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Journal of Neuroendocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295754/age-related-changes-in-the-morphology-of-tanycytes-in-the-human-female-infundibular-nucleus-median-eminence
#1
Anne C M Koopman, Melanie Taziaux, Julie Bakker
Tanycytes have been emerging as key players in the neuroendocrine control of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release. Rodent studies have demonstrated that the structural relationship between tanycytes and GnRH terminals in the median eminence is highly dynamic, regulated by gonadal steroids and undergoes age-related changes. Our objective was to determine whether the number and organization of tanycytes changes throughout life in the female infundibular nucleus/median eminence (INF/ME) region. Post-mortem hypothalamic tissues were collected at the Netherlands Brain Bank and were stained for vimentin by immunohistochemistry...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295740/green-light-inhibits-gnrh-i-expression-by-stimulating-the-melatonin-gnih-pathway-in-the-chick-brain
#2
Liwei Zhang, Funing Chen, Jing Cao, Yulan Dong, Zixu Wang, Man Hu, Yaoxing Chen
To study the mechanism by which monochromatic light affects gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) expression in chicken hypothalamus, a total of 192 newly hatched chicks were divided into intact, sham-operated and pinealectomy groups and exposed to white (WL), red (RL), green (GL) and blue (BL) lights using a light-emitting diode (LED) system for 2 wk. In the GL intact group, the mRNA and protein levels of GnRH-I in the hypothalamus, the mean cell area and mean cell optical density (OD) of the GnRH-I-ir cells of the nucleus commissurae pallii (nCPa) were decreased by 13...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295708/seasonal-alterations-in-the-daily-rhythms-in-hypothalamic-expression-of-genes-involved-in-the-photoperiodic-transduction-and-neurosteroid-dependent-processes-in-migratory-blackheaded-buntings
#3
Ila Mishra, Devraj Singh, Vinod Kumar
This study investigated seasonal alterations in the daily rhythms of hypothalamic expression of genes involved in the photoperiodic regulation of annual cycles in birds. We measured 4-hourly mRNA expression of genes involved in the photoperiodic transduction (OPN5, EYA3, CGA, TSHβ, DIO2, DIO3) and neurosteroid-dependent processes (AR, CYP19, ERα, ERβ) in the hypothalamus of migratory blackheaded buntings photoinduced with photosensitive, photostimulated (early and late stimulated) and photorefractory seasonal states...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258626/glucose-concentrations-modulate-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-responsiveness-of-neurons-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus
#4
William McIsaac, Alastair V Ferguson
The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is critical for normal energy balance and has been shown to contain high levels of both BDNF and TrkB mRNA. Microinjections of BDNF into the PVN increase energy expenditure, suggesting BDNF plays an important role in energy homeostasis through direct actions in this nucleus. The current studies were undertaken to examine the postsynaptic effects of BDNF on the membrane potential of PVN neurons, and to determine if extracellular glucose concentrations modulated these effects...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235149/transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-5-trpv5-a-highly-ca-2-selective-trp-channel-in-the-rat-brain-relevance-to-neuroendocrine-regulation
#5
Santosh Kumar, Uday Singh, Chandan Goswami, Praful S Singru
Recent studies suggest an important role for transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) ion channels in neural and neuroendocrine regulation. TRPV subfamily consists of six members viz. TRPV1-6. While the neuroanatomical and functional correlates of TRPV1-4 have been extensively studied, relevant information about TRPV5 and TRPV6, which are highly selective for Ca(2+) , is limited. We detected TRPV5 mRNA expression in the olfactory bulb, cortex, hypothalamus, hippocampus, midbrain, brainstem and cerebellum of rat...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235136/amphetamine-treatment-affects-the-extra-hypothalamic-vasopressinergic-system-in-a-sex-and-nucleus-dependent-manner
#6
Catalina Ahumada, Carolina Bahamondes, Cledi A Cerda, Roxana A Silva, Gonzalo Cruz, Pablo R Moya, Ramón Sotomayor-Zárate, Georgina M Renard
The lateral septum (LS), a brain structure implicated in addictive behaviors, regulates the activation of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area. Vasopressinergic projections from the extended amygdala to the LS, which are sexually dimorphic, could be responsible for the vulnerability to addiction in a sex-dependent manner. The aim of the present work is to study modulatory effects of amphetamine (AMPH) on the expression of vasopressin (AVP) in the vasopressinergic extra-hypothalamic system in sensitized male and female rats...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219000/acute-ghrelin-changes-food-preference-from-high-fat-diet-to-chow-during-binge-like-eating-in-rodents
#7
Tina Bake, Kim T Hellgren, Suzanne L Dickson
Ghrelin, an orexigenic hormone released from the empty stomach, provides a gut-brain signal that promotes many appetitive behaviors, including anticipatory and goal-directed behaviors for palatable treats high in sugar and/or fat. Here we sought to determine whether ghrelin is able to influence and/or may even have a role in binge-like behavior in rodents. To this end, we used a palatable scheduled feeding (PSF) paradigm in which ad libitum chow-fed rodents are trained to "binge" on high fat diet (HFD) offered each day for a limited period of 2 hr...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211103/impaired-learning-and-memory-in-rats-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet-involvement-with-the-imbalance-of-nesfatin-1-abundance-and-copine-6-expression
#8
Zheng Chen, Ya-Yun Xu, Rui Wu, Yin-Xiu Han, Yue Yu, Jin-Fang Ge, Fei-Hu Chen
