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American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932269/hypoxia-regulates-placental-angiogenesis-via-alternatively-activated-macrophages
#1
Hui Zhao, Flora S Kalish, Ronald J Wong, David K Stevenson
PROBLEM: Uterine and placental macrophages play critical roles in maintaining a normal pregnancy. The majority of these macrophages are believed to be alternatively activated macrophages (M2). METHOD OF STUDY: Mouse bone marrow cells were differentiated into macrophages and polarized to M2 in vitro by treatment with IL-4 [M2a] or IL-10 [M2c] and M1 with LPS/IFN-γ as controls. Macrophage subtypes were confirmed by surface markers and characterized by gene expression profiles...
June 22, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924462/timing-and-mechanism-of-conceptus-demise-in-a-complement-regulatory-membrane-protein-deficient-mouse
#2
Michael P Triebwasser, Xiaobo Wu, Paula Bertram, Dennis E Hourcade, Donald Michael Nelson, John P Atkinson
PROBLEM: Crry is a widely expressed type 1 transmembrane complement regulatory protein in rodents which protects self-tissue by downregulating C3 activation. Crry-/- concepti produced by Crry+/-  × Crry+/- matings are attacked by maternal complement system leading to loss before day 10. The membrane attack complex is not the mediator of this death. We hypothesized that the ability of C3b to engage the alternative pathway's feedback loop relatively unchecked on placental membranes induces the lesion yielding the demise of the Crry-/- mouse...
June 20, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923244/vitamin-d-autoimmunity-and-recurrent-pregnancy-loss-more-than-an-association
#3
REVIEW
Kassem Sharif, Yousra Sharif, Abdulla Watad, Yarden Yavne, Benjamin Lichtbroun, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Howard Amital, Yehuda Shoenfeld
Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) affects close to 1% of couples; however, the etiology is known in only about 50% of the cases. Recent studies show that autoimmune dysregulation is a probable cause of RPL, which in some cases may be overlooked. In order for a pregnancy to proceed to term, early modulation of immunologic response is required to induce tolerance to the semi-allogenic fetus. Certain subsets of both the innate and adaptive immune responses play a role in the induction of fetomaternal tolerance. A relatively predominant T-cell helper (Th) 2 and T regulatory (Treg) cell population seem to favor a better pregnancy outcome, whereas Th1 and Th17 cell populations appear to have an opposite effect...
June 19, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917288/mast-cells-good-guys-with-a-bad-image
#4
REVIEW
Nicole Meyer, Ana Claudia Zenclussen
Mast cells (MCs) are most known because of their prominent role in allergy. In the last years, however, it has become clear that they have pleiotropic functions and a high adaptability to the milieu. This review focuses on negative and positive roles of MCs within the body with particular emphasis on their participation in reproductive processes.
June 19, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911323/regulation-of-p38-mitogen-activated-kinase-mediated-fetal-membrane-senescence-by-statins
#5
Martina T Ayad, Brandie D Taylor, Ramkumar Menon
PROBLEM: Oxidative stress (OS)-induced, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK)-mediated chorioamniotic senescence and inflammation (senescence-associated secretory phenotype [SASP]) are associated with parturition. In response to OS-inducing risk factors, premature senescence contributes to preterm premature rupture of the membranes (pPROM) and spontaneous preterm birth (PTB). We determined the effect of simvastatin, rosuvastatin, and progesterone in downregulating p38MAPK-mediated senescence and SASP...
June 17, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905034/interferon-epsilon-in-the-reproductive-tract-of-healthy-and-genital-herpes-simplex-virus-infected-pregnant-women-results-of-a-pilot-study
#6
Colette Nickodem, Michael F Criscitiello, Fuller Bazer, Olayinka Abiodun-Ojo, Brandie D Taylor
PROBLEM: Recently characterized interferon epsilon (IFNe) protects against sexually transmitted infections, including genital herpes simplex virus (HSV), in animal models. There are no reports of IFNe in genital tract secretions of pregnant women, and data on IFNe in non-pregnant women are limited. This pilot study is the first to measure concentrations of IFNe in vaginal and cervical secretions during pregnancy and compare values between healthy and genital HSV-infected women. METHOD OF STUDY: Vaginal or cervical specimens from 30 pregnant women were obtained from the Global Alliance to Prevent Prematurity and Stillbirth (GAPPS) repository...
