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Seminars in Dialysis

Mohanad Soliman, Waleed Hassan, Maria Yaseen, Madhumathi Rao, B Peter Sawaya, Amr El-Husseini
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) 1-84 is the main biologically active hormone produced by the parathyroid cells. Circulating PTH molecules include the whole PTH 1-84 along with amino (N) and carboxyl (C) terminal fragments. While PTH is the best available noninvasive biomarker to assess bone turnover in dialysis patients, the biological roles of individual circulating PTH fragments are still not completely known. The understanding that there is an enormous variation in the target specificity of currently available PTH assays for different circulating forms of PTH has led to the evolution of assays from first to second then third generation...
August 30, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Clare B Jones, Christopher T Chan
Since the inception of hemodialysis (HD) for patients with chronic kidney disease, the "perfect" dialysis prescription has remained elusive. Part of this may relate to the heterogeneity among populations, individual patients, and differences in access to health provision. The optimal balance between dialysis frequency and duration to achieve reductions in patient morbidity and mortality continues to be debated. The concept of dialysis adequacy originated from a post hoc mathematical analysis of the National Cooperative Study and has evolved to become a way of calculating dialysis dose and standardizing the dialysis prescription...
August 9, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Panagiotis I Georgianos, Rajiv Agarwal
Hypertension among patients on hemodialysis is common, difficult to diagnose and often inadequately controlled. Although specific blood pressure (BP) targets in this particular population are not yet established, meta-analyses of randomized trials showed that deliberate BP-lowering with antihypertensive drugs improves clinical outcomes in hemodialysis patients. BP-lowering in these individuals should initially utilize nonpharmacological strategies aiming to control sodium and volume overload. Accordingly, restricting dietary sodium intake, eliminating intradialytic sodium gain via individualized dialysate sodium prescription, optimally assessing and managing dry-weight and providing a sufficient duration of dialysis are first-line treatment considerations to control BP...
August 6, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Thomas Dossin, Eric Goffin
Peritoneal dialysis (PD) effluent is normally transparent. A change in its appearance may be the first indication of an intra- or extraperitoneal abnormality which may or may not be related to the peritoneal dialysis technique itself. What diagnosis should be considered when PD effluent turns on red, orange, cloudy, milky white, green, yellow, purple or black in color? After review of the literature, we propose a differential diagnosis, as well as some management recommendations, for specific abnormal color presentations of the PD effluent...
July 22, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Steven G Achinger, Juan Carlos Ayus
Cardiovascular mortality accounts for most deaths among hemodialysis patients and far exceeds the cardiovascular mortality rate of the general population. One important aspect of cardiovascular risk among dialysis patients is chronic inflammation. Iatrogenic sources of chronic inflammation in the form of failed renal allografts, old clotted arteriovenous grafts, and hemodialysis catheters play important, sometimes, unrecognized roles in this inflammatory state. There is ample observational evidence that these sources of inflammation are associated with hypoalbuminemia, erythropoetin-resistant anemia, and increased markers of chronic inflammation...
July 22, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Patrick H Pun
Nephrologists are faced with a difficult dilemma in choosing the ideal dialysis prescription to maintain neutral potassium mass balance. Should potassium mass balance goals prioritize the normalization of serum potassium levels using low potassium dialysate at the expense of provoking intradialytic arrhythmias, or should mass balance goals favor permissive hyperkalemia using higher dialysate potassium to avoid rapid intradialytic fluxes at the risk of more interdialytic arrhythmias? This review examines the factors that determine potassium mass balance among HD patients, the relationships between serum and dialysate potassium levels and outcomes, and concludes by examining currently available approaches to reducing risk of arrhythmias while managing potassium mass balance...
July 19, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
David E St-Jules, David S Goldfarb, Collin J Popp, Mary Lou Pompeii, Scott E Liebman
Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is a major diet-related complication in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Nutrient-based dietary guidelines emphasize animal-based protein foods for preventing and managing PEW in HD patients. Although dietary protein intake is important for protein anabolism, other dietary factors contribute to PEW. In this article, we examine the diet-related etiologies of PEW in HD patients, and discuss how they may be affected differently by animal- and plant-based protein foods. In general, animal foods are superior sources of protein, but may contribute more to metabolic derangements that cause PEW...
July 15, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Mariana Murea, Bryan M Tucker
Uric acid-mediated biological effects are milieu dependent. In a physiological milieu, serum uric acid serves as an antioxidant; when homeostasis is perturbed, divergent effects are observed depending on the clinical context. Several epidemiologic studies indicated the presence of a direct relationship between higher concentrations of serum uric acid and cardiovascular mortality; yet not all studies support this conclusion. Although high serum levels of uric acid are associated with higher mortality in patients with nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease and perhaps in those with end-stage kidney disease receiving peritoneal dialysis, the opposite relationship is seen in patients with end-stage kidney disease on hemodialysis...
July 10, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Guy Rostoker
Parenteral iron is used to restore the body's iron pool before and during erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) therapy; together these agents form the backbone of anemia management in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing hemodialysis. ESRD patients receiving chronic intravenous iron products, which exceed their blood loss are exposed to an increased risk of positive iron balance. Measurement of the liver iron concentration (LIC) reflects total body iron stores in patients with secondary hemosiderosis and genetic hemochromatosis...
June 28, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Keith E Eidman, James B Wetmore
Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), commonly encountered in patients receiving maintenance dialysis, is associated with numerous adverse outcomes, including mortality. Calcimimetics, agents that act on the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR), were designed to overcome limitations in the use of vitamin D sterols to treat SHPT, and have demonstrated efficacy in reducing levels of PTH in randomized trials. Currently available calcimimetics include oral cinacalcet and the recently approved intravenously administered agent, etelcalcetide...
