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Journal of Neuroendocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211103/impaired-learning-and-memory-in-rats-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet-involvement-with-the-imbalance-of-nesfatin-1-abundance-and-copine-6-expression
#1
Zheng Chen, Ya-Yun Xu, Rui Wu, Yin-Xiu Han, Yue Yu, Jin-Fang Ge, Fei-Hu Chen
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease, resulting not only in liver dysfunction, glucose and lipid metabolism disorder, but also in neuropsychiatric damage. In the present study, a NAFLD rat model was established via feeding of a high-fat diet, and the behavior was observed via the open field test (OFT), the sucrose preference test (SPT), the elevated plus maze (EPM), the forced swimming test (FST), and the Morris water maze (MWM). The plasma concentrations of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glucose, free fatty acid (FFA), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were detected using chemiluminescence technique...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199771/thyroid-dysfunction-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-is-associated-with-folate-receptor-alpha-autoimmune-disorder
#2
Richard E Frye, Rebecca Wynne, Shannon Rose, John Slattery, Leanna Delhey, Marie Tippett, Stephen G Kahler, Sirish C Bennuri, Stepan Melnyk, Jeffrey M Sequeira, Edward Quadros
Folate receptor α (FRα) autoantibodies (FRAAs) are prevalent in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). FRAAs disrupt folate transport across the blood-brain barrier by binding to the FRα. Thyroid dysfunction is frequently found in children with ASD. We measured blocking and binding FRAAs and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free T4 (FT4), total T3 (TT3), reverse T3 (rT3), thyroid releasing hormone (TRH) and other metabolites in 87 children with ASD, 84 of whom also underwent behavior and cognition testing and in 42 of whom FRAAs, TSH and FT4 were measured at two time points...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178768/distribution-of-endomorphin-like-immunoreactive-neurones-in-the-brain-of-the-cichlid-fish-oreochromis-mossambicus
#3
Vijayalaxmi, C B Ganesh
Endomorphins are tetrapeptides involved in pain and neuroendocrine responses with high affinity for mu opioid receptors in mammals. In the present investigation, we studied the distribution of endomorphin-like-immunoreactive (EM-L-ir) neurones in the brain of the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus. Application of antisera against endomorphin 1 and 2 (EM-1-2) revealed the presence of EM-L-ir somata and fibres throughout the different subdivisions of the olfactory bulb such as the olfactory nerve layer and the granule cell layer...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166374/a-potential-role-for-the-secretogranin-ii-derived-peptide-em66-in-the-hypothalamic-regulation-of-feeding-behavior
#4
F Trebak, I Dubuc, A Arabo, A Alaoui, L Boukhzar, J Maucotel, M Picot, S Cherifi, C Duparc, J Leprince, G Prévost, Y Anouar, R Magoul, N Chartrel
EM66 is a conserved 66-amino acid peptide derived from secretogranin II (SgII), a member of the granin protein family. EM66 is widely distributed in secretory granules of endocrine and neuroendocrine cells as well as in hypothalamic neurons. Although EM66 is abundant in the hypothalamus, its physiological function remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate a possible involvement of EM66 in the hypothalamic regulation of feeding behavior. We show that ICV administration of EM66 induces a drastic dose-dependent inhibition of food intake in mice deprived of food for 18 h, which is associated with an increase of hypothalamic POMC and MC3R mRNA levels and c-Fos immunoreactivity in the POMC neurons of the arcuate nucleus...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140486/effects-of-intranasal-oxytocin-on-interpretation-and-expression-of-emotions-in-anorexia-nervosa
#5
Jenni Leppanen, Valentina Cardi, Kah Wee Ng, Yannis Paloyelis, Daniel Stein, Kate Tchanturia, Janet Treasure
BACKGROUND: Altered social-emotional functioning is believed to play an important role in the development and maintenance of anorexia nervosa (AN). Recently, there has been increasing interest investigating the role of intranasal oxytocin in social-emotional processing. Thus the present study aimed to investigate the effects of intranasal oxytocin on interpretation and expression of emotions among people with AN. METHOD: Thirty women with AN and twenty-nine age-matched healthy women took part in the current study, which used a double blind, placebo controlled, crossover design...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094877/hypothalamus-specific-re-introduction-of-snord116-into-otherwise-snord116-deficient-mice-increased-energy-expenditure
