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Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712343/overload-from-anxiety-a-non-motor-cause-for-gait-impairments-in-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Kaylena A Ehgoetz Martens, Carolina R A Silveira, Brittany N Intzandt, Quincy J Almeida
Threatening situations lead to observable gait deficits in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) who suffer from high trait anxiety levels. The specific characteristics of gait that are affected appear to be similar to behaviors observed while walking during a dual-task (DT) condition. Yet, it remains unclear whether anxiety is similar to a cognitive load. If it were, then those with PD who have high trait anxiety might be expected to be more susceptible to DT interference during walking. Thus, the overall aim of this study was to evaluate whether trait anxiety influences gait during single-task (ST) and DT walking...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712342/anterior-cerebral-artery-territory-infarction-related-resolution-of-chronic-lower-back-pain
#2
Christopher M Filley, Haley Burke, C Alan Anderson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641498/glucocorticoid-receptor-genetic-variants-and-response-to-fluoxetine-in-major-depressive-disorder
#3
Hasti Nouraei, Negar Firouzabadi, Ali Mandegary, Kamiar Zomorrodian, Ehsan Bahramali, Mohammad Reza Hooshangi Shayesteh, Saham Ansari
Hyperactivity of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis is one of the main clinical findings in depression. The HPA axis is interrelated with glucocorticoid signaling via glucocorticoid receptors (GCRs). Thus, functional genetic variants on GCRs might influence therapeutic outcomes in depression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between three functional polymorphisms (rs41423247, rs6195, and rs6189/rs6190) on GCR and response to fluoxetine in a group of depressed patients...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641497/a-neuropsychiatric-analysis-of-the-cotard-delusion
#4
Aradhana Sahoo, Keith A Josephs
Cotard's syndrome, a condition in which the patient denies his or her own existence or the existence of body parts, is a rare illness that has been reported in association with several neuropsychiatric diagnoses. The majority of published literature on the topic is in the form of case reports, many of which are several years old. The authors evaluated associated diagnoses, neuroimaging, and treatments recorded in patients diagnosed with Cotard's syndrome at their institution. A search of the Mayo Clinic database for patients with mention of signs and symptoms associated with Cotard's in their records between 1996 and 2016 was conducted...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641496/guanfacine-attenuates-adverse-effects-of-dronabinol-thc-on-working-memory-in-adolescent-onset-heavy-cannabis-users-a-pilot-study
#5
David S Mathai, Manuela Holst, Christopher Rodgman, Colin N Haile, Jake Keller, Mariyah Z Hussain, Thomas R Kosten, Thomas F Newton, Christopher D Verrico
The cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) agonist Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, adversely effects working memory performance in humans. The α2A-adrenoceptor (AR) agonist guanfacine improves working memory performance in humans. The authors aimed to determine the effects of short-term (6 days) treatment with guanfacine on adverse cognitive effects produced by THC. Employing a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, the cognitive, subjective, and cardiovascular effects produced by oral THC (20 mg) administration were determined twice in the same cannabis users: once after treatment with placebo and once after treatment with guanfacine (3 mg/day)...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558482/low-frequency-rtms-ameliorates-akathisia-during-pregnancy
#6
José Luis Guerrero Solano, Elena Molina Pacheco
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 31, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558481/correlates-and-prevalence-of-aggression-at-six-months-and-one-year-after-first-time-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Durga Roy, Sandeep Vaishnavi, Dingfen Han, Vani Rao
Few studies have examined clinical correlates of aggression after first-time traumatic brain injury (TBI) within the first year after injury. The authors aimed to identify the rates of aggression at 6 and 12 months post-TBI and establish clinical and demographic correlates. A total of 103 subjects with first-time TBI were seen within 12 months postinjury and evaluated for aggression. Post-TBI social functioning and new-onset depression (within 3 months of the TBI) may serve as particularly important predictors for aggression within the first year of TBI, as these factors may afford intervention and subsequent decreased risk of aggression...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558480/anorexia-nervosa-and-functional-motor-symptoms-two-faces-of-the-same-coin
