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Current Opinion in Cell Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641181/the-caveolae-dress-code-structure-and-signaling
#1
REVIEW
Christophe Lamaze, Nicolas Tardif, Melissa Dewulf, Stéphane Vassilopoulos, Cédric M Blouin
Over the past decade, interest in caveolae biology has peaked. These small bulb-shaped plasma membrane invaginations of 50-80nm diameter present in most cell types have been upgraded from simple membrane structures to a more complex bona fide organelle. However, although caveolae are involved in several essential cellular functions and pathologies, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly defined. Following the identification of caveolins and cavins as the main caveolae constituents, recent studies have brought new insight into their structural organization as a coat...
June 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641118/mechanisms-for-fast-cell-migration-in-complex-environments
#2
REVIEW
Pablo Vargas, Lucie Barbier, Pablo José Sáez, Matthieu Piel
Cell migration depends on a combination of the cell's intrinsic capacity to move and the proper interpretation of external cues. This multistep process enables leukocytes to travel long distances in organs in just a few hours. This fast migration is partly due to the leukocytes' high level of plasticity, which helps them to adapt to a changing environment. Here, we review recent progress in understanding the mechanisms used by leukocytes to move rapidly and efficiently in intricate anatomical landscapes. We shall focus on specific cytoskeletal rearrangements used by neutrophils and dendritic cells to migrate within confined environments...
June 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641117/structural-components-of-nuclear-integrity-with-gene-regulatory-potential
#3
REVIEW
Kelli D Fenelon, Sevan Hopyan
The nucleus is a mechanosensitive and load-bearing structure. Structural components of the nucleus interact to maintain nuclear integrity and have become subjects of exciting research that is relevant to cell and developmental biology. Here we outline the boundaries of what is known about key architectural elements within the nucleus and highlight their potential structural and transcriptional regulatory functions.
June 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641092/nuclear-mechanotransduction-sensing-the-force-from-within
#4
REVIEW
Avathamsa Athirasala, Nivi Hirsch, Amnon Buxboim
The cell nucleus is a hallmark of eukaryotic evolution, where gene expression is regulated and the genome is replicated and repaired. Yet, in addition to complex molecular processes, the nucleus has also evolved to serve physical tasks that utilize its optical and mechanical properties. Nuclear mechanotransduction of externally applied forces and extracellular stiffness is facilitated by the physical connectivity of the extracellular environment, the cytoskeleton and the nucleoskeletal matrix of lamins and chromatin...
June 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624666/the-nuclear-pore-complex-core-scaffold-and-permeability-barrier-variations-of-a-common-theme
#5
REVIEW
Ryo Hayama, Michael P Rout, Javier Fernandez-Martinez
The study of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) is a fascinating endeavor, as it not only implies uncovering the 'engineering marvel' of its architecture and function, but also provides a key window into a significant evolutionary event: the origin of the eukaryotic cell. The combined efforts of many groups in the field, with the help of novel methodologies and new model organisms, are facilitating a much deeper understanding of this complex assembly. Here we cover recent advances on the characterization of the structure of the NPC scaffold and of the biophysical mechanisms that define the permeability barrier...
June 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622586/outerwear-through-the-ages-evolutionary-cell-biology-of-vesicle-coats
#6
REVIEW
Joel B Dacks, Margaret S Robinson
Vesicular transport was key to the evolution of eukaryotes, and is essential for eukaryotic life today. All modern eukaryotes have a set of vesicle coat proteins, which couple cargo selection to vesicle budding in the secretory and endocytic pathways. Although these coats share common features (e.g. recruitment via small GTPases, β-propeller-α-solenoid proteins acting as scaffolds), the relationships between them are not always clear. Structural studies on the coats themselves, comparative genomics and cell biology in diverse eukaryotes, and the recent discovery of the Asgard archaea and their 'eukaryotic signature proteins' are helping us to piece together how coats may have evolved during the prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition...
