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Journal of Neuroendocrinology

Maria Francesca Cassarino, Alberto G Ambrogio, Andrea Cassarino, Maria Rosa Terreni, Davide Gentilini, Antonella Sesta, Francesco Cavagnini, Marco Losa, Francesca Pecori Giraldi
ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas give rise to a severe endocrinological disorder, i.e., Cushing's disease, with multifaceted clinical presentation and treatment outcomes. Experimental studies suggested that disease variability is inherent to the pituitary tumor, thus pointing to the need for further studies into tumor biology. Aim of the present study was to evaluate transcriptome expression pattern in a large series of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma specimens, in order to identify molecular signatures of these tumors...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Mei Ying Song, Chun Ying Li, Xiao Feng Liu, Jin Yu Xiao, Hua Zhao
T-type calcium channels (T-channels) are critical for regulating neuronal excitability. Estrogen could alter neuronal excitability by modulating the expression of T-channels. The lateral habenula (LHb) as a link between the limbic system and midbrain structures expresses T-channels and estrogen receptors. However, little is known about the role of estrogen in modulating T-channels in the LHb. In this study, we investigated the distribution of T-channels in three LHb subregions (rostral, middle and caudal) in normal female rats...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Ila Mishra, Neha Agarwal, Sangeeta Rani, Vinod Kumar
Circannual rhythm regulates annual timing of reproduction in spotted munia, with sex-differences in its relationship with the external photoperiod environment. Interestingly, munia show an atypical photosensitivity and exhibit gonadal maturation when acutely exposed to an unnatural short photoperiod (e.g. 3 h light per day; i.e. a long scotoperiod). The proximate mechanisms regulating scotoperiod-induced hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) activation are unclear. Since thyroid hormone signalling plays a central role in photoperiodic induction, we hypothesized the involvement of similar mechanism, i...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
María Andrea Camilletti, Jimena Ferraris, Alejandra Abeledo-Machado, Aubrey Converse, Erika Faraoni, Daniel Pisera, Silvina Gutierrez, Peter Thomas, Graciela Díaz-Torga
The membrane progesterone receptors (mPRα, -β, -γ, -δ, -ε) are known to mediate rapid non-genomic progesterone functions in different cell types. However, the functions of these receptors in the pituitary have not been reported to date. Here we show that the expression of mPRα was the highest among the mPRs in the rat anterior pituitary gland. Immunostaining of mPRα was detected in somatotrophs, gonadotrophs and lactotrophs. Interestingly, 63% of mPRα-positive cells within the pituitary were lactotrophs suggesting that mPRα is involved in controlling prolactin (PRL) secretion in the pituitary...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Anusha Kamesh, Emily A E Black, Alastair V Ferguson
Prolactin (PRL) is a peptide hormone which performs over 300 biological functions including those that require binding to prolactin receptor (PRL-R) in neurons within the central nervous system (CNS)1 . To enter the CNS, circulating PRL must overcome the blood-brain barrier. As such, areas of the brain that do not possess a blood-brain barrier, such as the subfornical organ (SFO), are optimally positioned to interact with systemic PRL. The SFO has been classically implicated in energy and fluid homeostasis but has the potential to influence estrous cyclicity and gonadotropin release, which are also functions of PRL2-4 ...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Michael Lehman, Victor Navarro, Deborah Suchecki, Robert Handa
It is with great pleasure that we present this Special Edition of the Journal of Neuroendocrinology in celebration of the launch of the Pan American Neuroendocrine Society (PANS). PANS is a diverse society comprised of basic and clinical researchers from the countries that span North America, Central America, South America and the Caribbean, whose studies address the wide scope of hormones and their effects on the nervous system, and who are committed to the continued growth of neuroendocrinology and expansion of career opportunities for trainees in the field...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Andrea Godino, Georgina M Renard
Drug addiction is a chronic brain disease characterized by a compulsion to seek drugs, a loss of control with respect to drug consumption, and negative emotional states, including increased anxiety and irritability during withdrawal. Central vasopressin (AVP) and its receptors are involved in controlling social behavior, anxiety and reward, all of which are altered by drugs of abuse. Hypothalamic AVP neurons influence the stress response by modulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The extrahypothalamic AVP system, however, is commonly associated with social recognition, motivational and anxiety responses...
