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Journal of Neuroendocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614607/anatomical-and-functional-implications-of-crh-neurons-in-a-septal-nucleus-of-the-avian-brain-an-emphasis-on-glial-neuronal-interaction-via-v1a-receptors-in-vitro
#1
Gurueswar Nagarajan, Alexander Jurkevich, Seong W Kang, Wayne J Kuenzel
Previously, we showed that corticotropin releasing hormone immunoreactive (CRH-ir) neurons in a septal structure are associated with stress and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in birds. In this study, we focused upon CRH-ir neurons located within the septal structure called the nucleus of the hippocampal commissure (NHpC). Immunocytochemical and gene expression analyses were used to identify the anatomical and functional characteristics of cells within the NHpC. A comparative morphometry analysis showed that CRH-ir neurons in the NHpC were significantly larger than CRH-ir parvocellular neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590577/non-neural-androgen-receptors-affect-sexual-differentiation-of-brain-and-behavior
#2
REVIEW
D A Monks, A Swift-Gallant
Although gonadal testosterone is the principal endocrine factor that promotes masculine traits in mammals, the development of a male phenotype requires local production of both androgenic and estrogenic signals within target tissues. Much of our knowledge concerning androgenic components of testosterone signaling in sexual differentiation comes from studies of androgen receptor (Ar) loss of function mutants. Here, we review these studies of loss of Ar function and of AR overexpression either globally or selectively in the nervous system of mice...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585265/past-present-and-future-of-epigenetics-in-brain-sexual-differentiation
#3
REVIEW
Nancy G Forger
Sexual differentiation has long been considered "epigenetic," although the meaning of that word has shifted over time. Here we track the evolution of ideas about epigenetics in sexual differentiation, and identify principles that have emerged from recent studies. Experiments manipulating a particular epigenetic mechanism during neonatal life demonstrate a role for both histone acetylation and DNA methylation in the development of sex differences in the brain and behavior of rodents. In addition, hormone-dependent sex differences in the number of neurons of a particular phenotype may be programmed by differences in DNA methylation early in life...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561903/arcuate-nucleus-neuropeptide-coexpression-and-connections-to-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-neurons-in-the-female-rhesus-macaque
#4
Cadence True, Diana Takahashi, Melissa Kirigiti, Sarah Rene Lindsley, Cloe Moctezuma, Anam Arik, M Susan Smith, Paul Kievit, Kevin L Grove
The underlying hypothalamic neurocircuitry by which metabolism and feeding regulates reproductive function has been well-studied in the rodent; however, recent data demonstrated significant neuroanatomical differences in the human brain. The current study had three objectives, centered on arcuate nucleus neuropeptides regulating feeding and reproduction: 1) characterize coexpression patterns in the female nonhuman primate, 2) establish whether these neuronal populations make potential contacts with GnRH neurons and 3) determine whether these contacts differ between the low and high GnRH-releasing states of pre-puberty and adulthood, respectively...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544399/molecular-species-of-prostaglandins-involved-in-modulating-luteinizing-hormone-pulses-of-female-rats-under-infectious-stress-conditions
#5
Takashi Matsuwaki, Mugiko Komatsuda, Ayano Fujisawa, Mio Doke, Keitaro Yamanouchi, Masugi Nishihara
Mammalian reproductive function is controlled by the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, which is suppressed under infectious stress conditions. We have previously demonstrated, by analyzing the pulsatility of luteinizing hormone (LH), that prostaglandins (PGs) in the central nervous system (CNS) mediate infectious stress to suppress the activity of the HPG axis. The aim of the present study is to characterize the types of PGs responsible for suppression of the HPG axis. We focused on 3 major types of PGs, i...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523794/mineralocorticoid-receptor-associates-with-pro-inflammatory-bias-in-hippocampus-of-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#6
María Elvira Brocca, Luciana Pietranera, Maria Meyer, Analia Lima, Paulina Roig, E Ronald de Kloet, Alejandro F De Nicola
Damage observed in the hippocampus of the adult spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) resembles the neuropathology of mineralocorticoid-induced hypertension, supporting a similar endocrine dysfunction in both entities. In this study we have tested the hypothesis that increased expression of the hippocampal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in SHR animals is associated with a prevalent expression of pro-inflammatory over anti-inflammatory factors. For this purpose we measured in hippocampus mRNA expression and immunoreactivity of the MR and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) using qPCR and histochemistry...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514514/alternation-between-short-and-long-photoperiod-reveals-hypothalamic-gene-regulation-linked-to-seasonal-body-weight-changes-in-djungarian-hamsters-phodopus-sungorus
#7
Jonathan H H Bank, Dana Wilson, Eddy Rijntjes, Perry Barrett, Annika Herwig