June 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622576/coordinating-cell-movements-in-vivo-junctional-and-cytoskeletal-dynamics-lead-the-way
#7
REVIEW
Miranda V Hunter, Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalez
Collective cell movements drive embryonic development and tissue repair, and can cause disease. However, the mechanisms that coordinate the migration of groups of cells in vivo are unclear. Cells generate, transmit and sense mechanical forces to align their movements. Therefore, the machinery used by cells to generate force (cytoskeleton) and to transmit and sense mechanical signals (cell-cell adhesion) is critical for collective movement. Here, we review the components and organization of the cytoskeletal and cell-cell adhesive machineries, and how they are organized to promote collective cell movements in living animals...
June 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614747/rna-mediated-regulation-of-heterochromatin
#8
REVIEW
Whitney L Johnson, Aaron F Straight
The formation of condensed, transcriptionally repressed heterochromatin is essential for controlling gene expression throughout development, silencing parasitic DNA elements, and for genome stability and inheritance. Cells employ diverse mechanisms for controlling heterochromatin states through proteins that modify DNA and histones. An emerging theme is that chromatin-associated RNAs play important roles in regulating heterochromatin proteins by controlling their initial recruitment to chromatin, their stable association with chromatin, their spread along chromatin, or their enzymatic activity...
June 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605656/metabolism-shapes-the-tumor-microenvironment
#9
REVIEW
Miguel Reina-Campos, Jorge Moscat, Maria Diaz-Meco
Tumors are strongly influenced by the surrounding normal tissue, which forms a specialized niche termed the tumor microenvironment (TME). The TME is modeled by cancer cells for their own benefit through a complex array of interactions. The identification of new forms of communication within the TME, which are dependent on the tumor's metabolic activity, has expanded our understanding of this heterocellular regulation and has revealed potential therapeutic targets. This review will summarize recent findings on the metabolic regulation of tumor cells by the TME...
June 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600967/mechanisms-of-cell-competition-emerging-from-drosophila-studies
#10
Nicholas E Baker
Cell competition was described in Drosophila as the loss from mosaic tissues of otherwise viable cells heterozygous for Ribosomal protein mutations ('Minutes'). Cell competition has now been described to occur between multiple other genotypes, such as cells differing in myc expression levels, or mutated for neoplastic tumor suppressors. Recent studies implicate innate immunity components, and possibly mechanical stress, compression and cell intercalation as a consequence of differential growth rates in competitive cell death...
June 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586710/regulation-of-gastrulation-movements-by-emergent-cell-and-tissue-interactions
#11
REVIEW
Margot Lk Williams, Lilianna Solnica-Krezel
It is during gastrulation that the primordial germ layers are specified, embryonic axes become morphologically manifest, and the embryonic body plan begins to take shape. As morphogenetic movements push and pull nascent tissues into position within the gastrula, new interactions are established between neighboring cells and tissues. These interactions represent an emergent property within gastrulating embryos, and serve to regulate and promote ensuing morphogenesis that establishes the next set of cell/tissue contacts, and so on...
June 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582681/translational-control-and-the-cancer-cell-response-to-stress
#12
REVIEW
Nathaniel Robichaud, Nahum Sonenberg
The evidence for the importance of aberrant translation in cancer cells is overwhelming. Reflecting the wealth of data, there are excellent reviews delineating how ribosomes and initiation factors are linked to cancer [1-3], and the therapeutic strategies being devised to target them [4]. Changes in translational efficiency can engender a malignant phenotype without the need for chromatin reorganization, transcription, splicing and mRNA export [5,6]. Thus, cancer-related modulations of the translational machinery are ideally suited to allow cancer cells to respond to the various stresses encountered along the path of tumorigenesis and organism-wide dissemination [7(•),8,9,10(•)]...
June 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577509/nuclear-bodies-news-insights-into-structure-and-function
#13
REVIEW
David Staněk, Archa H Fox
The cell nucleus contains a number of different dynamic bodies that are variously composed of proteins and generally, but not always, specific RNA molecules. Recent studies have revealed new understanding about nuclear body formation and function in different aspects of nuclear metabolism. Here, we focus on findings describing the role of nuclear bodies in the biogenesis of specific ribonucleoprotein complexes, processing of key mRNAs, and subnuclear sequestration of protein factors. We highlight how nuclear bodies are involved in stress responses, innate immunity and tumorigenesis...