#6
Y Qi, L Purtell, M Fu, L Zhang, S Zolotukhin, L Campbell, H Herzog
The Snord116 gene cluster has been recognized as a critical contributor to the Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) with mice lacking Snord116 displaying many classical PWS phenotypes including low postnatal body weight, reduced bone mass and increased food intake. However, these mice do not develop obesity due to increased energy expenditure. To understand the physiological function of Snord116 better and potentially rescue the altered metabolism of Snord116(-/-) mice, we used an adeno-associated viral (AAV) approach to reintroduce the Snord116 gene product into the hypothalamus in Snord116(-/-) mice at different ages...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072496/structural-reconstruction-of-the-perivascular-space-in-the-adult-mouse-neurohypophysis-during-an-osmotic-stimulation
#7
K Nishikawa, E Furube, S Morita, N Horii-Hayashi, M Nishi, S Miyata
Oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP), neuropeptides in the neurohypophysis (NH), control lactation and body fluid homeostasis, respectively. Hypothalamic neurosecretory neurons project their axons from the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei to the NH to make contact with the vascular surface and release OXT and AVP. The neurohypophysial vascular structure is unique, because it has a wide perivascular space between the inner and outer basement membranes. However, the significance of this unique vascular structure remains unclear; therefore, we aimed to elucidate the functional significance of the perivascular space and its activity-dependent changes during salt loading in adult mice...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071834/molecular-profiling-of-human-ips-derived-hypothalamic-neurons-provides-developmental-insights-to-genetic-loci-for-body-weight-regulation
#8
Li Yao, Yuanhang Liu, Zhifang Qiu, Satish Kumar, Joanne E Curran, John Blangero, Yidong Chen, Donna M Lehman
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Recent data suggests that common genetic risk for metabolic disorders such as obesity may be human-specific and exert effects through the central nervous system. To overcome the limitation of human tissue access for study, we have generated induced human pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neuronal cultures which recapture many features of hypothalamic neurons within the arcuate nucleus. Here we have comprehensively characterized this model across development, benchmarked these neurons to in vivo events, and demonstrate a link between obesity risk variants and hypothalamic development...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009489/effects-of-orchidectomy-and-testosterone-replacement-on-numbers-of-kisspeptin-neurokinin-b-and-dynorphin-a-immunoreactive-neurons-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus-in-obese-and-diabetic-rats
#9
M Dudek, P A Kołodziejski, E Pruszyńska-Oszmałek, K Ziarniak, J H Sliwowska
Neurons expressing kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin A, located in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC), are important regulators of reproduction. Their functions depend on metabolic and hormonal status. We hypothesized that male rats with high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) and/or streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) and type 2 (DM2) will have: 1) alterations in numbers of immunoreactive (ir) cells: kisspeptin-ir and/or neurokinin B-ir, and dynorphin A-ir neurons in the ARC in the sham condition; 2) orchidectomy alone (ORX) and with testosterone treatment (ORX+T) will unmask possible deficits in the response of these neurons in DIO, and/or DM1 and DM2 rats...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009464/effect-of-melanotan-ii-on-brain-fos-immunoreactivity-and-oxytocin-neuronal-activity-and-secretion-in-rats
#10
Luis Paiva, Nancy Sabatier, Gareth Leng, Mike Ludwig
