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Journal of Neuroendocrinology

Martin Jastroch, Sylvain Giroud, Perry Barrett, Fritz Geiser, Gerhard Heldmaier, Annika Herwig
Endothermic mammals and birds require intensive energy turnover to sustain high body temperatures and metabolic rates. To cope with energetic bottlenecks associated with the change of seasons, and to minimise energy expenditure, complex mechanisms and strategies, such as daily torpor and hibernation, are used. During torpor metabolic depression and low body temperatures save energy. However, these bouts of torpor lasting for hours to weeks are interrupted by active 'euthermic' phases with high body temperatures...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Donna J Toufexis, Olga Lipatova, Abbie C Johnson, Alfonso Abizaid
Food restriction has been reported to reduce anxiety-like behavior in male rats, while the effects of food restriction on anxiety in female rats are less clear. Ghrelin is a peptide hormone produced and secreted in the stomach that stimulates food intake and is believed to play a role in reward and emotional responses like fear expression. Under food restriction endogenous ghrelin levels increase. Here, we examined the effect of moderate food restriction (80% of ad-libitum fed weight), with or without an acute application of a small dose of exogenous ghrelin intended to cause an immediate hunger response, on the expression of the acoustic startle reflex (ASR)...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Shel Hwa Yeo, Victoria Kyle, Paul G Morris, Sophie Jackman, Lydia Sinnett-Smith, Maria Schacker, Chen Chen, William H Colledge
Kisspeptin neuropeptides are encoded by the Kiss1 gene and play a critical role in the regulation of the mammalian reproductive axis. Kiss1 neurons are found in two locations in the rodent hypothalamus; one in the arcuate (ARC) and another in the RP3V region which includes the anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) nucleus. Detailed mapping of the fibre distribution of Kiss1 neurons will help in understanding the action of these neurons in other regions of the brain. We have generated a transgenic mouse in which the Kiss1 coding region has been disrupted by a CRE-GFP transgene so that expression of the CRE recombinase protein is driven from the Kiss1 promoter...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
A C Duarte, M V Hrynchak, I Gonçalves, T Quintela, C R A Santos
Sex hormones (SH) are essential regulators of the central nervous system (CNS). The decline in SH levels along with aging may contribute to compromised neuroprotection and for setting the grounds for neurodegeneration and cognitive impairments. In Alzheimer's Disease (AD), besides other pathological features, there is an imbalance between amyloid β (Aβ) production and clearance leading to its accumulation in the brain of older subjects. Aβ accumulation is a primary cause for brain inflammation and degeneration, and concomitant cognitive decline...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Porfirio Gómora-Arrati, Guadalupe Dominguez, Anders Ågmo
We studied the participation of GABA neurotransmission in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) in the onset of the pup retrieval response and nest building. Pregnant female rats were implanted with bilateral cannulae in the MPOA on 12 day of pregnancy, and on day 16 the females were hysterectomized-ovariectomized and given 200 μg/kg of estradiol benzoate. Two days later the females received one of the following intracerebral drug treatments: The GABAB agonist baclofen, 200 ng; the GABAB antagonist phaclofen, 1 μg; the GABAA antagonist bicuculline, 60 ng; physiological saline...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
André Kleinridders
Insulin receptor (IR) and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) are highly conserved receptor tyrosine kinases, which share signalling proteins and are ubiquitously expressed in the brain. Central application of insulin or IGF1 exerts several similar physiological outcomes, varying in strength, whereas disruption of the corresponding receptors in the brain leads to remarkably different effects on brain size and physiology, thus pointing to unique effects of the corresponding hormone receptors. Central insulin/IGF1 resistance impacts various levels of the IR/IGF1R signalling pathways and is a feature of metabolic syndrome and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
S R Ladyman, D R Grattan
