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Current Opinion in Cell Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431265/nucleolar-reorganization-in-response-to-rdna-damage
#1
REVIEW
Marjolein van Sluis, Brian McStay
Nucleoli, sites of ribosome biogenesis, form around nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) comprising rDNA arrays, located on human acrocentric chromosome p-arms. NORs provide an opportunity to investigate the DNA double strand break (DSB) response at highly transcribed, repetitive, essential loci. Targeted introduction of DSBs into rDNA results in ATM-dependent inhibition of RNA-polymerase I transcription, coupled with movement of rDNA from the nucleolar interior to anchoring points at the periphery. Reorganization renders rDNA accessible to repair factors, normally excluded from nucleoli...
April 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411448/mtorc1-signaling-and-the-metabolic-control-of-cell-growth
#2
REVIEW
Issam Ben-Sahra, Brendan D Manning
mTOR [mechanistic target of rapamycin] is a serine/threonine protein kinase that, as part of mTORC1 (mTOR complex 1), acts as an important molecular connection between nutrient signals and the metabolic processes indispensable for cell growth. While there has been pronounced interest in the upstream mechanisms regulating mTORC1, the full range of downstream molecular targets through which mTORC1 signaling stimulates cell growth is only recently emerging. It is now evident that mTORC1 promotes cell growth primarily through the activation of key anabolic processes...
April 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399507/the-emerging-role-of-retromer-in-neuroprotection
#3
REVIEW
Kirsty J McMillan, Hendrick C Korswagen, Peter J Cullen
Efficient sorting and transportation of integral membrane proteins, such as ion channels, nutrient transporters, signalling receptors, cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion molecules is essential for the function of cellular organelles and hence organism development and physiology. Retromer is a master controller of integral membrane protein sorting and transport through one of the major sorting station within eukaryotic cells, the endosomal network. Subtle de-regulation of retromer is an emerging theme in the pathoetiology of Parkinson's disease...
April 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391090/fast-and-ultrafast-endocytosis
#4
REVIEW
Shigeki Watanabe, Emmanuel Boucrot
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is the main endocytic pathway supporting housekeeping functions in cells. However, CME may be too slow to internalize proteins from the cell surface during certain physiological processes such as reaction to stress hormones ('fight-or-flight' reaction), chemotaxis or compensatory endocytosis following exocytosis of synaptic vesicles or hormone-containing vesicles. These processes take place on a millisecond to second timescale and thus require very rapid cellular reaction to prevent overstimulation or exhaustion of the response...
April 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391089/the-mitochondria-endoplasmic-reticulum-contact-sites-a-signalling-platform-for-cell-death
#5
REVIEW
Julien Prudent, Heidi M McBride
Mitochondria evolved as an endosymbiont providing the cell with a dizzying array of catabolic and anabolic processes essential for life. However, mitochondria have retained the ability to kill from within, and are widely considered the final executioners of programmed cell death. The groundbreaking discovery over 25 years ago that mitochondrial cytochrome c is released into the cytosol shone new and unexpected light onto this old organelle, revitalizing the field. The Bcl-2 family of proteins plays a central role in the maintenance of mitochondrial membrane integrity, but other factors are also involved in the cell death program...
April 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390244/golgi-ribbon-disassembly-during-mitosis-differentiation-and-disease-progression
#6
REVIEW
Jen-Hsuan Wei, Joachim Seemann
The Golgi apparatus is tightly integrated into the cellular system where it plays essential roles required for a variety of cellular processes. Its vital functions include not only processing and sorting of proteins and lipids, but also serving as a signaling hub and a microtubule-organizing center. Golgi stacks in mammalian cells are interconnected into a compact ribbon in the perinuclear region. However, the ribbon can undergo distinct disassembly processes that reflect the cellular state or environmental demands and stress...
April 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376317/imaginal-disc-regeneration-takes-flight
#7
REVIEW
Iswar K Hariharan, Florenci Serras
Drosophila imaginal discs, the larval precursors of adult structures such as the wing and leg, are capable of regenerating after damage. During the course of regeneration, discs can sometimes generate structures that are appropriate for a different type of disc, a phenomenon termed transdetermination. Until recently, these phenomena were studied by physically fragmenting discs and then transplanting them into the abdomens of adult female flies. This field has experienced a renaissance following the development of genetic ablation systems that can damage precisely defined regions of the disc without the need for surgery...
