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Seminars in Dialysis

Mariana Murea, Bryan M Tucker
Uric acid-mediated biological effects are milieu dependent. In a physiological milieu, serum uric acid serves as an antioxidant; when homeostasis is perturbed, divergent effects are observed depending on the clinical context. Several epidemiologic studies indicated the presence of a direct relationship between higher concentrations of serum uric acid and cardiovascular mortality; yet not all studies support this conclusion. Although high serum levels of uric acid are associated with higher mortality in patients with nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease and perhaps in those with end-stage kidney disease receiving peritoneal dialysis, the opposite relationship is seen in patients with end-stage kidney disease on hemodialysis...
July 10, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Guy Rostoker
Parenteral iron is used to restore the body's iron pool before and during erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) therapy; together these agents form the backbone of anemia management in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing hemodialysis. ESRD patients receiving chronic intravenous iron products, which exceed their blood loss are exposed to an increased risk of positive iron balance. Measurement of the liver iron concentration (LIC) reflects total body iron stores in patients with secondary hemosiderosis and genetic hemochromatosis...
June 28, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Hideyuki Mukai, Hilda Villafuerte, Abdul Rashid Qureshi, Bengt Lindholm, Peter Stenvinkel
Low serum albumin (S-Alb) is a frequent feature of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) that independently predicts mortality. Serum albumin has mainly been considered a biomarker of visceral protein and immunocompetence status, fundamental to nutritional assessment. However, low S-albumin level is associated with persistent systemic inflammation and many bodies of evidence show that S-Alb has a limited role as a marker of nutritional status. We reported that a low S-Alb concentration was an independent risk factor for poor outcome in ESRD only in the presence of systemic inflammation...
June 21, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Alice Sabatino, Giovanni Piotti, Carmela Cosola, Ilaria Gandolfini, Jeroen P Kooman, Enrico Fiaccadori
Protein energy wasting (PEW) is a condition commonly occurring among patients with ESRD on hemodialysis. PEW is characterized by depletion of protein and energy stores and is caused by multiple factors related to chronic kidney disease, acute and chronic comorbidities and by renal replacement therapy itself. Anorexia is central in the pathogenesis of PEW; it is frequently observed in these patients whose protein and energy intakes are typically lower than guidelines recommendations. If untreated, PEW invariably leads to major complications, and may activate a vicious circle with further worsening of nutritional status...
June 17, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Takeshi Hasegawa, Fumihiko Koiwa, Tadao Akizawa
Renal anemia is a serious and common complication in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The introduction of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) has dramatically improved hemoglobin levels and outcomes. Several interventional studies reported that excessive correction of anemia and the massive use of ESA can trigger cardiovascular disease (CVD), and consequently may worsen the prognosis of patients undergoing HD. Therefore, it has been widely recognized that large doses of ESA should be used with caution. An effective use of iron preparations is required to yield the optimal effect of ESA...
June 17, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Takayuki Hamano
Despite the advent of cinacalcet and noncalcium-containing phosphate binders, controlling the progression of vascular calcification (VC) is still challenging. Recent reports demonstrate that carbamylation driven by high urea concentration aggravates VC, suggesting the importance of adequate dialysis in retarding its progression. Theoretically, other promising measures include the use of iron-based phosphate binders, vitamin K, and magnesium supplements, which should be investigated in future randomized controlled trials (RCTs), ideally with hard outcomes...
June 13, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Shuzo Kaneko, Kunihiro Yamagata
Accumulation of amyloid fibrils from β2-microglobulin (β2M) was first recognized as a characteristic osteoarticular complication in long-term hemodialysis (HD) patients and called "HD-related amyloidosis" (HRA). However, this syndrome can also be observed in end-stage renal diseases (ESRD) patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis, and even in patients with chronic renal failure before the initiation of dialytic therapy, suggesting that HD is not a direct cause but that accumulation of β2M or some β2M-associated molecules in the body is a common pathogenesis...
June 12, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
María Belén Pisano, James Leathers, Domingo C Balderramo, Fernando Diehl, Andrea Bolomo, Pehuen Fernández, Maribel Martínez-Wassaf, Carla Cristani, Guadalupe Di Cola, Jorge De la Fuente, José D Debes, Viviana E Ré
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 12, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Yelena Slinin, Megha Babu, Areef Ishani
BACKGROUND: Ultrafiltration rate (UFR) has attracted attention as a modifiable aspect of volume management. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to summarize the evidence that links UFR to patient outcomes and discuss UFR cut-offs proposed, and discuss possible consequences of adapting UFR as a quality metric. RESULTS: Higher UFRs has been associated with younger age, longer dialysis vintage, greater prevalence of comorbidities, higher Kt/V, lower weight, greater interdialytic weight gain, lower residual renal function, and shorter treatment times...
June 8, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Carlo Basile, Luigi Rossi, Carlo Lomonte
Acid-base equilibrium is a complex and vital system whose regulation is impaired in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Metabolic acidosis is a common complication of CKD. It is typically due to the accumulation of sulfate, phosphorus, and organic anions. Metabolic acidosis is correlated with several adverse outcomes, such as morbidity, hospitalization and mortality. In patients undergoing hemodialysis, acid-base homeostasis depends on many factors: net acid production, amount of alkali given by the dialysate bath, duration of interdialytic period, as well as residual diuresis, if any...