Despite increased leptin concentrations during pregnancy, fat mass and food intake are increased. The satiety response to central leptin is suppressed indicating a state of leptin insensitivity in the hypothalamus. While the regulation of food intake is a major function of leptin, this hormone also influences a while range of functions within the body. These actions include regulation of glucose homeostasis, which undergoes major adaptation in the maternal body to generate optimal conditions for fetal development and growth...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Katelyn L Black, Christine F Witty, Jill M Daniel
Ovariectomized rats that received previous administration of oestradiol in midlife display enhanced cognition and increased hippocampal levels of oestrogen receptor alpha (ERα) months after oestradiol treatment ended as compared to ovariectomized controls. Objectives of the current work were to investigate mechanisms by which ERα levels are maintained following midlife oestradiol exposure and the role of ERα in memory in aging females in the absence of circuiting oestrogens. Unliganded ERα has increased interaction with the ubiquitin ligase, C terminus of Hsc-70 interacting protein (CHIP) leading to increased degradation of the receptor...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Julie-Ann P De Bond, Kristen P Tolson, Chanond Nasamran, Alexander S Kauffman, Jeremy T Smith
Kisspeptin controls reproduction by stimulating GnRH neurons via its receptor Kiss1r. Kiss1r is also expressed other brain areas and in peripheral tissues, suggesting additional non-reproductive roles. We recently determined that Kiss1r knockout (KO) mice develop an obese and diabetic phenotype. Here, we investigated whether Kiss1r KOs develop this metabolic phenotype due to alterations in the expression of metabolic genes involved in the appetite regulating system of the hypothalamus, including neuropeptide Y (Npy) and pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc), as well as leptin receptor (Lepr), ghrelin receptor (Ghsr), and melanocortin receptor 3 and 4 (Mc3r, Mc4r)...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Mary E Donhoffner, Sydney P Goings, Korosh Atabaki, Ruth I Wood
Oxytocin (OT) is a neuromodulator that facilitates pair-bonding, maternal care, and social approach. OT is thought to promote these social behaviors by enhancing the salience and reinforcing effects of relevant social stimuli. There is the additional possibility that OT per se may be rewarding. To test this, we investigated whether female rats would voluntarily self-administer OT. Female Long-Evans rats were ovariectomized, and received an estrogen implant and an intracerebroventricular cannula. Rats were tested in an operant chamber with active and inactive levers...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Luciana Pietranera, Julieta Correa, Maria Elvira Brocca, Paulina Roig, Analia Lima, Noelia Di Giorgio, Luis Miguel Garcia-Segura, Alejandro F De Nicola
Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) show pronounced hippocampus alterations, including low brain derived neurotropic factor expression, reduced neurogenesis, astrogliosis and increased aromatase expression. These changes are reverted by treatment with 17β-oestradiol. To elucidate which oestradiol receptor (ER) type is involved in these neuroprotective effects, we used agonists of the ERα (propylpyrazole triol,PPT) and the ERβ (diarylpropionitrite, DPN) given during 2 weeks to 4 month old male SHR. Wistar Kyoto (WKY) normotensive rats served as controls...
August 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Haissa Oliveira Brito, Débora Rasec Radulski, Daniel Bjӧrk Wilhelms, Andrea Stojakovic, Luciane Maria Oliveira Brito, David Engblom, Célia Regina Cavichiolo Franco, Aleksander Roberto Zampronio
There are differences in the immune response, and particularly fever, in males and females. Here we investigated how the febrile response induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and different endogenous pyrogens were affected by female gonadal hormones. The febrile response to intraperitoneal injection of LPS (50 μg/kg) was 40% lower in female rats when compared with male or ovariectomized (OVX) female rats. Accordingly, oestrogen replacement in OVX animals reduced LPS-induced fever. The treatment with the prostaglandin (PG) synthesis inhibitor indomethacin (2 mg/kg, i...
August 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Gareth Leng, Nancy Sabatier
In this review, we consider the ways in which vasopressin and oxytocin have been measured since their first discovery. Two different ways of measuring oxytocin in widespread use currently give values in human plasma that differ by two orders of magnitude, and the values measured by these two methods in the same samples show no correlation. The notion that we should accept this seems absurd. Either one (or both) methods is not measuring oxytocin, or, by "oxytocin", the scientists that use these different methods mean something very different...