April 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364663/tissue-growth-and-tumorigenesis-in-drosophila-cell-polarity-and-the-hippo-pathway
#8
REVIEW
Helena E Richardson, Marta Portela
Cell polarity regulation is critical for defining membrane domains required for the establishment and maintenance of the apical-basal axis in epithelial cells (apico-basal polarity), asymmetric cell divisions, planar organization of tissues (planar cell polarity), and the formation of the front-rear axis in cell migration (front-rear polarity). In the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, cell polarity regulators also interact with the Hippo tissue growth control signaling pathway. In this review we survey the recent Drosophila literature linking cell polarity regulators with the Hippo pathway in epithelial tissue growth, neural stem cell asymmetric divisions and in cell migration in physiological and tumorigenic settings...
March 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363125/pause-go-from-the-discovery-of-rna-polymerase-pausing-to-its-functional-implications
#9
REVIEW
Andreas Mayer, Heather M Landry, L Stirling Churchman
The synthesis of nascent RNA is a discontinuous process in which phases of productive elongation by RNA polymerase are interrupted by frequent pauses. Transcriptional pausing was first observed decades ago, but was long considered to be a special feature of transcription at certain genes. This view was challenged when studies using genome-wide approaches revealed that RNA polymerase II pauses at promoter-proximal regions in large sets of genes in Drosophila and mammalian cells. High-resolution genomic methods uncovered that pausing is not restricted to promoters, but occurs globally throughout gene-body regions, implying the existence of key-rate limiting steps in nascent RNA synthesis downstream of transcription initiation...
March 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347931/root-branching-plasticity-collective-decision-making-results-from-local-and-global-signalling
#10
REVIEW
Winston Tyler McCleery, Nadiatul A Mohd-Radzman, VerĂ´nica A Grieneisen
Cells within tissues can be regarded as autonomous entities that respond to their local environment and to signals from neighbours. Coordination between cells is particularly important in plants, as the architecture of the plant adapts to environmental cues. To explain the architectural plasticity of the root, we propose to view it as a swarm of coupled multi-cellular structures, rhizomers, rather than a large set of autonomous cells. Each rhizomer contains a primed site with the potential to develop a single lateral root...
March 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343140/sequence-encoded-material-properties-dictate-the-structure-and-function-of-nuclear-bodies
#11
REVIEW
Stephanie C Weber
Concomitant with packaging the genome, the cell nucleus must also spatially organize the nucleoplasm. This complex mixture of proteins and nucleic acids partitions into a variety of phase-separated, membraneless organelles called nuclear bodies. Significant progress has been made in understanding the relationship between the material properties of nuclear bodies and their structural and functional consequences. Furthermore, the molecular basis of these condensed phases is beginning to emerge. Here, I review the latest work in this exciting field, highlighting recent advances and new challenges...
March 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343126/pi3k-signaling-in-cancer-beyond-akt
#12
REVIEW
Evan C Lien, Christian C Dibble, Alex Toker
The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway is one of the most frequently altered pathways in human cancer and has a critical role in driving tumor initiation and progression. Although PI3K and its lipid product phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) have been shown to activate multiple downstream signaling proteins, the vast majority of studies have focused on the protein kinase AKT as the dominant effector of PI3K signaling. However, recent studies have demonstrated many contexts under which other PIP3-dependent signaling proteins critically contribute to cancer progression, illustrating the importance of understanding AKT-independent signaling downstream of PI3K...
March 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342303/cell-adaptation-upon-stress-the-emerging-role-of-membrane-less-compartments
#13
REVIEW
Catherine Rabouille, Simon Alberti
Cells under stress transition from a growth to a quiescent state. The conventional thinking is that this is achieved through transcriptional programs, translational regulation, protein degradation, and post-translational modifications. However, there is an increasing realization that stress adaptation also goes along with dramatic changes in the architecture and organization of cells. In particular, it seems to involve the formation of membrane-less compartments and macromolecular assemblies. We propose that cells make widespread use of this ability to change macromolecular organization to adapt to stress conditions and protect themselves...
