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Journal of Neuroendocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682811/upregulation-of-hypothalamic-arginine-vasopressin-by-peripherally-administered-furosemide-in-transgenic-rats-expressing-arginine-vasopressin-enhanced-green-fluorescent-protein
#1
Hiromichi Ueno, Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Kentaro Tanaka, Haruki Nishimura, Kazuaki Nishimura, Satomi Sonoda, Yasuhito Motojima, Reiko Saito, Takashi Maruyama, Tetsu Miyamoto, Ryota Serino, Masahito Tamura, Tatsushi Onaka, Yutaka Otsuji, Yoichi Ueta
Furosemide, which is used worldwide as a diuretic agent, inhibits sodium reabsorption in the Henle's loop, resulting in diuresis and natriuresis. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is synthesized in the supraoptic nucleus (SON), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. The synthesis AVP in the magnocellular neurons of SON and PVN physiologically regulated by plasma osmolality and blood volume and contributed water homeostasis by increasing water reabsorption in the collecting duct...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682808/stress-alcohol-and-infection-during-early-development-a-brief-review-of-common-outcomes-and-mechanisms
#2
REVIEW
Pablo Nicolás Surkin, Heather Brenhouse, Terrence Deak, Ana Clara Liberman, Mercedes Lasaga
Although stress is an adaptive physiological response to deal with adverse conditions, its occurrence during early stages of life such as infancy or adolescence can induce adaptations in multiple physiological systems, including the reproductive axis (HPG), the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the limbic cortex and the immune system. These early changes have consequences in adult life, as seen in the physiological and behavioral responses to stress. This review highlights the impact of several stress challenges incurred at various stages of development (peri-natal, juvenile, adolescent periods) and how developmental timing of early life stress confers unique physiological adaptations that may persist across the lifespan...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656508/the-3-rd-world-conference-on-kisspeptin-kisspeptin-2017-brain-and-beyond-unresolved-questions-challenges-and-future-directions-for-the-field
#3
REVIEW
Michael N Lehman, Lique M Coolen, Robert A Steiner, Genevieve Neal-Perry, Luhong Wang, Suzanne M Moenter, Aleisha M Moore, Robert L Goodman, Shel Hwa-Yeo, Stephanie L Padilla, Alexander S Kauffman, James Garcia, Martin J Kelly, Jenny Clarkson, Sally Radovick, Andy V Babwah, Silvia Leon, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Alex Comninos, Stephanie Seminara, Waljit S Dhillo, Jon Levine, Ei Terasawa, Ariel Negron, Allan E Herbison
The 3rd World Conference on Kisspeptin, "Kisspeptin 2017: Brain and Beyond" was held March 30-31 at the Rosen Centre Hotel in Orlando, Florida, providing an international forum for multidisciplinary scientists to meet and share cutting-edge research on kisspeptin biology and its relevance to human health and disease. The meeting built upon previous world conferences focused on the role of kisspeptin and associated peptides in the control of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion and reproduction...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656427/exercise-training-abrogates-age-dependent-loss-of-hypothalamic-oxytocinergic-circuitry-and-maintains-high-parasympathetic-activity
#4
Carla R Santos, Adriana Ruggeri, Alexandre Ceroni, Lisete C Michelini
Neuroanatomical studies associating neuronal tract tracing and immunohistochemistry identified reciprocal (ascending noradrenergic/descending oxytocinergic, OTergic) connections between brainstem cardiovascular nuclei and the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN). Previous functional studies indicated that exercise training (T) augmented the expression/activity of OTergic pathway and improve the autonomic control of the heart. Knowing that ageing is associated with autonomic dysfunction and sinoaortic denervation blocked T-induced beneficial effects, we hypothesized that T was able to reduce age-dependent impairment by improving the afferent signaling to PVN and augmenting OTergic modulation of cardiovascular control...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29645316/neuropeptide-and-steroid-hormone-mediators-of-neuroendocrine-regulation
#5
REVIEW
Ashley L Heck, Carlos C Crestani, Alonso Fernández-Guasti, Darwin O Larco, Artur Mayerhofer, Charles E Roselli
