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Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740461/down-for-the-count-cryptosporidium-infection-depletes-the-gut-microbiome-in-coquerel-s-sifakas
#1
Erin A McKenney, Lydia K Greene, Christine M Drea, Anne D Yoder
Background: The gut microbiome (GMB) is the first line of defense against enteric pathogens, which are a leading cause of disease and mortality worldwide. One such pathogen, the protozoan Cryptosporidium, causes a variety of digestive disorders that can be devastating and even lethal. The Coquerel's sifaka (Propithecus coquereli) - an endangered, folivorous primate endemic to Madagascar - is precariously susceptible to cryptosporidiosis under captive conditions. If left untreated, infection can rapidly advance to morbidity and death...
2017: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588431/microbial-trimethylamine-n-oxide-as-a-disease-marker-something-fishy
#2
REVIEW
Bjarne Landfald, Jørgen Valeur, Arnold Berstad, Jan Raa
Production of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) via the gut microbiota has recently been proposed as an important pathophysiological mechanism linking ingestion of 'unhealthy foods', such as beef (containing carnitine) and eggs (containing choline), and the development of atherosclerosis. Hence, TMAO has gained attention as a novel biomarker for cardiovascular disease. However, fish and seafood contain considerable amounts of TMAO and are generally accepted as cardioprotective: a puzzling paradox that seems to have been neglected...
2017: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588430/gut-microbial-diversity-in-health-and-disease-experience-of-healthy-indian-subjects-and-colon-carcinoma-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients
#3
V Deepak Bamola, Arnab Ghosh, Raj Kishor Kapardar, Banwari Lal, Simrita Cheema, Priyangshu Sarma, Rama Chaudhry
Background: The intestinal microbiota, through complex interactions with the gut mucosa, play a key role in the pathogenesis of colon carcinoma and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The disease condition and dietary habits both influence gut microbial diversity. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the gut microbial profile of healthy subjects and patients with colon carcinoma and IBD. Healthy subjects included 'Indian vegetarians/lactovegetarians', who eat plant produce, milk and milk products, and 'Indian non-vegetarians', who eat plant produce, milk and milk products, certain meats and fish, and the eggs of certain birds and fish...
2017: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572754/functional-amplification-and-preservation-of-human-gut-microbiota
#4
Nadia Gaci, Prem Prashant Chaudhary, William Tottey, Monique Alric, Jean-François Brugère
Background: The availability of fresh stool samples is a prerequisite in most gut microbiota functional studies. Objective: Strategies for amplification and long-term gut microbiota preservation from fecal samples would favor sample sharing, help comparisons and reproducibility over time and between laboratories, and improve the safety and ethical issues surrounding fecal microbiota transplantations. Design: Taking advantage of in vitro gut-simulating systems, we amplified the microbial repertoire of a fresh fecal sample and assessed the viability and resuscitation of microbes after preservation with some common intracellular and extracellular acting cryoprotective agents (CPAs), alone and in different combinations...
2017: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572753/changes-in-vaginal-community-state-types-reflect-major-shifts-in-the-microbiome
#5
J Paul Brooks, Gregory A Buck, Guanhua Chen, Liyang Diao, David J Edwards, Jennifer M Fettweis, Snehalata Huzurbazar, Alexander Rakitin, Glen A Satten, Ekaterina Smirnova, Zeev Waks, Michelle L Wright, Chen Yanover, Yi-Hui Zhou
Background: Recent studies of various human microbiome habitats have revealed thousands of bacterial species and the existence of large variation in communities of microorganisms in the same habitats across individual human subjects. Previous efforts to summarize this diversity, notably in the human gut and vagina, have categorized microbiome profiles by clustering them into community state types (CSTs). The functional relevance of specific CSTs has not been established. Objective: We investigate whether CSTs can be used to assess dynamics in the microbiome...