July 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
C Jolly, K Rousseau, L Prézeau, C Vol, J Tomkiewicz, S Dufour, C Pasqualini
In various vertebrate species, dopamine (DA) exerts an inhibitory action on reproduction. In the European eel, DA plays a pivotal role in the inhibitory control of gonadotroph function and the blockade of puberty. In vivo studies have suggested that this effect is mediated by receptors pharmacologically related to the D2 family. In the European eel, two distinct D2 receptor (D2-R) paralogous genes have been identified (D2A-R and D2B-R) and both were shown to be expressed in the pituitary. We investigated the potential role of each paralogue in the control of gonadotroph function in this species...
September 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
J S Kim
RFamide-related peptides (RFRPs) have been heavily implicated in the control of reproductive function subsequent to their discovery more than 16 years ago. However, recent studies using genetic and pharmacological tools have challenged their importance in regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. It is generally accepted that RFRPs act as part of a wider RFamide system, which involves two receptors, called the neuropeptide FF receptors (NPFFR1 and R2), and includes the closely-related neuropeptide NPFF...
September 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
A R Costa, H Marcelino, I Gonçalves, T Quintela, J Tomás, A C Duarte, A M Fonseca, C R A Santos
The choroid plexus (CP) epithelium is a unique structure in the brain that forms an interface between the peripheral blood on the basal side and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on the apical side. It is a relevant source of many polypeptides secreted to the CSF with neuroprotective functions and also participates in the elimination and detoxification of brain metabolites, such as β-amyloid (Aβ) removal from the CSF through transporter-mediated influx. The CP is also a target tissue for sex hormones (SHs) that have recognised neuroprotective effects against a variety of insults, including Aβ toxicity and oxidative stress in the central nervous system...
September 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
R Saito, M So, Y Motojima, T Matsuura, M Yoshimura, H Hashimoto, Y Yamamoto, K Kusuhara, Y Ueta
Peripheral anorectic hormones, such as glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, cholecystokinin (CCK)-8 and leptin, suppress food intake. The newly-identified anorectic neuropeptide, nesfatin-1, is synthesised in both peripheral tissues and the central nervous system, particularly by various nuclei in the hypothalamus and brainstem. In the present study, we examined the effects of i.p. administration of GLP-1 and CCK-8 and co-administrations of GLP-1 and leptin at subthreshold doses as confirmed by measurement of food intake, on nesfatin-1-immunoreactive (-IR) neurones in the hypothalamus and brainstem of rats by Fos immunohistochemistry...
September 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
S Singh, P Rana, P Kumar, L R Shankar, S Khushu
The hippocampus is a thyroid hormone receptor-rich region of the brain. A change in thyroid hormone levels may be responsible for an alteration in hippocampal-associated function, such as learning, memory and attention. Neuroimaging studies have shown functional and structural changes in the hippocampus as a result of hypothyroidism. However, the underlying process responsible for this dysfunction remains unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the metabolic changes in the brain of adult hypothyroid patients during pre- and post-thyroxine treatment using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H MRS)...
September 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
G K Chandaka, L Wang, S Senogles, W E Armstrong
The physiological demands of parturition and lactation lead to the increased pulsatile release of oxytocin (OT) into the circulation from the neurohypophysial axons of OT neurones in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei. These states of increased OT release are accompanied by a significant plasticity in magnocellular OT neurones and their synaptic connections, and many of these changes require activation of a central OT receptor. The mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway (MAPK/ERK) is assumed to be up-regulated in the PVN during lactation, and many of the effects of OT in peripheral and brain tissue are mediated through a MAPK/ERK pathway...
September 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
S Ghosh, K K Banerjee, V A Vaidya, U Kolthur-Seetharam
Early-life adversity is associated with an enhanced risk for adult psychopathology. Psychiatric disorders such as depression exhibit comorbidity for metabolic dysfunction, including obesity and diabetes. However, it is poorly understood whether, besides altering anxiety and depression-like behaviour, early stress also evokes dysregulation of metabolic pathways and enhances vulnerability for metabolic disorders. We used the rodent model of the early stress of maternal separation (ES) to examine the effects of early stress on serum metabolites, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 signalling, and muscle mitochondrial content...
September 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
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