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease, resulting not only in liver dysfunction, glucose and lipid metabolism disorder, but also in neuropsychiatric damage. In the present study, a NAFLD rat model was established via feeding of a high-fat diet, and the behavior was observed via the open field test (OFT), the sucrose preference test (SPT), the elevated plus maze (EPM), the forced swimming test (FST), and the Morris water maze (MWM). The plasma concentrations of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glucose, free fatty acid (FFA), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were detected using chemiluminescence technique...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199771/thyroid-dysfunction-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-is-associated-with-folate-receptor-alpha-autoimmune-disorder
#9
Richard E Frye, Rebecca Wynne, Shannon Rose, John Slattery, Leanna Delhey, Marie Tippett, Stephen G Kahler, Sirish C Bennuri, Stepan Melnyk, Jeffrey M Sequeira, Edward Quadros
Folate receptor α (FRα) autoantibodies (FRAAs) are prevalent in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). FRAAs disrupt folate transport across the blood-brain barrier by binding to the FRα. Thyroid dysfunction is frequently found in children with ASD. We measured blocking and binding FRAAs and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free T4 (FT4), total T3 (TT3), reverse T3 (rT3), thyroid releasing hormone (TRH) and other metabolites in 87 children with ASD, 84 of whom also underwent behavior and cognition testing and in 42 of whom FRAAs, TSH and FT4 were measured at two time points...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178768/distribution-of-endomorphin-like-immunoreactive-neurones-in-the-brain-of-the-cichlid-fish-oreochromis-mossambicus
#10
Vijayalaxmi, C B Ganesh
Endomorphins are tetrapeptides involved in pain and neuroendocrine responses with high affinity for mu opioid receptors in mammals. In the present investigation, we studied the distribution of endomorphin-like-immunoreactive (EM-L-ir) neurones in the brain of the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus. Application of antisera against endomorphin 1 and 2 (EM-1-2) revealed the presence of EM-L-ir somata and fibres throughout the different subdivisions of the olfactory bulb such as the olfactory nerve layer and the granule cell layer...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166374/a-potential-role-for-the-secretogranin-ii-derived-peptide-em66-in-the-hypothalamic-regulation-of-feeding-behavior
#11
F Trebak, I Dubuc, A Arabo, A Alaoui, L Boukhzar, J Maucotel, M Picot, S Cherifi, C Duparc, J Leprince, G Prévost, Y Anouar, R Magoul, N Chartrel
EM66 is a conserved 66-amino acid peptide derived from secretogranin II (SgII), a member of the granin protein family. EM66 is widely distributed in secretory granules of endocrine and neuroendocrine cells as well as in hypothalamic neurons. Although EM66 is abundant in the hypothalamus, its physiological function remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate a possible involvement of EM66 in the hypothalamic regulation of feeding behavior. We show that ICV administration of EM66 induces a drastic dose-dependent inhibition of food intake in mice deprived of food for 18 h, which is associated with an increase of hypothalamic POMC and MC3R mRNA levels and c-Fos immunoreactivity in the POMC neurons of the arcuate nucleus...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140486/effects-of-intranasal-oxytocin-on-interpretation-and-expression-of-emotions-in-anorexia-nervosa
#12
Jenni Leppanen, Valentina Cardi, Kah Wee Ng, Yannis Paloyelis, Daniel Stein, Kate Tchanturia, Janet Treasure
BACKGROUND: Altered social-emotional functioning is believed to play an important role in the development and maintenance of anorexia nervosa (AN). Recently, there has been increasing interest investigating the role of intranasal oxytocin in social-emotional processing. Thus the present study aimed to investigate the effects of intranasal oxytocin on interpretation and expression of emotions among people with AN. METHOD: Thirty women with AN and twenty-nine age-matched healthy women took part in the current study, which used a double blind, placebo controlled, crossover design...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094877/hypothalamus-specific-re-introduction-of-snord116-into-otherwise-snord116-deficient-mice-increased-energy-expenditure
#13
Y Qi, L Purtell, M Fu, L Zhang, S Zolotukhin, L Campbell, H Herzog
The Snord116 gene cluster has been recognized as a critical contributor to the Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) with mice lacking Snord116 displaying many classical PWS phenotypes including low postnatal body weight, reduced bone mass and increased food intake. However, these mice do not develop obesity due to increased energy expenditure. To understand the physiological function of Snord116 better and potentially rescue the altered metabolism of Snord116(-/-) mice, we used an adeno-associated viral (AAV) approach to reintroduce the Snord116 gene product into the hypothalamus in Snord116(-/-) mice at different ages...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072496/structural-reconstruction-of-the-perivascular-space-in-the-adult-mouse-neurohypophysis-during-an-osmotic-stimulation
#14
K Nishikawa, E Furube, S Morita, N Horii-Hayashi, M Nishi, S Miyata
Oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) neuropeptides in the neurohypophysis (NH) control lactation and body fluid homeostasis, respectively. Hypothalamic neurosecretory neurones project their axons from the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei to the NH to make contact with the vascular surface and release OXT and AVP. The neurohypophysial vascular structure is unique because it has a wide perivascular space between the inner and outer basement membranes. However, the significance of this unique vascular structure remains unclear; therefore, we aimed to determine the functional significance of the perivascular space and its activity-dependent changes during salt loading in adult mice...
