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Seminars in Dialysis

Gates B Colbert, Harold M Szerlip
It has been clearly established that critically ill patients with sepsis require prompt fluid resuscitation. The optimal amount of fluid and when to taper this resuscitation is less clear. There is a growing evidence that fluid overload leads to acute kidney injury, and increased morbidity and mortality. A clinician's best intentions in resuscitating a patient can lead to too much of a good thing. Currently, there are several bedside tools to aid in determining a patient's response to a fluid challenge as well as in the assessment of the current volume status...
November 9, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Sohail Abdul Salim, Lajos Zsom, Wisit Cheungpasitporn, Tibor Fülöp
The prevalence of end-stage renal disease continues to increase in the United States with commensurate need for renal replacement therapies. Hemodialysis continues to be the predominant modality, though less than 2% of these patients will receive hemodialysis in their own home. While home modalities utilizing peritoneal dialysis have been growing, home hemodialysis (HHD) remains underutilized despite studies showing regression in left ventricular mass, improved quality of life, reduced depressive symptoms, and decreased postdialysis recovery time...
October 23, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Nicholas M Selby, Isma Kazmi
Rates of cardiovascular mortality are disproportionately high in patients with end stage kidney disease receiving dialysis. However, it is now generally accepted that patient survival is broadly equivalent between the two most frequently used forms of dialysis, in-center hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD). This equivalent patient survival is notable when considering how specific aspects of HD have been shown to contribute to morbidity and mortality. These include more rapid loss of residual renal function (RRF), HD-induced myocardial and cerebral ischemia, and risk factors associated with the intermittent delivery of HD...
October 23, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Norio Hanafusa, Ken Tsuchiya, Kosaku Nitta
The concentration of sodium in dialysis fluid, a major determinant of extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure, plays a major role in the sodium balance in end-stage renal disease patients. A low dialysate sodium concentration (DNa) reduces interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) and blood pressure and might help ameliorate endothelial dysfunction and inflammation. However, low DNa can also increase the incidence of hypotensive episodes and muscle cramps. Sodium profiling, as typically prescribed in which the DNa is ramped up from above 140 mEq/L to nonphysiological levels, might reduce hypotension in patients with hemodynamic instability but at the cost of the consequences of hypernatremia...
October 21, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
John T Daugirdas
Many dialysis machines can compute dialyzer sodium clearances at multiple time points during a dialysis treatment using conductivity. For a given treatment, the average dialyzer sodium clearance (K), when combined with treatment time (t), and the estimated urea distribution volume (V, usually based on either anthropometry or bioimpedance), can be used to estimate Kt/V, an important measure of hemodialysis adequacy. While this conductivity-derived value for Kt/V correlates moderately with Kt/V calculated from predialysis and postdialysis serum urea nitrogen (SUN) values (urea reduction ratio, URR), the ultrafiltration volume, and session length it is, unfortunately, not sufficiently accurate to replace URR-based Kt/V...
October 11, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Jan Havlin, Svetlana Vankova
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Vassilios Liakopoulos, Stefanos Roumeliotis, Sotirios Zarogiannis, Theodoros Eleftheriadis, Peter R Mertens
Oxidative stress (OS) is the result of prooxidant molecules overwhelming the antioxidant defense mechanisms. Hemodialysis (HD) constitutes a state of elevated inflammation and OS, due to loss of antioxidants during dialysis and activation of white blood cells triggering production of reactive oxygen species. Dialysis vintage, dialysis methods, and type and condition of vascular access, biocompatibility of dialyzer membrane and dialysate, iron administration, and anemia all can play a role in aggravating OS, which in turn has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality...
October 4, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Richard W Corbett, Edwina A Brown
There has been a dramatic, worldwide expansion in life expectancy across the last century. This has resulted in a progressively more elderly and comorbid population. It is increasingly recognized that healthcare in this group needs to move to the concept of "adding life to years". Recognition and assessment of frailty is vital in changing our approach in elderly patients. Current guidelines in dialysis have a limited evidence base across all age groups, but particularly the elderly and serve them poorly...
September 21, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Mohanad Soliman, Waleed Hassan, Maria Yaseen, Madhumathi Rao, B Peter Sawaya, Amr El-Husseini
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) 1-84 is the main biologically active hormone produced by the parathyroid cells. Circulating PTH molecules include the whole PTH 1-84 along with amino (N) and carboxyl (C) terminal fragments. While PTH is the best available noninvasive biomarker to assess bone turnover in dialysis patients, the biological roles of individual circulating PTH fragments are still not completely known. The understanding that there is an enormous variation in the target specificity of currently available PTH assays for different circulating forms of PTH has led to the evolution of assays from first to second then third generation...
August 30, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Keiichi Sumida, Csaba P Kovesdy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Panagiotis I Georgianos, Rajiv Agarwal
Hypertension among patients on hemodialysis is common, difficult to diagnose and often inadequately controlled. Although specific blood pressure (BP) targets in this particular population are not yet established, meta-analyses of randomized trials showed that deliberate BP-lowering with antihypertensive drugs improves clinical outcomes in hemodialysis patients. BP-lowering in these individuals should initially utilize nonpharmacological strategies aiming to control sodium and volume overload. Accordingly, restricting dietary sodium intake, eliminating intradialytic sodium gain via individualized dialysate sodium prescription, optimally assessing and managing dry-weight and providing a sufficient duration of dialysis are first-line treatment considerations to control BP...