2017: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572752/chronic-alcohol-overconsumption-may-alter-gut-microbial-metabolism-a-retrospective-study-of-719-13-c-d-xylose-breath-test-results
#6
Steinar Traae Bjørkhaug, Viggo Skar, Asle W Medhus, Anita Tollisen, Jørgen G Bramness, Jørgen Valeur
Objective: Alterations of gut microbiota composition or function may participate in the pathophysiology of several diseases. We aimed to explore the effect of chronic alcohol overconsumption on gut microbial metabolism, as assessed by evaluating (13)C-D-xylose breath test results. Materials and methods: We investigated all (13)C-D-xylose breath tests performed at Lovisenberg Diaconal Hospital during the years 2005 to 2011, using patient files for diagnosing the patients into one of three patient categories: alcohol overconsumption, coeliac disease and functional bowel disorder...
2017: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572751/effect-of-probiotic-supplementation-on-total-lactobacilli-bifidobacteria-and-short-chain-fatty-acids-in-2-5-year-old-children
#7
R Hemalatha, A C Ouwehand, M T Saarinen, U V Prasad, K Swetha, V Bhaskar
​Background: Consumption of Lactobacillus paracasei Lpc-37 or Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 by 2-5-year-old children was found to reduce risk for diarrhoea and fever during the rainy season. Objective: Can changes in faecal short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) or branched chain fatty acids (BCFAs) explain the observed positive influence of probiotics and their role on nutritional status and diarrhoea risk? Design: Faecal samples were analysed for SCFAs and BCFAs and correlated to Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus levels; both at the start and after nine months' consumption of either of the two probiotic strains, or placebo...
2017: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834171/bacterial-communities-associated-with-apical-periodontitis-and-dental-implant-failure
#8
Simon Dingsdag, Stephen Nelson, Nicholas V Coleman
BACKGROUND: Previously, we demonstrated that bacteria reside in apparently healed alveolar bone, using culture and Sanger sequencing techniques. Bacteria in apparently healed alveolar bone may have a role in peri-implantitis and dental implant failure. OBJECTIVE: To compare bacterial communities associated with apical periodontitis, those colonising a failed implant and alveolar bone with reference biofilm samples from healthy teeth. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study consisted of 196 samples collected from 40 patients undergoing routine dental implant insertion or rehabilitation...
2016: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760679/microbial-culturomics-unravels-the-halophilic-microbiota-repertoire-of-table-salt-description-of-gracilibacillus-massiliensis-sp-nov
#9
Awa Diop, Saber Khelaifia, Nicholas Armstrong, Noémie Labas, Pierre-Edouard Fournier, Didier Raoult, Matthieu Million
BACKGROUND: Microbial culturomics represents an ongoing revolution in the characterization of environmental and human microbiome. METHODS: By using three media containing high salt concentration (100, 150, and 200 g/L), the halophilic microbial culturome of a commercial table salt was determined. RESULTS: Eighteen species belonging to the Terrabacteria group were isolated including eight moderate halophilic and 10 halotolerant bacteria. Gracilibacillus massiliensis sp...
2016: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527701/characterisation-of-probiotic-properties-in-human-vaginal-lactobacilli-strains
#10
Pirje Hütt, Eleri Lapp, Jelena Štšepetova, Imbi Smidt, Heleri Taelma, Natalja Borovkova, Helen Oopkaup, Ave Ahelik, Tiiu Rööp, Dagmar Hoidmets, Külli Samuel, Andres Salumets, Reet Mändar
BACKGROUND: Vaginal lactobacilli offer protection against recurrent urinary infections, bacterial vaginosis, and vaginal candidiasis. OBJECTIVE: To characterise the isolated vaginal lactobacilli strains for their probiotic properties and to compare their probiotic potential. METHODS: The Lactobacillus strains were isolated from vaginal samples by conventional culturing and identified by sequencing of the 16S rDNA fragment. Several functional properties were detected (production of hydrogen peroxide and lactic acid; antagonistic activity against Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, and Gardnerella vaginalis; auto-aggregation and adhesiveness) as well as safety (haemolytic activity, antibiotic susceptibility, presence of transferrable resistance genes)...