Djungarian hamsters are able to reduce their body weight by more than 30% in anticipation of the winter season. This particular adaptation to extreme environmental conditions is primarily driven by a natural reduction in day length and conserved under laboratory conditions. We used this animal model to investigate hypothalamic gene expression linked to body weight regulation behind this physiological phenomenon. After an initial collective short photoperiod (SP) adaptation for 14 weeks from a preceding long photoperiod (LP), hamsters were re-exposed to LP for either six or 14 weeks, followed by a second re-exposure to SP for eight weeks...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514502/structural-and-functional-characteristics-of-estrogen-receptor-beta-er%C3%AE-splice-variants-implications-for-the-aging-brain
#8
REVIEW
Chun K Kim, Audrey Torcaso, AnnaDorothea Asimes, Wilson C J Chung, Toni R Pak
Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is a multifunctional nuclear receptor that mediates the actions of estrogenic compounds. Despite its well defined role in mediating the actions of estrogens, a substantial body of evidence demonstrates that ERβ has broad range of physiological functions that are independent of those normally attributed to estrogen signaling. These functions can, in part, be achieved by the activity of several alternatively spliced isoforms that have been identified for ERβ. This short review will describe structural differences between the ERβ splice variants that are known to be translated into proteins...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489322/developmental-effects-of-androgens-in-the-human-brain
#9
REVIEW
Tuong-Vi Nguyen
Neuroendocrine theories of brain development posit that androgens play a crucial role in sex-specific cortical growth, but little is known about the differential effects of testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on cortico-limbic development and cognition during adolescence. In this context, the NIH Study of Normal Brain Development, a longitudinal study of typically developing children and adolescents 4 to 24 years of age (n=433), offered a unique opportunity to examine the developmental effects of androgens on cortico-limbic maturation and cognition...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489296/rapid-actions-of-estrogens-and-their-receptors-on-memory-acquisition-and-consolidation-in-females
#10
REVIEW
Paul A S Sheppard, Wendy A Koss, Karyn M Frick, Elena Choleris
Increased attention has been paid in recent years to the ways in which estrogens and estrogen receptors rapidly affect learning and memory. These rapid effects occur within a timeframe too narrow for the classical genomic mode of estrogen action, thus suggesting non-classical effects as underlying mechanisms. The present review examines recent developments in the study of the rapid effects of 17β-estradiol and estrogen receptor (ER) agonists on learning and memory tasks in female rodents, including social recognition, object recognition, object placement (spatial memory), and social learning...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485080/pelp1-a-key-mediator-of-estrogen-signaling-and-actions-in-the-brain
#11
REVIEW
Roshni Thakkar, Gangadhara Reddy Sareddy, Quanguang Zhang, Ruimin Wang, Ratna K Vadlamudi, Darrell Brann
Proline-, Glutamic acid-, and Leucine-rich Protein 1 (PELP1) is an estrogen receptor (ER) coregulator protein identified by our collaborative group. Work from our lab and others has shown that PELP1 is a scaffold protein that interacts with ERs, kinase signaling factors, as well as proteins involved in chromatin remodeling and DNA repair. Its role in mediating 17β-Estradiol (E2) signaling and actions has been heavily studied in cancer cells, but only recently has attention turned to its role in the brain. In this review, we discuss the tissue, cellular and subcellular localization of PELP1 in the brain...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485050/y5-receptor-signalling-counteracts-the-anorectic-effects-of-pyy3-36-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#12
Yan-Chuan Shi, Chi Kin Ip, Felicia Reed, David A Sarruf, Birgitte S Wulff, Herbert Herzog
Peptide YY 3-36 (PYY3-36) is known as a critical satiety factor reducing food intake both in rodents and humans. While the anorexic effect of PYY3-36 is thought to be mediated mainly by the Y2 receptor, the involvement of other Y-receptors in this process has never been conclusively resolved. Amongst them the Y5 receptor (Y5R) is the most likely candidate to also be a target for PYY3-36 which is thought to counteract the anorectic effects of Y2R activation. Here we show that short term treatment of diet induced obese WT and Y5R knockout mice (Y5KO) with PYY3-36 leads to significantly reduced food intake in both genotypes, which is more pronounced in Y5R KO mice...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477438/temporal-and-regional-onset-of-leptin-resistance-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#13
Mohammed Z Rizwan, Sven Mehlitz, David R Grattan, Alexander Tups
In common forms of obesity, leptin fails to convey its regulatory effect. This so called "leptin resistance", is not well understood, and solving this puzzle is a key to understanding how obesity develops. Here, we investigated the temporal and regional onset of leptin resistance in response to a diet enriched with long-chain saturated fatty acids (HFD) in mice. Mice were exposed to either low-fat diet (LFD) or HFD for 4hr, 24hr, 10d and 28d. Mice in each group received an i.p injection of either PBS or leptin and the number of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (pSTAT3) immunoreactive (ir) cells in the ARC, VMH and DMH were analysed 30- or 120 min after treatment...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477436/brain-inflammasomes-in-stroke-and-depressive-disorders-regulation-by-estrogen
