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Current Opinion in Cell Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314237/non-autonomous-cell-proliferation-in-the-mammary-gland-and-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Robert J Weber, Tejal A Desai, Zev J Gartner
Cells decide whether to grow and divide by integrating internal and external signals. Non-autonomous cell growth and proliferation occurs when microenvironmental signals from neighboring cells, both physical and secreted, license this decision. Understanding these processes is vital to developing an accurate framework for cell-cell interactions and cellular decision-making, and is useful for advancing new therapeutic strategies to prevent dysregulated growth. Here, we review some recent examples of non-autonomous cell growth in the mammary gland and tumor cell proliferation...
March 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292700/canonical-and-noncanonical-functions-of-ulk-atg1
#2
REVIEW
Bo Wang, Mondira Kundu
Mammalian Unc-51-like kinases 1 and 2 (ULK1 and ULK2) belong to the ULK/Atg1 family of serine/threonine kinases, which are conserved from yeast to mammals. Although ULK/Atg1 is best known for regulating flux through the autophagy pathway, it has evolutionarily conserved noncanonical functions in protein trafficking that are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis. As a direct target of energy- and nutrient-sensing kinases, ULK/Atg1 is positioned to regulate the distribution and use of cellular resources in response to metabolic cues...
March 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258033/rnp-transport-in-cell-biology-the-long-and-winding-road
#3
REVIEW
Carolina Eliscovich, Robert H Singer
Regulation of gene expression is key determinant to cell structure and function. RNA localization, where specific mRNAs are transported to subcellular regions and then translated, is highly conserved in eukaryotes ranging from yeast to extremely specialized and polarized cells such as neurons. Messenger RNA and associated proteins (mRNP) move from the site of transcription in the nucleus to their final destination in the cytoplasm both passively through diffusion and actively via directed transport. Dysfunction of RNA localization, transport and translation machinery can lead to pathology...
February 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242560/viral-rewiring-of-cellular-lipid-metabolism-to-create-membranous-replication-compartments
#4
REVIEW
Jeroen Rpm Strating, Frank Jm van Kuppeveld
Positive-strand RNA (+RNA) viruses (e.g. poliovirus, hepatitis C virus, dengue virus, SARS-coronavirus) remodel cellular membranes to form so-called viral replication compartments (VRCs), which are the sites where viral RNA genome replication takes place. To induce VRC formation, these viruses extensively rewire lipid metabolism. Disparate viruses have many commonalities as well as disparities in their interactions with the host lipidome and accumulate specific sets of lipids (sterols, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids) at their VRCs...
February 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237810/recognition-and-tethering-of-transport-vesicles-at-the-golgi-apparatus
#5
REVIEW
Tomasz M Witkos, Martin Lowe
The Golgi apparatus occupies a central position within the secretory pathway where it is a hub for vesicle trafficking. Distinct classes of transport vesicles traffic diverse cargoes into and out of this organelle, as well as between the different Golgi subcompartments. A key feature of Golgi trafficking is the specific recognition of transport vesicles at the different regions of the Golgi apparatus, required for the correct cargo delivery. Specificity is ensured by coiled-coil golgins and multi-subunit tethering complexes (MTCs), which act together to capture vesicles and promote their subsequent fusion with the Golgi membrane...
February 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236735/the-nucleus-keeping-it-together-by-keeping-it-apart
#6
REVIEW
C Patrick Lusk, Megan C King
It has been postulated that the segregation of nucleus and cytoplasm supported the development of increased organismal complexity. For example, separating transcription and translation allows for mRNA splicing, while the sequestration of genomic DNA supports the innate immune system's ability to equate cytoplasmic DNA with pathogens. Consistent with the importance of nucleocytoplasmic compartmentalization in a broad array of cellular processes, defects in maintaining discrete nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments, either due to loss of nuclear pore complex integrity, disrupted nuclear transport or ruptures of the nuclear envelope, lead to cellular dysfunction, cell death and disease...
