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Current Opinion in Cell Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732313/biomechanics-of-cell-rearrangements-in-drosophila
#1
REVIEW
Boris Guirao, Yohanns Bellaïche
To acquire their adequate size and shape, living tissues grow and substantially deform as they develop. To do so, the cells making up the tissue can grow and deform as well, but they can also divide, intercalate and die. Among those cell behaviors, cell intercalation, also named cell rearrangement, is a major contributor to the morphogenesis of many cohesive tissues since it enables tissues to drastically deform as they develop while keeping their cohesiveness and avoiding extreme deformation of their cells...
July 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728013/dynamic-and-elastic-shape-transitions-in-curved-escrt-iii-filaments
#2
REVIEW
Nicolas Chiaruttini, Aurélien Roux
The ESCRT-III complex is an evolutionary ancient and conserved complex that catalyzes fission of lipid membranes from the lumen of the neck in many, if not all processes requiring this specific fission reaction. The ESCRT-III membrane remodeling complex is unique as its molecular and polymeric structures do not intuitively suggests how it could deform and break lipid membranes. Here we review the common structural features of the ESCRT-III subunits, and the shape diversity of the various filamentous forms. We propose a simple geometry and elasticity framework that could help to isolate which features of the ESCRT-III filaments are common to all filamentous forms as well as to explain their diversity...
July 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720210/editorial-overview-cell-organelles
#3
EDITORIAL
Catherine Rabouille, Bruno Antonny
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719867/tissue-homeostasis-and-aging-new-insight-from-the-fly-intestine
#4
REVIEW
Louis Gervais, Allison J Bardin
Adult somatic stem cells facilitate tissue homeostasis throughout the life of the organism. The mechanisms controlling stem cell activity are under intense scrutiny, with the aims of elucidating how they mediate tissue homeostasis, contribute to age-related decline of adult tissues, and promote tumorigenesis. Recently, the use of model systems such as the Drosophila intestine has enriched our understanding of how stem cells integrate local and systemic signals to maintain tissue and organs function in physiological conditions of homeostasis or after damage...
July 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719866/cell-competition-in-mammals-novel-homeostatic-machinery-for-embryonic-development-and-cancer-prevention
#5
REVIEW
Takeshi Maruyama, Yasuyuki Fujita
In the multi-cellular community, cells with different properties often compete with each other for survival and space. This process is named cell competition and was originally discovered in Drosophila. Recent studies have revealed that comparable phenomena also occur in mammals under various physiological and pathological conditions. Within the epithelium, normal cells often recognize the presence of the neighboring transformed cells and actively eliminate them from the epithelium; a process termed EDAC (Epithelial Defense Against Cancer)...
July 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715714/actomyosin-contractility-and-collective-migration-may-the-force-be-with-you
#6
REVIEW
Pahini Pandya, Jose L Orgaz, Victoria Sanz-Moreno
Collective cell migration is essential during physiological processes such as development or wound healing and in pathological conditions such as cancer dissemination. Cells migrating within multicellular tissues experiment different forces which play an intricate role during tissue formation, development and maintenance. How cells are able to respond to these forces depends largely on how they interact with the extracellular matrix. In this review, we focus on mechanics and mechanotransduction in collective migration...
July 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715713/metastasis-systems-biology-how-are-macro-environmental-signals-transmitted-into-microenvironmental-cues-for-disseminated-tumor-cells
#7
REVIEW
Candice Alexandra Grzelak, Cyrus Michael Ghajar
Disseminated breast tumor cells reside on or near stable microvascular endothelium. Currently, the cues that disrupt DTC dormancy and facilitate outgrowth are largely unknown. This article explores the hypothesis that specific patient lifestyle exposures (e.g., alcohol abuse) may disrupt the microenvironments that maintain disseminated tumor cell (DTC) dormancy in a tissue-specific fashion. We suggest that such exposures are 'transmitted' to the dormant niche in the form of injury. Thus, we discuss the relationship between wound healing and metastasis using liver as an example to illustrate how injury steers the phenotype of liver endothelium and perivascular hepatic stellate cells to a potentially pro-metastatic one...