September 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Hideyuki Mukai, Hilda Villafuerte, Abdul Rashid Qureshi, Bengt Lindholm, Peter Stenvinkel
Low serum albumin (S-Alb) is a frequent feature of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) that independently predicts mortality. Serum albumin has mainly been considered a biomarker of visceral protein and immunocompetence status, fundamental to nutritional assessment. However, low S-albumin level is associated with persistent systemic inflammation and many bodies of evidence show that S-Alb has a limited role as a marker of nutritional status. We reported that a low S-Alb concentration was an independent risk factor for poor outcome in ESRD only in the presence of systemic inflammation...
September 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
María Belén Pisano, James Leathers, Domingo C Balderramo, Fernando Diehl, Andrea Bolomo, Pehuen Fernández, Maribel Martínez-Wassaf, Carla Cristani, Guadalupe Di Cola, Jorge De la Fuente, José D Debes, Viviana E Ré
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
John A Sargent, Marco Marano, Stefano Marano, F John Gennari
In patients receiving hemodialysis, it has long been recognized that much more bicarbonate is delivered during treatment than ultimately appears in the blood. To gain insight into this mystery, we developed a model that allows a quantitative analysis of the patient's response to rapid alkalinization during hemodialysis. Our model is unique in that it is based on the distribution of bicarbonate in the extracellular fluid and assesses its removal from this compartment by mobilization of protons (H+ ) from buffers and other sources...
September 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
David E St-Jules, David S Goldfarb, Mary Lou Pompeii, Scott E Liebman, Richard A Sherman
Diet is a key determinant of several common and serious disease complications in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The recommended balance and variety of foods in the HD diet is designed to limit high potassium and phosphorus foods while maintaining protein adequacy. In this report, we examine the potassium, phosphorus, and protein content of foods, and identify critical challenges, and potential pitfalls when translating nutrient prescriptions into dietary guidelines. Our findings highlight the importance of individualized counseling based on a comprehensive dietary assessment by trained diet professionals, namely renal dietitians, for managing diet-related complications in HD patients...
September 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Bourne L Auguste, Joanne M Bargman
Coping with the transition from end-stage kidney disease to dialysis can be challenging for patients and their care partners. Introducing incident dialysis patients to incremental forms of dialysis is associated with better quality of life and reduced cost. Incremental hemodialysis (HD) has generated significant interest over the last decade with treatments that focus on clinical criteria rather than prespecified Kt/Vurea targets. Incremental peritoneal dialysis (PD) has traditionally focused on the sum of residual renal and peritoneal clearances to achieve a specific Kt/Vurea value...
September 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Frank L Ward, Rose Faratro, Rory F McQuillan
Patients with end-stage kidney disease who are considering home hemodialysis (HHD) face the challenge of learning to self-cannulate their arteriovenous access. Current practice discourages the use of tunneled central venous catheters, with recent indications that self-cannulating patients have superior outcomes. Patient-level barriers do not appear to preclude a successful HHD program and should not be viewed as insurmountable by healthcare staff or patients. The healthcare team must address patient fears while instructing the patient to perform self-cannulation safely...
September 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Georges Kosmadakis, Julie Albaret, Enrique Da Costa Correia, Frederic Somda, Didier Aguilera
In a period of turmoil concerning vaccination practices, there is a serious conflict between scientifically reasonable, evidence-based guidelines and the far-fetched rumors or misconceptions concerning the vaccination practices in the general population. When a significant portion of the medical and paramedical personnel may be deliberately unvaccinated against common biological agents, achieving effective vaccination rates in the dialysis population may be complicated. Vaccination rates are unacceptably low in dialysis patients and seroconversion rates are even lower; further, serological follow-up is generally poor...
September 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Shigeo Negi, Daisuke Koreeda, Sou Kobayashi, Takuro Yano, Koichi Tatsuta, Toru Mima, Takashi Shigematsu, Masaki Ohya
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most common serious complications for all hospital admissions, with its incidence increasing among hospitalized patients, particularly those in the intensive care unit. Despite significant improvements in critical care and dialysis technology, AKI is associated with an increased risk of short- and long-term mortality, prolonged hospital stays, and dialysis dependence. These risks are particularly relevant for critically ill patients with AKI severe enough to require renal replacement therapy (RRT)...
September 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Irene Ruderman, Stephen G Holt, Tim D Hewitson, Edward R Smith, Nigel D Toussaint
Patients with CKD have accelerated vascular stiffening contributing significantly to excess cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Much of the arterial stiffening is thought to involve vascular calcification (VC), but the pathogenesis of this phenomenon is complex, resulting from a disruption of the balance between promoters and inhibitors of calcification in a uremic milieu, along with derangements in calcium and phosphate metabolic pathways. Management of traditional cardiovascular risk factors to reduce VC may be influential but has not been shown to significantly improve mortality...
September 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Paul N Bennett, Jennifer St Clair Russell, Jug Atwal, Lashone Brown, Brigitte Schiller
Greater focus on patient-reported outcome measures for dialysis patients and an increased patient engagement focus has highlighted a lack of formal patient-generated strategies. Patient-to-patient peer mentoring is one approach that may improve the outcomes for people receiving dialysis. This review aims to synthesize quantitative and qualitative studies investigating dialysis-associated patient-to-patient peer mentor support among adults with chronic kidney disease and end stage kidney disease. Research studies describe the benefits of peer mentor programs in dialysis to include: improved goal setting, decision-making and increased self-management...
September 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
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