May 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Deborah Suchecki
Thirty years ago, Seymour 'Gig' Levine published a serendipitous, yet, seminal finding on the regulatory role of maternal presence on the corticosterone stress response of neonatal rats, during the developmental period know as stress hyporesponsive period. At the same time, his group of students also studied the stress response of infant monkeys to maternal separation, as a means to understand the stressful nature of disruptions of attachment to the primary caregiver. Gig and his group of students and collaborators, mainly in the USA and the Netherlands, investigated how initial social relationships buffer the stress response of non-human primate and rodent infants...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Ann Mary Iturra-Mena, Marcia Arriagada-Solimano, Ariane Luttecke-Anders, Alexies Dagnino-Subiabre
The fetal brain is highly susceptible to stress in late pregnancy, with lifelong effects of stress on physiology and behavior. The aim of this study was to determine the physiological and behavioral effects of prenatal stress during the prepubertal period of female and male rats. We subjected pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to a restraint stress protocol from gestational day 14 until 21, a critical period for fetal brain susceptibility to stress effects. Male and female offspring were subsequently assessed at postnatal day 24 for anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, and spontaneous social interaction...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
María P Di Yorio, Julieta E Sallemi, Francisco J Toledo Solís, Daniela I Pérez Sirkin, Tomás H Delgadin, Kazuyoshi Tsutsui, Paula G Vissio
RFamide peptides are expressed in the early stages of development in most vertebrates. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) belongs to the RFamide family, and its role in reproduction has been widely studied in adult vertebrates, ranging from fish to mammals. As only three reports evaluated GnIH during development, the aim of this study was to characterise the ontogeny of GnIH in a fish model, Cichlasoma dimerus. We detected the presence of two GnIH-immunoreactive (GnIH-ir) cell clusters with spatial and temporal differences...
May 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Hayden J L McEwen, Emmanuelle Cognard, Sharon R Ladyman, Zin Khant-Aung, Alexander Tups, Peter R Shepherd, David R Grattan
β-catenin is a multifunctional protein that can act in the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway to regulate gene expression but can also bind to cadherin proteins in adherens junctions where it plays a key role in regulating cytoskeleton linked with these junctions. Recently, evidence has been presented indicating an essential role for β-catenin in regulating trafficking of insulin vesicles in β-cells and showing that changes in nutrient levels rapidly alter levels of β-catenin in these cells. Given the importance of neuroendocrine hormone secretion in the regulation of whole body glucose homeostasis, the objective of this study was to investigate whether β-catenin signalling is regulated in the hypothalamus during the normal physiological response to food intake...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Carlos A Rodríguez-Saltos, Susan M Lyons, Keith W Sockman, Donna L Maney
Sensory responses to courtship signals can be altered by reproductive hormones. In seasonally-breeding female songbirds, for example, sound-induced immediate early gene expression in the auditory pathway is selective for male song over behaviourally irrelevant sounds only when plasma estradiol reaches breeding-like levels. This selectivity has been hypothesized to be mediated by release of monoaminergic neuromodulators in the auditory pathway. We previously showed that in oestrogen-primed female white-throated sparrows, exposure to male song induced dopamine and serotonin release in auditory regions...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
E E Custer, T K Knott, S Ortiz-Miranda, J R Lemos
ATP-receptors (P2X2, P2X3, P2X4 & P2X7) are found in neurohypophysial terminals (NHT). These purinergic receptor subtypes are known to be cation selective. Here we confirm that both sodium (Na+ ) and calcium (Ca2+ ) are permeable through these NHT purinergic receptors, but to varying degrees (91% vs. 9%, respectively). Furthermore, extracellular calcium inhibits the ATP-current magnitude. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of extracellular Na+ vs. Ca2+ on ATP-induced vasopressin (AVP) release from populations of rat isolated NHT...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
N N Santos-Junior, C H Catalão, L H Costa, B B Rossignoli, R C Dos-Santos, D Malvar, A S Mecawi, M J Rocha
The impairment in arginine vasopressin (AVP) secretion during sepsis is described in clinical and experimental studies and has been associated with oxidative stress, apoptosis, and diminished activation of hypothalamic neurons. Few studies have, however, assessed these abnormalities in sepsis survivors. Here we performed two sets of experiments on Wistar rats that had been subjected to sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or nonmanipulated (naive) as control. In the first set, tissues and blood were collected from survivor rats 10 days after CLP to quantify hypothalamic Bcl-2, cleaved caspase- 3 and synaptophysin content, and bacterial load...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Hiromichi Ueno, Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Kentaro Tanaka, Haruki Nishimura, Kazuaki Nishimura, Satomi Sonoda, Yasuhito Motojima, Reiko Saito, Takashi Maruyama, Tetsu Miyamoto, Ryota Serino, Masahito Tamura, Tatsushi Onaka, Yutaka Otsuji, Yoichi Ueta