#8
Benedetta Demartini, Diana Goeta, Luigi Romito, Simona Anselmetti, Sara Bertelli, Armando D'Agostino, Orsola Gambini
The aim of this study was to compare anorexia nervosa (AN) patients and functional motor symptoms (FMS) patients by assessing their variability in demographic and clinical characteristics, risk factors, precipitators, and family history. The authors assessed levels of depression and anxiety, alexithymia, dissociation, body awareness, self-objectification, and interoception in the two groups, using 20 healthy controls (HCs) as a control group for psychometric assessment and for interoception. Unexpectedly, no differences in the three groups were observed for the measures related to awareness of physical state, including body awareness, self-objectification, and interoceptive ability via the heartbeat task...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506192/the-expanding-prominence-of-toxic-leukoencephalopathy
#9
Christopher M Filley, Brice V McConnell, C Alan Anderson
Toxic leukoencephalopathy (TL) is a disorder of brain white matter caused by exposure to leukotoxic agents. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can readily identify this syndrome, and, together with diffusion tensor imaging, MRI continues to offer important insights into its nature. Since the first formal description of TL in 2001, many new leukotoxic disorders have been recognized, and the range of leukotoxins has expanded to include more therapeutic drugs, drugs of abuse, and environmental insults. While the understanding of pathophysiology remains incomplete, TL is increasingly common in clinical practice, and the potential long-term cognitive sequelae of toxic white matter injury merit attention...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506191/use-of-the-neuropsychiatric-inventory-to-characterize-the-course-of-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in-progressive-supranuclear-palsy
#10
Milica Ječmenica-Lukić, Tatjana Pekmezović, Igor N Petrović, Aleksandra Tomić, Marina Svetel, Vladimir S Kostić
The aim of this study was to determine the neuropsychiatric profile in a cohort of progressive supranucelar palsy (PSP) patients and their dynamic changes over a follow-up period of 1 year. A total of 59 patients were assessed at baseline, while 25 of them were accessible after 1 year of the follow-up. The most common symptoms were apathy and depression, which were also found to be, among other variables, the independent determinants of increased Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) total score. Moreover, apathy deteriorated most profoundly over the follow-up period...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464703/neural-correlates-of-error-monitoring-in-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-after-failed-inhibition-in-an-emotional-go-no-go-task
#11
Lívia Balogh, Brigitta Kakuszi, Szilvia Papp, László Tombor, István Bitter, Pál Czobor
The authors' aim was to investigate the modulation of event-related potentials (ERPs) by the affective content of stimuli in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients during error monitoring. By obtaining ERPs from 26 adult ADHD patients and 14 healthy controls in an emotional go/no-go task, the authors investigated two error-related ERP components, the error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe). In ADHD patients, the ERN amplitude decreased for negative stimuli after failed response inhibition ("nogo response") and Pe amplitude decreased for neutral stimuli compared with the controls...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464702/pavlov-s-orienting-response-in-frontotemporal-dementia
#12
Aditi Joshi, Elvira Jimenez, Mario F Mendez
Behavior variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with initial disturbances in socioemotional behavior in the absence of a sensitive diagnostic test. This study evaluated Pavlov's "orienting response" (OR) or "what is it?" reflex as a measure of their ability to refocus attention on socioemotional stimuli and as a potentially distinguishing measure for bvFTD. Ten patients with bvFTD were compared with 18 normal controls (NC) on ORs (defined as initial heart rate [HR] deceleration) to different pictures based on social and emotional (valence) differences from the International Affective Picture Stimuli...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464701/preliminary-evidence-on-cannabis-effectiveness-and-tolerability-for-adults-with-tourette-syndrome
#13
Elia Abi-Jaoude, Lei Chen, Patrina Cheung, Tracy Bhikram, Paul Sandor
The authors retrospectively evaluated effectiveness and tolerability of cannabis in 19 adults with Tourette syndrome. Tics scores decreased by 60%, and 18 of the 19 participants were at least "much improved." Cannabis was generally well tolerated, although most participants reported side effects.