2016: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515183/a-single-legionella-pneumophila-genotype-in-the-freshwater-system-in-a-ship-experiencing-three-separate-outbreaks-of-legionellosis-in-6-years
#11
Catrine Ahlen, Marianne Aas, Jadwiga Krusnell, Ole-Jan Iversen
BACKGROUND: Recurrent legionella outbreaks at one and the same location are common. We have identified a single Legionella pneumophila genotype associated with recurrent Legionella outbreaks over 6 years. METHODS: Field emergency surveys following Legionella outbreaks were performed on a vessel in 2008, 2009 and 2013. Water samples from both the distribution and technical parts of the potable water system were analyzed with respect to L. pneumophila [Real-Time PCR, cultivation, serotyping and genotyping (PFGE)] and free-living amoebae, (FLA)...
2016: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27389418/neuromodulatory-effects-and-targets-of-the-scfas-and-gasotransmitters-produced-by-the-human-symbiotic-microbiota
#12
REVIEW
Alexander V Oleskin, Boris A Shenderov
The symbiotic gut microbiota plays an important role in the development and homeostasis of the host organism. Its physiological, biochemical, behavioral, and communicative effects are mediated by multiple low molecular weight compounds. Recent data on small molecules produced by gut microbiota in mammalian organisms demonstrate the paramount importance of these biologically active molecules in terms of biology and medicine. Many of these molecules are pleiotropic mediators exerting effects on various tissues and organs...
2016: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27341938/double-blind-controlled-randomised-study-of-lactulose-and-lignin-hydrolysed-combination-in-complex-therapy-of-atopic-dermatitis
#13
Yuri N Perlamutrov, Kira B Olhovskaya, Svetlana A Zakirova
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an immune mediated disease with complex pathogenesis characterised by persistency, frequent exacerbations, and inefficacy of existing therapies. Damaged or weakened intestinal microbiocenosis is considered as an important aetiological factor of AD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of medical preparation Lactofiltrum (lactulose and sorbent (lignin hydrolysed)) in comparison with placebo in complex with standard therapy of AD...
2016: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27235098/probiotic-lactic-acid-bacteria-the-fledgling-cuckoos-of-the-gut
#14
Arnold Berstad, Jan Raa, Tore Midtvedt, Jørgen Valeur
It is tempting to look at bacteria from our human egocentric point of view and label them as either 'good' or 'bad'. However, a microbial society has its own system of government - 'microcracy' - and its own rules of play. Lactic acid bacteria are often referred to as representatives of the good ones, and there is little doubt that those belonging to the normal intestinal flora are beneficial for human health. But we should stop thinking of lactic acid bacteria as always being 'friendly' - they may instead behave like fledgling cuckoos...
2016: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27221805/effect-of-fragmented-lactobacillus-amylovorus-cp1563-on-lipid-metabolism-in-overweight-and-mildly-obese-individuals-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Futoshi Nakamura, Yu Ishida, Kohtaro Aihara, Daisuke Sawada, Nobuhisa Ashida, Tomonori Sugawara, Yumeko Aoki, Isao Takehara, Kazuhiko Takano, Shigeru Fujiwara
BACKGROUND: Previously, we showed that fragmented Lactobacillus amylovorus CP1563 (CP1563) functions as a dual agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α and γ in vitro and in vivo. OBJECTIVE: Here, we examined the safety and effect of CP1563 ingestion on body fat in obese class I participants in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial (RCT). DESIGN: In the RCT, 200 participants with a body mass index (BMI) of 25-30 kg/m(2) consumed test beverages with or without 200 mg of CP1563 daily for 12 weeks...