In order to maintain the health and wellbeing of all mammals, numerous aspects of physiology are controlled by neuroendocrine mechanisms. These mechanisms ultimately enable communication between neurons and glands throughout the body and are centrally mediated by neuropeptides and/or steroid hormones. A recent session at the International Workshop in Neuroendocrinology highlighted essential roles for some of these neuropeptide and steroid hormone mediators in the neuroendocrine regulation of stress-, reproduction-, and behavior- related processes...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29645315/cell-and-molecular-mechanisms-behind-diet-induced-hypothalamic-inflammation-and-obesity
#6
REVIEW
Yenniffer Ávalos, Bredford Kerr, Manuel Maliqueo, Mauricio Dorfman
Diet-induced obesity (DIO) is associated with chronic, low-grade inflammation in the hypothalamus, a key regulator of energy homeostasis. Current studies have revealed the involvement of different cell types as well as cell and molecular mechanisms that contribute to diet-induced hypothalamic inflammation (DIHI) and DIO. Since the discovery that high-fat diet and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) increase the expression of hypothalamic cytokines prior to weight gain, research has focused on understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these changes, and what the role of inflammation in the obesity pathogenesis...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624758/gonadotropin-inhibitory-hormone-gnih-and-its-mammalian-ortholog-rfamide-related-peptide-3-rfrp-3-discovery-and-functional-implications-for-reproduction-and-stress
#7
REVIEW
Lance J Kriegsfeld, Kimberly J Jennings, George E Bentley, Kazuyoshi Tsutsui
At the turn of the millennium, a neuropeptide with pronounced inhibitory actions on avian pituitary gonadotropin secretion was identified and named gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH). Across bird species, GnIH acts at the level of the pituitary and the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal system to inhibit reproduction. Since this initial discovery, orthologs of GnIH have been identified and characterized across a broad range of species. In many vertebrates, the actions of GnIH and its orthologs serve functional roles analogous to those seen in birds...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611254/oxytocin-levels-in-saliva-correlate-better-than-plasma-levels-with-concentrations-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-patients-in-neurocritical-care
#8
Jan Martin, Simone M Kagerbauer, Jens Gempt, Armin Podtschaske, Alexander Hapfelmeier, Gerhard Schneider
In the converging fields of neuroendocrinology and behavioural neuroscience, the interaction between peripheral secretion and central release of oxytocin in humans has not yet been comprehensively assessed. As the human brain is not directly accessible and as the collection of human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) usually requires invasive procedures, easier accessible compartments such as blood or saliva attract increasing attention. In this study, we prospectively determined oxytocin concentrations in the three compartments plasma, CSF and saliva of fifty critically ill patients with neurological and neurosurgical diseases...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604138/glucocorticoid-withdrawal-affects-stress-induced-changes-of-urocortin-2-gene-expression-in-rat-adrenal-medulla-and-brain
#9
Andrej Tillinger, Ľubica Horváthová, Regina Nostramo, Lidia I Serova, Richard Kvetňanský, Esther L Sabban, Boris Mravec
Corticotropin-releasing factor is well known activator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, that represents crucial system participating on stress response of the organism. Urocortins are members of the corticotropin-releasing factor family of peptides with proposed effects on neuroendocrine and behavioral stress response mechanisms. Urocortin 2, one of three known urocortins, is present in central and peripheral stress response system and its expression can be augmented by glucocorticoids. In the present study we have examined how glucocorticoid withdrawal affects urocortin 2 gene expression after acute immobilization in the adrenal medulla and selected brain areas in rats...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603440/role-of-oxytocin-in-parental-behaviour
#10
REVIEW
D E Olazábal