November 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Patrick H Pun
Nephrologists are faced with a difficult dilemma in choosing the ideal dialysis prescription to maintain neutral potassium mass balance. Should potassium mass balance goals prioritize the normalization of serum potassium levels using low potassium dialysate at the expense of provoking intradialytic arrhythmias, or should mass balance goals favor permissive hyperkalemia using higher dialysate potassium to avoid rapid intradialytic fluxes at the risk of more interdialytic arrhythmias? This review examines the factors that determine potassium mass balance among HD patients, the relationships between serum and dialysate potassium levels and outcomes, and concludes by examining currently available approaches to reducing risk of arrhythmias while managing potassium mass balance...
November 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Keith E Eidman, James B Wetmore
Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), commonly encountered in patients receiving maintenance dialysis, is associated with numerous adverse outcomes, including mortality. Calcimimetics, agents that act on the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR), were designed to overcome limitations in the use of vitamin D sterols to treat SHPT, and have demonstrated efficacy in reducing levels of PTH in randomized trials. Currently available calcimimetics include oral cinacalcet and the recently approved intravenously administered agent, etelcalcetide...
September 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Hideyuki Mukai, Hilda Villafuerte, Abdul Rashid Qureshi, Bengt Lindholm, Peter Stenvinkel
Low serum albumin (S-Alb) is a frequent feature of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) that independently predicts mortality. Serum albumin has mainly been considered a biomarker of visceral protein and immunocompetence status, fundamental to nutritional assessment. However, low S-albumin level is associated with persistent systemic inflammation and many bodies of evidence show that S-Alb has a limited role as a marker of nutritional status. We reported that a low S-Alb concentration was an independent risk factor for poor outcome in ESRD only in the presence of systemic inflammation...
September 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
María Belén Pisano, James Leathers, Domingo C Balderramo, Fernando Diehl, Andrea Bolomo, Pehuen Fernández, Maribel Martínez-Wassaf, Carla Cristani, Guadalupe Di Cola, Jorge De la Fuente, José D Debes, Viviana E Ré
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
John A Sargent, Marco Marano, Stefano Marano, F John Gennari
In patients receiving hemodialysis, it has long been recognized that much more bicarbonate is delivered during treatment than ultimately appears in the blood. To gain insight into this mystery, we developed a model that allows a quantitative analysis of the patient's response to rapid alkalinization during hemodialysis. Our model is unique in that it is based on the distribution of bicarbonate in the extracellular fluid and assesses its removal from this compartment by mobilization of protons (H+ ) from buffers and other sources...
September 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
David E St-Jules, David S Goldfarb, Mary Lou Pompeii, Scott E Liebman, Richard A Sherman
Diet is a key determinant of several common and serious disease complications in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The recommended balance and variety of foods in the HD diet is designed to limit high potassium and phosphorus foods while maintaining protein adequacy. In this report, we examine the potassium, phosphorus, and protein content of foods, and identify critical challenges, and potential pitfalls when translating nutrient prescriptions into dietary guidelines. Our findings highlight the importance of individualized counseling based on a comprehensive dietary assessment by trained diet professionals, namely renal dietitians, for managing diet-related complications in HD patients...
September 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Bourne L Auguste, Joanne M Bargman
Coping with the transition from end-stage kidney disease to dialysis can be challenging for patients and their care partners. Introducing incident dialysis patients to incremental forms of dialysis is associated with better quality of life and reduced cost. Incremental hemodialysis (HD) has generated significant interest over the last decade with treatments that focus on clinical criteria rather than prespecified Kt/Vurea targets. Incremental peritoneal dialysis (PD) has traditionally focused on the sum of residual renal and peritoneal clearances to achieve a specific Kt/Vurea value...
September 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Frank L Ward, Rose Faratro, Rory F McQuillan
Patients with end-stage kidney disease who are considering home hemodialysis (HHD) face the challenge of learning to self-cannulate their arteriovenous access. Current practice discourages the use of tunneled central venous catheters, with recent indications that self-cannulating patients have superior outcomes. Patient-level barriers do not appear to preclude a successful HHD program and should not be viewed as insurmountable by healthcare staff or patients. The healthcare team must address patient fears while instructing the patient to perform self-cannulation safely...
September 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Georges Kosmadakis, Julie Albaret, Enrique Da Costa Correia, Frederic Somda, Didier Aguilera
In a period of turmoil concerning vaccination practices, there is a serious conflict between scientifically reasonable, evidence-based guidelines and the far-fetched rumors or misconceptions concerning the vaccination practices in the general population. When a significant portion of the medical and paramedical personnel may be deliberately unvaccinated against common biological agents, achieving effective vaccination rates in the dialysis population may be complicated. Vaccination rates are unacceptably low in dialysis patients and seroconversion rates are even lower; further, serological follow-up is generally poor...
September 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
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