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Journal of Aging and Health

Mariana P Socal, Antonio J Trujillo
OBJECTIVES: We explored the links between chronic diseases and cognitive ability using datasets of community-dwelling older adults from Brazil, Chile, Mexico, and Uruguay from the SABE (Health, Well-Being, and Aging) survey. METHODS: Ordinary least squares (OLS), Tobit and linear probability models, adjusting for extensive health and socio-demographic factors, were implemented separately for men and women and complemented by a series of robustness checks. RESULTS: We find a negative association between the number of chronic conditions and cognitive decline that has the following characteristics: (a) differs across gender, (b) increases with the number of chronic conditions, (c) is larger among those individuals in the bottom of the cognitive distribution, (d) and is different across types of chronic conditions...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Aging and Health
Rachel O'Conor, Samuel G Smith, Laura M Curtis, Julia Yoshino Benavente, Daniel P Vicencio, Michael S Wolf
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of mild visual impairment (MVI) among urban older adults in primary care settings, and ascertain whether MVI was a risk factor for inadequate performance on self-care health tasks. METHOD: We used data from a cohort of 900 older adults recruited from primary care clinics. Self-management skills were assessed using the Comprehensive Health Activities Scale, and vision with corrective lenses was assessed with the Snellen. We modeled visual acuity predicting health task performance with linear regression...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Aging and Health
Tiago da S Alexandre, Ligiana P Corona, Tábatta R P Brito, Jair L F Santos, Yeda A O Duarte, Maria L Lebrão
OBJECTIVE: To analyze gender differences in incidence and determinants of the components of the frailty phenotype. METHOD: A total of 1,413 older adults were selected in 2006. To estimate the incidence of each frailty component, only individuals who did not exhibit a given component at baseline (independently of the presence of other components) were included in the study. The variables of interest were socioeconomic, behavioral, clinical, anthropometric factors and physical performance...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Aging and Health
Blakelee R Kemp, Kenneth F Ferraro, Patricia M Morton, Sarah A Mustillo
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of five childhood misfortune domains-parental behavior, socioeconomic status, infectious diseases, chronic diseases, and impairments-on all-site and selected site-specific cancer prevalence and all-site cancer incidence. METHOD: Panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (2004-2012) were used to investigate cancer risk among adults above the age of 50. RESULTS: Risky parental behavior and impairment in childhood were associated with higher odds of all-site cancer prevalence, and childhood chronic disease was associated with prostate cancer, even after adjusting for adult health and socioeconomic factors...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Aging and Health
Rebecca A Schlaff, Meghan Baruth, Valerie J Adams, Tatum M Goldufsky, Nathan A Peters, Graceson Kerr, Ashley Boggs, Ashley Ewald
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine the effects of a 12-week, behavioral nutrition intervention on dietary behaviors. METHOD: Inactive older adults (N = 50) were randomized to a 12-week, behavioral nutrition or physical activity intervention, delivered in a group-based format. Questionnaires assessed fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption, and fat- and fiber-related behaviors at baseline and postintervention. Height and weight were measured. Repeated-measures ANOVAs examined changes in dietary behaviors over time between groups, controlling for age, gender, and education...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Aging and Health
Carla Ferreira do Nascimento, Yeda Aparecida Oliveira Duarte, Maria Lúcia Lebrão, Alexandre Dias Porto Chiavegatto Filho
OBJECTIVE: To identify socioeconomic and contextual factors associated with functional mobility and falls in elderly residents of São Paulo, Brazil. METHOD: We used data from the Health, Well-Being, and Aging (Saúde, Bem-estare Envelhecimento [SABE]) Study. The dependent variables were falling in the last year and functional mobility impairment. Individual (marital status, race, education, and perception of income sufficiency) and contextual (green area and violence) factors were analyzed by multilevel logistic models...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Aging and Health
Allison B Brenner, James F Burke, Lesli E Skolarus
OBJECTIVES: We test a comprehensive model of disability in older stroke survivors and determine the relative contribution of neighborhood, economic, psychological, and medical factors to disability. METHOD: The sample consisted of 728 stroke survivors from the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS), who were 65 years and older living in community settings or residential care. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used to test relationships between neighborhood, socioeconomic, psychological, and medical factors, and disability...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Aging and Health
Emmanuelle Cambois, Sébastien Grobon, Herman Van Oyen, Jean-Marie Robine
OBJECTIVE: The Global Activity Limitation Indicator (GALI), a single question measuring disability, had been introduced in various European surveys since 2004. The complexity of its wording has been questioned. Our study compares alternative variants aiming to simplify the wording. METHOD: We used the Health-Related Opinion Survey run in 2014 in France (N = 3,009). Its split sample design allows testing four variants of the questions. We analyzed the prevalence of activity limitation (AL) resulting from the four different constructs of the GALI using multinomial logistic regressions, adjusted for background variables and functional limitations (FLs)...
October 2016: Journal of Aging and Health
Jennifer H Madans, Julie D Weeks
OBJECTIVE: Initiatives designed to monitor health typically incorporate numerous specific measures of health and the health system to assess improvements, or lack thereof, for policy and program purposes. The addition of summary measures provides overarching information which is essential for determining whether the goals of such initiatives are met. METHOD: Summary measures are identified that relate to the individual indicators but that also reflect movement in the various parts of the system...
