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Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183234/predictors-of-workplace-disability-in-a-premanifest-huntington-s-disease-cohort
#1
Anita M Y Goh, Emily You, Stephanie Perin, Fiona J Clay, Samantha Loi, Kathryn Ellis, Terence Chong, David Ames, Nicola Lautenschlager
Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease involving motor, cognitive, and psychiatric/behavioral impairments that will eventually affect work role functioning. Few objective data exist regarding predictors of workplace disability in HD. The authors explored the predictors of work impairment and disability in a cross-sectional cohort of 656 employed, premanifest HD (preHD) individuals. In this cohort-the majority of whom were female, urban-dwelling, married/partnered, and working full-time, with minimal cognitive impairment, good function, minimal motor abnormality, and no indication of significant mental health issues-the number of participants who reported that they had missed work due to HD was low (2...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183233/complex-dynamics-in-the-basal-ganglia-health-and-disease-beyond-the-motor-system
#2
Daniela S Andres, Olivier Darbin
The rate and oscillatory hypotheses are the two main current frameworks of basal ganglia pathophysiology. Both hypotheses have emerged from research on movement disorders sharing similar conceptualizations. These pathological conditions are classified either as hypokinetic or hyperkinetic, and the electrophysiological hallmarks of basal ganglia dysfunction are categorized as prokinetic or antikinetic. Although nonmotor symptoms, including neurobehavioral symptoms, are a key manifestation of basal ganglia dysfunction, they are uncommonly accounted for in these models...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132274/olanzapine-improved-symptoms-and-olfactory-function-in-an-olfactory-reference-syndrome-patient
#3
Alefiya Dhilla Albers, Ilaria Amato, Mark W Albers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132273/neuropsychiatric-factors-linked-to-adherence-and-short-term-outcome-in-a-u-s-functional-neurological-disorders-clinic-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#4
Sean P Glass, Nassim Matin, Benjamin Williams, Julie Mello, Christopher D Stephen, Sigrid S Young, Janet Callahan, W Curt LaFrance, David L Perez
Despite advancements in the assessment and management of functional neurological disorder (FND), the feasibility of implementing a new standard of care remains unclear. Chart reviews were performed for 100 patients with motor FND to investigate factors related to treatment adherence and clinical improvement over an average follow-up of 7 months. Of 81 patients who returned for follow-up, a history of chronic pain disorder inversely correlated with improvement. Of the 50 individuals newly referred for treatment, adherence correlated with improvement, while having abnormal neuroimaging inversely correlated with improvement...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132272/traumatic-brain-injury-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-conceptual-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-considerations-in-the-context-of-co-occurrence
#5
Jennifer J Vasterling, Shawna N Jacob, Ann Rasmusson
The events leading to traumatic brain injury (TBI) are often psychologically traumatic (e.g., motor vehicle accidents) or occur within a broader context of psychological trauma, such as military combat or recurrent interpersonal violence. In such cases, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may develop and serve to complicate TBI recovery. Likewise, brain trauma may impede emotional resolution following psychological trauma exposure. This article addresses comorbid PTSD and TBI, including the epidemiology of PTSD following TBI; the clinical presentation of the comorbidity; potential mechanisms that complicate recovery from psychological trauma and TBI when they co-occur; and considerations for the clinical management of PTSD in the context of TBI, including implications for both psychosocial and psychopharmacological PTSD treatments...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132271/capgras-syndrome-in-advanced-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Christopher L Groth, Antonia Pusso, Scott A Sperling, Diane S Huss, W Jeffrey Elias, G Frederick Wooten, Matthew J Barrett
Psychosis is common in Parkinson's disease (PD), especially in advanced disease, and can lead to a number of psychotic symptoms, including delusions. One uncommon delusion is Capgras syndrome (CS). The authors report on three PD patients with a history of deep brain stimulation (DBS) who developed this delusion. The anatomic targets in these three patients were the subthalamic nuclei in two patients and the globus pallidus interna in one patient. The length of time between surgery and development of CS varied but was greater than 6 months...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061091/exploring-the-spectrum-of-subcortical-hyperintensities-and-cognitive-decline
#7
Yi-Chun Chen, Hsien-Hao Tsao, Yi-Chuan Chu, Jiun-Jie Wang, Jiann-Der Lee, Pi-Yueh Chang, Wen-Chuin Hsu
White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) include periventricular WMH (pvWMH) and deep WMH. When hyperintensities in the basal ganglia or brainstem are included, the collective term is subcortical hyperintensities. Both WMH and medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) are risk factors for cognitive decline. This prospective study enrolled participants aged 50-85 years and followed their neuropsychological assessments annually for 2 years to explore the interactive effects of WMH and MTA on longitudinal clinical decline...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061090/neurodegenerative-dementias-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Christian LoBue, C Munro Cullum, Nyaz Didehbani, Kylee Yeatman, Bruce Jones, Michael A Kraut, John Hart
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is often considered to be a risk factor for the later development of neurodegenerative conditions, but some findings do not support a link. Differences in research methods, clinical samples, and limitations encountered when assessing and documenting TBI details likely contribute to the mixed reports in the literature. Despite some variability in findings, a review of the literature does provide support for the notion that TBI appears to be associated with earlier onset of some neurodegenerative disorders, although clearly not everyone with a TBI appears to be at an increased risk...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061089/dyslexic-characteristics-of-chinese-speaking-semantic-variant-of-primary-progressive-aphasia
#9
Simon Kang Seng Ting, Heidi Foo, Pei Shi Chia, Shahul Hameed, Kok Pin Ng, Adeline Ng, Nagaendran Kandiah
