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Seminars in Dialysis

Emilie Trinh, Christopher T Chan, Jeffrey Perl
The debate surrounding whether peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis is associated with differential survival continues as the numerous comparative studies over the past 3 decades have yielded conflicting results. Findings have also evolved over time in the setting of changing patient characteristics, advances in dialytic technologies, and the use of more robust statistical and epidemiologic approaches. Here, we will critically review the body of evidence, both historical and contemporary, comparing survival across dialysis modalities...
March 14, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Rita S Suri, Alan S Kliger
The use of frequent hemodialysis (HD) is growing, with the hope of improving outcomes in end-stage renal disease. We narratively review the three randomized trials, 15 comparative cohort studies, and several case series of frequent HD that empirically demonstrate the potential efficacy and adverse effects of these regimens. Taken together, the randomized studies suggest frequent HD may result in left ventricular mass regression. This effect is most pronounced when left ventricular mass is abnormal, but attenuated by significant residual urine output...
March 12, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Kristen L Nowak, Michel Chonchol
Chronic, low-grade inflammation is a common comorbid condition in chronic kidney disease (CKD), and particularly in chronic dialysis patients. In this review, we consider the question of whether inflammation affects outcomes in dialysis patients. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines, as well as C-reactive protein, are elevated in chronic dialysis patients. Multiple factors likely contribute to chronic inflammatory activation in kidney disease patients including the uremic milieu, lifestyle and epigenetic influences, infectious and thrombotic events, the dialysis process, and dysbiosis...
March 7, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Randall Faull, Nitesh Rao, Matthew Worthley
An effectively functioning arteriovenous fistula is the life line for patients on long-term hemodialysis, and for most an upper limb, native vessel fistula has significant short- and long-term advantages. There are, however, situations where a fistula has deleterious effects, including the relatively uncommon problem of severe heart failure exacerbated in particular by high-flow fistulas. There is also increasing evidence that a fistula can add to the already high burden of cardiovascular risk in patients with advanced kidney disease, including by promoting water and salt retention, and by inducing or worsening left ventricular hypertrophy...
March 7, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Jiefei Yao, Luke Witherspoon, Brendan B McCormick, Eric Belanger, Jeffrey E Warren
Delayed visceral organ perforations after PD catheter insertions are extremely rare. We report two patients who presented with asymptomatic visceral perforation from their buried PD catheters. Five months after a laparoscopic buried PD catheter insertion in a 92-year-old man PD was initiated; bile and bowel contents were noted in the PD effluent. He subsequently expired (from pneumonia) to autopsy revealed the PD catheter within the small bowel. Despite this perforation, there was no evidence of peritonitis, inflammation, nor any bowel content within the peritoneal cavity...
March 7, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Hitesh H Shah, Steven Fishbane
Anemia is a common complication of advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). Treatment with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) remains a common approach in managing anemia of CKD. The 2012 Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes Clinical Practice Guideline for Anemia in CKD suggests avoiding ESA therapy use to maintain Hb level above 11.5 g/dL. However, optimal Hb target range in adult patients undergoing chronic dialysis remains unknown. Clinical studies suggest risks associated with normalization of Hb levels in adult patients with CKD...
March 6, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
F John Gennari
Acid-base assessment of patients receiving conventional hemodialysis (HD) has been based solely on predialysis serum [total CO2 ], and treatment is currently driven by the KDOQI guideline from 2000. This guideline was directed solely at minimizing metabolic acidosis and thereby improving bone and muscle metabolism. In 2000, no data were available to assess the effects of acid-base status on morbidity and mortality. Since then, new data have emerged from several large cohort studies about the association between variations in predialysis serum [total CO2 ], as well as blood pH, and morbidity and mortality risk...
March 1, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Nupur Gupta, Jay B Wish
The US End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Program, which came into existence in 1973, was initially envisioned to provide needed financial coverage for about 50 000 patients through Medicare. Over the past 45 years the evolution of the ESRD program has been quite different, and it now serves over one half million dialysis and transplant patients. The Medicare Improvements for Patients and Providers Act (MIPPA) of 2008 Section 153(c) requires the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) to develop and implement quality measures for dialysis patients as part of the ESRD Quality Incentive Program (QIP) beginning in payment year (PY) 2012...
February 26, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Matthew A Weir, Charles A Herzog
For patients who require hemodialysis, beta blockers offer a simultaneous opportunity and challenge in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Beta blockers are well supported by data from nondialysis populations and directly mitigate the sympathetic overactivity that links chronic kidney disease with cardiovascular sequelae. However, the evidence supporting their use in patients receiving hemodialysis is sparse and the heterogeneity of the beta blocker class makes it difficult to prescribe these medications with confidence...
February 26, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Cheryl A M Anderson, Hoang Anh Nguyen
Diet counseling and nutrition education are recommended in the prevention and management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The importance of effectively addressing nutrition with patients has grown given the increasing prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes; conditions which influence CKD/ESRD. Dietary advice for individuals with CKD/ESRD can be seen as complex; and successful dietary management requires careful planning, periodic assessment of nutritional status, as well as monitoring of dietary compliance...
