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Current Opinion in Cell Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527754/hippo-signalling-in-intestinal-regeneration-and-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Alex Gregorieff, Jeffrey L Wrana
The Hippo pathway is a unique signalling module that regulates cell-specific transcriptional responses and responds to a wide range of intrinsic and extrinsic cues. Besides its classical role in restricting tissue size during development, Hippo signalling is now recognized to control numerous processes including cell proliferation, survival, cell fate determination, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions and cell migration. Because of its highly dynamic nature, the intestinal epithelium has served as an exceptional model to study the complex roles of Hippo signalling...
May 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511145/plasma-membrane-repair-the-adaptable-cell-life-insurance
#2
REVIEW
Ana Joaquina Jimenez, Franck Perez
The plasma membrane is the most basic element necessary for the cell to exist and be distinguishable from its environment. Regulated mechanisms allow tightly controlled communication between intacellular and extracellular medium allowing the maintenance of a specific biochemical environment, optimized for cellular functions. The anarchic and uncontrolled opening of a hole in the PM induces a change in the concentration of ions and oxidizing agents perturbing homeostasis. Fortunately, the cell possesses mechanisms that are capable of reacting to sudden extracellular medium entry and to block the leakage locally...
May 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463755/the-coordination-of-membrane-fission-and-fusion-at-the-end-of-autophagosome-maturation
#3
REVIEW
Shenliang Yu, Thomas J Melia
The two major objectives of macroautophagy are to sequester cargo away from the cytoplasm and deliver this material for breakdown in the lysosome. Sequestration is complete when the autophagosome membrane undergoes fission to produce separate inner and outer membranes, while delivery into the lysosome requires fusion of the outer autophagosome membrane with the lysosome membrane. Thus, the merging of membranes through fission and fusion underlies each of the pivotal events in macroautophagic clearance. How these merging events are controlled in the cell is poorly understood...
April 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460277/shaping-chromosomes-by-dna-capture-and-release-gating-the-smc-rings
#4
REVIEW
Stephan Gruber
SMC proteins organize chromosomes to coordinate essential nuclear processes such as gene expression and DNA recombination as well as to segregate chromosomes during cell division. SMC mediated DNA bridging keeps sister chromatids aligned for much of the cell cycle, while the active extrusion of DNA loops by SMC presumably compacts chromosomes. Chromosome superstructure is thus given by the number of DNA linkages and the size of chromosomal DNA loops, which in turn depend on the dynamics of SMC loading and unloading...
April 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445788/an-emerging-role-for-the-ribosome-as-a-nexus-for-post-translational-modifications
#5
REVIEW
Deniz Simsek, Maria Barna
The ribosome is one of life's most ancient molecular machines that has historically been viewed as a backstage participant in gene regulation, translating the genetic code across all kingdoms of life in a rote-like fashion. However, recent studies suggest that intrinsic components of the ribosome can be regulated and diversified as a means to intricately control the expression of the cellular proteome. In this review, we discuss advances in the characterization of ribosome post-translational modifications (PTMs) from past to present...
April 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437683/pink1-and-parkin-emerging-themes-in-mitochondrial-homeostasis
#6
REVIEW
Thomas G McWilliams, Miratul Mk Muqit
The Parkinson's disease (PD)-associated protein kinase, PTEN-induced putative kinase1 (PINK1), and ubiquitin E3 ligase, Parkin function in a common signalling pathway known to regulate mitochondrial network homeostasis and quality control, including mitophagy. The multistep activation of this pathway, as well as an unexpected convergence between the post-translational modifications of ubiquitylation and phosphorylation, has added breadth to our understanding of cellular damage responses during human disease...
