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Journal of Neuroendocrinology

Kamil Ziarniak, Paweł A Kołodziejski, Ewa Pruszyńska-Oszmałek, Imre Kallό, Joanna H Śliwowska
Apart from the primary metabolic symptoms of obesity and/or diabetes, there are numerous secondary problems, including disruptions of the reproductive system. The KNDy neurons, expressing kisspeptin, neurokinin B and dynorphin A and located in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC), are important regulators of reproduction. Their functions are highly influenced by the metabolic and hormonal status. We have previously shown that in male rats with experimentally induced diabetes type 2 (but not with high-fat diet-induced obesity) alterations are found in the number of these cells...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Andrea Gogos, Madeleine McCarthy, Adam J Walker, Madhara Udawela, Andrew Gibbons, Brian Dean, Snezana Kusljic
Sex differences are a prominent feature of the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, such as major depressive disorder which affects women at a higher incidence than men. Research suggests that the most potent endogenous estrogen, 17β-estradiol, may have therapeutic potential in treating depression. However, preclinical studies have produced mixed results, likely due to various methodological factors such as treatment duration. This study aimed to investigate the effects of ovariectomy and chronic 17β-estradiol treatment via a subcutaneous silastic implant on behaviours relevant to depression in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Luke A Schwerdtfeger, Stuart A Tobet
Methods used to study neuroendocrinology have been as diverse as the discoveries to come out of the field. Maintaining live neurons outside of a body in vitro was important from the beginning, building on methods that dated back to at least the first decade of the 20th century. Neurosecretion defines an essential foundation of neuroendocrinology based on work that began in the 1920's and 1930's. Throughout the first half of the 20th century, many paradigms arose for studying everything from single neurons to whole organs in vitro...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
María Luz Leicaj, Laura Pasquini, Analia Lima, M Claudia Gonzalez Deniselle, Juana Maria Pasquini, Alejandro F De Nicola, Laura I Garay
Literature evidence indicates that changes of neurosteroids may be involved in the pathophysiology of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The present study assessed if changes of neurosteroidogenesis also occurred in gray and white matter regions of the brain from mice subjected to cuprizone-induced demyelination. To this end, we compared the expression of neurosteroidogenic proteins including steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), 18 Kd translocator protein (TSPO), and neurosteroidogenic enzymes including the side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/ isomerase (3β-HSD) and 5α-reductase (5α-R) during the demyelination and remyelination periods...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Isabelle Côté, Sara M Green, Joshua F Yarrow, Christine F Conover, Hale Z Toklu, Drake Morgan, Christy S Carter, Nihal Tümer, Philip J Scarpace
We recently showed that male compared to female rats exhibit lower hypophagia and body weight (BW) loss following central leptin delivery, suggesting a role for estradiol in leptin responsiveness. Addressing this, we delivered Ob (Leptin) or GFP (Control) gene into the brain of male rats that were simultaneously treated with estradiol or Vehicle. In a reciprocal approach, we compared estradiol-deficient (Ovx) to intact females (Sham) that received Leptin or Control vector. Changes in food intake (FI), BW, and body composition were examined...
September 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Putul Banerjee, Radha Chaube, Keerikkattil Paily Joy
The present study reports the molecular cloning of a previously uncharacterized neurohypophyseal nonapeptide precursor cDNA in two catfish species, Heteropneustes fossilis and Clarias batrachus. The deduced nonapeptide is CYISNCPVG ([V8] isotocin) which has not been reported in any vertebrate till date. Phylogenetic and conserved synteny analyses showed the gene to have originated from the isotocin precursor (pro-it) gene by the fish-specific whole genome duplication (3R). The two isotocin lineages have been designated as pro-ita (new gene) and pro-itb (conventional it gene)...
September 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Jago M Van Dam, Amy J Garrett, Luke A Schneider, Femke T A Buisman-Pijlman, Michelle A Short, Nicolette A Hodyl, Hannah K Edwards, Mitchell R Goldsworthy, Julia B Pitcher
Exogenously-administered oxytocin interacts with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to modulate endogenous cortisol levels, suggesting a synergistic role for these two hormones in the response to stress, cognitive performance, and the development of psycho-behavioural disorders. The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is considered a reliable measure of HPA axis function in humans. However, the CAR appears to vary considerably from day to day, and may be strongly influenced by the anticipated demands of the day ahead...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Simon C Cork
The communication between the gut and the brain is important for the control of energy homeostasis. In response to food intake, enteroendocrine cells secrete gut hormones which ultimately suppress appetite through centrally-mediated processes. Increasing evidence implicates the vagus nerve as an important conduit in transmitting these signals from the gastrointestinal tract to the brain. Studies have demonstrated that many of the gut hormones secreted from enteroendocrine cells signal through the vagus nerve, and the sensitivity of the vagus to these signals is regulated by feeding status...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Ying Sze, Andrew C Gill, Paula J Brunton
Sex differences in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity are well established in rodents. In addition to glucocorticoids, stress also stimulates secretion of progesterone and deoxycorticosterone (DOC) from the adrenal gland. Neuroactive steroid metabolites of these precursors can modulate HPA axis function; however it is not known whether levels of these steroids differ between male and females following stress. Here we aimed to establish whether neuroactive steroid concentrations in the brain display sex- and/or region-specific differences under basal conditions and following exposure to acute stress...