Melanocortins stimulate the central oxytocin systems which are involved in regulating social behaviours. Alterations in central oxytocin have been linked to neurological disorders such as autism, and melanocortins have been proposed for therapeutic treatment. Here, we investigated how systemic administration of melanotan-II (MT-II), a melanocortin agonist, affects oxytocin neuronal activity and secretion in rats. Our results show that intravenous (i.v.), but not intranasal, administration of MT-II markedly induced Fos expression in magnocellular neurones of the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular nuclei (PVN) of the hypothalamus, and this response was attenuated by prior intracerebroventricular (i...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981646/characterization-of-kiss1r-gpr54-expressing-neurons-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-of-the-female-rat-hypothalamus
#11
Shimpei Higo, Norio Iijima, Hitoshi Ozawa
Kisspeptin is essential in reproduction, and acts by stimulating neurons expressing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Recent studies suggest that kisspeptin has multiple roles in the modulation of neuronal circuits in systems outside the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Our recent research using in situ hybridization (ISH) clarified the histological distribution of Kiss1r (Gpr54)-expressing neurons in the rat brain which were presumed to be putative targets of kisspeptin. The arcuate nucleus (ARN) of the hypothalamus is one of the brain regions in which Kiss1r expression in non-GnRH neurons is prominent...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917547/pituitary-stalk-interruption-syndrome-from-clinical-findings-to-pathogenesis
#12
REVIEW
C-Z Wang, L-L Guo, B-Y Han, X Su, Q-H Guo, Y-M Mu
Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS) is a rare congenital defect manifesting with varying degrees of pituitary hormone deficiency. The signs and symptoms of PSIS during the neonatal period and infancy are often overlooked and therefore diagnosis is delayed. The typical manifestations of PSIS can be detected by magnetic resonance imaging. Several genes in the Wnt, Notch and Shh signalling pathways related to hypothalamic-pituitary development, such as PIT1, PROP1, LHX3/LHX4, PROKR2, OTX2, TGIF and HESX1, have been found to be associated with PSIS...
January 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891681/incomplete-re-expression-of-neuroendocrine-progenitor-stem-cell-markers-is-a-key-feature-of-%C3%AE-cell-dedifferentiation
#13
A Neelankal John, G Morahan, F-X Jiang
There is increasing evidence to suggest that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), a pandemic metabolic disease, may be caused by β-cell dedifferentiation (βCD). However, there is currently no universal definition of βCD, and the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. We hypothesise that a high-glucose in vitro environment mimics hyperglycaemia in vivo and that β cells grown in this milieu over a long period will undergo dedifferentiation. In the present study, we report that the pancreatic β cell line mouse insulinoma 6 (MIN6) grown under a high-glucose condition did not undergo massive cell death but exhibited a glucose-stimulated insulin-secreting profile similar to that of immature β cells...
January 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883233/intranasal-insulin-boosts-gustatory-sensitivity
#14
R Rodriguez-Raecke, H Yang, Y F Bruenner, J Freiherr
Intranasal insulin has been the subject of attention not only with respect to enhancing memory processes, but also for its anorexic effects, as well as its effects on olfactory sensitivity. In the present study, the influence of intranasal insulin on gustatory sensitivity was investigated using intranasal applications of insulin or placebo in a double-blind manner alongside a control condition without any application. We hypothesised that, because it mediates satiety, intranasal insulin alters gustatory sensitivity, whereas placebo application and the control should not alter gustatory sensitivity...
January 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874965/somatostatin-agonist-pasireotide-inhibits-exercise-stimulated-growth-in-the-male-siberian-hamster-phodopus-sungorus
#15
R Dumbell, I Petri, F Scherbarth, V Diedrich, H A Schmid, S Steinlechner, P Barrett
The Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) is a seasonal mammal, exhibiting a suite of physiologically and behaviourally distinct traits dependent on the time of year and governed by changes in perceived day length (photoperiod). These attributes include significant weight loss, reduced food intake, gonadal atrophy and pelage change with short-day photoperiod as in winter. The central mechanisms driving seasonal phenotype change during winter are mediated by a reduced availability of hypothalamic triiodothyronine (T3), although the downstream mechanisms responsible for physiological and behavioural changes are yet to be fully clarified...
