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Journal of Neuroendocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803453/repeated-exposure-to-two-stressors-in-sequence-demonstrates-that-corticosterone-and-pvn-interleukin-1%C3%AE-responses-habituate-independently
#1
Dennis F Lovelock, Terrence Deak
A wide range of stress-related pathologies such as post-traumatic stress disorder are thought to arise from aberrant or maladaptive forms of stress adaptation. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis readily adapts to repeated stressor exposure, yet little is known about adaptation in neuroimmune responses to repeated or sequential stress challenges. In Experiment 1, rats were exposed to ten days of restraint alone (60 min daily), forced swim alone (30 min daily), or daily sequential exposure to restraint (60 min) followed immediately by forced swim (30 minutes), termed sequential stress exposure...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771924/less-is-more-caloric-regulation-of-neurogenesis-and-adult-brain-function
#2
REVIEW
Alwena H Morgan, Zane B Andrews, Jeffrey S Davies
Calorie intake is essential for regulating normal physiological processes and is fundamental to maintaining life. Indeed, both extremes of calorie intake result in increased morbidity and mortality. In this review, we discuss the effect of calorie intake on adult brain function, with emphasis on the beneficial effects of mild calorie restriction. Recent findings relating to the regenerative and protective effect of the gastrointestinal hormone, ghrelin, suggest that it may underlie the beneficial effects of calorie restriction...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758251/insulin-action-in-the-brain-roles-in-energy-and-glucose-homeostasis
#3
REVIEW
Garron T Dodd, Tony Tiganis
A growing body of evidence from research in rodents and humans has identified insulin as an important neuoregulatory peptide in the brain, where it coordinates diverse aspects of energy balance and peripheral glucose homeostasis. This review discusses where and how insulin interacts within the brain and evaluates the physiological and pathophysiological consequences of central insulin signalling in metabolism, obesity and type 2 diabetes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
July 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744978/the-role-of-prolactin-in-the-suppression-of-crh-mrna-expression-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-in-the-mouse
#4
Papillon Gustafson, Stephen Bunn, David R Grattan
Maternal stress is associated with negative health consequences for both the mother and her offspring. To prevent these adverse outcomes, activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is attenuated during pregnancy and lactation. While the mechanisms generating this adaptive change have not been fully defined, the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin may play a significant role. This study investigated the role of prolactin in regulating the basal activity of the HPA axis during pregnancy and lactation in the mouse, focussing upon the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727208/differential-expression-of-appetite-regulating-genes-in-avian-models-of-anorexia-and-obesity
#5
Jiaqing Yi, Jingwei Yuan, Elizabeth R Gilbert, Paul B Siegel, Mark A Cline
Chickens from lines that have been selected for low (LWS) or high (HWS) juvenile body weight for more than 57 generations provide a unique model to research appetite regulation. The LWS display different severities of anorexia while all HWS become obese. Herein we measured mRNA abundance of various factors in appetite-associated nuclei in the hypothalamus. The lateral hypothalamus (LHA), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), dorsomedial nucleus (DMN), and arcuate nucleus (ARC) were collected from 5 day-old chicks that were fasted for 180 minutes or provided continuous access to food...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722251/alteration-in-the-relationship-between-tanycytes-and-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-gnrh-neurosecretory-terminals-following-long-term-metabolic-manipulation-in-the-sheep
#6
Robert Pouchain Ribeiro Neto, Iain J Clarke, Gregory Conductier
The activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis is influenced by energy reserves, such that an increase or a decrease in adiposity may perturb the secretion and action of GnRH. This is thought to be due to the signalling of hormones such as leptin, which act upon neuronal systems controlling GnRH secretion. Other work shows plasticity in the relationship between tanycytes and GnRH neurosecretory terminals in the median eminence across the estrous cycle and we hypothesised that similar plasticity may occur with altered metabolic status...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718934/nad-a-key-metabolic-regulator-with-great-therapeutic-potential
#7
REVIEW
Ghazal Sultani, Azrah F Samsudeen, Brenna Osborne, Nigel Turner
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+) ) is a ubiquitous metabolite that serves an essential role in the catabolism of nutrients. Recently there has been a surge of interest in NAD(+) biology, with the recognition that NAD(+) influences many biological processes beyond metabolism, including transcription, signalling and cell survival. There are a multitude of pathways involved in the synthesis and breakdown of NAD(+) , and alterations in NAD(+) homeostasis have emerged as a common feature of a range of disease states...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718206/delta-like-protein-1-in-the-pituitary-adipose-axis-in-the-adult-male-mouse
#8
Aixa R Bello, Ricardo A Puertas-Avendaño, María J González-Gómez, Miriam González-Gómez, Jorge Laborda, Carmen Damas, María Ruiz-Hidalgo, Carmen Diaz
