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Journal of Neuroendocrinology

Ferdinand Althammer, Valery Grinevich
The hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin (OT), which is evolutionarily conserved among different species throughout the animal kingdom, is a key modulator of a variety of socio-emotional behaviors such as fear, trust and empathy. OT cells in the mammalian hypothalamus have been traditionally divided into two distinct types - magnocellular (magnOT) and parvocellular (parvOT) or preautonomic neurons. This distinction is based on OT cell sizes and shapes, projections, electrophysiological activity and functions...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Marc J Tetel, Geert J de Vries, Roberto C Melcangi, GianCarlo Panzica, Siobhain M O'Mahony
It is becoming well established that the gut microbiome has a profound impact on human health and disease. In this review, we explore how steroids can influence the gut microbiota, and in turn how the gut microbiota can influence hormone levels. Within the context of the gut microbiome-brain axis, we discuss how perturbations in the gut microbiota can alter the stress axis and behavior. In addition, human studies on the possible role of gut microbiota in depression and anxiety are examined. Finally, we present some of the challenges and important questions that need to be addressed by future research in this exciting new area at the intersection of steroids, stress, gut-brain axis and human health...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Dwaipayan Adhya, Emily Annuario, Madeline A Lancaster, Jack Price, Simon Baron-Cohen, Deepak P Srivastava
Steroids have an important role in growth, development, sexual differentiation and reproduction. All four classes of steroids, androgens, estrogens, progestogens and glucocorticoids, have varying effects on the brain. Androgens and estrogens are involved in the sexual differentiation of the brain, and also influence cognition. Progestogens such as progesterone and its metabolites have been shown to be involved in neuroprotection, although their protective effects are timing dependent. Glucocorticoids are linked with stress and memory performance, also in a dose- and time-dependent manner...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Junpei Yamashita, Yukika Kawabata, Kataaki Okubo
Oxytocin, a mammalian neuropeptide primarily synthesized in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, mediates a variety of physiological and behavioral processes ranging from parturition and lactation to affiliation and prosociality. Multiple studies in rodents have shown that the expression of the oxytocin gene (Oxt) is stimulated by estrogen, while androgen has no apparent effect. However, this finding is not consistent across all studies, and no study has examined sex steroid regulation of Oxt or its orthologs in other animals...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Katharina Glienke, Martina Piefke
It is known that there is interindividual variation in behavioral and physiological stress reactions to the same stressor. The present study aimed at examining the impact of cortisol responsivity on performance in a complex real life-like prospective memory (PM) paradigm by a reanalysis of data published previously with the focus on the taxonomy of cognitive dimensions of PM. 21 male subjects were stressed with the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressor Test (SECPT) before the planning of intentions. Another group of 20 males underwent a control procedure...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Fredrik Anesten, Cristiano Santos, Edwin Gidestrand, Erik Schéle, Vilborg Pálsdóttir, Teodor Swedung-Wettervik, Björn Meister, Karolina Patrycja Skibicka, John-Olov Jansson
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) (-) /(-) mice develop mature onset obesity, while intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of IL-6 decreases obesity in rodents. Moreover, levels of IL-6 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been reported to be inversely correlated with obesity in humans. Tanycytes lining the base of the 3(rd) ventricle in the hypothalamus have recently been reported to be of importance for metabolism. In the present study, we investigated whether tanycytes could respond to IL-6 in the CSF. With immunohistochemistry using a well characterized antibody directed against the ligand binding receptor for IL-6, IL-6 receptor α (IL-6Rα), it was found that tanycytes, identified by the two markers vimentin and dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa (DARPP-32), contained IL-6Rα...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Catherine de Bournonville, Gregory F Ball, Jacques Balthazart, Charlotte A Cornil
In male quail, estrogens produced in the brain (neuroestrogens) exert a dual action on male sexual behavior: they increase sexual motivation within minutes via mechanisms activated at the membrane but facilitate sexual performance by slower, presumably nuclear-initiated, mechanisms. Recent work indicates that neuroestrogens are also implicated in the control of female sexual motivation despite the presence of high circulating concentrations of estrogens of ovarian origin. Interestingly aromatase activity (AA) in the male brain is regulated in time domains corresponding to the slow "genomic" and faster "non-genomic" modes of action of estrogens...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