March 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314237/non-autonomous-cell-proliferation-in-the-mammary-gland-and-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Robert J Weber, Tejal A Desai, Zev J Gartner
Cells decide whether to grow and divide by integrating internal and external signals. Non-autonomous cell growth and proliferation occurs when microenvironmental signals from neighboring cells, both physical and secreted, license this decision. Understanding these processes is vital to developing an accurate framework for cell-cell interactions and cellular decision-making, and is useful for advancing new therapeutic strategies to prevent dysregulated growth. Here, we review some recent examples of non-autonomous cell growth in the mammary gland and tumor cell proliferation...
March 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292700/canonical-and-noncanonical-functions-of-ulk-atg1
#15
REVIEW
Bo Wang, Mondira Kundu
Mammalian Unc-51-like kinases 1 and 2 (ULK1 and ULK2) belong to the ULK/Atg1 family of serine/threonine kinases, which are conserved from yeast to mammals. Although ULK/Atg1 is best known for regulating flux through the autophagy pathway, it has evolutionarily conserved noncanonical functions in protein trafficking that are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis. As a direct target of energy- and nutrient-sensing kinases, ULK/Atg1 is positioned to regulate the distribution and use of cellular resources in response to metabolic cues...
March 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258033/rnp-transport-in-cell-biology-the-long-and-winding-road
#16
REVIEW
Carolina Eliscovich, Robert H Singer
Regulation of gene expression is key determinant to cell structure and function. RNA localization, where specific mRNAs are transported to subcellular regions and then translated, is highly conserved in eukaryotes ranging from yeast to extremely specialized and polarized cells such as neurons. Messenger RNA and associated proteins (mRNP) move from the site of transcription in the nucleus to their final destination in the cytoplasm both passively through diffusion and actively via directed transport. Dysfunction of RNA localization, transport and translation machinery can lead to pathology...
February 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242560/viral-rewiring-of-cellular-lipid-metabolism-to-create-membranous-replication-compartments
#17
REVIEW
Jeroen Rpm Strating, Frank Jm van Kuppeveld
Positive-strand RNA (+RNA) viruses (e.g. poliovirus, hepatitis C virus, dengue virus, SARS-coronavirus) remodel cellular membranes to form so-called viral replication compartments (VRCs), which are the sites where viral RNA genome replication takes place. To induce VRC formation, these viruses extensively rewire lipid metabolism. Disparate viruses have many commonalities as well as disparities in their interactions with the host lipidome and accumulate specific sets of lipids (sterols, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids) at their VRCs...
February 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237810/recognition-and-tethering-of-transport-vesicles-at-the-golgi-apparatus
#18
REVIEW
Tomasz M Witkos, Martin Lowe
The Golgi apparatus occupies a central position within the secretory pathway where it is a hub for vesicle trafficking. Distinct classes of transport vesicles traffic diverse cargoes into and out of this organelle, as well as between the different Golgi subcompartments. A key feature of Golgi trafficking is the specific recognition of transport vesicles at the different regions of the Golgi apparatus, required for the correct cargo delivery. Specificity is ensured by coiled-coil golgins and multi-subunit tethering complexes (MTCs), which act together to capture vesicles and promote their subsequent fusion with the Golgi membrane...
February 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236735/the-nucleus-keeping-it-together-by-keeping-it-apart
#19
REVIEW
C Patrick Lusk, Megan C King
It has been postulated that the segregation of nucleus and cytoplasm supported the development of increased organismal complexity. For example, separating transcription and translation allows for mRNA splicing, while the sequestration of genomic DNA supports the innate immune system's ability to equate cytoplasmic DNA with pathogens. Consistent with the importance of nucleocytoplasmic compartmentalization in a broad array of cellular processes, defects in maintaining discrete nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments, either due to loss of nuclear pore complex integrity, disrupted nuclear transport or ruptures of the nuclear envelope, lead to cellular dysfunction, cell death and disease...
February 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236732/x-chromosome-inactivation-silencing-topology-and-reactivation
#20
REVIEW
Teresa Robert Finestra, Joost Gribnau
To ensure X-linked gene dosage compensation between females (XX) and males (XY), one X chromosome undergoes X chromosome inactivation (XCI) in female cells. This process is tightly regulated throughout development by many different factors, with Xist as a key regulator, encoding a long non-coding RNA, involved in establishment of several layers of repressive epigenetic modifications. Several recent studies on XCI focusing on identification and characterization of Xist RNA-protein interactors, revealed new factors involved in gene silencing, genome topology and nuclear membrane attachment, amongst others...
February 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
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