With the aim of studying delta-like protein 1 (DLK1) implication in the relationship between adipocyte leptin and adenohypophyseal hormones, we carried out an immunohistochemical study to analyse the presence of receptors for these hormones in pituitary and adipose cells of male wildtype mice (Dlk1(+/+) ), compared to knockout mice (Dlk1(-/-) ). The mRNA expression of these molecules was also determined by RT-PCR. Our results showed that in wildtype adipose cells all the adenohypophyseal hormone receptors were present, with a higher mRNA expression for GHR and TSHR...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699305/enhancement-of-the-lh-surge-by-male-olfactory-signals-is-associated-with-avpv-kiss1-cell-activation-in-female-rats
#9
Youki Watanabe, Kana Ikegami, Ren Ishigaki, Nahoko Ieda, Yoshihisa Uenoyama, Kei-Ichiro Maeda, Hiroko Tsukamura, Naoko Inoue
Olfactory stimuli play an important role in regulating reproductive functions in mammals. The present study investigated the effect of olfactory signals derived from male rats on kisspeptin neuronal activity and luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in female rats. Wistar-Imamichi strain female rats were ovariectomised (OVX) and implanted with preovulatory levels of oestradiol-17β (E2). OVX+E2 rats were sacrificed 1 hour after exposure to either: clean bedding, female-soiled bedding or male-soiled bedding. Dual staining for Kiss1 mRNA in situ hybridization and c-Fos immunohistochemistry revealed that the numbers of Kiss1-expressing cells and c-Fos-immunopositive Kiss1-expressing cells in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) were significantly higher in OVX+E2 rats exposed to male-soiled bedding than those of the other groups...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699230/short-term-high-fat-diet-increases-the-presence-of-astrocytes-in-the-hypothalamus-of-c57bl6-mice-without-altering-leptin-sensitivity
#10
Eglantine Balland, Michael A Cowley
Diet-induced obesity is associated with hypothalamic inflammation and this phenomenon has been proposed to explain leptin resistance. In this study we used a short-term high fat diet (HFD) paradigm for 10days and analysed the cellular and physiological responses to leptin administration in C57BL6 mice. In parallel we performed GFAP immuno-staining to measure the presence of astrocytes in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH) after 10 days and 20 weeks of HFD. Interestingly our results demonstrate that the presence of star-like astrocytes is significantly increased after 10 days of HFD but this is not associated with the absence of cellular and physiological response to leptin administration in mice...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683170/noradrenergic-modulation-of-gonadotropin-inhibitory-hormone-gene-expression-in-the-brain-of-japanese-quail
#11
Yasuko Tobari, Norio Kansaku, Kazuyoshi Tsutsui
Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that inhibits gonadotropin synthesis and release in birds and mammals. In Japanese quail, GnIH neurons express the noradrenergic receptor and receive noradrenergic innervation. Treatment with noradrenaline (NA) stimulates GnIH release from diencephalic tissue blocks in vitro. However, the effects of NA on hypothalamic GnIH gene expression have not been determined. We investigated noradrenergic regulation of GnIH gene expression in the brain of male quail using the selective noradrenergic neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride (DSP-4)...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675783/insulin-and-leptin-excite-anorexigenic-proopiomelanocortin-neurons-via-activation-of-trpc5-channels
#12
REVIEW
Jian Qiu, Edward J Wagner, Oline K Rønnekleiv, Martin J Kelly
Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons within the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus are vital anorexigenic neurons. Both the insulin receptor and leptin receptor are coupled to activation of phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) to regulate multiple functions that increase POMC neuronal excitability. Using whole-cell recording in several mammalian species, we have found that both insulin and leptin depolarized POMC neurons via activation of TRPC5 channels. TRPC5 channels have been rigorously characterized as the downstream effector based on their biophysical properties, pharmacological profile and localization by immunocytochemistry and scRT-PCR...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675779/neurosteroidogenesis-and-progesterone-anti-inflammatory-neuroprotective-effects
#13
REVIEW
Alejandro F De Nicola, Laura I Garay, Maria Meyer, Rachida Guennoun, Regine Sitruk-Ware, Michael Schumacher, Maria Claudia Gonzalez Deniselle
Progesterone shows anti-inflammatory and promyelinating effects in mice with autoimmune experimental encephalomyelitis (EAE), a commonly used model for multiple sclerosis (MS). Since neurosteroids have been implicated as protective factors for MS and EAE, we analyzed the expression of neurosteroidogenic enzymes in the compromised spinal cord of EAE mice. EAE was induced in female C57Bl6 mice and killed on day 16 after induction. Progesterone was given by pellet implantation 1 week before EAE induction. Untreated EAE mice showed decreased mRNAs for the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (Star), voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), cholesterol side-chain cleavage (P450scc), 5α-reductase, 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSOR) and aromatase, whereas changes of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) were not significant...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667781/translocator-protein-18-kda-an-update-on-its-function-in-steroidogenesis
#14
REVIEW
Vassilios Papadopoulos, Jinjiang Fan, Barry Zirkin