April 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432921/gates-for-soluble-and-membrane-proteins-and-two-trafficking-systems-ift-and-lift-establish-a-dynamic-ciliary-signaling-compartment
#7
REVIEW
Victor L Jensen, Michel R Leroux
Primary cilia are microtubule-based organelles found on most mammalian cell surfaces. They possess a soluble matrix and membrane contiguous with the cell body cytosol and plasma membrane, and yet, have distinct compositions that can be modulated to enable dynamic signal transduction. Here, we discuss how specialized ciliary compartments are established using a coordinated network of gating, trafficking and targeting activities. Cilium homeostasis is maintained by a size-selective molecular mesh that limits soluble protein entry, and by a membrane diffusion barrier localized at the transition zone...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431265/nucleolar-reorganization-in-response-to-rdna-damage
#8
REVIEW
Marjolein van Sluis, Brian McStay
Nucleoli, sites of ribosome biogenesis, form around nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) comprising rDNA arrays, located on human acrocentric chromosome p-arms. NORs provide an opportunity to investigate the DNA double strand break (DSB) response at highly transcribed, repetitive, essential loci. Targeted introduction of DSBs into rDNA results in ATM-dependent inhibition of RNA-polymerase I transcription, coupled with movement of rDNA from the nucleolar interior to anchoring points at the periphery. Reorganization renders rDNA accessible to repair factors, normally excluded from nucleoli...
April 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411448/mtorc1-signaling-and-the-metabolic-control-of-cell-growth
#9
REVIEW
Issam Ben-Sahra, Brendan D Manning
mTOR [mechanistic target of rapamycin] is a serine/threonine protein kinase that, as part of mTORC1 (mTOR complex 1), acts as an important molecular connection between nutrient signals and the metabolic processes indispensable for cell growth. While there has been pronounced interest in the upstream mechanisms regulating mTORC1, the full range of downstream molecular targets through which mTORC1 signaling stimulates cell growth is only recently emerging. It is now evident that mTORC1 promotes cell growth primarily through the activation of key anabolic processes...
April 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399507/the-emerging-role-of-retromer-in-neuroprotection
#10
REVIEW
Kirsty J McMillan, Hendrick C Korswagen, Peter J Cullen
Efficient sorting and transportation of integral membrane proteins, such as ion channels, nutrient transporters, signalling receptors, cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion molecules is essential for the function of cellular organelles and hence organism development and physiology. Retromer is a master controller of integral membrane protein sorting and transport through one of the major sorting station within eukaryotic cells, the endosomal network. Subtle de-regulation of retromer is an emerging theme in the pathoetiology of Parkinson's disease...
April 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391089/the-mitochondria-endoplasmic-reticulum-contact-sites-a-signalling-platform-for-cell-death
#11
REVIEW
Julien Prudent, Heidi M McBride
Mitochondria evolved as an endosymbiont providing the cell with a dizzying array of catabolic and anabolic processes essential for life. However, mitochondria have retained the ability to kill from within, and are widely considered the final executioners of programmed cell death. The groundbreaking discovery over 25 years ago that mitochondrial cytochrome c is released into the cytosol shone new and unexpected light onto this old organelle, revitalizing the field. The Bcl-2 family of proteins plays a central role in the maintenance of mitochondrial membrane integrity, but other factors are also involved in the cell death program...
April 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391090/fast-and-ultrafast-endocytosis
#12
REVIEW
Shigeki Watanabe, Emmanuel Boucrot
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is the main endocytic pathway supporting housekeeping functions in cells. However, CME may be too slow to internalize proteins from the cell surface during certain physiological processes such as reaction to stress hormones ('fight-or-flight' reaction), chemotaxis or compensatory endocytosis following exocytosis of synaptic vesicles or hormone-containing vesicles. These processes take place on a millisecond to second timescale and thus require very rapid cellular reaction to prevent overstimulation or exhaustion of the response...
April 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390244/golgi-ribbon-disassembly-during-mitosis-differentiation-and-disease-progression
#13
REVIEW
Jen-Hsuan Wei, Joachim Seemann
The Golgi apparatus is tightly integrated into the cellular system where it plays essential roles required for a variety of cellular processes. Its vital functions include not only processing and sorting of proteins and lipids, but also serving as a signaling hub and a microtubule-organizing center. Golgi stacks in mammalian cells are interconnected into a compact ribbon in the perinuclear region. However, the ribbon can undergo distinct disassembly processes that reflect the cellular state or environmental demands and stress...
April 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376317/imaginal-disc-regeneration-takes-flight
#14
REVIEW
Iswar K Hariharan, Florenci Serras
Drosophila imaginal discs, the larval precursors of adult structures such as the wing and leg, are capable of regenerating after damage. During the course of regeneration, discs can sometimes generate structures that are appropriate for a different type of disc, a phenomenon termed transdetermination. Until recently, these phenomena were studied by physically fragmenting discs and then transplanting them into the abdomens of adult female flies. This field has experienced a renaissance following the development of genetic ablation systems that can damage precisely defined regions of the disc without the need for surgery...
