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Clinical Imaging

Janine Katzen, Katerina Dodelzon
Breast screening with mammography is widely recognized as the most effective method of detecting early breast cancer and has consistently demonstrated a 20-40% decrease in mortality among screened women. Despite this, the sensitivity of mammography ranges between 70 and 90%. Computer aided detection (CAD) is an artificial intelligence (AI) technique that utilizes pattern recognition to highlight suspicious features on imaging and marks them for the radiologist to review and interpret. It aims to decrease oversights made by interpreting radiologists...
September 7, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Netanel S Berko, Regina Hanstein, Denver A Burton, Eric D Fornari, Jacob F Schulz, Terry L Levin
BACKGROUND: The recent use of ultrasound elastography to study patellar tendon softness has demonstrated increased tendon softness in high-level athletes. We hypothesized that measurable alterations in patellar tendon softness may be present in young asymptomatic subjects engaging in moderate levels of physical activity. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. Gray-scale ultrasound and ultrasound elastography of the right and left patellar tendons were performed in young asymptomatic sedentary subjects and moderately active subjects who engaged in at least 30 min of physical activity 4-5 times weekly...
August 30, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Rongrong Fan, Xiaolei Shi, Yi Qian, Yun Wang, Li Fan, Rutan Chen, Yi Xiao, Shiyuan Liu
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the optimized categorization algorithm of coronary artery calcification score (CACS) for more accurate risk assessment on non-gated chest low-dose CT (LDCT) screening using iterative model reconstruction (IMR) technique. METHODS: We enrolled 102 patients who required coronary artery CTA examination and had coronary artery calcification (CAC) in this study. The CACS on non-gated LDCT and ECG-gated CT images were both measured by Agatston analysis software on Philips workstation...
August 29, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Mihaela Grigore, Anda Pristavu, Dumitru Gafitanu
Osseous metaplasia of the endometrium is a rare condition characterized by abnormal bone formation in the uterine endometrium. The osseous fragments act like a foreign body in the uterine cavity; thus, infertility, menstrual abnormalities, pelvic pain dysmenorrhea, and dyspareunia are commonly associated. We present a case series of four women with osseous metaplasia of the endometrium with different symptomatology. Two-dimensional endovaginal examination played a primary role in the diagnosis, the characteristic ultrasound pattern being hyperechoic linear or irregular areas within the endometrium casting posterior acoustic shadowing...
August 27, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Yang Li, Ye Wang, Jun Qin, Junyi Wu, Xueming Dai, Junming Xu
PURPOSE: To assess the diagnostic value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in distinguishing between renal malignant and benign lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Electronic databases were systematically searched to identify original studies evaluating DWI findings on renal lesions from January 2000 through January 2018. Pooled weighted estimates of sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) were calculated...
August 23, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Akshay D Baheti, Teresa Chapman, Erin Rudzinski, Catherine Michelle Albert, A Luana Stanescu
Hepatoblastomas are complex pediatric tumors with several pathological subtypes, some of which demonstrate differing imaging features and portend varying prognosis. The radiologist plays a major role not only in the pre-surgical evaluation and baseline staging of the tumor, but also in guiding management and evaluating prognosis based on the PRETEXT (pretreatment extent of tumor) classification. We discuss the pathology, imaging features, and baseline evaluation, with a focus on the role of the radiologist in the management of these tumors...
August 18, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Bing Tian, Qi Liu, Xinrui Wang, Shiyue Chen, Bing Xu, Chengcheng Zhu, Jianping Lu
PURPOSE: To evaluate the potential clinical value of Arterial spin-labeled (ASL) through comparison with computed tomography perfusion (CTP) in patients with chronic intracranial artery (middle cerebral artery, MCA) stenosis. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients (14 female, average ages 62) were included in our study from October 2013 to August 2016. Relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the MCA territory was calculated on both ASL and CTP. Patients were divided into three groups (mild, moderate and severe) based on their degree of MCA stenosis on DSA...
August 18, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Christian A Barrera, Hansel J Otero, Ammie M White, David Saul, David M Biko
OBJECTIVE: Assess the image quality of ECG-triggered High-Pitch Dual-Source CTA for the evaluation of native coronaries in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between August 2014 and September 2017, 45 children with morphologically normal cardiac chambers had cardiac prospective ECG-triggered High-Pitch Dual-Source CTA. Two pediatric radiologists blinded to clinical data, independently reviewed each case. The coronary arteries were evaluated using a four-point scale quality score according to the coronary segment...
August 18, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Hirotaka Akita, Eiji Kikuchi, Nozomi Hayakawa, Shuji Mikami, Hiroaki Sugiura, Mototsugu Oya, Masahiro Jinzaki
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the usefulness of adding diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) to CT urography (CTU) for diagnosing upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 102 high-risk patients with UTUC who underwent both CTU and DW-MRI. The diagnostic performance of CTU and DW-MRI was evaluated in all the patients. Then, the diagnostic performance of DW-MRI in the patients with positive CTU findings was assessed based on the types of CTU findings (mass formation, wall thickening, and small filling defects)...
