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Seminars in Dialysis

Claudia Cottone, Kalyan Ram Bhamidimarri
Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is the most common cause of infection related deaths in USA according to Central Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report in 2016. Hepatitis C is a blood borne virus and is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and in hemodialysis (HD) dependent patients. A majority of patients with CHC could remain asymptomatic and are still undiagnosed. Early detection of CHC and linkage of infected patients to care for evaluation and treatment is the standard of care as emphasized by Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcome (KDIGO) and American Association for the Study of Liver Disease- Infectious Disease Society of America (AASLD-IDSA) practice guidelines...
January 1, 2019: Seminars in Dialysis
Rute Aguiar, Ming Pei, Abdul Rashid Qureshi, Bengt Lindholm
Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important aspect of patients´ health that should be an integral part of the evaluation of patient-centered outcomes, not least because HRQOL associates with patients´ morbidity and mortality. This applies also to chronic kidney disease patients, including those dependent on renal replacement therapies, the type of which may influence patients´ perception of HRQOL. Several studies have addressed HRQOL in chronic kidney disease patients undergoing renal replacement therapies, especially transplanted patients and hemodialysis patients, while publications concerning peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients are scarcer...
December 21, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Duc B Nguyen, Danae Bixler, Priti R Patel
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is more common among hemodialysis patients than the general population and transmission of HCV in dialysis clinics has been reported. In the context of the increased morbidity and mortality associated with HCV infection in the end stage renal disease population, it is important that dialysis clinics have processes in place for ensuring recommended infection control practices, including Standard Precautions, through regular audits and training of the staff. This review will summarize the epidemiology of HCV infection and risk factors for HCV transmission among hemodialysis patients...
December 19, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Elizabeth Cohen, AnnMarie Liapakis
Hepatitis C direct acting antiviral (DAA) therapy has evolved so that infected patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) can now anticipate the opportunity for sustained virologic response equivalent to that of the broader population of patients with hepatitis C. This has revolutionized the field of transplantation as it relates to renal transplant candidates with hepatitis C and the use of grafts from hepatitis C virus (HCV) viremic donors. In treating this population of patients, special consideration must be given to the timing of anti-viral therapy and drug-drug interactions...
December 17, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Patrice Cacoub, Cloé Comarmond
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been demonstrated to result in several adverse hepatic outcomes and has been associated with a number of important extrahepatic manifestations. The scope of extrahepatic clinical possibilities includes systemic diseases such as vasculitis and lymphoproliferative disorders, cardiovascular disease, myalgia, arthritis, and sicca syndrome. These end-organ effects of HCV may dominate the clinical course beyond the hepatic complications and significantly worsen the long-term prognosis of infected patients...
December 13, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Tiffany Wong, Roy D Bloom
The prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection is increased in patients with end stage kidney disease compared to the general population and is an adverse outcome determinant. Direct-acting antiviral therapy for hepatitis C virus is changing the management paradigm of infected kidney transplant candidates and recipients, with potential to reduce patient morbidity and mortality. This review describes the hepatic and nonhepatic manifestations of hepatitis C virus in kidney transplant patients as well as management and treatment strategies to optimize transplant outcomes, highlighting the importance of direct-acting antivirals in this population...
December 9, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Fabrizio Fabrizi, Piergiorgio Messa
Liver disease in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is most commonly due to hepatitis C virus (HCV) and contributes to increased rates of mortality. Among the pre-dialysis population, the estimated prevalence of anti-HCV positivity is based on few, limited-size studies. In hemodialysis patients however, HCV remains very prevalent despite large declines in seropositivity rates in dialysis facilities in developed countries after preventive measures were adopted in the 1990s. Recent surveys indicate that the HCV seropositivity prevalence ranges from 1...
December 9, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Clare MacEwen, Peter Watkinson, Lionel Tarassenko, Christopher Pugh
Hemodialysis has been linked to structural and functional damage to vital organs such as the brain and heart, possibly via repetitive intradialytic organ ischemia. There is increasing recognition that tissue ischemia can occur without changes in standard hemodynamic parameters such as blood pressure, leading to interest in more direct assessment of the adequacy of oxygen delivery to tissues. In this article, we discuss our current understanding of what happens to cellular oxygen delivery during hemodialysis: we review the underlying physiology, potential measurement techniques, and the clinical literature to date...
December 4, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Jacqueline B Henson, Meghan E Sise
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is not only an important cause of chronic liver disease, but extrahepatic manifestations are common and include chronic kidney disease (CKD). HCV is classically associated with cryoglobulinemic glomerulonephritis in the context of mixed cryoglobulinemia syndrome, but other glomerular diseases also occur and may be significantly under-recognized. HCV may cause glomerular disease by immune complex deposition; however, other potential mechanisms by which HCV promotes CKD include a direct cytopathic effect of the virus on renal tissue, and by its association with accelerated atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, and chronic inflammation...
November 29, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Craig E Gordon, Ethan M Balk, Jean M Francis
KDIGO recently updated its clinical practice guideline for the prevention, diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The management of HCV in patients with CKD has dramatically shifted over the past 10 years with the development of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents and subsequent demonstration of their efficacy in CKD populations. The opportunity to cure HCV with DAA treatment has impacted all aspects of the KDIGO guideline on HCV in CKD including: (a) HCV diagnosis in CKD populations; (b) HCV treatment in CKD populations; (c) preventing HCV transmission in HD units; (d) management of HCV before and after kidney transplantation; and (e) management of HCV-associated glomerular disease...
