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Current Opinion in Cell Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207306/membrane-bending-by-actin-polymerization
#1
REVIEW
Anders E Carlsson
Actin polymerization provides driving force to aid several types of processes that involve pulling the plasma membrane into the cell, including phagocytosis, cellular entry of large viruses, and endocytosis. In endocytosis, actin polymerization is especially important under conditions of high membrane tension or high turgor pressure. Recent modeling efforts have shown how actin polymerization can give rise to a distribution of forces around the endocytic site, and explored how these forces affect the shape dynamics; experiments have revealed the structure of the endocytic machinery in increasing detail, and demonstrated key feedback interactions between actin assembly and membrane curvature...
December 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195118/deciphering-p53-signaling-in-tumor-suppression
#2
REVIEW
Stephano S Mello, Laura D Attardi
The p53 transcription factor is mutated in over half of human cancers, and p53-null mice are highly predisposed to cancer, highlighting p53s essential role in tumor suppression. Studies in mouse models have revealed that p53 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis responses to acute DNA damage signals are dispensable for tumor suppression, prompting a search for new mechanisms underlying p53-mediated cancer suppression. p53 responds to other types of stress signals and regulates a host other cellular processes, including maintenance of genomic stability, metabolism, stemness, non-apoptotic cell death, migration/invasion, and cell signaling, any or all of which could be fundamental for suppressing carcinogenesis...
November 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175614/to-eat-or-not-to-eat-the-metabolic-flavor-of-ferroptosis
#3
REVIEW
Minghui Gao, Xuejun Jiang
Ferroptosis is a newly defined iron-dependent, non-apoptotic mode of cell death with necrotic morphology. Distinctive from other death mechanisms, ferroptosis requires cellular iron and lipid peroxides, and is dictated by specific cellular metabolic processes. Importantly, ferroptosis has been implicated in a plethora of human diseases. This paper reviews the recent advances and outstanding questions of the field by focusing on the role of cellular metabolism in ferroptosis. The relevance of ferroptosis to disease and therapy is also discussed...
November 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175322/illuminating-information-transfer-in-signaling-dynamics-by-optogenetics
#4
REVIEW
Akihiro Isomura, Ryoichiro Kageyama
Cells receive diverse signaling cues from their environment that trigger cascades of biochemical reactions in a dynamic manner. Single-cell imaging technologies have revealed that not only molecular species but also dynamic patterns of signaling inputs determine the fates of signal-receiving cells; however it has been challenging to elucidate how such dynamic information is delivered and decoded in complex networks of inter-cellular and inter-molecular interactions. The recent development of optogenetic technology with photo-sensitive proteins has changed this situation; the combination of microscopy and optogenetics provides fruitful insights into the mechanism of dynamic information processing at the single-cell level...
November 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175321/methods-for-lineage-tracing-on-the-organism-wide-level
#5
REVIEW
Bastiaan Spanjaard, Jan Philipp Junker
Determining the lineage origin of cell types is a major goal in developmental biology. Furthermore, lineage tracing is a powerful approach for understanding the origin of developmental defects as well as the origin of diseases such as cancer. There is now a variety of complementary approaches for identifying lineage relationships, ranging from direct observation of cell divisions by light microscopy to genetic labeling of cells using inducible recombinases and fluorescent reporters. A recent development, and the main topic of this review article, is the use of high-throughput sequencing data for lineage analysis...
November 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175320/mitochondrial-activity-in-the-regulation-of-stem-cell-self-renewal-and-differentiation
#6
REVIEW
Mireille Khacho, Ruth S Slack
Mitochondria are classically known as the essential energy producers in cells. As such, the activation of mitochondrial metabolism upon cellular differentiation was deemed a necessity to fuel the high metabolic needs of differentiated cells. However, recent studies have revealed a direct role for mitochondrial activity in the regulation of stem cell fate and differentiation. Several components of mitochondrial metabolism and respiration have now been shown to regulate different aspects of stem cell differentiation through signaling, transcriptional, proteomic and epigenetic modulations...
