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Journal of Neuroendocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425631/restraint-stress-increases-prolactin-mediated-phosphorylation-of-signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-5-in-the-hypothalamus-and-adrenal-cortex-in-the-male-mouse
#1
S E Kirk, T Y Xie, F J Steyn, D R Grattan, S J Bunn
Prolactin is a pleiotropic peptide hormone produced by the lactotrophs in the anterior pituitary. Its rate of secretion is primarily regulated by a negative feedback mechanism whereby prolactin stimulates the activity of the tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurons, increasing their release of dopamine which accesses the pituitary via the median eminence to suppress further prolactin secretion. In addition to its well established role in lactation, circulating prolactin is secreted in response to stress, although the mechanism by which this is achieved or its cellular targets are unknown...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406523/exposure-to-extrinsic-stressors-social-defeat-or-bisphenol-a-eliminates-sex-differences-in-dna-methyltransferase-expression-in-the-amygdala
#2
Emily C Wright, Sarah A Johnson, Rebecca Hao, Alex S Kowalczyk, Gian D Greenberg, Evelyn Ordoñes Sanchez, Abigail Laman-Maharg, Brian C Trainor, Cheryl S Rosenfeld
Chemical and psychological stressors can exert long lasting changes in brain function and behavior. Changes in DNA methylation have been shown to be an important mechanism mediating long lasting changes in neural function and behavior, especially for anxiety-like or stress responses. Here we examined the effects of either a social or chemical stressor on DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) gene expression in the amygdala, an important brain region modulating stress responses and anxiety. In adult California mice (Peromyscus californicus) that were naïve to social defeat, females had higher levels of Dnmt1 expression in punch samples of the central amygdala (CeA) than males...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380673/acyl-ghrelin-improves-cognition-synaptic-plasticity-deficits-and-neuroinflammation-following-amyloid-beta-a%C3%AE-1-40-administration-in-mice
#3
Vanessa V Santos, Romana Stark, Daniel Rial, Henrique B Silva, Jacqueline A Bayliss, Moyra B Lemus, Jeffrey S Davies, Rodrigo A Cunha, Rui Daniel Prediger, Zane B Andrews
Ghrelin is a metabolic hormone that has neuroprotective actions in a number of neurological conditions including Parkinson's disease (PD), stroke and traumatic brain injury. Acyl ghrelin treatment in vivo and in vitro also shows protective capacity in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we used ghrelin knockout (KO) and their wildtype (WT) littermates to test whether or not endogenous ghrelin is protective in a mouse model of AD, in which human amyloid beta peptide (Aβ1-40 ) was injected into the lateral ventricles (icv)...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378505/prolactin-receptors-in-rip-cre-cells-but-not-in-agrp-neurons-are-involved-in-energy-homeostasis
#4
S R Ladyman, M A MacLeod, Z Khant Aung, P Knowles, H R Phillipps, R S E Brown, D R Grattan
Among its many functions, prolactin has been implicated in energy homeostasis, particularly during pregnancy and lactation. The arcuate nucleus is a key site in the regulation of energy balance. The aim of this study was to examine whether arcuate nucleus neuronal populations involved in energy homeostasis are prolactin responsive and if they can mediate the effects of prolactin on energy homeostasis. To determine if Agrp neurons or Rip-Cre neurons are prolactin responsive, transgenic mice expressing the reporter td-tomato in Agrp neurons (td-tomato/AgRP-Cre) or Rip-Cre neurons (td-tomato/Rip-Cre) were treated with prolactin and perfused 45 minutes later...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370873/three-urocortins-in-medaka-identification-and-spatial-expression-in-the-central-nervous-system
#5
Kohei Hosono, Junpei Yamashita, Yukiko Kikuchi, Towako Hiraki-Kajiyama, Kataaki Okubo
The urocortin (UCN) group of neuropeptides includes urocortin 1/sauvagine/urotensin 1 (UTS1), urocortin 2 (UCN2), and urocortin 3 (UCN3). In recent years, evidence has accumulated showing that UCNs play pivotal roles in mediating stress response and anxiety in mammals. Evidence has also emerged regarding the evolutionary conservation of UCNs in vertebrates, but very little information is available about UCNs in non-mammalian vertebrates. In fact, at present, there are no reports of the empirical identification of ucn2 in non-mammalian vertebrates or of the distribution of ucn2 and ucn3 expression in the adult central nervous system (CNS) of these animals...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370682/environmental-and-hormonal-regulation-of-epigenetic-enzymes-in-the-hypothalamus
#6
Tyler J Stevenson
Neuroendocrine structures integrate a vast range of external cues and internal signals that, in turn, result in adaptive physiological responses. Emerging data indicate that light, social cues, stress and energy balance stimulate relatively short- as well as long-term genomic modifications in discrete neuroendocrine structures, which are mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. Moreover, environmentally-induced fluctuations in the synthesis of local hypothalamic and circulating hormones provide an internal signal that contributes to the extensive neuroendocrine genomic plasticity...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370553/the-regulation-and-role-of-carbohydrate-response-element-binding-protein-in-metabolic-homeostasis-and-disease
#7
REVIEW
Tara Jois, Mark W Sleeman