June 14, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904979/platinum-sensitivity-of-ovarian-cancer-cells-does-not-influence-their-ability-to-induce-m2-type-macrophage-polarization
#7
Agata Mlynska, Egle Povilaityte, Inga Zemleckaite, Karolina Zilionyte, Marius Strioga, Jan Krasko, Neringa Dobrovolskiene, Mei-Wen Peng, Birute Intaite, Vita Pasukoniene
PROBLEM: Development of platinum resistance in ovarian cancer is mediated by both cancer cells and tumor microenvironment. Activation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition program in cancer cells may lead to enrichment for resistant clones. These processes can be affected by tumor-associated macrophages, a highly plastic population of cells that participate in tumor progression and response to treatment by shaping the microenvironment. We aimed to study how platinum resistance influences the crosstalk between macrophages and ovarian cancer cells...
June 14, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904967/downregulation-of-ilt4-dendritic-cells-in-recurrent-miscarriage-and-recurrent-implantation-failure
#8
Su Liu, Hongxia Wei, Yuye Li, Chunyu Huang, Ruochun Lian, Jian Xu, Lanna Chen, Yong Zeng
PROBLEM: The role of ILT4+ DCs in healthy fertile controls and patients with recurrent miscarriages (RM) and recurrent implantation failure (RIF) is unclear. METHOD OF STUDY: We studied the expression of ILT4 from peripheral blood and endometrial samples from healthy controls and patients with RM and RIF by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry analysis. Endometrial Foxp3 expression was also investigated using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: In peripheral blood, there was a significant increase in the percentage of ILT4+ DCs in healthy fertile controls compared with patients with RM and RIF...
June 14, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873429/microbiome-in-normal-and-pathological-pregnancies-a-literature-overview
#9
Carla R Taddei, Ramon V Cortez, Rosiane Mattar, Maria Regina Torloni, Silvia Daher
This review summarizes recent findings on the changes that occur during pregnancy in the composition of the vaginal and gut microbiome and their association with metabolic, hormonal, and immunological factors. Despite many studies on the topic, the vaginal and gut microbial profiles and their influence on the course of pregnancy are still unclear. We present data suggesting that, contrary to traditional understanding, the placenta is not sterile but has a microbial community. We review and discuss new findings on changes in the richness and diversity of the microbiota of pregnant women with term or preterm births, obesity, and gestational diabetes mellitus...
June 6, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29856101/xcl1-xcr1-pathway-promotes-trophoblast-invasion-at-maternal-fetal-interface-by-inducing-mmp-2-mmp-9-activity
#10
Si-Ming Zhang, Fu-Ju Tian, Wei-Hong Zeng, Xiao-Ling Ma, Jia-Bin Ren, Yi Lin
PROBLEM: Certain chemokines with their receptors can promote or inhibit trophoblast cell migration and invasion in human first-trimester placenta. Whether the lymphotactin (Lptn; XCL1)-XC chemokine receptor 1 (XCR1) chemokine pathway affects trophoblast cell migration and invasion in human first-trimester placenta remains unclear. METHOD OF STUDY: The expression pattern of chemokine XCL1 and its receptor XCR1 was detected in human first-trimester by qRT-PCR, and the effect of recombinant human XCL1 (rhXCL1) on trophoblast cell function was tested by wound healing and Transwell assays...