November 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154163/upstairs-downstairs-spatial-regulation-of-hippo-signalling
#7
REVIEW
Alexander Fulford, Nicolas Tapon, Paulo S Ribeiro
Cellular signalling lies at the heart of every decision involved in the development and homeostasis of multicellular organisms. The Hippo pathway was discovered nearly two decades ago through seminal work in Drosophila and rapidly emerged as a crucial signalling network implicated in developmental and oncogenic growth, tissue regeneration and stem cell biology. Here, we review recent advances in the field relating to the upstream regulation of Hippo signalling and the intracellular tug-of-war that tightly controls its main target, the transcriptional co-activator Yorkie/YAP...
November 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153705/spatial-and-temporal-control-of-nodal-signaling
#8
REVIEW
Caroline S Hill
Embryonic development is orchestrated by the activity of signal transduction pathways, amongst which are those downstream of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family. Here I focus on signalling by one of these ligands, NODAL, which is essential for early embryonic axis patterning. I review recent advances in our understanding of how NODAL signalling is transduced from the plasma membrane to the nucleus to regulate the transcription of target genes, and how domains of NODAL activity are established and refined during embryonic development...
November 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153704/multiprotein-complexes-governing-wnt-signal-transduction
#9
REVIEW
Melissa Gammons, Mariann Bienz
Three multiprotein complexes have key roles in transducing Wnt signals from the plasma membrane to the cell nucleus - the β-catenin destruction complex, or Axin degradasome, which targets the Wnt effector β-catenin for proteasomal degradation in the absence of Wnt; the Wnt signalosome, assembled by polymerization of Dishevelled upon Wnt engaging its receptors, to inactivate the Axin degradasome, which allows β-catenin to accumulate; and the Wnt enhanceosome which enables β-catenin to gain access to target genes, to relieve their transcriptional repression by Groucho/TLE...
November 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153703/establishing-and-transducing-cell-polarity-common-themes-and-variations
#10
REVIEW
Daniel St Johnston
All cells in vivo have a primary axis of polarity that controls many aspects of their behaviour, such as the direction of protein secretion and signalling, the orientation of cell division and directed cell movement and morphogenesis. Cell polarise in response to extracellular cues or intracellular landmarks that initiate a signal transduction process that establishes complementary cortical domains of conserved polarity factors. These cortical domains then transmit this polarity to the rest of the cell by regulating the organisation of the cytoskeleton and membrane trafficking systems...
November 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153702/mechanical-cell-competition
#11
REVIEW
Catarina Brás-Pereira, Eduardo Moreno
Maintenance of tissue organization is crucial to ensure normal organ function and organism viability. Tissues are loaded with the ability to sense the available space, measuring cell density and adapting their behaviour accordingly. To keep homeostasis, compression pressure generated by local cell density increment triggers cell elimination. During mechanical cell competition, winner cells compress the neighbouring cells, promoting tissue crowding, which leads to cell elimination. Thus, the hypersensitivity to crowding may confer a loser status, whereas resistance to mechanical-induced elimination may favour a winner status...