The transcription factor carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP) is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor family. In high-glucose conditions, it has a role in regulating the expression of key genes involved in various pathways including glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis. It does this by forming a tetrameric complex made up of two ChREBP/Mlx heterodimers, which enables it to bind to the carbohydrate response element (ChoRE) in the promoter region of its target genes to regulate transcription...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349564/emerging-roles-for-the-amyloid-precursor-protein-and-derived-peptides-in-the-regulation-of-cellular-and-systemic-metabolism
#8
REVIEW
Juliane K Czeczor, Sean L McGee
The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a transmembrane protein that can be cleaved by proteases through two different pathways to yield a number of small peptides, each with distinct physiological properties and functions. It has been extensively studied in the context of Alzheimer's disease, with the APP-derived amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide being a major constituent of the amyloid plaques observed in this disease. It has been known for some time that APP can regulate neuronal metabolism, however this review will examine evidence that APP and its peptides can also regulate key metabolic processes such as insulin action, lipid synthesis and storage and mitochondrial function in peripheral tissues...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295754/age-related-changes-in-the-morphology-of-tanycytes-in-the-human-female-infundibular-nucleus-median-eminence
#9
Anne C M Koopman, Melanie Taziaux, Julie Bakker
Tanycytes have been emerging as key players in the neuroendocrine control of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release. Rodent studies have demonstrated that the structural relationship between tanycytes and GnRH terminals in the median eminence is highly dynamic, regulated by gonadal steroids and undergoes age-related changes. Our objective was to determine whether the number and organization of tanycytes changes throughout life in the female infundibular nucleus/median eminence (INF/ME) region. Post-mortem hypothalamic tissues were collected at the Netherlands Brain Bank and were stained for vimentin by immunohistochemistry...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295740/green-light-inhibits-gnrh-i-expression-by-stimulating-the-melatonin-gnih-pathway-in-the-chick-brain
#10
Liwei Zhang, Funing Chen, Jing Cao, Yulan Dong, Zixu Wang, Man Hu, Yaoxing Chen
To study the mechanism by which monochromatic light affects gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) expression in chicken hypothalamus, a total of 192 newly hatched chicks were divided into intact, sham-operated and pinealectomy groups and exposed to white (WL), red (RL), green (GL) and blue (BL) lights using a light-emitting diode (LED) system for 2 wk. In the GL intact group, the mRNA and protein levels of GnRH-I in the hypothalamus, the mean cell area and mean cell optical density (OD) of the GnRH-I-ir cells of the nucleus commissurae pallii (nCPa) were decreased by 13...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295708/seasonal-alterations-in-the-daily-rhythms-in-hypothalamic-expression-of-genes-involved-in-the-photoperiodic-transduction-and-neurosteroid-dependent-processes-in-migratory-blackheaded-buntings
#11
Ila Mishra, Devraj Singh, Vinod Kumar
This study investigated seasonal alterations in the daily rhythms of hypothalamic expression of genes involved in the photoperiodic regulation of annual cycles in birds. We measured 4-hourly mRNA expression of genes involved in the photoperiodic transduction (OPN5, EYA3, CGA, TSHβ, DIO2, DIO3) and neurosteroid-dependent processes (AR, CYP19, ERα, ERβ) in the hypothalamus of migratory blackheaded buntings photoinduced with photosensitive, photostimulated (early and late stimulated) and photorefractory seasonal states...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258626/glucose-concentrations-modulate-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-responsiveness-of-neurons-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus
#12
William McIsaac, Alastair V Ferguson
The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is critical for normal energy balance and has been shown to contain high levels of both BDNF and TrkB mRNA. Microinjections of BDNF into the PVN increase energy expenditure, suggesting BDNF plays an important role in energy homeostasis through direct actions in this nucleus. The current studies were undertaken to examine the postsynaptic effects of BDNF on the membrane potential of PVN neurons, and to determine if extracellular glucose concentrations modulated these effects...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235149/transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-5-trpv5-a-highly-ca-2-selective-trp-channel-in-the-rat-brain-relevance-to-neuroendocrine-regulation
#13
Santosh Kumar, Uday Singh, Chandan Goswami, Praful S Singru
Recent studies suggest an important role for transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) ion channels in neural and neuroendocrine regulation. TRPV subfamily consists of six members viz. TRPV1-6. While the neuroanatomical and functional correlates of TRPV1-4 have been extensively studied, relevant information about TRPV5 and TRPV6, which are highly selective for Ca(2+) , is limited. We detected TRPV5 mRNA expression in the olfactory bulb, cortex, hypothalamus, hippocampus, midbrain, brainstem and cerebellum of rat...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235136/amphetamine-treatment-affects-the-extra-hypothalamic-vasopressinergic-system-in-a-sex-and-nucleus-dependent-manner
#14
Catalina Ahumada, Carolina Bahamondes, Cledi A Cerda, Roxana A Silva, Gonzalo Cruz, Pablo R Moya, Ramón Sotomayor-Zárate, Georgina M Renard