October 2016: Journal of Aging and Health
Rahul Malhotra, Angelique Chan, Shweta Ajay, Stefan Ma, Yasuhiko Saito
OBJECTIVE: To assess variation in gender gap (female-male) in inactive life expectancy (IALE) and active life expectancy (ALE) by definition of inactivity. METHOD: Inactivity, among older Singaporeans, was defined as follows: Scenario 1-health-related difficulty in activities of daily living (ADLs); Scenario 2-health-related difficulty in ADLs/instrumental ADLs (IADLs); Scenario 3-health-related difficulty in ADLs/IADLs or non-health-related non-performance of IADLs...
October 2016: Journal of Aging and Health
Chi-Tsun Chiu, Mark Hayward, Yasuhiko Saito
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the educational gradient of health and mortality between two long-lived populations: Japan and the United States. METHOD: This analysis is based on the Nihon University Japanese Longitudinal Study of Aging and the Health and Retirement Study to compare educational gradients in multiple aspects of population health-life expectancy with/without disability, functional limitations, or chronic diseases, using prevalence-based Sullivan life tables...
October 2016: Journal of Aging and Health
Brian Downer, Nai-Wei Chen, Rebeca Wong, Kyriakos S Markides
OBJECTIVE: To examine the health and functional characteristics of Mexican and Mexican American adults aged ≥80. METHOD: Data came from Wave I (2001) and Wave III (2012) of the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS), and Wave IV (2000-2001) and Wave VII (2010-2011) of the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (HEPESE). RESULTS: In 2000-2001, diabetes, arthritis, hypertension, and stroke were higher in the HEPESE than in the MHAS...
October 2016: Journal of Aging and Health
Emmanuelle Cambois, Aïda Solé-Auró, Jean-Marie Robine
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to study to what extent European variations in differentials in disability by education level are associated to variation in poverty. METHOD: Using the European Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) for 26 countries, we measure the prevalence of activity limitation (AL) and the rate of economic hardship (EH) by level of education. We measure the increased AL prevalence (disadvantage) of the low-educated relative to the middle-educated and the reduced AL prevalence (advantage) of the high-educated groups, controlling or not for EH...
October 2016: Journal of Aging and Health
Elke Loichinger, Daniela Weber
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the article is to analyze past and present developments of working life expectancy (WLE) at age 50 by age, sex, and education in Europe. WLE is also compared with life expectancy (LE) and healthy life expectancy (HLE). METHOD: WLE is calculated with the Sullivan method. Labor force participation is based on the European Union (EU) Labor Force Survey. RESULTS: WLE at age 50 has been increasing since the mid- to late 1990s in most European countries...
October 2016: Journal of Aging and Health
Warren C Sanderson, Sergei Scherbov, Daniela Weber, Valeria Bordone
OBJECTIVE: To provide an example of a new methodology for using multiple characteristics in the study of population aging and to assess its usefulness. METHOD: Using the English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA), we investigate three characteristics of each person 60 to 85 years old, by level of education, hand-grip strength in 2004 (measured in kilos), chair rise speed in 2004 (measured in rises per minute), and whether the person survived from 2004 to 2012. Because the three characteristics are measured in different units, we convert them into a common metric, called alpha-ages...
October 2016: Journal of Aging and Health
Sergei Scherbov, Warren C Sanderson
OBJECTIVE: Most studies of population aging focus on only one characteristic of people: their chronological age. Many important characteristics of people vary with age, but age-specific characteristics also vary over time and differ from place to place. We supplement traditional measures of aging with new ones that consider the changing characteristics of people. METHOD: The characteristics approach to measuring of population aging is employed. We provide examples of new measures of population aging using characteristics, such as remaining life expectancy, health, normal public pension age, and hand-grip strength...
October 2016: Journal of Aging and Health
Lois M Verbrugge
Top themes of international research on disability in the past three decades are discussed: disability dynamics, buffers and barriers for disability, disability trends, and disability among very old persons. Each theme is highlighted by research examples. Turning to measurement, I discuss traditional measures of disability, new longer and shorter ones, and composites like disability-free life expectancy, noting their merits. Contemporary models of disability are presented, ranging from visual images to formal theories...
October 2016: Journal of Aging and Health
Angelique Chan, Yasuhiko Saito, Jean-Marie Robine
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Aging and Health
Lucy Leigh, Irene L Hudson, Julie E Byles
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the association between chronic diseases and sleep difficulty in older women. METHOD: A total of 10,721 women from The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, aged 70 to 75 years at baseline (1996), who answered sleep questionnaire data over 15 years follow-up, were surveyed. Longitudinal sleep difficulty class was regressed on baseline diseases. RESULTS: Arthritis and heart disease were the strongest predictors of sleep difficulty; odds ratios for belonging to the greatest sleep difficulty class were 2...
September 2016: Journal of Aging and Health
María Campos-Magdaleno, David Facal, Onésimo Juncos-Rabadán, Eduardo Picón, Arturo Xosé Pereiro
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to compare an empirically derived classification of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) from a sample of adults with subjective cognitive complaints by using cluster analysis of their performance on the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) with a classification of aMCI based on standard clinical criteria. METHOD: Three hundred ninety-one individuals aged 48 years and older were diagnosed as aMCI or healthy controls. Cluster analysis of the CVLT performance was conducted, followed by logistic regression analysis...
September 2016: Journal of Aging and Health
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