May 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551508/fat-like-cadherins-in-cell-migration-leading-from-both-the-front-and-the-back
#14
REVIEW
Sally Horne-Badovinac
When cells migrate through the body, their motility is continually influenced by interactions with other cells. The Fat-like cadherins are cell-cell signaling proteins that promote migration in multiple cell types. Recent studies suggest, however, that Fat-like cadherins influence motility differently in mammals versus Drosophila, with the cadherin acting at the leading edge of mammalian cells and the trailing edge of Drosophila cells. As opposed to this being a difference between organisms, it is more likely that the Fat-like cadherins are highly versatile proteins that can interact with the migration machinery in multiple ways...
May 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527754/hippo-signalling-in-intestinal-regeneration-and-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Alex Gregorieff, Jeffrey L Wrana
The Hippo pathway is a unique signalling module that regulates cell-specific transcriptional responses and responds to a wide range of intrinsic and extrinsic cues. Besides its classical role in restricting tissue size during development, Hippo signalling is now recognized to control numerous processes including cell proliferation, survival, cell fate determination, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions and cell migration. Because of its highly dynamic nature, the intestinal epithelium has served as an exceptional model to study the complex roles of Hippo signalling...
May 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511145/plasma-membrane-repair-the-adaptable-cell-life-insurance
#16
REVIEW
Ana Joaquina Jimenez, Franck Perez
The plasma membrane is the most basic element necessary for the cell to exist and be distinguishable from its environment. Regulated mechanisms allow tightly controlled communication between intacellular and extracellular medium allowing the maintenance of a specific biochemical environment, optimized for cellular functions. The anarchic and uncontrolled opening of a hole in the PM induces a change in the concentration of ions and oxidizing agents perturbing homeostasis. Fortunately, the cell possesses mechanisms that are capable of reacting to sudden extracellular medium entry and to block the leakage locally...
May 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463755/the-coordination-of-membrane-fission-and-fusion-at-the-end-of-autophagosome-maturation
#17
REVIEW
Shenliang Yu, Thomas J Melia
The two major objectives of macroautophagy are to sequester cargo away from the cytoplasm and deliver this material for breakdown in the lysosome. Sequestration is complete when the autophagosome membrane undergoes fission to produce separate inner and outer membranes, while delivery into the lysosome requires fusion of the outer autophagosome membrane with the lysosome membrane. Thus, the merging of membranes through fission and fusion underlies each of the pivotal events in macroautophagic clearance. How these merging events are controlled in the cell is poorly understood...
April 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460277/shaping-chromosomes-by-dna-capture-and-release-gating-the-smc-rings
#18
REVIEW
Stephan Gruber
SMC proteins organize chromosomes to coordinate essential nuclear processes such as gene expression and DNA recombination as well as to segregate chromosomes during cell division. SMC mediated DNA bridging keeps sister chromatids aligned for much of the cell cycle, while the active extrusion of DNA loops by SMC presumably compacts chromosomes. Chromosome superstructure is thus given by the number of DNA linkages and the size of chromosomal DNA loops, which in turn depend on the dynamics of SMC loading and unloading...
April 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445788/an-emerging-role-for-the-ribosome-as-a-nexus-for-post-translational-modifications
#19
REVIEW
Deniz Simsek, Maria Barna
The ribosome is one of life's most ancient molecular machines that has historically been viewed as a backstage participant in gene regulation, translating the genetic code across all kingdoms of life in a rote-like fashion. However, recent studies suggest that intrinsic components of the ribosome can be regulated and diversified as a means to intricately control the expression of the cellular proteome. In this review, we discuss advances in the characterization of ribosome post-translational modifications (PTMs) from past to present...
April 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437683/pink1-and-parkin-emerging-themes-in-mitochondrial-homeostasis
#20
REVIEW
Thomas G McWilliams, Miratul Mk Muqit
The Parkinson's disease (PD)-associated protein kinase, PTEN-induced putative kinase1 (PINK1), and ubiquitin E3 ligase Parkin, function in a common signalling pathway known to regulate mitochondrial network homeostasis and quality control, including mitophagy. The multistep activation of this pathway, as well as an unexpected convergence between the post-translational modifications of ubiquitylation and phosphorylation, has added breadth to our understanding of cellular damage responses during human disease...
April 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
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