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American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI

Ankit Shroff, Kudumula Venkata Rami Reddy
PROBLEM: Candida albicans infection induces damage in host cells that results in the activation of cell death pathways such as apoptosis and necrosis. Autophagy acts as a pro-survival mechanism during various infections and has cross talks with apoptosis. The objective of our study was to delineate the effect of autophagy knockdown in human vaginal epithelial cells (VECs) during Candida infection-induced apoptosis. METHOD OF STUDY: We overexpressed wild-type or mutant form of autophagy-related gene 5 (ATG5) in human VECs and determined the levels of autophagy and lysosome marker genes upon C...
October 10, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Sandro La Vignera, Rossella Cannarella, Rosita A Condorelli, Aldo E Calogero
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 7, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Li Wu, Joanne Kwak-Kim, Ran Zhang, Qing Li, Fang Ting Lu, Yu Zhang, Hao Y Wang, Liang Wen Zhong, Yu Sheng Liu
PROBLEM: The role of vitamin D (VD) in IVF outcome and immune parameters has not been elucidated well. METHOD OF STUDY: Women undergoing IVF treatment with GnRH agonist (Agonist) and progestin-primed ovarian stimulation (PPOS) protocols were divided into VD lower (VDL, 25(OH)VD ≤20 ng/mL) and VD higher (VDH, 25(OH)VD >20 ng/mL) groups. Follicular fluid (FF) VD level, IVF outcomes, and peripheral blood immunophenotypes by flow cytometry were analyzed. RESULTS: FF VD levels of the whole subjects were positively correlated with peripheral blood VD level (r = 0...
October 6, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Tiina Rantsi, Hanna Öhman, Mirja Puolakkainen, Aini Bloigu, Jorma Paavonen, Heljä-Marja Surcel, Aila Tiitinen, Päivi Joki-Korpela
PROBLEM: The accuracy of Chlamydia trachomatis antibody test in predicting tubal factor infertility (TFI) is limited, and more accurate methods are needed. Cell-mediated immune response (CMI) is crucial in the resolution of pathogen, but it may play an important role in the pathogenesis of C trachomatis-associated tubal damage. We studied whether combining the markers of C trachomatis-induced CMI to humoral immune response improves the accuracy of serology in TFI prediction. METHOD OF STUDY: Our prospective study consists of 258 subfertile women, of whom 22 (8...
October 3, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Ruhul H Choudhury, Caroline E Dunk, Stephen J Lye, Lynda K Harris, John D Aplin, Rebecca L Jones
PROBLEM: During pregnancy, the decidual spiral arterioles (SpAs) that supply maternal blood to the placenta undergo a series of changes to optimise the transfer of nutrients and oxygen to the developing foetus. Recent studies have shown that initiation of SpA transformation coincides with decidual leucocyte infiltration. Leucocytes are known to be a source of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs); however, the complete profile of MMPs expressed by decidual NK cells (dNK) and macrophages has not been characterised...
September 29, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Ioannis Bellos, Vasilios Karageorgiou, Dimitrios Kapnias, Konstantina-Eleni Karamanli, Charalampos Siristatidis
Preeclampsia is a multi-system hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, with significant rates of maternal and neonatal morbidity. It represents a major cause of preterm birth, as definitive treatment demands fetal delivery. Although its pathophysiology is complicated, placental hypoxia and endothelial dysfunction constitute established pathogenetic steps of the disease. Inflammation is considered to be a crucial mediator of preeclampsia process, as an imbalance between TH 1, TH 2, and TH 17 immune responses is observed...
September 28, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Zuzanna Kunicka, Aleksandra Kurzynska, Anna Szydlowska, Karol Mierzejewski, Iwona Bogacka
PROBLEM: Cytokines, mediators of the immune response, are involved in the regulation of female reproductive processes during the estrous cycle and pregnancy. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of selected peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) ligands on the expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and selected cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, -4, -6, -8, -10, and the leukemia inhibitory factor, in the porcine endometrium on days 10-12 and 14-16 of the estrous cycle (mid- and late luteal phase, respectively) or pregnancy (maternal recognition of pregnancy and beginning of implantation, respectively)...
