckoos...
2016: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Futoshi Nakamura, Yu Ishida, Kohtaro Aihara, Daisuke Sawada, Nobuhisa Ashida, Tomonori Sugawara, Yumeko Aoki, Isao Takehara, Kazuhiko Takano, Shigeru Fujiwara
BACKGROUND: Previously, we showed that fragmented Lactobacillus amylovorus CP1563 (CP1563) functions as a dual agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α and γ in vitro and in vivo. OBJECTIVE: Here, we examined the safety and effect of CP1563 ingestion on body fat in obese class I participants in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial (RCT). DESIGN: In the RCT, 200 participants with a body mass index (BMI) of 25-30 kg/m(2) consumed test beverages with or without 200 mg of CP1563 daily for 12 weeks...
2016: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Risto Vaikjärv, Priit Kasenõmm, Liis Jaanimäe, Ave Kivisild, Tiiu Rööp, Epp Sepp, Reet Mändar
OBJECTIVE: The first aim of this study was to compare the microbiota of different locations (pus, tonsillar fossa, blood) in peritonsillar abscess (PTA) patients in order to optimize the sampling scheme. The second aim was to estimate the occurrence of tonsillitis episodes and macroscopic oropharyngeal signs characteristic of recurrent tonsillitis in PTA patients. METHODS: The study group consisted of 22 consecutive patients with PTA undergoing bilateral tonsillectomy...
2016: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Tomonori Sugawara, Daisuke Sawada, Yu Ishida, Kotaro Aihara, Yumeko Aoki, Isao Takehara, Kazuhiko Takano, Shigeru Fujiwara
BACKGROUND: Lactobacillus gasseri CP2305 (CP2305) is a strain of Lactobacillus isolated from a stool sample from a healthy adult that showed beneficial effects on health as a paraprobiotic. In a previous study, we demonstrated that CP2305-fermented heat-treated milk modified gut functions more than artificially acidified sour milk. Thus, the regulatory activity of the former beverage was attributed to the inactivated CP2305 cells. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to elucidate the contribution of non-viable paraprobiotic CP2305 cells to regulating human gut functions...
2016: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Tim Arentsen, Henrike Raith, Yu Qian, Hans Forssberg, Rochellys Diaz Heijtz
BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence indicates that the indigenous gut microbiota exerts long-lasting programming effects on brain function and behaviour. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we used the germ-free (GF) mouse model, devoid of any microbiota throughout development, to assess the influence of the indigenous microbiota on social preference and repetitive behaviours (e.g. self-grooming). METHODS AND RESULTS: Using the three-chambered social approach task, we demonstrate that when adult GF mice were given a choice to spend time with a novel mouse or object, they spent significantly more time sniffing and interacting with the stimulus mouse compared to conventionally raised mice (specific pathogen-free, SPF)...
2015: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Caroline I Le Roy, Luke J Mappley, Roberto M La Ragione, Martin J Woodward, Sandrine P Claus
Avian intestinal spirochaetosis (AIS) is a common disease occurring in poultry that can be caused by Brachyspira pilosicoli, a Gram-negative bacterium of the order Spirochaetes. During AIS, this opportunistic pathogen colonises the lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract of poultry (principally, the ileum, caeca, and colon), which can cause symptoms such as diarrhoea, reduced growth rate, and reduced egg production and quality. Due to the large increase of bacterial resistance to antibiotic treatment, the European Union banned in 2006 the prophylactic use of antibiotics as growth promoters in livestock...
2015: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Małgorzata Ziarno, Dorota Zaręba
BACKGROUND: In the dairy industry, probiotic strains of Bifidobacterium are introduced into the composition of traditional starter cultures intended for the production of fermented foods, or sometimes are the sole microflora responsible for the fermentation process. In order to be able to reach the intestines alive and fulfil their beneficial role, probiotic strains must be able to withstand the acidity of the gastric juices and bile present in the duodenum. OBJECTIVE: The paper reports effects of selected fermented milk components on the viability of three strains of bifidobacteria in fermented milk during subsequent incubation under conditions representing model digestive juices...
2015: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Sofia D Forssten, Henna Röytiö, Ashley A Hibberd, Arthur C Ouwehand
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is a natural resident of the intestinal microbiota; however, it becomes harmful when the normal intestinal microbiota is disrupted, and overgrowth and toxin production occurs. The toxins can cause bloating and diarrhoea, which may cause severe disease and have the potential to cause outbreaks in hospitals and other healthcare settings. Normally, antibiotic agents are used for treatment, although for some of the patients, these treatments provide only a temporary relief with a recurrence of C...
2015: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Arnold Berstad, Jan Raa, Jørgen Valeur
Tryptophan is an essential amino acid with an indole nucleus. Humans cannot produce this amino acid themselves, but must obtain it through their diet. Much attention is currently paid to the wide physiological and clinical implications of the tryptophan-derived substances, serotonin and kynurenines, generated by human enzymes following the intestinal absorption of tryptophan. However, even before being absorbed, several microbial metabolites of tryptophan are formed, mainly from 'malabsorbed' (incompletely digested) proteins within the colon...
2015: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Jean M Macklaim, Jose C Clemente, Rob Knight, Gregory B Gloor, Gregor Reid
BACKGROUND: The composition of the vaginal microbiota is known to be important for health. When infections occur, antimicrobial therapy is often poorly efficacious. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to characterize changes in the bacterial microbiota following oral antimicrobial and probiotic interventions. RESULTS: While the bacterial vaginal profiles of women with vulvovaginal candidiasis were dominated by lactobacilli as in healthy women, and unchanged by therapy, Gardnerella vaginalis, Prevotella, Atopobium, Sneathia, and Megasphaera dominated the vagina of women with bacterial vaginosis (BV), and treatment with tinidazole plus Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14+L...
2015: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Naja C K Hansen, Ekaterina Avershina, Liv T Mydland, Jon A Næsset, Dag Austbø, Birgitte Moen, Ingrid Måge, Knut Rudi
BACKGROUND: It is well known that nutrient availability can alter the gut microbiota composition, while the effect on diversity and temporal stability remains largely unknown. METHODS: Here we address the equine caecal microbiota temporal stability, diversity, and functionality in response to diets with different levels of nutrient availability. Hay (low and slower nutrient availability) versus a mixture of hay and whole oats (high and more rapid nutrient availability) were used as experimental diets...
2015: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Dennis Lang
Recent evidence suggests that establishment of a healthy gut microbiota shortly after birth is important to achieve optimal growth and development of children. Being born into a resource-poor environment presents challenges to the establishment of a healthy gut microbial flora in the newborn. Among these challenges are births that occur at home, traditional pre-lacteal feeding of newborns leading to failure to initiate lactation, poor sanitation and water quality, early environmental exposure to, and infection with, enteric or other pathogens, suboptimal breast feeding duration and intensity, deficiencies in weaning and childhood diets contributing to micro- and macro-nutrient deficiencies, and the frequent use of antibiotics...
2015: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Derrick F MacFabe
Clinical observations suggest that gut and dietary factors transiently worsen and, in some cases, appear to improve behavioral symptoms in a subset of persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), but the reason for this is unclear. Emerging evidence suggests ASDs are a family of systemic disorders of altered immunity, metabolism, and gene expression. Pre- or perinatal infection, hospitalization, or early antibiotic exposure, which may alter gut microbiota, have been suggested as potential risk factors for ASD...
2015: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
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