January 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859916/mild-thyrotoxicosis-leads-to-brain-perfusion-changes-an-arterial-spin-labelling-study
#16
A Göbel, M Heldmann, A Sartorius, M Göttlich, A-L Dirk, G Brabant, T F Münte
Hypo- and hyperthyroidism have effects on brain structure and function, as well as cognitive processes, including memory. However, little is known about the influence of thyroid hormones on brain perfusion and the relationship of such perfusion changes with cognition. The present study aimed to demonstrate the effect of short-term experimental hyperthyroidism on brain perfusion in healthy volunteers and to assess whether perfusion changes, if present, are related to cognitive performance. It is known that an interaction exists between brain perfusion and cerebral oxygen consumption rate and it is considered that neural activation increases cerebral regional perfusion rate in brain areas associated with memory...
January 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859809/forebrain-specific-transgene-rescue-of-11%C3%AE-hsd1-associates-with-impaired-spatial-memory-and-reduced-hippocampal-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-mrna-levels-in-aged-11%C3%AE-hsd1-deficient-mice
#17
S Caughey, A P Harris, J R Seckl, M C Holmes, J L W Yau
Mice lacking the intracellular glucocorticoid-regenerating enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) are protected from age-related spatial memory deficits. 11β-HSD1 is expressed predominantly in the brain, liver and adipose tissue. Reduced glucocorticoid levels in the brain in the absence of 11β-HSD1 may underlie the improved memory in aged 11β-HSD1 deficient mice. However, the improved glucose tolerance, insulin sensitisation and cardioprotective lipid profile associated with reduced peripheral glucocorticoid regeneration may potentially contribute to the cognitive phenotype of aged 11β-HSD1 deficient mice...
January 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870155/timing-of-maternal-exposure-and-fetal-sex-determine-the-effects-of-low-level-chemical-mixture-exposure-on-the-fetal-neuroendocrine-system-in-sheep
#18
M Bellingham, P A Fowler, E S MacDonald, B Mandon-Pepin, C Cotinot, S Rhind, R M Sharpe, N P Evans
We have shown that continuous maternal exposure to the complex mixture of environmental chemicals (ECs) found in human biosolids (sewage sludge), disrupts mRNA expression of genes crucial for development and long-term regulation of hypothalamo-pituitary gonadal (HPG) function in sheep. This study investigated whether exposure to ECs only during preconceptional period or only during pregnancy perturbed key regulatory genes within the hypothalamus and pituitary gland and whether these effects were different from chronic (life-long) exposure to biosolid ECs...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805784/role-of-isotocin-in-regulation-of-the-hypophysiotropic-dopamine-neurons-in-the-preoptic-area-of-the-catfish-clarias-batrachus
#19
Omprakash Singh, Santosh Kumar, Uday Singh, Yogesh Bhute, Praful S Singru
Dopamine (DA) has emerged as the potent inhibitory neuromodulator of LH secretion and reproduction in teleosts. The DA neurons located in the anterior subdivision of nucleus preopticus periventricularis (NPPa) in the preoptic area (POA) innervate the pituitary gland and regulate the LH cells. Although reduction in the inhibitory DAergic tone is crucial for stimulatory action of GnRH on LH cells, the role of other hypothalamic factors is suggested but not fully understood. Nonapeptide, isotocin (IST) has emerged as a likely candidate that may also influence the LH cell function...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805753/dehydroepiandrosterone-dhea-heightens-aggression-and-increases-androgen-receptor-and-aromatase-mrna-expression-in-the-brain-of-a-male-songbird
#20
Douglas W Wacker, Sahar Khalaj, Lindsey J Jones, Tara L Champion, Jason E Davis, Simone L Meddle, John C Wingfield
Dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA, is a testosterone/estrogen precursor and known modulator of vertebrate aggression. Male song sparrows (Melospiza melodia morphna) show high aggression during breeding and non-breeding life history stages when circulating DHEA levels are high, and low aggression during molt when DHEA levels are low. We previously showed that androgen receptor and aromatase mRNA expression are higher during breeding and/or non-breeding in brain regions associated with reproductive and aggressive behavior, but DHEA's potential role in mediating these seasonal changes remained unclear...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
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