Translocator protein (18 kDa), TSPO, is a ubiquitous mitochondrial protein. Studies of its responses to drug and endogenous ligands have shown TSPO to be involved either directly or indirectly in numerous biological functions, including mitochondrial cholesterol transport and steroid hormone biosynthesis, porphyrin transport and heme synthesis, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and anion transport. Localized to the outer mitochondrial membrane of steroidogenic cells, TSPO has been shown to associate with cytosolic and mitochondrial proteins as part of a large multiprotein complex involved in mitochondrial cholesterol transport, the rate-limiting step in steroidogenesis...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665507/participation-of-hypothalamic-cb1-receptors-in-reproductive-axis-disruption-during-immune-challenge
#15
Pablo Nicolás Surkin, María Emilia Di Rosso, Fernando Correa, Juan Carlos Elverdin, Ana María Genaro, Andrea De Laurentiis, Javier Fernández-Solari
It is known that immune challenge inhibits reproductive function and that endocannabinoids (eCB) modulate sexual hormones. However, no studies have been performed to assess whether the endocannabinoid system mediates the inhibition of hormones that control reproduction due to immune system activation during systemic infections. For that reason, we evaluated the participation of the hypothalamic cannabinoid receptor CB1 on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis activity in rats submitted to immune challenge...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653356/arcuate-nucleus-homeostatic-systems-reflect-blood-leptin-concentration-but-not-feeding-behaviour-during-scheduled-feeding-on-a-high-fat-diet-in-mice
#16
T Bake, J Baron, J S Duncan, D G A Morgan, J G Mercer
Hypothalamic homeostatic and forebrain reward-related genes were examined in the context of scheduled meal feeding without caloric restriction in C57BL/6 mice. Mice fed ad libitum but allowed access to a palatable high fat diet for 2 h a day rapidly adapted their feeding behaviour and consumed approximately 80% of their daily caloric intake during this 2 h scheduled feed. Gene expression levels were examined during either the first or second hour of scheduled feeding vs. 24 h ad libitum feeding on the same high fat diet...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650102/endocrine-influence-on-neuroinflammation-the-use-of-reporter-systems
#17
REVIEW
Nicoletta Rizzi, Alessandro Villa, Valeria Benedusi, Electra Brunialti, Nicoletta Cesari, Paolo Ciana, Adriana Maggi
Most of the ageing-associated pathologies are coupled with a strong inflammatory component that accelerates the progress of the physio-pathological functional decline related to ageing. The currently available pharmacological tools for the control of neuroinflammation present several side effects which restrict their application, particularly in chronic disorders. The discovery of the potential anti-inflammatory action exerted by endogenous estrogens and that activation of ERα results in a significant decrease of inflammation at the cellular level and in models of inflammatory diseases, prompted us to embark in a series of studies aimed at the generation of reporter systems allowing to i...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650095/sex-differences-in-brain-mitochondrial-metabolism-influence-of-endogenous-steroids-and-stroke
#18
REVIEW
P Gaignard, M Fréchou, P Liere, P Thérond, M Schumacher, A Slama, R Guennoun
Steroids are neuroprotective and growing body of evidence indicates that mitochondria are a potential target of their effects. The mitochondria are the site of cellular energy synthesis, regulate oxidative stress and play a key role in cell death after brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases. After a summary of the literature on the general functions of mitochondria and the effects of sex steroid administrations on mitochondrial metabolism, we will summarize and discuss our recent findings concerning sex differences in brain mitochondrial function in physiological and pathological conditions...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650080/effects-of-central-administration-of-resistin-on-renal-sympathetic-nerve-activity-in-rats-fed-a-high-fat-diet-a-comparison-with-leptin
#19
Hamza Habeeballah, Naif Alsuhaymi, Martin J Stebbing, Emilio Badoer
Resistin acts centrally to increase renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). This is similar to leptin. In high fat fed animals, the sympatho-excitatory effects of leptin are retained, in contrast to the reduced actions of leptin on dietary intake. In the present study we investigated whether the sympatho-excitatory actions of resistin were influenced by a high fat diet. Further, since resistin and leptin combined can induce a greater sympatho-excitatory response than each alone in rats fed a normal chow diet, we investigated whether a high fat diet (22%) could influence this centrally mediated interaction...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614607/anatomical-and-functional-implications-of-crh-neurons-in-a-septal-nucleus-of-the-avian-brain-an-emphasis-on-glial-neuronal-interaction-via-v1a-receptors-in-vitro
#20
Gurueswar Nagarajan, Alexander Jurkevich, Seong W Kang, Wayne J Kuenzel
Previously, we showed that corticotropin releasing hormone immunoreactive (CRH-ir) neurons in a septal structure are associated with stress and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in birds. In this study, we focused upon CRH-ir neurons located within the septal structure called the nucleus of the hippocampal commissure (NHpC). Immunocytochemical and gene expression analyses were used to identify the anatomical and functional characteristics of cells within the NHpC. A comparative morphometry analysis showed that CRH-ir neurons in the NHpC were significantly larger than CRH-ir parvocellular neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
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