Both animal and human studies have provided conclusive evidence that oxytocin (OXT) acts in the brain (e.g. medial preoptic area, ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens) to promote parental behaviour under different reproductive and physiological conditions. OXT seems to accelerate and strengthen the neural process that makes newborns attractive or rewarding. Besides, OXT reduces stress/anxiety, and might improve mood and well being resulting in indirect benefits for parents. However, OXT also plays a role in the development of species reproductive and social strategies, making some species or individuals more prone to display caring activities in non-reproductive contexts...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543369/neuroanatomical-connections-between-kisspeptin-neurones-and-somatostatin-neurones-in-female-and-male-rat-hypothalamus-a-possible-involvement-of-sstr1-in-kisspeptin-release
#11
Laurence Dufourny, Oona Delmas, Ana-Paula Teixeira-Gomes, Caroline Decourt, Joanna H Sliwowska
Somatostatin (SST) a neuropeptide involved in the central modulation of several physiological functions, is co-distributed in the same hypothalamic areas as kisspeptin (KP), the most potent secretagogue of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion known to date. As SST infused intracerebroventricularly (icv) evoked a potent inhibition of GnRH release, we explored neuroanatomical relationships between KP and SST populations in male and female rats. For that, intact males and ovariectomised oestradiol-replaced females were killed and their brains processed in order to simultaneously detect KP, SST and synapsin, a marker for synapses...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543349/corticosterone-and-serotonin-similarly-influence-gabaergic-and-purinergic-pathways-to-affect-cortical-inhibitory-networks
#12
Caitlin A Wotton, Elizabeth F Quon, Ashley C Palmer, Lane K Bekar
Both serotonin (5HT) and stress exert changes in cortical inhibitory tone to shape activity of cortical networks. As astrocytes are also known to affect inhibition through established purinergic pathways, we assessed the role of GABA and purinergic pathways in rapid corticosterone (CORT) and 5HT effects on cortical inhibition. We used a paired-pulse paradigm (P1 & P2) in acutely isolated mouse brain slices to evaluate changes in cortical evoked inhibition. Normally, 5HT decreases amplitude of the first pulse P1, while increasing the amplitude of P2 (increase frequency transmission)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524268/emerging-insights-into-hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-hpg-axis-regulation-and-interaction-with-stress-signaling
#13
REVIEW
A Acevedo-Rodriguez, A S Kauffman, B D Cherrington, C S Borges, T A Roepke, M Laconi
Reproduction and fertility are regulated via hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Control of this reproductive axis occurs at all levels, including the brain and pituitary, and allows for promotion or inhibition of gonadal sex steroid secretion and function. In addition to guiding proper gonadal development and function, gonadal sex steroids also act in negative and positive feedback loops to regulate reproductive circuitry in the brain, including kisspeptin neurons, thereby modulating overall HPG axis status...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524264/regulators-of-glucocorticoid-receptor-function-in-an-animal-model-of-depression-and-obesity
#14
Anna Kurek, Katarzyna Głombik, Jan Detka, Agnieszka Basta-Kaim, Marta Kubera, Władysław Lasoń, Bogusława Budziszewska
Obesity is a disease that often co-occurs with depression, and some evidence indicates that chronic stress in the perinatal period, in association with overactive glucocorticoids, can cause permanent changes that increase the risk of the development of both depression and obesity later in life. However, the mechanism responsible for the overly potent action of glucocorticoids in both depression and obesity is not known. The aim of the present study was to determine the expression of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) and the factors that affect GR function (FKBP51, Bag-1 and HSP70) in a prenatal stress animal model of depression, a model of obesity and a model of both depression and obesity...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520866/hypothalamic-epigenetics-driving-female-puberty
#15
REVIEW
Carlos A Toro, Carlos F Aylwin, Alejandro Lomniczi
Puberty involves a series of morphological, physiological and behavioral changes during the last part of the juvenile period that culminates in the attainment of fertility. The activation of the pituitary-gonadal axis by increased hypothalamic secretion of Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) is an essential step in the process. The current hypothesis postulates that a loss of transsynaptic inhibition together with a rise in excitatory inputs are responsible for the activation of GnRH release. Similarly, a shift in the balance in the expression of puberty activating (PA) and puberty inhibitory (PI) genes exists during the pubertal transition...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512852/purinergic-receptor-types-in-the-hypothalamic-neurohypophysial-system