February 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236732/x-chromosome-inactivation-silencing-topology-and-reactivation
#7
REVIEW
Teresa Robert Finestra, Joost Gribnau
To ensure X-linked gene dosage compensation between females (XX) and males (XY), one X chromosome undergoes X chromosome inactivation (XCI) in female cells. This process is tightly regulated throughout development by many different factors, with Xist as a key regulator, encoding a long non-coding RNA, involved in establishment of several layers of repressive epigenetic modifications. Several recent studies on XCI focusing on identification and characterization of Xist RNA-protein interactors, revealed new factors involved in gene silencing, genome topology and nuclear membrane attachment, amongst others...
February 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232179/ampk-signalling-in-health-and-disease
#8
REVIEW
David Carling
In eukaryotic cells AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a major role in regulating cellular energy balance. AMPK responds to changes in intracellular adenine nucleotide levels, being activated by an increase in AMP/ADP relative to ATP. Activation of AMPK increases the rate of catabolic (ATP-generating) pathways and decreases the rate of anabolic (ATP-utilising) pathways. In addition to its role in maintaining intracellular energy balance, AMPK regulates whole body energy metabolism. Given its key role in controlling energy homeostasis, AMPK has attracted widespread interest as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and, more recently, cancer...
February 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231490/lipid-droplet-growth-regulation-of-a-dynamic-organelle
#9
REVIEW
David Barneda, Mark Christian
Intracellular lipid droplets (LDs) are remarkably dynamic and complex organelles that enact regulated storage and release of lipids to fulfil their fundamental roles in energy metabolism, membrane synthesis and provision of lipid-derived signaling molecules. Although small LDs are observed in all types of eukaryotic cells, it is adipocytes that present the widest range of sizes up to the massive unilocular droplet of a white adipocyte. Our knowledge of the proteins and associated processes that control LD dynamics is improving...
February 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231489/moving-and-positioning-the-endolysosomal-system
#10
REVIEW
Juan S Bonifacino, Jacques Neefjes
The endolysosomal system is extremely dynamic, yet highly organized. The spatio-temporal distribution of endolysosomal organelles depends on transport driven by microtubule motors such as kinesins and dynein, and by actin-based myosin motors. It has recently become appreciated that interactions with motors are controlled by contacts with other organelles, particularly the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The ER also controls the concentration of endolysosomal organelles in the perinuclear area, as well as their fission and fusion, through a complex system of tethering proteins...
February 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214612/dynamic-organization-of-mitotic-chromosomes
#11
REVIEW
Kazuhisa Kinoshita, Tatsuya Hirano
The assembly of rod-shaped chromosomes during mitosis is an essential prerequisite for faithful segregation of genetic information into daughter cells. Despite the long history of chromosome research, it is only recently that we have acquired powerful approaches and crucial tools that help to unlock the secret of this seemingly complex process. In particular, in vitro assays, mammalian genetics, Hi-C analyses and computer simulations have provided valuable information during the past two years. These studies are now beginning to elucidate how the core components of mitotic chromosomes, namely, histones, topoisomerase II╬▒ and condensins, cooperate with each other to convert very long stretches of DNA into rod-shaped chromosomes...
February 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213315/focal-adhesion-kinase-signaling-in-unexpected-places
#12
REVIEW
Elizabeth G Kleinschmidt, David D Schlaepfer
Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a cytoplasmic protein-tyrosine kinase first identified at extracellular matrix and integrin receptor cell adhesion sites and is a key regulator of cell movement. FAK is activated by a variety of stimuli. Herein, we discuss advances in conformational-associated FAK activation and dimerization mechanisms. Additionally, new roles have emerged for FAK signaling at cell adhesions, adherens junctions, endosomes, and the nucleus. In light of these new findings, we review how FAK activation at these sites is connected to the regulation of integrin recycling-activation, vascular permeability, cell survival, and transcriptional regulation, respectively...
February 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213314/emerging-themes-of-regulation-at-the-golgi
#13
REVIEW
Stefanie L Makowski, Thuy Tt Tran, Seth J Field
The Golgi is generally recognized for its central role in the secretory pathway to orchestrate protein post-translational modification and trafficking of proteins and lipids to their final destination. Despite the common view of the Golgi as an inert sorting organelle, emerging data demonstrate that important signaling events occur at the Golgi, including those that regulate the trafficking function of the Golgi. The phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate/GOLPH3/MYO18A/F-actin complex serves as a hub for signals that regulate Golgi trafficking function...