August 16, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Hamid Chalian, Kevin Kalisz, Negin Rassouli, Amar Dhanantwari, Prabhakar Rajiah
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the ability of the retrospectively generated virtual monoenergetic images (VMIs) from a dual-layer detector-based spectral computed tomography (SDCT) to augment aortic enhancement for the evaluation of aortic anatomy and pathology. METHODS: 98 patients with suboptimal aortic enhancement (≤200 HU) were retrospectively identified from SDCT scans. VMI from 40 to 80 keV were generated. Attenuation, noise, SNR, and CNR were measured at seven levels in the aorta...
August 11, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Oliveri Serena, Pricolo Paola, Pizzoli Silvia, Faccio Flavia, Lampis Valentina, Summers Paul, Petralia Giuseppe, Pravettoni Gabriella
BACKGROUND: Whole Body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) enables early cancer detection, without exposing the patient to ionizing radiation. Our aim was to investigate patients' acceptance of WB-MRI as a procedure for cancer staging and follow up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 135 oncologic subjects participated to the study. An ad hoc questionnaire was administered before and after WB-MRI, to assess patient's confidence and concerns about WB-MRI, psychological reactions, experience and perceived utility of the procedure...
August 8, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Alex C Essenmacher, Pankaj Watal, Girish Bathla, Leslie A Bruch, Toshio Moritani, Aristides A Capizzano
Metastatic disease represents over half of all malignancies in brain parenchyma, and carcinoma when metastatic will often spread to the brain, with lung and breast tumors being the most common culprits. The suggestive features of metastatic disease on magnetic resonance imaging include peritumoral, vasogenic edema and avid postcontrast enhancement. We present the case of a 50-year-old male with an established diagnosis of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the lung treated with erlotinib who developed multiple cystic brain lesions on surveillance MRI...
August 8, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Masahiro Kitami
PURPOSE: To examine the presence of ridge of plicae palmatae (RPP) in pediatric population and evaluate its depiction rate and appearance on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive pelvic MRI examinations of female patients aged 0-19 years between January 2005 and April 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with underlying diseases affecting the uterus and whose MRI data were not available on the picture archiving and communication system were excluded...
August 8, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Giuseppe Corrias, Simone Krebs, Sarah Eskreis-Winkler, Davinia Ryan, Junting Zheng, Marinela Capanu, Luca Saba, Serena Monti, Maggie Fung, Scott Reeder, Lorenzo Mannelli
INTRODUCTION: Chemotherapy prolongs the survival of patients with advanced and metastatic tumors. Since the liver plays an active role in the metabolism of chemotherapy agents, hepatic injury is a common adverse effect. The purpose of this study is to compare a novel quantitative chemical shift encoded magnetic resonance imaging (CSE-MRI) method with conventional T1-weighted In and Out of phase (T1 IOP) MR for evaluating the reproducibility of the methods in an oncologic population exposed to chemotherapy...
August 8, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Akhil Chawla, Michael H Rosenthal, Thomas E Clancy
PURPOSE: The anatomic variability of the hepatic artery has important implications in the treatment of periampullary cancers. The purpose is of this report is to describe the importance of the replaced right hepatic artery originating from the gastroduodenal artery, which is typically removed during a pancreatic head resection, and to demonstrate how this variant can markedly alter treatment planning and intraoperative decision making. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this report, two cases of a replaced right hepatic artery originating from the gastroduodenal artery are described in the setting of a borderline-resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma identified on preoperative CT imaging...
August 8, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Beverly Snaith, Kevin Flintham
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 4, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Neel Patel, Joanna Hatfield, Roya Sohaey, Fergus V Coakley
We report a 44 year old previously healthy premenopausal woman who presented with a three month history of vaginal bleeding and a 5 cm vaginal mass obscuring the cervix on physical examination. Ultrasound evaluation was non diagnostic. Pelvic MRI demonstrated a 6 cm soft tissue mass in the vagina prolapsed from the uterine cavity with a visible connecting stalk, which is termed the broccoli sign. The initial radiological differential diagnosis included prolapsed uterine malignancy or leiomyoma. Surgical pathology revealed a polypoid adenomyoma...
August 4, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Seong Jong Yun, Wook Jin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Sudha Muly, Syrone Liu, Roland Lee, Savvas Nicolaou, Rafael Rojas, Faisal Khosa
The MRI appearance of intraventricular neoplasms is often nonspecific, however knowledge of patient age and tumor location facilitates the formulation of a differential diagnosis. Imaging and pertinent clinical features of the following intraventricular neoplasms are reviewed: ependymoma, subependymoma, central neurocytoma, subependymal giant cell tumor, choroid plexus tumors, medulloblastoma, meningioma, chordoid glioma, rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor, central nervous system lymphoma, and metastasis.
August 1, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Karen Tran-Harding, Rashmi T Nair, Adrian Dawkins, Andres Ayoob, Joseph Owen, Sarah Deraney, James T Lee, Scott Stevens, Halemane Ganesh
The manifestations of endometriosis commonly present a diagnostic challenge to the gynecologist and radiologist. Familiarity with its varied presentations may allow for a more accurate diagnosis. The goal of this review is to the present the imaging spectrum of endometriosis, less common sites of involvement as well as the potential rare complications. Relevant surgical and histopathological correlation is also provided. In addition to clinical evaluation and sonography, MRI is a highly accurate imaging modality in the diagnosis of endometriosis...
July 31, 2018: Clinical Imaging
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