July 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641181/the-caveolae-dress-code-structure-and-signaling
#8
REVIEW
Christophe Lamaze, Nicolas Tardif, Melissa Dewulf, Stéphane Vassilopoulos, Cédric M Blouin
Over the past decade, interest in caveolae biology has peaked. These small bulb-shaped plasma membrane invaginations of 50-80nm diameter present in most cell types have been upgraded from simple membrane structures to a more complex bona fide organelle. However, although caveolae are involved in several essential cellular functions and pathologies, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly defined. Following the identification of caveolins and cavins as the main caveolae constituents, recent studies have brought new insight into their structural organization as a coat...
June 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641118/mechanisms-for-fast-cell-migration-in-complex-environments
#9
REVIEW
Pablo Vargas, Lucie Barbier, Pablo José Sáez, Matthieu Piel
Cell migration depends on a combination of the cell's intrinsic capacity to move and the proper interpretation of external cues. This multistep process enables leukocytes to travel long distances in organs in just a few hours. This fast migration is partly due to the leukocytes' high level of plasticity, which helps them to adapt to a changing environment. Here, we review recent progress in understanding the mechanisms used by leukocytes to move rapidly and efficiently in intricate anatomical landscapes. We shall focus on specific cytoskeletal rearrangements used by neutrophils and dendritic cells to migrate within confined environments...
June 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641117/structural-components-of-nuclear-integrity-with-gene-regulatory-potential
#10
REVIEW
Kelli D Fenelon, Sevan Hopyan
The nucleus is a mechanosensitive and load-bearing structure. Structural components of the nucleus interact to maintain nuclear integrity and have become subjects of exciting research that is relevant to cell and developmental biology. Here we outline the boundaries of what is known about key architectural elements within the nucleus and highlight their potential structural and transcriptional regulatory functions.
June 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622586/outerwear-through-the-ages-evolutionary-cell-biology-of-vesicle-coats
#11
REVIEW
Joel B Dacks, Margaret S Robinson
Vesicular transport was key to the evolution of eukaryotes, and is essential for eukaryotic life today. All modern eukaryotes have a set of vesicle coat proteins, which couple cargo selection to vesicle budding in the secretory and endocytic pathways. Although these coats share common features (e.g. recruitment via small GTPases, β-propeller-α-solenoid proteins acting as scaffolds), the relationships between them are not always clear. Structural studies on the coats themselves, comparative genomics and cell biology in diverse eukaryotes, and the recent discovery of the Asgard archaea and their 'eukaryotic signature proteins' are helping us to piece together how coats may have evolved during the prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition...
June 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622576/coordinating-cell-movements-in-vivo-junctional-and-cytoskeletal-dynamics-lead-the-way
#12
REVIEW
Miranda V Hunter, Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalez
Collective cell movements drive embryonic development and tissue repair, and can cause disease. However, the mechanisms that coordinate the migration of groups of cells in vivo are unclear. Cells generate, transmit and sense mechanical forces to align their movements. Therefore, the machinery used by cells to generate force (cytoskeleton) and to transmit and sense mechanical signals (cell-cell adhesion) is critical for collective movement. Here, we review the components and organization of the cytoskeletal and cell-cell adhesive machineries, and how they are organized to promote collective cell movements in living animals...
June 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614747/rna-mediated-regulation-of-heterochromatin
#13
REVIEW
Whitney L Johnson, Aaron F Straight
The formation of condensed, transcriptionally repressed heterochromatin is essential for controlling gene expression throughout development, silencing parasitic DNA elements, and for genome stability and inheritance. Cells employ diverse mechanisms for controlling heterochromatin states through proteins that modify DNA and histones. An emerging theme is that chromatin-associated RNAs play important roles in regulating heterochromatin proteins by controlling their initial recruitment to chromatin, their stable association with chromatin, their spread along chromatin, or their enzymatic activity...