February 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071834/molecular-profiling-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-hypothalamic-neurones-provides-developmental-insights-into-genetic-loci-for-body-weight-regulation
#15
L Yao, Y Liu, Z Qiu, S Kumar, J E Curran, J Blangero, Y Chen, D M Lehman
Recent data suggest that common genetic risks for metabolic disorders such as obesity may be human-specific and exert effects via the central nervous system. To overcome the limitation of human tissue access for study, we have generated induced human pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neuronal cultures that recapture many features of hypothalamic neurones within the arcuate nucleus. In the present study, we have comprehensively characterised this model across development, benchmarked these neurones to in vivo events, and demonstrate a link between obesity risk variants and hypothalamic development...
February 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009489/effects-of-orchidectomy-and-testosterone-replacement-on-numbers-of-kisspeptin-neurokinin-b-and-dynorphin-a-immunoreactive-neurones-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus-in-obese-and-diabetic-rats
#16
M Dudek, P A Kołodziejski, E Pruszyńska-Oszmałek, K Ziarniak, J H Sliwowska
Neurones expressing kisspeptin, neurokinin B and dynorphin A, located in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC), are important regulators of reproduction. Their functions depend on metabolic and hormonal status. We hypothesised that male rats with high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) and/or streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) and type 2 (DM2) will have alterations in numbers of immunoreactive (-IR) cells: kisspeptin-IR and/or neurokinin B-IR and dynorphin A-IR neurones in the ARC in the sham condition...
February 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009464/effect-of-melanotan-ii-on-brain-fos-immunoreactivity-and-oxytocin-neuronal-activity-and-secretion-in-rats
#17
L Paiva, N Sabatier, G Leng, M Ludwig
Melanocortins stimulate the central oxytocin systems that are involved in regulating social behaviours. Alterations in central oxytocin have been linked to neurological disorders such as autism, and melanocortins have been proposed for therapeutic treatment. In the present study, we investigated how systemic administration of melanotan-II (MT-II), a melanocortin agonist, affects oxytocin neuronal activity and secretion in rats. The results obtained show that i.v., but not intranasal, administration of MT-II markedly induced Fos expression in magnocellular neurones of the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular nuclei (PVN) of the hypothalamus, and this response was attenuated by prior i...
February 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981646/characterisation-of-kiss1r-gpr54-expressing-neurones-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-of-the-female-rat-hypothalamus
#18
S Higo, N Iijima, H Ozawa
Kisspeptin is essential in reproduction and acts by stimulating neurones expressing gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Recent studies suggest that kisspeptin has multiple roles in the modulation of neuronal circuits in systems outside the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Our recent research using in situ hybridisation (ISH) clarified the histological distribution of Kiss1r (Gpr54)-expressing neurones in the rat brain that were presumed to be putative targets of kisspeptin. The arcuate nucleus (ARN) of the hypothalamus is one of the brain regions in which Kiss1r expression in non-GnRH neurones is prominent...
February 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917547/pituitary-stalk-interruption-syndrome-from-clinical-findings-to-pathogenesis
#19
REVIEW
C-Z Wang, L-L Guo, B-Y Han, X Su, Q-H Guo, Y-M Mu
Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS) is a rare congenital defect manifesting with varying degrees of pituitary hormone deficiency. The signs and symptoms of PSIS during the neonatal period and infancy are often overlooked and therefore diagnosis is delayed. The typical manifestations of PSIS can be detected by magnetic resonance imaging. Several genes in the Wnt, Notch and Shh signalling pathways related to hypothalamic-pituitary development, such as PIT1, PROP1, LHX3/LHX4, PROKR2, OTX2, TGIF and HESX1, have been found to be associated with PSIS...
January 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891681/incomplete-re-expression-of-neuroendocrine-progenitor-stem-cell-markers-is-a-key-feature-of-%C3%AE-cell-dedifferentiation
#20
A Neelankal John, G Morahan, F-X Jiang
There is increasing evidence to suggest that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), a pandemic metabolic disease, may be caused by β-cell dedifferentiation (βCD). However, there is currently no universal definition of βCD, and the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. We hypothesise that a high-glucose in vitro environment mimics hyperglycaemia in vivo and that β cells grown in this milieu over a long period will undergo dedifferentiation. In the present study, we report that the pancreatic β cell line mouse insulinoma 6 (MIN6) grown under a high-glucose condition did not undergo massive cell death but exhibited a glucose-stimulated insulin-secreting profile similar to that of immature β cells...
January 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
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