#14
REVIEW
Alexander Slowik, Leoni Lammerding, Stefanie Hoffmann, Cordian Beyer
Neuroinflammation is a devastating pathophysiological process which ends up in brain damage and neuronal death. Pathogens, cell fragments and cellular dysfunction trigger inflammatory responses. Irrespective of the cause, inflammasomes are key intracellular multiprotein signaling platforms which sense neuropathological conditions. The activation of inflammasomes leads to the auto-proteolytic cleavage of caspase-1, resulting in the proteolysis of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)1beta and IL18 into their bioactive forms...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475285/involvement-of-neurone-glia-neurone-neurone-communications-via-gap-junctions-in-synchronised-activity-of-kndy-neurones
#15
K Ikegami, S Minabe, N Ieda, T Goto, A Sugimoto, S Nakamura, N Inoue, S Oishi, A D Maturana, M Sanbo, M Hirabayashi, K-I Maeda, H Tsukamura, Y Uenoyama
Pulsatile secretion of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)/luteinizing hormone is indispensable for puberty onset and reproductive activities at adulthood in mammalian species. A cohort of neurones expressing three neuropeptides, kisspeptin, encoded by Kiss1 gene, neurokinin B (NKB) and dynorphin A, localised in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), so-called KNDy neurones, are a putative intrinsic source of the GnRH pulse generator. Synchronous activity among KNDy neurones is thought to be required for pulsatile GnRH secretion...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475260/a-focus-on-reward-in-anorexia-nervosa-through-the-lens-of-the-activity-based-anorexia-aba-rodent-model
#16
REVIEW
Claire J Foldi, Laura K Milton, Brian J Oldfield
Patients suffering anorexia nervosa (AN) become anhedonic, unable or unwilling to derive normal pleasures and tend to avoid rewarding outcomes, most profoundly in food intake. The activity-based anorexia (ABA) model recapitulates many of the pathophysiological and behavioural hallmarks of the human condition, including a reduction in food intake, excessive exercise, dramatic weight loss, loss of reproductive cycles, hypothermia and anhedonia, and therefore allows investigation of the underlying neurobiology of AN...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445617/a-new-society-for-the-new-world
#17
EDITORIAL
Mike Lehman
While national and regional neuroendocrine societies have existed for some time in Europe and Asia, the Americas have not had a regional society devoted to neuroendocrinology since the "American Neuroendocrine Society" which was active in the 1990s and 2000s. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425631/restraint-stress-increases-prolactin-mediated-phosphorylation-of-signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-5-in-the-hypothalamus-and-adrenal-cortex-in-the-male-mouse
#18
S E Kirk, T Y Xie, F J Steyn, D R Grattan, S J Bunn
Prolactin is a pleiotropic peptide hormone produced by the lactotrophs in the anterior pituitary. Its rate of secretion is primarily regulated by a negative feedback mechanism whereby prolactin stimulates the activity of the tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurons, increasing their release of dopamine which accesses the pituitary via the median eminence to suppress further prolactin secretion. In addition to its well established role in lactation, circulating prolactin is secreted in response to stress, although the mechanism by which this is achieved or its cellular targets are unknown...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406523/exposure-to-extrinsic-stressors-social-defeat-or-bisphenol-a-eliminates-sex-differences-in-dna-methyltransferase-expression-in-the-amygdala
#19
Emily C Wright, Sarah A Johnson, Rebecca Hao, Alex S Kowalczyk, Gian D Greenberg, Evelyn Ordoñes Sanchez, Abigail Laman-Maharg, Brian C Trainor, Cheryl S Rosenfeld
Chemical and psychological stressors can exert long lasting changes in brain function and behavior. Changes in DNA methylation have been shown to be an important mechanism mediating long lasting changes in neural function and behavior, especially for anxiety-like or stress responses. Here we examined the effects of either a social or chemical stressor on DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) gene expression in the amygdala, an important brain region modulating stress responses and anxiety. In adult California mice (Peromyscus californicus) that were naïve to social defeat, females had higher levels of Dnmt1 expression in punch samples of the central amygdala (CeA) than males...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380673/acyl-ghrelin-improves-cognition-synaptic-plasticity-deficits-and-neuroinflammation-following-amyloid-beta-a%C3%AE-1-40-administration-in-mice
#20
Vanessa V Santos, Romana Stark, Daniel Rial, Henrique B Silva, Jacqueline A Bayliss, Moyra B Lemus, Jeffrey S Davies, Rodrigo A Cunha, Rui Daniel Prediger, Zane B Andrews
Ghrelin is a metabolic hormone that has neuroprotective actions in a number of neurological conditions including Parkinson's disease (PD), stroke and traumatic brain injury. Acyl ghrelin treatment in vivo and in vitro also shows protective capacity in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we used ghrelin knockout (KO) and their wildtype (WT) littermates to test whether or not endogenous ghrelin is protective in a mouse model of AD, in which human amyloid beta peptide (Aβ1-40 ) was injected into the lateral ventricles (icv)...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
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