C García-Luna, P Soberanes-Chávez, P de Gortari
Negative energy balance promotes physiological adaptations that ensure the survival of animals. Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis regulates basal energy expenditure and its down-regulating adaptation to negative energy balance is well described: in fasting, serum content of thyrotropin (TSH) and thyroid hormones (TH) decreases, enhancing survival odds of individuals. In contrast, dehydration-induced anorexic (DIA) rats present an impaired hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis adaptation despite their negative energy balance: increased circulating TSH levels...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Simone N De Luca, Ilvana Ziko, Kshitija Dhuna, Luba Sominsky, Mary Tolcos, Leanne Stokes, Sarah J Spencer
The early life period is extremely vulnerable to programming effects from the environment, many of which persist into adulthood. We have previously demonstrated that adult rats that were overfed as neonates have hypothalamic microglia that are hyper-responsive to an immune challenge and hippocampal microglia that respond less efficiently to learning. We therefore hypothesized that neonatal overfeeding would alter the ability of hippocampal microglia to respond to an immune challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and that concomitant minocycline, a tetracycline antibiotic that suppresses microglial activity, could restore these responses...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Jennifer Lampen, Devin J McAuley, Soo-Eun Chang, Juli Wade
Estradiol is abundant in the zebra finch auditory forebrain and has the capacity to modulate neural responses to auditory stimuli with specificity due to both hemisphere and sex. Arrhythmic song induces greater ZENK expression than rhythmic song in the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM), caudomedial mesopallium (CMM), and nucleus taeniae (Tn) of adult zebra finches. The increases in the auditory regions, NCM and CMM, may result from detection of errors in the arrhythmic song relative to the learned template. In the present study, zebra finches were treated with estradiol, the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole, or a control, and exposed to rhythmic or arrhythmic song to assess the effect of estradiol availability on neural responses to auditory rhythms...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Samantha J Owens, Caitlin E Murphy, Tertia D Purves-Tyson, Thomas W Weickert, Cynthia Shannon Weickert
Schizophrenia is a disabling illness that is typically first diagnosed during late adolescence to early adulthood, has an unremitting course, and is often treatment resistance. Many clinical aspects of the illness suggest that sex steroid-nervous system interactions may contribute to the onset and course of symptoms and the cognitive impairment displayed by men and women with schizophrenia. Here, we discuss the actions of estrogen and testosterone on the brain during adolescent development and in schizophrenia from the perspective of experimental studies in animals, human post-mortem studies, magnetic resonance imaging studies in living humans, and clinical trials of sex steroid based treatments...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Zane Andrews
A key aim of this conference was to establish a high-quality biennial international meeting dedicated to Metabolic Disease to highlight the strength of research within Australia and abroad. To achieve this aim we had a large number of international speakers, including Joel Elmquist and Phillip Scherer from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Centre as plenary speakers and local leading Australian researchers (see for more details). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Delia Belelli, Adam R Brown, Scott J Mitchell, Ben G Gunn, Murray B Herd, Grant Phillips, Mohsen Seifi, Jerome D Swinny, Jeremy J Lambert
GABA plays a key role in both embryonic and neonatal brain development. For example, during early neonatal nervous system maturation, synaptic transmission, mediated by GABAA receptors (GABAA Rs), undergoes a temporally specific form of synaptic plasticity, to accommodate the changing requirements of maturing neural networks. Specifically, the duration of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs), resulting from vesicular GABA activating synaptic GABAA Rs, is reduced, permitting neurons to appropriately influence the window for postsynaptic excitation...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Carla Daniela Cisternas, Luis Miguel Garcia-Segura, María Julia Cambiasso
The brain expression of the enzyme P450-aromatase has been extensively studied. Since the aromatization hypothesis established brain aromatase as a key factor to convert gonadal testosterone to oestradiol, several studies have investigated the regulation of aromatase during the critical period of brain sexual differentiation. Here, we review previous and recent findings concerning regulation of aromatase. The role of gonadal hormones, sex chromosome genes and neurosteroids is analysed in term of their contribution to aromatase expression and the implications for the organizational effect of steroids during development...
