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Journal of Neuroendocrinology

Zahra Khazaeipool, Meagan Wiederman, Wataru Inoue
Inflammation-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and ensuing release of anti-inflammatory glucocorticoids are critical for the fine-tuning of the inflammatory response. This immune-induced neuroendocrine response is in large part mediated by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), the central actions of which ultimately translate into the excitation of parvocellular neuroendocrine cells (PNCs) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. However, the neuronal mechanisms by which PGE2 excites PNCs remain incompletely understood...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Celia Sladek, Maria José A Rocha, Mike Ludwig
This Special Issue of Journal of Neuroendocrinology comprises six reviews and eight original research articles describing recent advances in the field of Vasopressin and Oxytocin hormone research based on presentations given at the 12th World Congress on Neurohypophysial Hormones held in July 2017, in Brazil. We, the Chair of the Local Organising Committee and Guest Editor (Maria José A. Rocha) and Guest/Senior Editors for this issue (Celia Sladek and Mike Ludwig), would like to thank the contributors for their excellent reviews and original research articles, the colleagues who reviewed these articles and the Editorial Board of Journal of Neuroendocrinology for their enthusiastic support of the Special Issue...
July 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Mehmet Bülbül, Osman Sinen, Leyla Abueid, Gökhan Akkoyunlu, Özlem Özsoy
Exposure to an acute stressor induces upregulation of apelin and cholecystokinin (CCK) in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), the key brain center integrating the stress-induced alterations in neuroendocrine, autonomic and behavioral functions. We tested the hypothesis that the release of CCK from PVN is increased by centrally-administered or stress-induced upregulated endogenous apelin through APJ receptor. Additionally, the effect of hypothalamic CCK on autonomic outflow was investigated under basal and stressed conditions...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
I C Kokay, A Wyatt, H R Phillipps, M Aoki, F Ectors, U Boehm, D R Grattan
Prolactin influences a wide range of physiological functions through actions within the central nervous system as well as in peripheral tissues. A significant limitation in studies investigating these functions is the difficulty in identifying prolactin receptor (Prlr) expression, particularly in the brain. We have developed a novel mouse line using homologous recombination within mouse embryonic stem cells to produce a mouse in which an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) followed by Cre recombinase cDNA is inserted immediately after exon 10 in the Prlr gene, thereby targeting the long isoform of the Prlr...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Tatiane Vilhena-Franco, Evandro Valentim-Lima, Luís C Reis, Lucila L K Elias, Jose Antunes-Rodrigues, André S Mecawi
Vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) are essential for the control of extracellular fluid osmolality and volume. Secretion of these hormones is modulated by several mechanisms, including NMDA and AMPA L-glutamate receptors in magnocellular cells of paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) hypothalamic nuclei. Thus, to better understand the participation of L-glutamate on the neuroendocrine control of AVP and OT, this work evaluated the effects of intracerebroventricular (icv) NMDA and AMPA receptor antagonists on plasma AVP and OT levels induced by extracellular volume expansion (EVE)...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
David Hazlerigg, Didier Lomet, Gerald Lincoln, Hugues Dardente
In mammals, melatonin is the hormone responsible for synchronization of seasonal physiological cycles of physiology to the solar year. Melatonin is secreted by the pineal gland with a profile reflecting the duration of the night, and acts through melatonin-responsive cells in the pituitary pars tuberalis (PT), which in turn modulate hypothalamic thyroid hormone status. Recent models suggest that the actions of melatonin in the PT depend critically on day-length dependent changes in the expression of Eya3, which is a co-activator for thyrotropin beta-subunit (Tshβ) gene transcription...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Giselle Adriana Abruzzese, Nicolás Crisosto, Wilma De Grava Kempinas, Ramón Sotomayor-Zárate
Developmental programming refers to processes that occur during early life, which may have long-term consequences, modulating adult health and disease. Complex diseases, such as diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease, have a high prevalence in different populations, are multifactorial, and may have a strong environmental component. The environment interacts with organisms, affecting their behavior, morphology and physiology. This interaction may induce permanent or long-term changes, and organisms may be more susceptible to environmental factors during certain developmental stages, such as the prenatal and early postnatal periods...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Toru Yokoyama, Kiyoshi Terawaki, Kouichiro Minami, Kanako Miyano, Miki Nonaka, Miaki Uzu, Yohei Kashiwase, Kazuyoshi Yanagihara, Yoichi Ueta, Yasuhito Uezono
In cancer cachexia, abnormal metabolism and neuroendocrine dysfunction cause anorexia, tissue damage, and atrophy, which can in turn alter body fluid balance. Arginine vasopressin (AVP), which regulates fluid homeostasis, is secreted by magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) of the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus (SON). AVP secretion by MNCs is regulated by both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic activity, alterations in plasma osmolarity, and various peptides including angiotensin II. Here, we used whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of brain slices to determine whether hyperosmotic stimulation and/or angiotensin II potentiate excitatory synaptic input in a rat model of cancer cachexia, as they do in normal (control) rats...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Maria Francesca Cassarino, Alberto G Ambrogio, Andrea Cassarino, Maria Rosa Terreni, Davide Gentilini, Antonella Sesta, Francesco Cavagnini, Marco Losa, Francesca Pecori Giraldi
ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas give rise to a severe endocrinological disorder, i.e., Cushing's disease, with multifaceted clinical presentation and treatment outcomes. Experimental studies suggested that disease variability is inherent to the pituitary tumor, thus pointing to the need for further studies into tumor biology. Aim of the present study was to evaluate transcriptome expression pattern in a large series of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma specimens, in order to identify molecular signatures of these tumors...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Mei Ying Song, Chun Ying Li, Xiao Feng Liu, Jin Yu Xiao, Hua Zhao