June 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605656/metabolism-shapes-the-tumor-microenvironment
#14
REVIEW
Miguel Reina-Campos, Jorge Moscat, Maria Diaz-Meco
Tumors are strongly influenced by the surrounding normal tissue, which forms a specialized niche termed the tumor microenvironment (TME). The TME is modeled by cancer cells for their own benefit through a complex array of interactions. The identification of new forms of communication within the TME, which are dependent on the tumor's metabolic activity, has expanded our understanding of this heterocellular regulation and has revealed potential therapeutic targets. This review will summarize recent findings on the metabolic regulation of tumor cells by the TME...
June 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600967/mechanisms-of-cell-competition-emerging-from-drosophila-studies
#15
Nicholas E Baker
Cell competition was described in Drosophila as the loss from mosaic tissues of otherwise viable cells heterozygous for Ribosomal protein mutations ('Minutes'). Cell competition has now been described to occur between multiple other genotypes, such as cells differing in myc expression levels, or mutated for neoplastic tumor suppressors. Recent studies implicate innate immunity components, and possibly mechanical stress, compression and cell intercalation as a consequence of differential growth rates in competitive cell death...
June 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586710/regulation-of-gastrulation-movements-by-emergent-cell-and-tissue-interactions
#16
REVIEW
Margot Lk Williams, Lilianna Solnica-Krezel
It is during gastrulation that the primordial germ layers are specified, embryonic axes become morphologically manifest, and the embryonic body plan begins to take shape. As morphogenetic movements push and pull nascent tissues into position within the gastrula, new interactions are established between neighboring cells and tissues. These interactions represent an emergent property within gastrulating embryos, and serve to regulate and promote ensuing morphogenesis that establishes the next set of cell/tissue contacts, and so on...
June 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582681/translational-control-and-the-cancer-cell-response-to-stress
#17
REVIEW
Nathaniel Robichaud, Nahum Sonenberg
The evidence for the importance of aberrant translation in cancer cells is overwhelming. Reflecting the wealth of data, there are excellent reviews delineating how ribosomes and initiation factors are linked to cancer [1-3], and the therapeutic strategies being devised to target them [4]. Changes in translational efficiency can engender a malignant phenotype without the need for chromatin reorganization, transcription, splicing and mRNA export [5,6]. Thus, cancer-related modulations of the translational machinery are ideally suited to allow cancer cells to respond to the various stresses encountered along the path of tumorigenesis and organism-wide dissemination [7(•),8,9,10(•)]...
June 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577509/nuclear-bodies-news-insights-into-structure-and-function
#18
REVIEW
David Staněk, Archa H Fox
The cell nucleus contains a number of different dynamic bodies that are variously composed of proteins and generally, but not always, specific RNA molecules. Recent studies have revealed new understanding about nuclear body formation and function in different aspects of nuclear metabolism. Here, we focus on findings describing the role of nuclear bodies in the biogenesis of specific ribonucleoprotein complexes, processing of key mRNAs, and subnuclear sequestration of protein factors. We highlight how nuclear bodies are involved in stress responses, innate immunity and tumorigenesis...
May 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551508/fat-like-cadherins-in-cell-migration-leading-from-both-the-front-and-the-back
#19
REVIEW
Sally Horne-Badovinac
When cells migrate through the body, their motility is continually influenced by interactions with other cells. The Fat-like cadherins are cell-cell signaling proteins that promote migration in multiple cell types. Recent studies suggest, however, that Fat-like cadherins influence motility differently in mammals versus Drosophila, with the cadherin acting at the leading edge of mammalian cells and the trailing edge of Drosophila cells. As opposed to this being a difference between organisms, it is more likely that the Fat-like cadherins are highly versatile proteins that can interact with the migration machinery in multiple ways...
May 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527754/hippo-signalling-in-intestinal-regeneration-and-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Alex Gregorieff, Jeffrey L Wrana
The Hippo pathway is a unique signalling module that regulates cell-specific transcriptional responses and responds to a wide range of intrinsic and extrinsic cues. Besides its classical role in restricting tissue size during development, Hippo signalling is now recognized to control numerous processes including cell proliferation, survival, cell fate determination, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions and cell migration. Because of its highly dynamic nature, the intestinal epithelium has served as an exceptional model to study the complex roles of Hippo signalling...
May 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
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