September 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Shu-Ling Liang
The astrocytic glutamine (Gln)-glutamate (Glu) cycle (GGC) supplies Gln for the regulation of glutamatergic synaptic transmission (GST) in the adult hippocampus. Increased synaptic Glu release in the perinatal ventrolateral ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (vlVMH) modulates sexual differentiation, but whether GGC regulates GST in the perinatal vlVMH has not been ascertained. Sex differences in estradiol (E2) levels exist in the neonatal hypothalamus, and E2 increases levels of GS and glutaminase, two key enzymes involved in the GGC...
August 31, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Kirthikaa Balapattabi, Joel T Little, George E Farmer, J Thomas Cunningham
High salt loading (SL) is associated with inappropriate arginine vasopressin (AVP) release and increased mean arterial pressure. Previous work has shown that chronic high salt intake impairs baroreceptor inhibition of rat AVP neurons through Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) dependent activation of tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) and downregulation of K+ /Cl- co-transporter KCC2. This mechanism diminishes the GABAA inhibition of AVP neurons in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) by increasing intracellular chloride ([Cl]i )...
August 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Zahra Khazaeipool, Meagan Wiederman, Wataru Inoue
Inflammation-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and ensuing release of anti-inflammatory glucocorticoids are critical for the fine-tuning of the inflammatory response. This immune-induced neuroendocrine response is in large part mediated by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), the central actions of which ultimately translate into the excitation of parvocellular neuroendocrine cells (PNCs) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. However, the neuronal mechanisms by which PGE2 excites PNCs remain incompletely understood...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Celia Sladek, Maria José A Rocha, Mike Ludwig
This Special Issue of Journal of Neuroendocrinology comprises six reviews and eight original research articles describing recent advances in the field of Vasopressin and Oxytocin hormone research based on presentations given at the 12th World Congress on Neurohypophysial Hormones held in July 2017, in Brazil. We, the Chair of the Local Organising Committee and Guest Editor (Maria José A. Rocha) and Guest/Senior Editors for this issue (Celia Sladek and Mike Ludwig), would like to thank the contributors for their excellent reviews and original research articles, the colleagues who reviewed these articles and the Editorial Board of Journal of Neuroendocrinology for their enthusiastic support of the Special Issue...
July 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Shaila K Mani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Ashley L Russell, Jeffrey G Tasker, Aldo B Lucion, Jenny Fiedler, Carolina D Munhoz, Tao-Yiao John Wu, Terrence Deak
Effective coordination of the biological stress response is integral for the behavioural well-being of an organism. Stress reactivity is coordinated by an interplay of the neuroendocrine system and the sympathetic nervous system. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis plays a key role in orchestrating the bodily responses to stress, and the activity of the axis can be modified by a wide range of experiential events. This review focuses on several factors that influence subsequent HPA axis reactivity...
October 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
P N Surkin, H Brenhouse, T Deak, A C Liberman, M Lasaga
Although stress is an adaptive physiological response to deal with adverse conditions, its occurrence during the early stages of life, such as infancy or adolescence, can induce adaptations in multiple physiological systems, including the reproductive axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the limbic cortex and the immune system. These early changes have consequences in adult life, as seen in the physiological and behavioural responses to stress. This review highlights the impact of several stress challenges incurred at various stages of development (perinatal, juvenile, adolescent periods) and how the developmental timing of early-life stress confers unique physiological adaptations that may persist across the lifespan...
October 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
A L Heck, C C Crestani, A Fernández-Guasti, D O Larco, A Mayerhofer, C E Roselli
To maintain the health and well-being of all mammals, numerous aspects of physiology are controlled by neuroendocrine mechanisms. These mechanisms ultimately enable communication between neurones and glands throughout the body and are centrally mediated by neuropeptides and/or steroid hormones. A recent session at the International Workshop in Neuroendocrinology highlighted the essential roles of some of these neuropeptide and steroid hormone mediators in the neuroendocrine regulation of stress-, reproduction- and behaviour-related processes...
October 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
A Acevedo-Rodriguez, A S Kauffman, B D Cherrington, C S Borges, T A Roepke, M Laconi
Reproduction and fertility are regulated via hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Control of this reproductive axis occurs at all levels, including the brain and pituitary, and allows for the promotion or inhibition of gonadal sex steroid secretion and function. In addition to guiding proper gonadal development and function, gonadal sex steroids also act in negative- and positive-feedback loops to regulate reproductive circuitry in the brain, including kisspeptin neurones, thereby modulating overall HPG axis status...
October 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Hugues Dardente, Didier Lomet
The pars tuberalis (PT) of the pituitary is central to the control of seasonal breeding. In mammals, the PT translates the photoperiodic message carried by melatonin into an endocrine thyroid-stimulating hormone output, which controls local thyroid hormone (TH) signalling in tanycytes of the neighbouring hypothalamus. In the present study, we identify l-dopachrome tautomerase (Dct) as a novel marker of ovine tanycytes and show that Dct displays marked seasonal variations in expression, with higher levels during spring and summer...
September 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Mehmet Bülbül, Osman Sinen, Leyla Abueid, Gökhan Akkoyunlu, Özlem Özsoy
Exposure to an acute stressor induces up-regulation of apelin and cholecystokinin (CCK) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), which is the key brain centre integrating the stress-induced alterations in neuroendocrine, autonomic and behavioural functions. We tested the hypothesis that the release of CCK from the PVN is increased by centrally administered or stress-induced up-regulated endogenous apelin via the APJ receptor. Additionally, the effect of hypothalamic CCK on autonomic outflow was investigated under basal and stressed conditions...
September 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
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