September 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Teppei Fujikawa, Carlos M Castorena, Syann Lee, Joel K Elmquist
Our modern lifestyle is characterized by easy access to nutrient dense foods combined with limited physical activity. A sedentary lifestyle is one of several factors that have contributed to the global obesity epidemic and also predisposes to chronic illnesses such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. While many studies have focused on the benefits of exercise in peripheral tissues, the contributions of the central nervous system to these exercise-induced metabolic adaptations are relatively unknown. This review will highlight the role of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) in regulating the metabolic response to exercise...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Aneta Stefanidis, Brian J Oldfield
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions and to date, bariatric surgery remains the only effective treatment for morbid obesity in terms of its capacity to achieve durable weight loss. Bariatric surgery procedures, including Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), adjustable gastric banding (AGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) have been the primary procedures conducted over the past decade, with SG increasing in popularity over the past five years at the expense of both RYGB and AGB. Although these procedures were initially proposed to function via restrictive or malabsorptive mechanisms, it is now clear that profound physiological changes underlie the metabolic improvements in patients who undergo bariatric surgery...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Bradley B Jamieson, Betina B Nair, Karl J Iremonger
Oxytocin (OT) is a neuropeptide that exerts multiple actions throughout the brain and periphery. Within the brain, OT regulates diverse neural populations, including neural networks controlling responses to stress. Local release of OT within the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus has been suggested to regulate stress responses by modulating the excitability of neighboring corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons. However, the mechanisms by which OT regulates CRH neuron excitability are unclear...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Chiharu Tsuji, Takahiro Tsuji, Andrew Allchorne, Gareth Leng, Mike Ludwig
In the main olfactory system, odours are registered at the main olfactory epithelium, then processed at the main olfactory bulb (MOB) and subsequently by the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON), the piriform cortex (PC) and the cortical amygdala. Previously, we reported populations of vasopressin neurons in different areas of the rat olfactory system, including the MOB, accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) and the AON and showed that these are involved in the coding of social odour information. Utilizing immunohistochemistry and a transgenic rat in which an enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter gene is expressed in vasopressin neurons (eGFP-vasopressin), we show here a population of vasopressin neurons in the PC...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Marco van den Top, Fei-Yue Zhao, Ratchada Pattaranit, Natalie J Michael, Astrid Munder, Jack T Pryor, Leo P Renaud, David Spanswick
Obesity and aging are risk factors for diabetes. Here we investigated effects of aging, obesity and fasting on central and peripheral glucose tolerance and on glucose-sensing neuronal function in the arcuate nucleus of rats, with a view to providing insight into central mechanisms regulating glucose homeostasis and how they change or are subject to dysfunction with aging and obesity. We show that following a glucose load, central glucose tolerance at the level of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma is significantly reduced in rats maintained on high fat diet (HFD)...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
K Rasri-Klosen, V Simonneaux, P Klosen
Many animals synchronize their reproductive activity with the seasons to optimize their offspring's survival. This synchronization involves switching on and off their gonadotropic axis. Ever since their discovery as key regulators of GnRH neurons, the hypothalamic RF-amide peptides kisspeptin and RFRP have been a major focus of research on the seasonal regulation of the gonadotropic axis. In this study we investigated the regulation of both neuropeptides in the Djungarian hamster, a major animal model for the study of seasonal reproduction...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
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