September 28, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Nardhy Gomez-Lopez, Roberto Romero, Bogdan Panaitescu, Yaozhu Leng, Yi Xu, Adi L Tarca, Jonathan Faro, Percy Pacora, Sonia S Hassan, Chaur-Dong Hsu
PROBLEM: The inflammasome is implicated in the mechanisms that lead to spontaneous preterm labor (PTL). However, whether there is inflammasome activation in the amniotic cavity of women with PTL and intra-amniotic infection (IAI) or sterile intra-amniotic inflammation (SIAI) is unknown. METHOD OF STUDY: Amniotic fluid samples were collected from women with PTL who delivered at term (n = 31) or preterm without IAI or SIAI (n = 35), with SIAI (n = 27), or with IAI (n = 17)...
September 18, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Xiaoli Qin, Yan Chen, Shufang Chen, Xiaorui Liu, Weihong Zeng, Fuju Tian, Yi Lin, Cuifang Fan
PROBLEM: Human pregnancy is a complex biological process, and spontaneous abortion is the most common complication of pregnancy. LncRNAs have been identified that play key roles in a variety of human diseases. Recently, lncRNAPVT1 was reported to relate to the pathogenesis and progression of pregnancy. However, the role and underlying mechanism of PVT1 in trophoblast cell dysfunction in spontaneous abortion remain largely unknown. METHOD OF STUDY: The effects of PVT1, miR-424, and eIF5A on HTR8 cells and human villi tissues from spontaneous or induced abortions were investigated using CCK-8 assay, EdU assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, cell transfection assays, cell migration assays, and luciferase reporter gene assays...
September 17, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Emeir M McSorley, Alison J Yeates, Maria S Mulhern, Edwin van Wijngaarden, Katherine Grzesik, Sally W Thurston, Toni Spence, William Crowe, Philip W Davidson, Grazyna Zareba, Gary J Myers, Gene E Watson, Conrad F Shamlaye, J J Strain
PROBLEM: Maternal methylmercury (MeHg) exposure may be associated with immune response during pregnancy. METHOD OF STUDY: In the high fish-eating Seychelles Child Development Study Nutrition Cohort 2, we examined the association between maternal MeHg, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and immune markers (Th1:Th2; TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, MCP-1, TARC, sFlt-1, VEGF-D, CRP and IL-6) at 28 weeks' gestation. Linear regression examined associations between MeHg exposure and immune markers with and without adjustment for PUFA...
September 17, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Mickey V Patel, Zheng Shen, Richard M Rossoll, Charles R Wira
PROBLEM: The contribution of fibroblasts to innate immune protection of the human female reproductive tract (FRT) against viral pathogens is relatively unknown. METHOD OF STUDY: Endometrial (EM), endocervical (Cx) and ectocervical (ECx) fibroblasts were isolated from hysterectomy patients and grown in vitro. Fibroblasts were treated with the viral mimic poly (I:C) in the presence or absence of the sex hormone estradiol (E2 ), with gene expression measured by real-time RT-PCR and protein secretion by ELISA...
September 17, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Kaori Goto, Yasushi Kawano, Takafumi Utsunomiya, Hisashi Narahara
PROBLEM: Decidual cells are thought to be involved in the maintenance of pregnancy. We conducted this study to evaluate the cellular function of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) transitioning to decidualization. METHODS OF STUDY: Normal endometrial specimens were obtained from premenopausal patients who had undergone hysterectomies for subserosal leiomyomas. Decidualization of the ESCs (DSCs) was induced by incubating subconfluent cells in media containing medroxyprogesterone acetate and dibutyryl-cyclic adenosine monophosphate...
September 17, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Samantha Sheller-Miller, Lauren Richardson, Laura Martin, Jin Jin, Ramkumar Menon
Oxidative stress (OS) plays a role in uterine tissue remodeling during pregnancy and parturition. While p38 MAPK is an OS-response kinase, a precise functional role is unknown. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of literature on p38 MAPK expression, activation, and function in reproductive tissues throughout pregnancy and parturition, published between January 1980 and August 2017, using four electronic databases (Web of Science, PubMed, Medline, and CoCHRANE). We identified 418 reports; 108 were selected for full-text evaluation and 74 were included in final review...
September 4, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Rebecca F Baggaley, Branwen N Owen, Romain Silhol, Jocelyn Elmes, Peter Anton, Ian McGowan, Ariane van der Straten, Barbara Shacklett, Que Dang, Edith M Swann, Diane L Bolton, Marie-Claude Boily
Quantifying HIV-1 transmission risk per-act of anal intercourse (AI) is important for HIV-1 prevention. We updated previous reviews by searching Medline and Embase to 02/2018. We derived pooled estimates of receptive AI (URAI) and insertive AI (UIAI) risk unprotected by condoms using random-effects models. Subgroup analyses were conducted by gender, study design, and whether antiretroviral treatment (ART) had been introduced by the time of the study. Two new relevant studies were identified, one of which met inclusion criteria, adding three new cohorts and increasing number of individuals/partnerships included from 1869 to 14 277...