T-type calcium channels (T-channels) are critical for regulating neuronal excitability. Estrogen could alter neuronal excitability by modulating the expression of T-channels. The lateral habenula (LHb) as a link between the limbic system and midbrain structures expresses T-channels and estrogen receptors. However, little is known about the role of estrogen in modulating T-channels in the LHb. In this study, we investigated the distribution of T-channels in three LHb subregions (rostral, middle and caudal) in normal female rats...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Ila Mishra, Neha Agarwal, Sangeeta Rani, Vinod Kumar
Circannual rhythm regulates annual timing of reproduction in spotted munia, with sex-differences in its relationship with the external photoperiod environment. Interestingly, munia show an atypical photosensitivity and exhibit gonadal maturation when acutely exposed to an unnatural short photoperiod (e.g. 3 h light per day; i.e. a long scotoperiod). The proximate mechanisms regulating scotoperiod-induced hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) activation are unclear. Since thyroid hormone signalling plays a central role in photoperiodic induction, we hypothesized the involvement of similar mechanism, i...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
María Andrea Camilletti, Jimena Ferraris, Alejandra Abeledo-Machado, Aubrey Converse, Erika Faraoni, Daniel Pisera, Silvina Gutierrez, Peter Thomas, Graciela Díaz-Torga
The membrane progesterone receptors (mPRα, -β, -γ, -δ, -ε) are known to mediate rapid non-genomic progesterone functions in different cell types. However, the functions of these receptors in the pituitary have not been reported to date. Here we show that the expression of mPRα was the highest among the mPRs in the rat anterior pituitary gland. Immunostaining of mPRα was detected in somatotrophs, gonadotrophs and lactotrophs. Interestingly, 63% of mPRα-positive cells within the pituitary were lactotrophs suggesting that mPRα is involved in controlling prolactin (PRL) secretion in the pituitary...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Anusha Kamesh, Emily A E Black, Alastair V Ferguson
Prolactin (PRL) is a peptide hormone which performs over 300 biological functions including those that require binding to prolactin receptor (PRL-R) in neurons within the central nervous system (CNS)1 . To enter the CNS, circulating PRL must overcome the blood-brain barrier. As such, areas of the brain that do not possess a blood-brain barrier, such as the subfornical organ (SFO), are optimally positioned to interact with systemic PRL. The SFO has been classically implicated in energy and fluid homeostasis but has the potential to influence estrous cyclicity and gonadotropin release, which are also functions of PRL2-4 ...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Andrea Godino, Georgina M Renard
Drug addiction is a chronic brain disease characterized by a compulsion to seek drugs, a loss of control with respect to drug consumption, and negative emotional states, including increased anxiety and irritability during withdrawal. Central vasopressin (AVP) and its receptors are involved in controlling social behavior, anxiety and reward, all of which are altered by drugs of abuse. Hypothalamic AVP neurons influence the stress response by modulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The extrahypothalamic AVP system, however, is commonly associated with social recognition, motivational and anxiety responses...
May 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
M Lehman, V Navarro, D Suchecki, R Handa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
D Suchecki
Thirty years ago, Seymour 'Gig' Levine published a serendipitous, yet, seminal finding with respect to the regulatory role of maternal presence on the corticosterone stress response of neonatal rats during the developmental period known as the stress hyporesponsive period. At the same time, his group of students also investigated the stress response of infant monkeys with respect to maternal separation, as a means of understanding the stress to the primary caregiver resulting from disruptions of attachment...
July 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
A M Iturra-Mena, M Arriagada-Solimano, A Luttecke-Anders, A Dagnino-Subiabre
The foetal brain is highly susceptible to stress in late pregnancy, with lifelong effects of stress on physiology and behaviour. The present study aimed to determine the physiological and behavioural effects of prenatal stress during the prepubertal period of female and male rats. We subjected pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to a restraint stress protocol from gestational day 14 to 21, a critical period for foetal brain susceptibility to stress effects. Male and female offspring were subsequently assessed at postnatal day 24 for anxiety- and depressive-like behaviours, as well as spontaneous social interaction...
July 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
L J Kriegsfeld, K J Jennings, G E Bentley, K Tsutsui
At the turn of the millennium, a neuropeptide with pronounced inhibitory actions on avian pituitary gonadotrophin secretion was identified and named gonadotrophin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH). Across bird species, GnIH acts at the level of the pituitary and the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal system to inhibit reproduction. Subsequent to this initial discovery, orthologues of GnIH have been identified and characterised across a broad range of species. In many vertebrates, the actions of GnIH and its orthologues serve functional roles analogous to those seen in birds...
July 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
D E Olazábal
Both animal and human studies have provided conclusive evidence that oxytocin (OXT) acts in the brain (eg, medial preoptic area, ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens) to promote parental behaviour under different reproductive and physiological conditions. OXT appears to accelerate and strengthen the neural process that makes newborns attractive or rewarding. Furthermore, OXT reduces stress/anxiety and might improve mood and well being, resulting in indirect benefits for parents. However, OXT also plays a role in the development of species reproductive and social strategies, making some species or individuals more prone to display caring activities in nonreproductive contexts...
July 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
C A Toro, C F Aylwin, A Lomniczi
Puberty involves a series of morphological, physiological and behavioural changes during the last part of the juvenile period that culminates in the attainment of fertility. The activation of the pituitary-gonadal axis by increased hypothalamic secretion of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is an essential step in the process. The current hypothesis postulates that a loss of transsynaptic inhibition and a rise in excitatory inputs are responsible for the activation of GnRH release. Similarly, a shift in the balance in the expression of puberty activating and puberty inhibitory genes exists during the pubertal transition...
July 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
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