2016: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27113570/microbiology-of-peritonsillar-abscess-in-the-south-estonian-population
#16
Risto Vaikjärv, Priit Kasenõmm, Liis Jaanimäe, Ave Kivisild, Tiiu Rööp, Epp Sepp, Reet Mändar
OBJECTIVE: The first aim of this study was to compare the microbiota of different locations (pus, tonsillar fossa, blood) in peritonsillar abscess (PTA) patients in order to optimize the sampling scheme. The second aim was to estimate the occurrence of tonsillitis episodes and macroscopic oropharyngeal signs characteristic of recurrent tonsillitis in PTA patients. METHODS: The study group consisted of 22 consecutive patients with PTA undergoing bilateral tonsillectomy...
2016: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26979643/regulatory-effect-of-paraprobiotic-lactobacillus-gasseri-cp2305-on-gut-environment-and-function
#17
Tomonori Sugawara, Daisuke Sawada, Yu Ishida, Kotaro Aihara, Yumeko Aoki, Isao Takehara, Kazuhiko Takano, Shigeru Fujiwara
BACKGROUND: Lactobacillus gasseri CP2305 (CP2305) is a strain of Lactobacillus isolated from a stool sample from a healthy adult that showed beneficial effects on health as a paraprobiotic. In a previous study, we demonstrated that CP2305-fermented heat-treated milk modified gut functions more than artificially acidified sour milk. Thus, the regulatory activity of the former beverage was attributed to the inactivated CP2305 cells. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to elucidate the contribution of non-viable paraprobiotic CP2305 cells to regulating human gut functions...
2016: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26679775/host-microbiota-modulates-development-of-social-preference-in-mice
#18
Tim Arentsen, Henrike Raith, Yu Qian, Hans Forssberg, Rochellys Diaz Heijtz
BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence indicates that the indigenous gut microbiota exerts long-lasting programming effects on brain function and behaviour. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we used the germ-free (GF) mouse model, devoid of any microbiota throughout development, to assess the influence of the indigenous microbiota on social preference and repetitive behaviours (e.g. self-grooming). METHODS AND RESULTS: Using the three-chambered social approach task, we demonstrate that when adult GF mice were given a choice to spend time with a novel mouse or object, they spent significantly more time sniffing and interacting with the stimulus mouse compared to conventionally raised mice (specific pathogen-free, SPF)...
2015: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26679774/brachyspira-pilosicoli-induced-avian-intestinal-spirochaetosis
#19
Caroline I Le Roy, Luke J Mappley, Roberto M La Ragione, Martin J Woodward, Sandrine P Claus
Avian intestinal spirochaetosis (AIS) is a common disease occurring in poultry that can be caused by Brachyspira pilosicoli, a Gram-negative bacterium of the order Spirochaetes. During AIS, this opportunistic pathogen colonises the lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract of poultry (principally, the ileum, caeca, and colon), which can cause symptoms such as diarrhoea, reduced growth rate, and reduced egg production and quality. Due to the large increase of bacterial resistance to antibiotic treatment, the European Union banned in 2006 the prophylactic use of antibiotics as growth promoters in livestock...
2015: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26546945/effects-of-milk-components-and-food-additives-on-survival-of-three-bifidobacteria-strains-in-fermented-milk-under-simulated-gastrointestinal-tract-conditions
#20
Małgorzata Ziarno, Dorota Zaręba
BACKGROUND: In the dairy industry, probiotic strains of Bifidobacterium are introduced into the composition of traditional starter cultures intended for the production of fermented foods, or sometimes are the sole microflora responsible for the fermentation process. In order to be able to reach the intestines alive and fulfil their beneficial role, probiotic strains must be able to withstand the acidity of the gastric juices and bile present in the duodenum. OBJECTIVE: The paper reports effects of selected fermented milk components on the viability of three strains of bifidobacteria in fermented milk during subsequent incubation under conditions representing model digestive juices...
2015: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
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