February 18, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Clare MacEwen, Peter Watkinson, Lionel Tarassenko, Christopher Pugh
Hemodialysis patients have multiple risk factors for small vessel cerebrovascular disease and cognitive dysfunction. Hemodialysis itself may cause clinically significant neurological injury through repetitive cerebral ischemia. However, supporting evidence to date consists of epidemiological associations, expert opinion, and small, single-centre studies of variable methodological quality. Isolating the impact of intra-dialytic hemodynamic instability from underlying renal and vascular disease on clinically relevant functional outcomes would require very large, controlled studies, given the heterogeneity and confounding comorbidities of the population, and the complex relationship between blood pressure and cerebral oxygen delivery...
February 11, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Ladan Golestaneh
Hospitalizations drive up to 35% of the astronomical costs of care for patients on hemodialysis and are associated with poor outcomes. We describe outpatient care-sensitive categories of hospitalization risks in an effort to engage stakeholders and patients, as stakeholders, in mitigating hospitalizations. These categories include: (1) fluid (interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) and chronic volume status), (2) infection (vascular access and malnutrition/inflammation resilience), and c) psychosocial (poor social support, poor self-efficacy, and mood disorders) risks...
February 6, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Michael Heung, Bruce A Mueller
Hypophosphatemia is a common and potentially serious complication occurring during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Phosphate supplementation is required in the vast majority of patients undergoing CRRT, particularly beyond the first 48 hours. Supplementation can be provided either as a standalone oral or parenteral treatment or as an additive to CRRT solutions. Each approach has advantages and disadvantages, and clinicians must weigh the individual factors most relevant in their practice setting...
February 5, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Kamolyut Lapumnuaypol, Eyob Feyssa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 5, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Januvi Jegatheswaran, Jeffrey Warren, Deborah Zimmerman
Patients treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD) are often required to switch to hemodialysis (HD) temporarily when they develop abdominal wall hernias and dialysate leaks, peritonitis or undergo thoracic or abdominal surgeries. There are significant risks associated with incident hemodialysis including possible central venous catheter infections, thrombosis, and need for invasive procedures. Therefore, strategies to avoid temporary transfer to hemodialysis are desirable. The increased intra-abdominal pressure associated with PD is largely responsible for the issues requiring withholding PD...
January 30, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Paul J Scheel
Since the inception of the Medicare End Stage Renal Disease Program in 1972, the medical director has been an important leader in the dialysis unit. The initial duties of the medical director were focused on quality and safety but were gradually expanded over the decades to include the development and oversight of protocols to manage metabolic bone disease and anemia. As the total cost of ESRD care has escalated, there have been progressive attempts to control costs through additional bundling and the creation of alternative payment schemes...
January 28, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Joel D Glickman, Rebecca Kurnik Seshasai
Inadequate education in home hemodialysis (HHD) fellowship training might contribute to underutilization of this modality in the United States. Most graduates of nephrology fellowships do not grade themselves as competent in HHD suggesting that fellowship training in HHD is inadequate. An essential component for fellow education is at least one faculty member with expertise in HHD who is passionate about promoting the use of this modality. At a minimum, fellow training should utilize a curriculum that includes both lectures about HHD and outpatient clinical exposure to this modality over a period of at least 6-12 months...
January 15, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Matt Foy, C John Sperati
The End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) program now serves approximately 675,000 individuals in the United States at a cost of $26.1 billion to the Medicare system. Given the size of this population, healthcare providers from all disciplines will deliver care to patients on dialysis. Mortality remains high among patients on chronic dialysis, with 42.3% surviving 5 years. As this is a vulnerable population, it is important in the care of ESRD patients that non-nephrologists have a working knowledge of issues germane to dialysis...
January 15, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Laura J Maursetter, Lisa K Prince, Christina M Yuan, James F Simon
Dialysis care is an integral part of the practice of nephrology. Despite this, education of fellows in providing dialysis often remains rudimentary, relying on a combination of didactics and learning through experience. This runs the risk of training nephrologists who can provide dialysis care without truly being experts on the subject. In this article, a collection of novel or innovative teaching methods is presented that are meant to provide training programs with additional tools with which to improve the training of their fellows in dialysis...
January 14, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Paul M Palevsky
Acute renal replacement therapy is one of the most common interventions provided by nephrologists, however, data on the quality of training provided to nephrology fellows is limited. Extensive curricula for acute renal replacement therapy and the management of poisonings and intoxications have been published, but personal experience suggests that there are significant opportunities to improve training. Particular areas to be considered include the use of novel technologies for assessment of volume status, greater emphasis on the dosing of medications during acute renal replacement therapy, greater training in assessing and tailoring treatment to the goals of care of the individual patient, incorporation of continuous quality improvement tools into the management of acute renal replacement therapy programs and development of robust simulation training to augment training...
January 14, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
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