Furosemide, which is used worldwide as a diuretic agent, inhibits sodium reabsorption in the Henle's loop, resulting in diuresis and natriuresis. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is synthesized in the supraoptic nucleus (SON), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. The synthesis AVP in the magnocellular neurons of SON and PVN physiologically regulated by plasma osmolality and blood volume and contributed water homeostasis by increasing water reabsorption in the collecting duct...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Pablo Nicolás Surkin, Heather Brenhouse, Terrence Deak, Ana Clara Liberman, Mercedes Lasaga
Although stress is an adaptive physiological response to deal with adverse conditions, its occurrence during early stages of life such as infancy or adolescence can induce adaptations in multiple physiological systems, including the reproductive axis (HPG), the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the limbic cortex and the immune system. These early changes have consequences in adult life, as seen in the physiological and behavioral responses to stress. This review highlights the impact of several stress challenges incurred at various stages of development (peri-natal, juvenile, adolescent periods) and how developmental timing of early life stress confers unique physiological adaptations that may persist across the lifespan...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Michael N Lehman, Lique M Coolen, Robert A Steiner, Genevieve Neal-Perry, Luhong Wang, Suzanne M Moenter, Aleisha M Moore, Robert L Goodman, Shel Hwa-Yeo, Stephanie L Padilla, Alexander S Kauffman, James Garcia, Martin J Kelly, Jenny Clarkson, Sally Radovick, Andy V Babwah, Silvia Leon, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Alex Comninos, Stephanie Seminara, Waljit S Dhillo, Jon Levine, Ei Terasawa, Ariel Negron, Allan E Herbison
The 3rd World Conference on Kisspeptin, "Kisspeptin 2017: Brain and Beyond" was held March 30-31 at the Rosen Centre Hotel in Orlando, Florida, providing an international forum for multidisciplinary scientists to meet and share cutting-edge research on kisspeptin biology and its relevance to human health and disease. The meeting built upon previous world conferences focused on the role of kisspeptin and associated peptides in the control of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion and reproduction...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Carla R Santos, Adriana Ruggeri, Alexandre Ceroni, Lisete C Michelini
Neuroanatomical studies associating neuronal tract tracing and immunohistochemistry identified reciprocal (ascending noradrenergic/descending oxytocinergic, OTergic) connections between brainstem cardiovascular nuclei and the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN). Previous functional studies indicated that exercise training (T) augmented the expression/activity of OTergic pathway and improve the autonomic control of the heart. Knowing that ageing is associated with autonomic dysfunction and sinoaortic denervation blocked T-induced beneficial effects, we hypothesized that T was able to reduce age-dependent impairment by improving the afferent signaling to PVN and augmenting OTergic modulation of cardiovascular control...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Ashley L Heck, Carlos C Crestani, Alonso Fernández-Guasti, Darwin O Larco, Artur Mayerhofer, Charles E Roselli
In order to maintain the health and wellbeing of all mammals, numerous aspects of physiology are controlled by neuroendocrine mechanisms. These mechanisms ultimately enable communication between neurons and glands throughout the body and are centrally mediated by neuropeptides and/or steroid hormones. A recent session at the International Workshop in Neuroendocrinology highlighted essential roles for some of these neuropeptide and steroid hormone mediators in the neuroendocrine regulation of stress-, reproduction-, and behavior- related processes...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Yenniffer Ávalos, Bredford Kerr, Manuel Maliqueo, Mauricio Dorfman
Diet-induced obesity (DIO) is associated with chronic, low-grade inflammation in the hypothalamus, a key regulator of energy homeostasis. Current studies have revealed the involvement of different cell types as well as cell and molecular mechanisms that contribute to diet-induced hypothalamic inflammation (DIHI) and DIO. Since the discovery that high-fat diet and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) increase the expression of hypothalamic cytokines prior to weight gain, research has focused on understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these changes, and what the role of inflammation in the obesity pathogenesis...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
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