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449636/intrathecal-thyroid-autoantibody-synthesis-in-a-subgroup-of-patients-with-schizophreniform-syndromes
#14
Dominique Endres, Rick Dersch, Benedikt Hochstuhl, Bernd Fiebich, Tilman Hottenrott, Evgeniy Perlov, Simon Maier, Benjamin Berger, Annette Baumgartner, Nils Venhoff, Oliver Stich, Ludger Tebartz van Elst
Schizophreniform syndromes in combination with autoimmune thyroiditis and increased serum thyroid antibodies lead healthcare practitioners to consider a diagnosis of Hashimoto's encephalopathy. To detect specific biomarkers, the authors analyzed whether intrathecal antithyroid antibody synthesis occurred in a subgroup of schizophreniform patients. In doing so, the authors analyzed thyroid antibodies in paired cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples from 100 schizophreniform patients. Increased antibody indices (AIs) for antithyroid peroxidase or antithyroglobulin autoantibodies in 13 schizophreniform patients were found...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449635/seizure-control-and-memory-impairment-are-related-to-disrupted-brain-functional-integration-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#15
Chang-Hyun Park, Yun Seo Choi, A-Reum Jung, Hwa-Kyoung Chung, Hyeon Jin Kim, Jeong Hyun Yoo, Hyang Woon Lee
Brain functional integration can be disrupted in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but the clinical relevance of this disruption is not completely understood. The authors hypothesized that disrupted functional integration over brain regions remote from, as well as adjacent to, the seizure focus could be related to clinical severity in terms of seizure control and memory impairment. Using resting-state functional MRI data acquired from 48 TLE patients and 45 healthy controls, the authors mapped functional brain networks and assessed changes in a network parameter of brain functional integration, efficiency, to examine the distribution of disrupted functional integration within and between brain regions...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449634/neuropsychiatric-associations-with-gender-illness-duration-work-disability-and-motor-subtype-in-a-u-s-functional-neurological-disorders-clinic-population
#16
Nassim Matin, Sigrid S Young, Benjamin Williams, W Curt LaFrance, Julie N King, David Caplan, Zeina Chemali, Jeffery B Weilburg, Bradford C Dickerson, David L Perez
The assessment of functional neurological disorders (FND) requires an interdisciplinary approach. The authors retrospectively reviewed charts for 100 outpatients with FND and used univariate and regression analyses to investigate neuropsychiatric associations with gender, illness duration, and work disability; secondary analyses evaluated for differences across motor FND subtypes. Men reported higher rates of cognitive complaints and functional weakness, whereas women endorsed increased past physical/sexual trauma...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412878/-top-down-mu-opioid-system-function-in-humans-mu-opioid-receptors-in-ventrolateral-prefrontal-cortex-mediate-the-relationship-between-hedonic-tone-and-executive-function-in-major-depressive-disorder
#17
Sharee N Light, Linas A Bieliauskas, Jon-Kar Zubieta
Cognitive dysfunction and anhedonia, the reduced ability to experience pleasure, are commonly comorbid symptoms that are persistent following successful resolution of negative affect in major depressive disorder (MDD). Little is known about whether they share common etiology. In the present study, the relationship between ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) activity, cognitive dysfunction (i.e., executive dysfunction), and positive emotionality was investigated in conjunction with mu-opioid neurotransmission in a sample of 39 MDD patients...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412877/retrospective-time-perception-in-korsakoff-s-syndrome
#18
Mohamad El Haj, Jean-Louis Nandrino, Roy P C Kessels, Christian Matton, Jean-Eudes Bacquet, Laurent Urso, Pascal Antoine
The authors investigated retrospective timing in participants with Korsakoff's syndrome. Patients were assessed on four retrospective tasks on which they were instructed to read three-digit numbers aloud (15 seconds), fill connected squares (30 seconds), decide whether words were abstract or concrete (45 seconds), or read aloud a text about mushroom picking (60 seconds). Participants were not aware of the task's timing until the end of the tasks, when they were asked to estimate the elapsed time. Results revealed an underestimation of the elapsed time in Korsakoff participants, suggesting that time is perceived to pass quickly for these participants...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347214/delusions-and-the-right-hemisphere-a-review-of-the-case-for-the-right-hemisphere-as-a-mediator-of-reality-based-belief
#19
Lindsey Gurin, Sonja Blum
Delusions are beliefs that remain fixed despite evidence that they are incorrect. Although the precise neural mechanism of delusional belief remains to be elucidated, there is a predominance of right-hemisphere lesions among patients with delusional syndromes accompanied by structural pathology, suggesting that right-hemisphere lesions, or networks with key nodes in the right hemisphere, may be playing a role. The authors discuss the potential theoretical basis and empiric support for a specific right-hemisphere role in delusion production, drawing on its roles in pragmatic communication; perceptual integration; attentional surveillance and anomaly/novelty detection; and belief updating...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347213/limb-misidentification-a-clinical-anatomical-prospective-study
#20
Daniel Antoniello, Reena Gottesman
The misidentification of one's own limb (LM) after right hemisphere stroke is a striking phenomenon that is incompletely understood. The authors prospectively studied the natural history and anatomy of LM in 36 patients with hyperacute right middle cerebral artery infarct. Unlike in previous studies, rapid clinical assessment was prioritized. The authors found LM to be common and transient, involving 61% at onset, evolving to 15% at 1 week. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping found supramarginal gyrus (SMG) damage associated with LM...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
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