April 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364663/tissue-growth-and-tumorigenesis-in-drosophila-cell-polarity-and-the-hippo-pathway
#15
REVIEW
Helena E Richardson, Marta Portela
Cell polarity regulation is critical for defining membrane domains required for the establishment and maintenance of the apical-basal axis in epithelial cells (apico-basal polarity), asymmetric cell divisions, planar organization of tissues (planar cell polarity), and the formation of the front-rear axis in cell migration (front-rear polarity). In the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, cell polarity regulators also interact with the Hippo tissue growth control signaling pathway. In this review we survey the recent Drosophila literature linking cell polarity regulators with the Hippo pathway in epithelial tissue growth, neural stem cell asymmetric divisions and in cell migration in physiological and tumorigenic settings...
March 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363125/pause-go-from-the-discovery-of-rna-polymerase-pausing-to-its-functional-implications
#16
REVIEW
Andreas Mayer, Heather M Landry, L Stirling Churchman
The synthesis of nascent RNA is a discontinuous process in which phases of productive elongation by RNA polymerase are interrupted by frequent pauses. Transcriptional pausing was first observed decades ago, but was long considered to be a special feature of transcription at certain genes. This view was challenged when studies using genome-wide approaches revealed that RNA polymerase II pauses at promoter-proximal regions in large sets of genes in Drosophila and mammalian cells. High-resolution genomic methods uncovered that pausing is not restricted to promoters, but occurs globally throughout gene-body regions, implying the existence of key-rate limiting steps in nascent RNA synthesis downstream of transcription initiation...
March 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343140/sequence-encoded-material-properties-dictate-the-structure-and-function-of-nuclear-bodies
#17
REVIEW
Stephanie C Weber
Concomitant with packaging the genome, the cell nucleus must also spatially organize the nucleoplasm. This complex mixture of proteins and nucleic acids partitions into a variety of phase-separated, membraneless organelles called nuclear bodies. Significant progress has been made in understanding the relationship between the material properties of nuclear bodies and their structural and functional consequences. Furthermore, the molecular basis of these condensed phases is beginning to emerge. Here, I review the latest work in this exciting field, highlighting recent advances and new challenges...
March 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343126/pi3k-signaling-in-cancer-beyond-akt
#18
REVIEW
Evan C Lien, Christian C Dibble, Alex Toker
The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway is one of the most frequently altered pathways in human cancer and has a critical role in driving tumor initiation and progression. Although PI3K and its lipid product phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) have been shown to activate multiple downstream signaling proteins, the vast majority of studies have focused on the protein kinase AKT as the dominant effector of PI3K signaling. However, recent studies have demonstrated many contexts under which other PIP3-dependent signaling proteins critically contribute to cancer progression, illustrating the importance of understanding AKT-independent signaling downstream of PI3K...
March 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342303/cell-adaptation-upon-stress-the-emerging-role-of-membrane-less-compartments
#19
REVIEW
Catherine Rabouille, Simon Alberti
Cells under stress transition from a growth to a quiescent state. The conventional thinking is that this is achieved through transcriptional programs, translational regulation, protein degradation, and post-translational modifications. However, there is an increasing realization that stress adaptation also goes along with dramatic changes in the architecture and organization of cells. In particular, it seems to involve the formation of membrane-less compartments and macromolecular assemblies. We propose that cells make widespread use of this ability to change macromolecular organization to adapt to stress conditions and protect themselves...
March 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314237/non-autonomous-cell-proliferation-in-the-mammary-gland-and-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Robert J Weber, Tejal A Desai, Zev J Gartner
Cells decide whether to grow and divide by integrating internal and external signals. Non-autonomous cell growth and proliferation occurs when microenvironmental signals from neighboring cells, both physical and secreted, license this decision. Understanding these processes is vital to developing an accurate framework for cell-cell interactions and cellular decision-making, and is useful for advancing new therapeutic strategies to prevent dysregulated growth. Here, we review some recent examples of non-autonomous cell growth in the mammary gland and tumor cell proliferation...
March 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
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