June 8, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Yasushi Ohashi, Ken Sakai, Hiroki Hase, Nobuhiko Joki
Fluid volume overload is common and is associated with adverse outcomes in hemodialysis patients. Practicing physicians individually manage fluid volume balance in their dialysis patients according to blood pressure, interdialytic weight gain, cardiac function, nutritional status, and other comorbidities. However, accurate assessment of fluid volume status remains a concern. Indicators of dry weight target have been explored further with newer concepts and technologies. In general, total body water comprises approximately 50%-60% of adult body weight (range, 45%-75%), and water comprises 73...
June 6, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Anatole Besarab, Lalathaksha Kumbar
A one-size-fits-all approach to vascular access for dialysis may be prejudicial. Arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) have high primary failure, failure to mature rate, and late-stage complications making them unsuitable choice for many patients. Aging of population with chronic kidney disease (CKD) coupled with venous injury during CKD stages depletes suitable superficial veins for AVF creation. The National Institutes of Health consortium demonstrated the difficulty in attaining a functional AVF in hemodialysis patients...
June 1, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
John A Sargent, Marco Marano, Stefano Marano, F John Gennari
In patients receiving hemodialysis, it has long been recognized that much more bicarbonate is delivered during treatment than ultimately appears in the blood. To gain insight into this mystery, we developed a model that allows a quantitative analysis of the patient's response to rapid alkalinization during hemodialysis. Our model is unique in that it is based on the distribution of bicarbonate in the extracellular fluid and assesses its removal from this compartment by mobilization of protons (H+ ) from buffers and other sources...
May 29, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Francisco Maduell
In the 1980s, conventional hemodialysis was considered as dialysis with acetate dialysate, dialysis machines without volumetric control, low blood flow and low-flux dialyzers; in the 1990s, the concept of conventional hemodialysis changed due to technological advances in dialysis machines, control of ultrafiltration and the widespread use of bicarbonate dialysate, which allowed an increase in blood flow and the use of synthetic high-flux dialyzers. To avoid backfiltration-induced adverse reactions, exogenous replacement fluid was promoted but its adoption was limited for technical and financial reasons...
May 29, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
David E St-Jules, David S Goldfarb, Mary Lou Pompeii, Scott E Liebman, Richard A Sherman
Diet is a key determinant of several common and serious disease complications in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The recommended balance and variety of foods in the HD diet is designed to limit high potassium and phosphorus foods while maintaining protein adequacy. In this report, we examine the potassium, phosphorus, and protein content of foods, and identify critical challenges, and potential pitfalls when translating nutrient prescriptions into dietary guidelines. Our findings highlight the importance of individualized counseling based on a comprehensive dietary assessment by trained diet professionals, namely renal dietitians, for managing diet-related complications in HD patients...
May 29, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Bourne L Auguste, Joanne M Bargman
Coping with the transition from end-stage kidney disease to dialysis can be challenging for patients and their care partners. Introducing incident dialysis patients to incremental forms of dialysis is associated with better quality of life and reduced cost. Incremental hemodialysis (HD) has generated significant interest over the last decade with treatments that focus on clinical criteria rather than prespecified Kt/Vurea targets. Incremental peritoneal dialysis (PD) has traditionally focused on the sum of residual renal and peritoneal clearances to achieve a specific Kt/Vurea value...
May 28, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Frank L Ward, Rose Faratro, Rory F McQuillan
Patients with end-stage kidney disease who are considering home hemodialysis (HHD) face the challenge of learning to self-cannulate their arteriovenous access. Current practice discourages the use of tunneled central venous catheters, with recent indications that self-cannulating patients have superior outcomes. Patient-level barriers do not appear to preclude a successful HHD program and should not be viewed as insurmountable by healthcare staff or patients. The healthcare team must address patient fears while instructing the patient to perform self-cannulation safely...
May 11, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Georges Kosmadakis, Julie Albaret, Enrique Da Costa Correia, Frederic Somda, Didier Aguilera
In a period of turmoil concerning vaccination practices, there is a serious conflict between scientifically reasonable, evidence-based guidelines and the far-fetched rumors or misconceptions concerning the vaccination practices in the general population. When a significant portion of the medical and paramedical personnel may be deliberately unvaccinated against common biological agents, achieving effective vaccination rates in the dialysis population may be complicated. Vaccination rates are unacceptably low in dialysis patients and seroconversion rates are even lower; further, serological follow-up is generally poor...
May 9, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Shigeo Negi, Daisuke Koreeda, Sou Kobayashi, Takuro Yano, Koichi Tatsuta, Toru Mima, Takashi Shigematsu, Masaki Ohya
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most common serious complications for all hospital admissions, with its incidence increasing among hospitalized patients, particularly those in the intensive care unit. Despite significant improvements in critical care and dialysis technology, AKI is associated with an increased risk of short- and long-term mortality, prolonged hospital stays, and dialysis dependence. These risks are particularly relevant for critically ill patients with AKI severe enough to require renal replacement therapy (RRT)...
May 8, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Candice Halinski, Holly M Koncicki
Vascular access is of vital importance for patients requiring dialysis therapies. AV fistulas have been endorsed by many professional societies as the access of choice, however, subsequent creation does not go without consequences. As the population ages and patients become more medically complex, access failure has become a major cause of treatment complication. For the elderly, this is especially true and there are multiple decision points that require careful reflection before an AVF is placed. This article reviews access considerations for AVF placement in the elderly population and considers the possibility that the fistula first approach to vascular access should not be an absolute...
May 8, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
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