#16
REVIEW
José R Lemos, Edward E Custer, Sonia Ortiz-Miranda
Many different types of purinergic receptors are present in the Hypothalamic-Neurohypophysial System (HNS), which synthesizes and releases vasopressin and oxytocin. The specific location of purinergic receptor subtypes has important functional repercussions for neuronal activity and synaptic output. Yet, until the advent of receptor KOs, this had been hindered by the low selectivity of the available pharmacological tools. The HNS offers an excellent opportunity to differentiate the functional properties of these purinergic receptors in cell bodies vs...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504670/alteration-in-intrinsic-and-extrinsic-functional-connectivity-of-resting-state-networks-associated-with-subclinical-hypothyroid
#17
Mukesh Kumar, Shilpi Modi, Poonam Rana, Pawan Kumar, Ratnesh Kanwar, Tarun Sekhri, Maria D'souza, Subash Khushu
Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is characterized by mild elevation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) (range 5-10 μIU/ml) and normal free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4). The cognitive function impairment is well known in thyroid disorders such as hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, but little is known about deficits in brain functions in SCH subjects. Also, whether hormone-replacement treatment is necessary or not in SCH subjects is still debatable. In order to have an insight into the cognition of SCH subjects, intrinsic and extrinsic functional connectivity (FC) of the resting state networks (RSNs) was studied...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486102/the-effect-of-increased-nacl-intake-on-rat-brain-endogenous-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-signaling
#18
Florencia Dadam, Ferenc Zádor, Ximena Caeiro, Edina Szűcs, Anna I Erdei, Reza Samavati, Róbert Gáspár, Anna Borsodi, Laura Vivas
Numerous studies demonstrate the significant role of central β-endorphin and its receptor, the μ-opioid receptor (MOR), in sodium intake regulation. The present study aimed to investigate the possible relationship between chronic high-NaCl intake and brain endogenous MOR functioning. We examined whether short-term (4 days) obligatory salt intake (2% NaCl solution) in rats may induce changes in MOR mRNA expression, G-protein activity and MOR binding capacity in brain regions involved in salt intake regulation...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486070/expression-and-activity-profiling-of-the-steroidogenic-enzymes-of-glucocorticoid-biosynthesis-and-the-fdx1-co-factors-in-zebrafish
#19
Meltem Weger, Nicolas Diotel, Benjamin D Weger, Tanja Beil, Andreas Zaucker, Helen L Eachus, James A Oakes, Jean Luc do Rego, Karl-Heinz Storbeck, Philipp Gut, Uwe Straehle, Sepand Rastegar, Ferenc Mueller, Nils Krone
The spatial and temporal expression of steroidogenic genes in zebrafish has not been fully characterized. Since zebrafish are increasingly employed in endocrine and stress research, a better characterization of steroidogenic pathways is required to target specific steps in the biosynthetic pathways in the future. Here, we have systematically defined the temporal and spatial expression of steroidogenic enzymes involved in glucocorticoid biosynthesis (cyp21a2, cyp11c1, cyp11a1, cyp11a2, cyp17a1, cyp17a2, hsd3b1, hsd3b2), as well as the mitochondrial electron-providing co-factors ferredoxin (fdx1, fdx1b) during zebrafish development...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480934/a-systematic-review-and-quantitative-meta-analysis-of-oxytocin-s-effects-on-feeding
#20
REVIEW
Monica Leslie, Paulo Silva, Yannis Paloyelis, James Blevins, Janet Treasure
PURPOSE: Oxytocin's anorexigenic effects have been widely documented and accepted; however, no paper has yet used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines to compile previous findings in a single systematic review and quantitative meta-analysis. The current paper aimed to identify published and unpublished studies examining the effects of oxytocin on energy intake in animals and humans, and the factors that moderate this effect. METHODS: Web of Science, Pub Med, and Ovid were searched for published and unpublished studies reporting the effects of oxytocin on energy intake in wild-type animals and in humans, when administered in the absence of other active drugs or surgery...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
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