June 1, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29797540/soluble-b7-h4-blood-serum-levels-are-elevated-in-women-at-high-risk-for-preeclampsia-in-the-first-trimester-as-well-as-in-patients-with-confirmed-preeclampsia
#11
Pawel Mach, Luisa Nolte-Boenigk, Leonie Droste, Laura Fox, Mirjam Frank, Boerge Schmidt, Florian Herse, Stefan Verlohren, Lukasz Wicherek, Antonella Iannaccone, Cahit Birdir, Dimitrios Andrikos, Rainer Kimmig, Alexandra Gellhaus, Angela Köninger
PROBLEM: B7-H4 negatively regulates T-cell-mediated immunity and might play an important role in preeclampsia (PE). Here, we have investigated the association between PE and maternal soluble B7-H4 (sB7-H4) serum levels and B7-H4 mRNA expression in the placenta. METHOD OF STUDY: Maternal serum levels of sB7-H4 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in women between 11 and 13 weeks' gestation with elevated risk for PE (n = 48) and women without elevated risk for PE (n = 47)...
May 24, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29797537/the-role-of-the-maternal-and-fetal-inflammatory-response-in-retinopathy-of-prematurity
#12
Anne M Lynch, Amber A Berning, Tamara S Thevarajah, Brandie D Wagner, Miriam D Post, Emily A McCourt, Jennifer N Cathcart, Jennifer K Hodges, Naresh Mandava, Ronald S Gibbs, Alan G Palestine
PROBLEM: There is a paucity of research on the contribution of placental inflammation to severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). METHOD OF STUDY: A retrospective cohort study (n = 1217) was conducted of infants screened for ROP (2006-2016). The outcomes of the study were severe ROP (type 1 or type 2 ROP) and low grade ROP. We categorized the placental pathology as the presence of (i) maternal plus fetal inflammatory response, (ii) maternal inflammatory response only, (iii) fetal inflammatory response only and, (iv) no evidence of a maternal or fetal inflammatory response...
May 24, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790240/understanding-mucosal-and-microbial-functionality-of-the-female-reproductive-tract-by-metaproteomics-implications-for-hiv-transmission
#13
Alicia R Berard, Michelle Perner, Sarah Mutch, Christina Farr Zuend, Peter McQueen, Adam D Burgener
The mucosal surface of the female genital tract contains physiological, immunological, and microbial components that collectively comprise a functioning "mucosal system" that is critical for reproductive health. Alterations or imbalances to any of these components can have significant consequences for susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections, such as HIV. In recent years the advent of advanced systems biology technologies, such as metaproteomics, has provided new toolsets to studying mucosal systems...
May 22, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781548/multi-omics-in-high-grade-serous-ovarian-cancer-biomarkers-from-genome-to-the-immunome
#14
Cole Clifford, Natasha Vitkin, Sarah Nersesian, Gillian Reid-Schachter, Julie-Ann Francis, Madhuri Koti
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a lethal gynaecological disease that imposes significant burden on health care and patient quality of life. High-grade serous carcinoma of the ovary (HGSC) is the most prevalent histological type of EOC. A vast majority of HGSC cases are diagnosed at late stages of the disease, limiting the opportunity for clinical intervention and resulting in a 10-year survival rate of <20%. Recent innovations in high-throughput molecular analysis of patient-derived specimens may address these clinical challenges by providing an enhanced understanding of the molecular aetiology of ovarian cancer, in addition to offering several opportunities for rational biomarker and targeted therapy discovery...
May 21, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781540/clinical-significance-of-platelet-to-lymphocyte-ratio-in-women-with-preeclampsia
#15
Min-A Kim, Gwan Hee Han, Ja-Young Kwon, Young-Han Kim
PROBLEM: Preeclampsia (PE) is a serious pregnancy complication leading to high maternal, perinatal morbidity, and mortality. We aimed to investigate the clinical effectiveness of the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in women with PE and compare this measurement to platelet indices as a diagnostic and prognostic marker of PE. METHOD OF STUDY: A total of 471 healthy pregnant women, 126 women diagnosed with mild PE, and 227 with severe PE were included in this retrospective study...
