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Clinical Imaging

Kumble S Madhusudhan, Surabhi Vyas, Sanjay Sharma, Deep N Srivastava, Arun K Gupta
The portal vein is the main vascular channel of the liver and is affected by many pathologies. Imaging plays an important role in the detection and characterization of these abnormalities, guiding the surgeon and the interventional radiologist in planning further management. We discuss the imaging appearances of various abnormalities affecting the portal vein and the imaging modalities used in their diagnosis. We also briefly discuss the radiological interventions done in some of these cases.
July 6, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Ahuva Grubstein, Yael Rapson, Oshra Benzaquen, Shira Rozenblatt, Itay Gadiel, Eli Atar, Rinat Yerushalmi, Matan J Cohen
OBJECTIVE: High background parenchymal enhancement and amount of fibroglandular tissue on breast magnetic resonance imaging are related to increased breast cancer risk. This study sought to compare these parameters between BRCA mutation carriers and non-carriers and to evaluate the potential implications of the findings for short term follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging studies of known BRCA mutation carriers, were compared to age-matched non-carrier studies performed in the same center during the same period...
June 30, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Adil Turan, Ozkan Kose, Cemil Aktan, Melih Unal, Baver Acar, Muzaffer Sindel
AIM: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of anatomic variations in distal radius radiographic indices in patients with or without scaphoid fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Radial inclination (RI), volar tilt (VT), radial height (RH) and ulnar variance (UV) were measured on wrist radiographs of 320 patients with (Group I, n = 167) or without (Group II, n = 153) scaphoid fracture, fall on outstretched hand (FOOSH). Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was used to assess the diagnostic performance for each variable...
June 30, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Joao V Horvat, Donna D D'Alessio, Blanca Bernard-Davila, Danny F Martinez, Elizabeth A Morris
PURPOSE: To determine if real-time breast ultrasound (RTUR) after second opinion reinterpretation of submitted static ultrasound images at a comprehensive cancer center impacts clinical management, specifically by detecting additional cancer and preventing unnecessary biopsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this IRB-approved and HIPAA-compliant retrospective study, 209 patients were included who had breast ultrasound studies from outside facilities submitted for second opinion review between January 2013 and May 2014, and who subsequently underwent RTUR at our institution within three months of the outside study...
June 28, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Andrew A Yaeger, Phillip M Cheng, Sergei Tatishchev, Gilbert Whang
Inflammation of the appendix is one of the most common conditions requiring emergent surgical intervention. Computed tomography commonly demonstrates a dilated appendix with adjacent inflammation. Traditionally, luminal obstruction of the appendix has been thought to be the primary etiology of appendicitis. However, current evidence suggests that etiology of appendicitis is multifactorial and can involve a number of different pathogenic pathways. Here we present a case of acute eosinophilic appendicitis with radiologic-pathologic correlation from a hypersensitivity reaction pathway...
June 27, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Mary Salvatore, Maxwell L Smith
There are three major pathologic patterns of pulmonary fibrosis; usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) and airway-centered fibrosis (ACF). These pathologic patterns correspond with radiographic patterns of UIP, NSIP, and chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP). Previous studies have demonstrated that the radiologic diagnosis is correct approximately 50% of the time for these fibrotic lung diseases. Understanding the microscopic pathologic patterns that are recapitulated at a macroscopic level in the high resolution CT scan is key to radiologists' ability to correctly diagnose pulmonary fibrosis and thus improve patient outcomes with early diagnosis and avoidance of biopsy...
June 27, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Ahmed Abdel Khalek Abdel Razek, Ahmed Abdalla, Tarik Barakat, Heba El-Taher, Khadiga Ali
PURPOSE: To assess multi-parametric MR imaging with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fat fraction (FF) in detection and quantification of bone marrow involvement in pediatric patients with Gaucher disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was conducted upon 29 pediatric patients with Gaucher disease and 13 age and sex matched controls that underwent diffusion-weighted MR imaging and dual-echo gradient recalled echo imaging. The ADC and FF of the bone marrow were calculated...
June 26, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Ho-Joon Lee, Jinna Kim, Ki Wook Kim, Seung-Koo Lee, Jin Sook Yoon
PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical feasibility of low-dose orbital CT with a knowledge-based iterative model reconstruction (IMR) algorithm for evaluating Graves' orbitopathy. METHODS: Low-dose orbital CT was performed with a CTDIvol of 4.4 mGy. In 12 patients for whom prior or subsequent non-low-dose orbital CT data obtained within 12 months were available, background noise, SNR, and CNR were compared for images generated using filtered back projection (FBP), hybrid iterative reconstruction (iDose4 ), and IMR and non-low-dose CT images...
June 23, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Peter Kaiser, Florian Kellermann, Rohit Arora, Benjamin Henninger, Ansgar Rudisch
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively correlate the kinematic dynamic rotation MRI (DR-MRI) of the wrist for assessment of extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendon subluxation and dislocation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The presence of an ECU tendon subluxation or dislocation on the DR-MRI report was correlated to findings of the surgical report. RESULTS: DR-MRI findings showed an ECU subluxation in 12 cases and an ECU dislocation in 13 cases...
June 23, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Ming Xu, Fu-Shun Pan, Wei Wang, Xiao-Er Zhang, Xiao-Ju Li, Yu Hong, Lu-Yao Zhou, Xiao-Yan Xie, Ming-de Lyu
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the combined use of ultrasound together with clinical features to differentiate infantile hepatic hemangioma (IHH) from other focal liver lesions (FLLs) in children and to compare the efficacy of the combined method to that of CECT/MRI. METHODS: The location, number, size and appearance of the tumors were evaluated in 45 children with IHH. Another 45 children with FLL were randomly selected as a control group. Independent factors for predicting IHH versus FLLs were evaluated...