February 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189102/coordinated-events-of-nuclear-assembly
#14
REVIEW
Dollie LaJoie, Katharine S Ullman
Each time a metazoan cell undergoes open mitosis, the nucleus is dismantled in order to partition DNA content to the daughter cells. After chromosomes separate, changes at the chromatin surface usher in reestablishment of nuclear architecture. Proteins destined for the nuclear envelope are attracted to chromatin and concomitantly recruit membrane. As nuclear envelope and protein constituents spread to coat chromatin, distinct regions emerge-some rich in rapid pore formation, others occupied by microtubules that remain attached to kinetochores...
February 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157638/probing-human-brain-evolution-and-development-in-organoids
#15
REVIEW
Stefano L Giandomenico, Madeline A Lancaster
Expansion of the neocortex is thought to underpin the higher cognitive abilities of a number of mammalian lineages, such as cetaceans, elephants, and primates, with humans exhibiting a particularly enlarged and dense cerebral cortex. However, the evolutionary and developmental mechanisms that led to this expansion are not well-understood and limited to correlative observations. Historically, this has been due to technical and ethical limitations owing to the intractability of various species for functional studies...
January 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131101/cellular-growth-in-plants-requires-regulation-of-cell-wall-biochemistry
#16
REVIEW
Youssef Chebli, Anja Geitmann
Cell and organ morphogenesis in plants are regulated by the chemical structure and mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix, the cell wall. The two primary load bearing components in the plant cell wall, the pectin matrix and the cellulose/xyloglucan network, are constantly remodelled to generate the morphological changes required during plant development. This remodelling is regulated by a plethora of loosening and stiffening agents such as pectin methyl-esterases, calcium ions, expansins, and glucanases...
January 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129587/phisphorylation-the-emergence-of-histidine-phosphorylation-as-a-reversible-regulatory-modification
#17
REVIEW
Stephen Rush Fuhs, Tony Hunter
Histidine phosphorylation is crucial for prokaryotic signal transduction and as an intermediate for several metabolic enzymes, yet its role in mammalian cells remains largely uncharted. This is primarily caused by difficulties in studying histidine phosphorylation because of the relative instability of phosphohistidine (pHis) and lack of specific antibodies and methods to preserve and detect it. The recent synthesis of stable pHis analogs has enabled development of pHis-specific antibodies and their use has started to shed light onto this important, yet enigmatic posttranslational modification...
January 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129586/interaction-between-epigenetic-and-metabolism-in-aging-stem-cells
#18
REVIEW
Anne Brunet, Thomas A Rando
Aging is accompanied by a decline in tissue function, regeneration, and repair. A large part of this decline is caused by the deterioration of tissue stem cell function. Understanding the mechanisms that drive stem cell aging and how to counteract them is a critical step for enhancing tissue repair and maintenance during aging. Emerging evidence indicates that epigenetic modifiers and metabolism regulators interact to impact lifespan, suggesting that this mechanism may also affect stem cell function with age...
January 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092729/diverse-functions-for-different-forms-of-nuclear-actin
#19
REVIEW
Jori A Virtanen, Maria K Vartiainen
In addition to its essential roles as part of the cytoskeleton, actin has also been linked to many processes in the nucleus. Recent data has demonstrated the presence of both monomeric and polymeric actin in the nucleus, and implied distinct functional roles for these actin pools. Monomeric actin seems to be involved in regulation of gene expression through transcription factors, chromatin regulating complexes and RNA polymerases. In addition to cytoplasmic actin regulators, nuclear proteins, such as emerin, can regulate actin polymerization properties specifically in this compartment...
January 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088069/nuclear-pore-complexes-and-regulation-of-gene-expression
#20
REVIEW
Marcela Raices, Maximiliano A D'Angelo
Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), are large multiprotein channels that penetrate the nuclear envelope connecting the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Accumulating evidence shows that besides their main role in regulating the exchange of molecules between these two compartments, NPCs and their components also play important transport-independent roles, including gene expression regulation, chromatin organization, DNA repair, RNA processing and quality control, and cell cycle control. Here, we will describe the recent findings about the role of these structures in the regulation of gene expression...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
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