May 21, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774968/granulysin-mediated-apoptosis-of-trophoblasts-in-blighted-ovum-and-missed-abortion
#16
Tamara Gulic, Gordana Laskarin, Marin Dominovic, Lana Glavan Gacanin, Emina Babarović, Zeljka Rubesa, Herman Haller, Daniel Rukavina
PROBLEM: Granulysin (GNLY) is a cytotoxic molecule mostly present in decidual natural killer (NK) cells. Blighted ovum (BO) and missed abortion (MA) represent the early pathological pregnancies with hindered development of the embryoblast or a dead embryo. We investigated the GNLY-mediated apoptotic mechanism potentially responsible for delayed termination of pregnancy. METHOD OF STUDY: We performed immunohistological and immunofluorescence labeling of decidual tissues (GNLY, Apaf-1, NF-κB)...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774963/glucocorticoid-signaling-regulates-cell-invasion-and-migration-in-the-human-first-trimester-trophoblast-cell-line-sw-71
#17
Edwina P Kisanga, Zhonghua Tang, Seth Guller, Shannon Whirledge
PROBLEM: The development of the placenta and its functions are sensitive to infection and stress, which can activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Adrenally produced glucocorticoids are the body's primary mediators of the inflammatory and stress response. Although the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is expressed in all human villous trophoblast tissue, the effect of glucocorticoids on placentation is not well understood. METHOD OF STUDY: Using microarray analysis, we identified the glucocorticoid-regulated transcriptional profile in the immortalized first-trimester extravillous trophoblast cell line Swan...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756668/amelioration-of-escherichia-coli-induced-endometritis-with-ascorbic-acid-in-non-pregnant-mouse-models
#18
Enitome Evi Bafor, Ikechukwu Onwukpa, Anne Oghenekevwe Itemire, Osemelomen Omoruyi, Ejiroghene Eferoba-Idio, Kevin Odega, Osas Jim Eghianruwa
PROBLEM: Infection-induced endometritis is associated with infertility. The outcome with oral antibiotics remains poor. This study therefore investigates the role of ascorbic acid in resolving endometritis. METHOD OF STUDY: Animals with established oestrus cycles were inoculated with Escherichia coli. Two days post-inoculation, the animals were administered ascorbic acid (10, 100 and 1000 mg/kg) and amoxicillin (500 mg/kg) for 5 days. Other groups included water only and E...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756666/abnormal-lymphatic-vessel-development-is-associated-with-decreased-decidual-regulatory-t-cells-in-severe-preeclampsia
#19
Yun Ji Jung, Yejin Park, Hyun-Soo Kim, Hwa Jin Lee, Yoo-Na Kim, JoonHo Lee, Young-Han Kim, Yong-Sun Maeng, Ja-Young Kwon
PROBLEM: The lymphatic vasculature controls leukocytes trafficking and limits the adaptive immune response. In previous models of preeclampsia (PE), defective immune function caused by disruption of lymphangiogenesis was shown to be involved in the disease pathophysiology. Especially, the dysfunction of regulatory T cells (Treg) at the maternal-fetal interface may be one of the causes of severe PE. In particular, activation of Tregs to obtain immune tolerance requires adequate antigen presentation through the lymphatic system...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756665/metabolomics-as-a-clinical-testing-method-for-the-diagnosis-of-vaginal-dysbiosis
#20
Emiley Watson, Gregor Reid
Microbes play an important role in vaginal health, with lactobacilli a particularly abundant species. When dysbiosis occurs, the tools to determine whether it is a condition such as bacterial vaginosis, and whether it warrants antibiotic treatment, are currently suboptimal. We propose that standardization and implementation of an affordable metabolomics-based diagnostic technique could reduce instances of false positives, stress associated with misdiagnosis, and potentially save time and money. Basing diagnosis on the detection of pH elevated above 4...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
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