June 21, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Eun Ji Lee, Yun-Woo Chang, Yoon Mi Jin, Nam Won Kim
We report a case of a 58-year-old male diagnosed with myofibroblastoma using mammography, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as present a review of the literature. The pathological diagnosis was myofibroblastoma with spindle cell neoplasm with immunoreactivity. Myofibroblastoma is a rare benign disease and there is a lack of reports of multimodality imaging of this disease. We review the imaging features of this rare disease across multiple imaging modalities with pathological correlation, and provide current treatment recommendations as well...
June 18, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Akira Toriihara, Hiromitsu Daisaki, Akihiro Yamaguchi, Makoto Kobayashi, Shogo Furukawa, Katsuya Yoshida, Jun Isogai, Ukihide Tateishi
PURPOSE: To evaluate potential of a semiquantitative method using standardized uptake value (SUV) in 123 I-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl) nortropane (123 I-FP-CIT) single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) compared with specific binding ratio (SBR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: First, we performed a phantom study to validate the accuracy of measuring SUV. 52 patients (25 male, 27 female; mean age of 75.1-year-old; 40 and 12 patients with neurodegenerative diseases with or without presynaptic dopaminergic deficits, respectively) were enrolled in a retrospective study...
June 14, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Kazumi Araki, Takeshi Yoshizako, Rika Yoshida, Keiji Tada, Hajime Kitagaki
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of image in abdominopelvic late phase computed tomography (CT) with a low tube voltage plus low dose contrast medium (CM) protocol (80-kVp, 60% CM). A compared with the conventional protocol (120-kVp, 100% CM) B in the same patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study included with 22 patients {36 to 77 kg (mean: 55.5 kg)} who had renal insufficiency and had experience of performance conventional CT without renal insufficiency during pre-18 months...
June 9, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Seong Jong Yun, Yun Kyung Shin, Ji Seon Park, Wook Jin, Yong Sung Park, So Young Park, Kyung Nam Ryu
PURPOSE: To evaluate the reliability of the parameters for acetabular/femoral pathomorphologies in L-spine and hip radiographs compared to pelvic radiographs. METHODS: A retrospective review of L-spine, hip, and pelvic radiographs from 101 patients was performed. Three radiologists independently measured five parameters (acetabular roof angle of Tönnis [Tönnis angle], center-edge-angle of Wiberg [CEA], femoral head extrusion index [FHEI], cross-over sign, pistol-grip deformity) in each radiograph...
June 9, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Shivani Ahlawat, Filippo Del Grande, Laura M Fayad
OBJECTIVE: To describe MR imaging features of presumed vascular plexi in the periscapular (PSC) and retroclavicular (RC) locations. MATERIALS/METHODS: 443 consecutive MR studies performed as "brachial plexus" protocol (axialT1-W and sagittal STIR) were reviewed for presence, size and characteristics of PSC and RC plexi. RESULTS: Presumed PSC and RC vascular plexi were present in 10%. Both plexi more commonly occurred on the left side...
June 9, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Jonathan L Mezrich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 9, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Lu Shen, Guoxing Zhou, Fei Tang, Yi Lin, Jie Zhou, Pinshuo Lv, Yibin Wang, Genlin Zong, Jiangmin Zhao
PURPOSE: To perform a meta-analysis for assessing the accuracy of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI)-derived quantitative parameters (kurtosis values, K; and corrected diffusion coefficients non-Gaussian bias, D) in separating malignant cancers from benign lesions. METHODS: Relevant studies were searched in PubMed and Cochrane Library databases and were analyzed by Meta-DiSc software. RESULTS: Fourteen eligible studies involving 1847 lesions in 1107 patients (895 were benign and 952 were malignant) were included...
June 9, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Nicholas P Meermeier, Kevin R Turner, Bryan R Foster, Csanád Várallyay, Jen-Jane Liu, Fergus V Coakley
PURPOSE: To investigate the concordance between dominant intraprostatic cancer seen on endorectal multiparametric MRI and confirmed by MRI-targeted biopsy with histopathological findings at radical prostatectomy, since existing literature has emphasized the miss rather than the concordance rate of MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively identified 20 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy after a dominant intraprostatic cancer focus was identified at endorectal multiparametric MRI and confirmed by MRI-targeted biopsy...
June 9, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Ying-Ying Liang, Fan Xu, Yuan Guo, Jin Wang
OBJECTIVE: To assess the added benefit of combining different MRI techniques for preoperative diagnosis of parotid tumors when compared to conventional MRI and advanced MRI techniques alone with meta-analysis. METHODS: A comprehensive PubMed electronic database search was performed for original diagnostic studies up to July 2017. The methodologic quality of each study was evaluated by two independent reviewers who used the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 (QUADAS-2) tool...
June 7, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Peter Sawan, Andrew J Plodkowski, Angela E Li, Bob T Li, Alexander Drilon, Marinela Capanu, Michelle S Ginsberg
OBJECTIVES: To describe the radiological phenotype of HER2-mutant lung cancers on CT at presentation. METHODS: Eligible patients with lung adenocarcinomas with HER2 mutations were stage-matched with two control groups (EGFR- and KRAS-mutant groups). Evaluated CT features of the primary tumor included size, location, consistency, contour, presence of pleural tags and pleural retractions. Presence of pleural effusions, lung metastases, adenopathy, chest wall invasion, and were also recorded...
June 7, 2018: Clinical Imaging
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