September 2, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Kathleen R Heim, Melissa J Mulla, Julie A Potter, Christina S Han, Seth Guller, Vikki M Abrahams
PROBLEM: Hyperglycemia increases the risk of preeclampsia. Hyperglycemia induces a placental trophoblast inflammatory (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8), antiangiogenic (sFlt-1, sEndoglin), and anti-migratory profile. The IL-1β response is mediated via inflammasome activation by the damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP), uric acid. The objective of this study was to determine the role of high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), a DAMP that activates Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), in human first trimester trophoblast responses to hyperglycemia...
September 2, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Nadia Sarween, Mark T Drayson, James Hodson, Ellen M Knox, Timothy Plant, Clara J Day, Graham W Lipkin
PROBLEM: Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a leading cause of maternal and foetal morbidity worldwide. Given the implication of immune mechanisms, we compared markers of humoral immunity in PE and their relationship to circulating markers of inflammation, angiogenic factors, and renal function. METHOD OF STUDY: Serum samples from 88 previously healthy women admitted to hospital with PE and 107 healthy pregnant controls at term were analysed for serum immunoglobulins (Ig), including IgG subclasses and free light chain (sFLC) levels, beta-2 microglobulin (B2-M), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HS-CRP), albumin, complement proteins (C3 & C4), creatinine, cystatin-C and the ratio of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFLT-1) and placental growth factor (PlGF)...
August 31, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Martha Lappas
PROBLEM: Metallothioneins (MTs) play important roles in regulating oxidative stress, inflammation, and hormone signaling. These processes play a major role in labor at term and preterm. The aims of this study were to characterize (a) temporal- and labor-associated changes and (b) the effect of pro-inflammatory and pro-labor insults on the expression of MT1 isoforms, MT2A, MT3, and MT4 in fetal membranes and myometrium. METHOD OF STUDY: The expression of MTs was assessed in fetal membranes and myometrium from nonlaboring and laboring women at preterm and term by RT-qPCR...
August 28, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Кameliya Vinketova, Iliya Karagyozov, Vesselina Koleva, Michael Hristov, Milena Mourdjeva, Markus Sperandio, Tsvetelina Oreshkova
OBJECTIVE: CD90 is a glycoprotein involved in leukocyte relocation and cell differentiation. CD90 is expressed in endothelial and stromal cells in human endometrium; however, its role in the remodeling of the decidual tissue during pregnancy is poorly understood. Here, we investigate how CD90 expression in decidual stromal cells (DSCs) is regulated. METHOD OF STUDY: The native CD90 receptor in stromal cells in decidua was investigated via histology. We further develop in vitro culture of DSCs which allows us to test the effects of hormones and paracrine signals on CD90 expression...
August 26, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Timothy Bracewell-Milnes, Srdjan Saso, Dimitrios Nikolaou, Julian Norman-Taylor, Mark Johnson, Meen-Yau Thum
The female reproductive tract has an active microbiome, and it is suggested that these microbes could influence the outcome of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). This systematic review aimed to assess the vaginal/uterine microbiome, specifically with regard to improving the outcome of ART. English peer-reviewed journals were searched for studies investigating the vaginal/uterine micriobiome and female reproductive tract, using PRISMA guidelines. Twenty-six studies were included, 19 studying the vaginal and seven investigating the uterine microbiome...
August 21, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Mauro Cozzolino, Caterina Serena, Antonino Salvatore Calabró, Elena Savi, Marianna Pina Rambaldi, Serena Simeone, Serena Ottanelli, Giorgio Mello, Giovanni Rombolá, Gianmarco Troiano, Nicola Nante, Silvia Vannuccini, Federico Mecacci, Felice Petraglia
PROBLEM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of human leukocyte antigens (HLA) DQ2 and DQ8 haplotypes, two common polymorphisms associate with celiac disease (CD), in women with previous stillbirth, but not affected by CD. METHOD OF STUDY: Women with history of unexplained term stillbirth referred to our Center for High-Risk Pregnancies for a preconception counseling, and women with previous uncomplicated pregnancies, were enrolled as cases and controls...
August 19, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
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