The lateral septum (LS), a brain structure implicated in addictive behaviors, regulates the activation of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area. Vasopressinergic projections from the extended amygdala to the LS, which are sexually dimorphic, could be responsible for the vulnerability to addiction in a sex-dependent manner. The aim of the present work is to study modulatory effects of amphetamine (AMPH) on the expression of vasopressin (AVP) in the vasopressinergic extra-hypothalamic system in sensitized male and female rats...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219000/acute-ghrelin-changes-food-preference-from-high-fat-diet-to-chow-during-binge-like-eating-in-rodents
#15
Tina Bake, Kim T Hellgren, Suzanne L Dickson
Ghrelin, an orexigenic hormone released from the empty stomach, provides a gut-brain signal that promotes many appetitive behaviors, including anticipatory and goal-directed behaviors for palatable treats high in sugar and/or fat. Here we sought to determine whether ghrelin is able to influence and/or may even have a role in binge-like behavior in rodents. To this end, we used a palatable scheduled feeding (PSF) paradigm in which ad libitum chow-fed rodents are trained to "binge" on high fat diet (HFD) offered each day for a limited period of 2 hr...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211103/impaired-learning-and-memory-in-rats-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet-involvement-with-the-imbalance-of-nesfatin-1-abundance-and-copine-6-expression
#16
Zheng Chen, Ya-Yun Xu, Rui Wu, Yin-Xiu Han, Yue Yu, Jin-Fang Ge, Fei-Hu Chen
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease, resulting not only in liver dysfunction, glucose and lipid metabolism disorder, but also in neuropsychiatric damage. In the present study, a NAFLD rat model was established via feeding of a high-fat diet, and the behavior was observed via the open field test (OFT), the sucrose preference test (SPT), the elevated plus maze (EPM), the forced swimming test (FST), and the Morris water maze (MWM). The plasma concentrations of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glucose, free fatty acid (FFA), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were detected using chemiluminescence technique...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199771/thyroid-dysfunction-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-is-associated-with-folate-receptor-alpha-autoimmune-disorder
#17
Richard E Frye, Rebecca Wynne, Shannon Rose, John Slattery, Leanna Delhey, Marie Tippett, Stephen G Kahler, Sirish C Bennuri, Stepan Melnyk, Jeffrey M Sequeira, Edward Quadros
Folate receptor α (FRα) autoantibodies (FRAAs) are prevalent in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). FRAAs disrupt folate transport across the blood-brain barrier by binding to the FRα. Thyroid dysfunction is frequently found in children with ASD. We measured blocking and binding FRAAs and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free T4 (FT4), total T3 (TT3), reverse T3 (rT3), thyroid releasing hormone (TRH) and other metabolites in 87 children with ASD, 84 of whom also underwent behavior and cognition testing and in 42 of whom FRAAs, TSH and FT4 were measured at two time points...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178768/distribution-of-endomorphin-like-immunoreactive-neurones-in-the-brain-of-the-cichlid-fish-oreochromis-mossambicus
#18
Vijayalaxmi, C B Ganesh
Endomorphins are tetrapeptides involved in pain and neuroendocrine responses with high affinity for mu opioid receptors in mammals. In the present investigation, we studied the distribution of endomorphin-like-immunoreactive (EM-L-ir) neurones in the brain of the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus. Application of antisera against endomorphin 1 and 2 (EM-1-2) revealed the presence of EM-L-ir somata and fibres throughout the different subdivisions of the olfactory bulb such as the olfactory nerve layer and the granule cell layer...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166374/a-potential-role-for-the-secretogranin-ii-derived-peptide-em66-in-the-hypothalamic-regulation-of-feeding-behavior
#19
F Trebak, I Dubuc, A Arabo, A Alaoui, L Boukhzar, J Maucotel, M Picot, S Cherifi, C Duparc, J Leprince, G Prévost, Y Anouar, R Magoul, N Chartrel
EM66 is a conserved 66-amino acid peptide derived from secretogranin II (SgII), a member of the granin protein family. EM66 is widely distributed in secretory granules of endocrine and neuroendocrine cells as well as in hypothalamic neurons. Although EM66 is abundant in the hypothalamus, its physiological function remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate a possible involvement of EM66 in the hypothalamic regulation of feeding behavior. We show that ICV administration of EM66 induces a drastic dose-dependent inhibition of food intake in mice deprived of food for 18 h, which is associated with an increase of hypothalamic POMC and MC3R mRNA levels and c-Fos immunoreactivity in the POMC neurons of the arcuate nucleus...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140486/effects-of-intranasal-oxytocin-on-the-interpretation-and-expression-of-emotions-in-anorexia-nervosa
#20
J Leppanen, V Cardi, K W Ng, Y Paloyelis, D Stein, K Tchanturia, J Treasure
Altered social-emotional functioning is considered to play an important role in the development and maintenance of anorexia nervosa (AN). Recently, there has been increasing interest in investigating the role of intranasal oxytocin in social-emotional processing. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of intranasal oxytocin on the interpretation and expression of emotions among people with AN. Thirty women with AN and 29 age-matched healthy women took part in the present study, which used a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design...
March 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
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