November 29, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Deirdre Sawinski
HIV infection is a major public health problem worldwide. Due to shared modes of acquisition, many HIV+ patients are coinfected with Hepatitis C. HIV/HCV coinfected patients have an increased burden of chronic kidney disease and are more likely to progress to end-stage renal disease. Dialysis survival is diminished in the coinfected population, even in the contemporary era. Kidney transplantation offers a survival benefit over remaining on dialysis; however, posttransplant outcomes are inferior compared to patients with HIV infection alone...
November 26, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Annette Bruchfeld, Karin Lindahl
Hepatitis C is a global health concern, with important implications in chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to its increased prevalence in this population. Patients with advanced CKD have until recently been excluded from the pivotal direct acting anti-viral (DAA) trials, which have demonstrated high virological cure numbers. Sofosbuvir-free DAAs dasabuvir, ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir with or without ribavirin, and elbasvir/grazoprevir are well-tolerated in patients with genotype 1 and 4 CHC with CKD 4 or 5 (including HD), with virologic cure rates of above 90%, in both single-arm and placebo-controlled studies...
November 26, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Javier Pagan, Marco Ladino, David Roth
The identification of hepatitis C virus (HCV) occurred in 1989, and soon thereafter, it was recognized that there was a higher prevalence of anti-HCV seropositivity in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) when compared to the general population. Multiple extrahepatic manifestations have been associated with HCV infection in patients with ESRD; these include an increased prevalence and risk of cardiovascular complications, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, and lymphoproliferative disorders. Infection with HCV has also been associated with an increased relative risk of mortality in the ESRD patient when contrasted to those patients without infection...
November 26, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
David Goldberg, Peter P Reese
Utilization of kidneys from hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected deceased donors has the potential to increase the number of kidney transplants by 500-1000 (or more) each year. This increase in the number of kidney transplants offers major opportunities to extend survival and improve quality of life for patients infected with HCV, as well as uninfected recipients. However, due to a lack of prospective safety and efficacy data on a sufficient number of HCV-negative recipients who received a kidney from a HCV-infected donor, as well as key logistical barriers, the practice of transplanting HCV-infected organs into uninfected recipients is not yet ready to be considered as standard of care...
November 26, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Neil A Hoye, Luke C Wilson, David L Jardine, Robert J Walker
Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality remain frustratingly common in dialysis patients. A dearth of established evidence-based treatment calls for alternative therapeutic avenues to be embraced. Sympathetic hyperactivity, predominantly due to afferent nerve signaling from the diseased native kidneys, has been established to be prognostic in the dialysis population for over 15 years. Despite this, tangible therapeutic interventions have, to date, been unsuccessful and the outlook for patients remains poor...
November 21, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Wendy McCallum, Mark J Sarnak
The appropriate blood pressure (BP) target for dialysis patients remains controversial. Although there have been remarkable advances in this area in the general population, extrapolation of these data to dialysis patients is not possible. Observational studies in dialysis patients suggest that low BP is associated with worse outcomes. However, this is likely a result of confounding, considering that among dialysis patients with fewer cardiovascular comorbidities and longer survival, a more linear relationship exists between BP and mortality...
November 13, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Joseph Chilcot, Joanna L Hudson
Depression is undisputedly common among individuals with End-Stage Kidney Failure and associated with adverse outcomes. It is well recognized that effective treatments for depression are needed within routine dialysis care. But, are we any closer to successfully treating depression in dialysis patients? We consider this question here with respect to two common treatments, antidepressant medication and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). Currently, there are limited data from randomized placebo-controlled trials regarding the acceptability and efficacy of antidepressants...
November 12, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Gates B Colbert, Harold M Szerlip
It has been clearly established that critically ill patients with sepsis require prompt fluid resuscitation. The optimal amount of fluid and when to taper this resuscitation is less clear. There is a growing evidence that fluid overload leads to acute kidney injury, and increased morbidity and mortality. A clinician's best intentions in resuscitating a patient can lead to too much of a good thing. Currently, there are several bedside tools to aid in determining a patient's response to a fluid challenge as well as in the assessment of the current volume status...
November 9, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Sohail Abdul Salim, Lajos Zsom, Wisit Cheungpasitporn, Tibor Fülöp
The prevalence of end-stage renal disease continues to increase in the United States with commensurate need for renal replacement therapies. Hemodialysis continues to be the predominant modality, though less than 2% of these patients will receive hemodialysis in their own home. While home modalities utilizing peritoneal dialysis have been growing, home hemodialysis (HHD) remains underutilized despite studies showing regression in left ventricular mass, improved quality of life, reduced depressive symptoms, and decreased postdialysis recovery time...
October 23, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Nicholas M Selby, Isma Kazmi
Rates of cardiovascular mortality are disproportionately high in patients with end stage kidney disease receiving dialysis. However, it is now generally accepted that patient survival is broadly equivalent between the two most frequently used forms of dialysis, in-center hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD). This equivalent patient survival is notable when considering how specific aspects of HD have been shown to contribute to morbidity and mortality. These include more rapid loss of residual renal function (RRF), HD-induced myocardial and cerebral ischemia, and risk factors associated with the intermittent delivery of HD...
October 23, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
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