November 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149682/signalling-for-b-cell-survival
#12
REVIEW
Edina Schweighoffer, Victor Lj Tybulewicz
The number of mature B cells is carefully controlled by signalling from receptors that support B cell survival. The best studied of these are the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) and BAFFR. Recent work has shown that signalling from these receptors is closely linked, involves the CD19 co-receptor, and leads to activation of canonical and non-canonical NF-κB pathways, ERK1, ERK2 and ERK5 MAP kinases, and PI-3 kinases. Importantly, studies show that investigation of the importance of signalling molecules in cell survival requires the use of inducible gene deletions within mature B cells...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149681/mechanistic-insight-into-contextual-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling
#13
REVIEW
Ying E Zhang
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) controls a wide range of cellular functions by activating both SMADs and non-SMAD pathways. In different tissue or physiological environment, cellular responses to TGF-β can be diverse, even opposite. Complex regulations at the level of ligand mobilization, receptor presentation, and the network of intracellular signal transducers afford the TGF-β pathway with versatile means to induce precise cellular responses in accordance to specific contextual demands. This article summarizes recent development in how cells manage their responses to TGF-β through ligand activation, receptor abundance, as well as SMAD-dependent and SMAD-independent mechanisms...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803693/editorial-overview-cell-dynamics-dynamic-cell-decision-making
#14
EDITORIAL
Eugenia Piddini, Helen McNeill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715713/metastasis-systems-biology-how-are-macro-environmental-signals-transmitted-into-microenvironmental-cues-for-disseminated-tumor-cells
#15
REVIEW
Candice Alexandra Grzelak, Cyrus Michael Ghajar
Disseminated breast tumor cells reside on or near stable microvascular endothelium. Currently, the cues that disrupt DTC dormancy and facilitate outgrowth are largely unknown. This article explores the hypothesis that specific patient lifestyle exposures (e.g., alcohol abuse) may disrupt the microenvironments that maintain disseminated tumor cell (DTC) dormancy in a tissue-specific fashion. We suggest that such exposures are 'transmitted' to the dormant niche in the form of injury. Thus, we discuss the relationship between wound healing and metastasis using liver as an example to illustrate how injury steers the phenotype of liver endothelium and perivascular hepatic stellate cells to a potentially pro-metastatic one...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605656/metabolism-shapes-the-tumor-microenvironment
#16
REVIEW
Miguel Reina-Campos, Jorge Moscat, Maria Diaz-Meco
Tumors are strongly influenced by the surrounding normal tissue, which forms a specialized niche termed the tumor microenvironment (TME). The TME is modeled by cancer cells for their own benefit through a complex array of interactions. The identification of new forms of communication within the TME, which are dependent on the tumor's metabolic activity, has expanded our understanding of this heterocellular regulation and has revealed potential therapeutic targets. This review will summarize recent findings on the metabolic regulation of tumor cells by the TME...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600967/mechanisms-of-cell-competition-emerging-from-drosophila-studies
#17
Nicholas E Baker
Cell competition was described in Drosophila as the loss from mosaic tissues of otherwise viable cells heterozygous for Ribosomal protein mutations ('Minutes'). Cell competition has now been described to occur between multiple other genotypes, such as cells differing in myc expression levels, or mutated for neoplastic tumor suppressors. Recent studies implicate innate immunity components, and possibly mechanical stress, compression and cell intercalation as a consequence of differential growth rates in competitive cell death...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586710/regulation-of-gastrulation-movements-by-emergent-cell-and-tissue-interactions
#18
REVIEW
Margot Lk Williams, Lilianna Solnica-Krezel
It is during gastrulation that the primordial germ layers are specified, embryonic axes become morphologically manifest, and the embryonic body plan begins to take shape. As morphogenetic movements push and pull nascent tissues into position within the gastrula, new interactions are established between neighboring cells and tissues. These interactions represent an emergent property within gastrulating embryos, and serve to regulate and promote ensuing morphogenesis that establishes the next set of cell/tissue contacts, and so on...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551508/fat-like-cadherins-in-cell-migration-leading-from-both-the-front-and-the-back
#19
REVIEW
Sally Horne-Badovinac
When cells migrate through the body, their motility is continually influenced by interactions with other cells. The Fat-like cadherins are cell-cell signaling proteins that promote migration in multiple cell types. Recent studies suggest, however, that Fat-like cadherins influence motility differently in mammals versus Drosophila, with the cadherin acting at the leading edge of mammalian cells and the trailing edge of Drosophila cells. As opposed to this being a difference between organisms, it is more likely that the Fat-like cadherins are highly versatile proteins that can interact with the migration machinery in multiple ways...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376317/imaginal-disc-regeneration-takes-flight
#20
REVIEW
Iswar K Hariharan, Florenci Serras
Drosophila imaginal discs, the larval precursors of adult structures such as the wing and leg, are capable of regenerating after damage. During the course of regeneration, discs can sometimes generate structures that are appropriate for a different type of disc, a phenomenon termed transdetermination. Until recently, these phenomena were studied by physically fragmenting discs and then transplanting them into the abdomens of adult female flies. This field has experienced a renaissance following the development of genetic ablation systems that can damage precisely defined regions of the disc without the need for surgery...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
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