Reading disorder is a recognized feature in primary progressive aphasia (PPA). Surface dyslexia, characterized by regularization errors, is typically seen in the English-speaking semantic variant of PPA (svPPA). However, dyslexic characteristics of other languages, particularly logographical languages such as Chinese, remain sparse in the literature. This study aims to characterize and describe the dyslexic pattern in this group of patients by comparing an English-speaking svPPA group with a Chinese-speaking svPPA group...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876970/responding-to-ten-common-delirium-misconceptions-with-best-evidence-an-educational-review-for-clinicians
#10
Mark A Oldham, Nina M Flanagan, Ariba Khan, Olga Boukrina, Edward R Marcantonio
Delirium (acute confusion) is a serious, common health condition, and it predicts poor outcomes, including greater rates of mortality, institutionalization, prolonged hospitalization, and cognitive impairment. Expedient diagnosis and management are critical to address modifiable delirium causes and improve both quality of care and outcomes. Moreover, more than a third of delirium is preventable. Despite the clear significance of delirium and our increasingly sophisticated understanding of the condition, the gap between evidence and practice persists...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876969/noncognitive-behavioral-changes-associated-with-alzheimer-s-disease-implications-of-neuroimaging-findings
#11
Jeff Victoroff, Feng V Lin, Kerry L Coburn, Samuel D Shillcutt, Valerie Voon, Simon Ducharme
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is commonly associated with noncognitive behavioral changes (NCBCs). The authors systematically reviewed whether neuroimaging has helped with understanding the pathophysiology, diagnosis, or management of NCBCs associated with AD, including depression, aggression or agitation, anxiety, apathy, psychosis, and sleep disorder. The authors identified dissociable neural substrates with multimodal imaging: depression implicates the lateral and superior prefrontal cortex; apathy and agitation implicate the dorsal anterior cingulate; psychosis implicates right lateralized frontal and medial temporal areas; and anxiety implicates mesial temporal regions...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774226/pseudo-charles-bonnet-syndrome-with-a-frontal-tumor-visual-hallucinations-the-brain-and-the-two-hit-hypothesis
#12
Katherine A Kosman, David A Silbersweig
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 4, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774225/the-anterior-temporal-lobes-new-frontiers-opened-to-neuropsychological-research-by-changes-in-health-care-and-disease-epidemiology
#13
Guido Gainotti
Changes in health care and disease epidemiology have shifted the attention of neuropsychologists and cognitive neuroscientists from vascular lesions to degenerative diseases or other bilateral brain lesions. This displacement of attention from vascular patients to patients with degenerative brain diseases allowed the discovery of hitherto unexplored and unheralded aspects of the neural substrates of human cognition. Three aspects of research on the anterior parts of the temporal lobes (ATLs) are the focus of the present review...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712343/overload-from-anxiety-a-non-motor-cause-for-gait-impairments-in-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Kaylena A Ehgoetz Martens, Carolina R A Silveira, Brittany N Intzandt, Quincy J Almeida
Threatening situations lead to observable gait deficits in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) who suffer from high trait anxiety levels. The specific characteristics of gait that are affected appear to be similar to behaviors observed while walking during a dual-task (DT) condition. Yet, it remains unclear whether anxiety is similar to a cognitive load. If it were, then those with PD who have high trait anxiety might be expected to be more susceptible to DT interference during walking. Thus, the overall aim of this study was to evaluate whether trait anxiety influences gait during single-task (ST) and DT walking...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712342/anterior-cerebral-artery-territory-infarction-related-resolution-of-chronic-lower-back-pain
#15
Christopher M Filley, Haley Burke, C Alan Anderson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641498/glucocorticoid-receptor-genetic-variants-and-response-to-fluoxetine-in-major-depressive-disorder
#16
Hasti Nouraei, Negar Firouzabadi, Ali Mandegary, Kamiar Zomorrodian, Ehsan Bahramali, Mohammad Reza Hooshangi Shayesteh, Saham Ansari
Hyperactivity of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis is one of the main clinical findings in depression. The HPA axis is interrelated with glucocorticoid signaling via glucocorticoid receptors (GCRs). Thus, functional genetic variants on GCRs might influence therapeutic outcomes in depression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between three functional polymorphisms (rs41423247, rs6195, and rs6189/rs6190) on GCR and response to fluoxetine in a group of depressed patients...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641497/a-neuropsychiatric-analysis-of-the-cotard-delusion
#17
Aradhana Sahoo, Keith A Josephs
Cotard's syndrome, a condition in which the patient denies his or her own existence or the existence of body parts, is a rare illness that has been reported in association with several neuropsychiatric diagnoses. The majority of published literature on the topic is in the form of case reports, many of which are several years old. The authors evaluated associated diagnoses, neuroimaging, and treatments recorded in patients diagnosed with Cotard's syndrome at their institution. A search of the Mayo Clinic database for patients with mention of signs and symptoms associated with Cotard's in their records between 1996 and 2016 was conducted...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641496/guanfacine-attenuates-adverse-effects-of-dronabinol-thc-on-working-memory-in-adolescent-onset-heavy-cannabis-users-a-pilot-study
#18
David S Mathai, Manuela Holst, Christopher Rodgman, Colin N Haile, Jake Keller, Mariyah Z Hussain, Thomas R Kosten, Thomas F Newton, Christopher D Verrico
The cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) agonist Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, adversely effects working memory performance in humans. The α2A-adrenoceptor (AR) agonist guanfacine improves working memory performance in humans. The authors aimed to determine the effects of short-term (6 days) treatment with guanfacine on adverse cognitive effects produced by THC. Employing a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, the cognitive, subjective, and cardiovascular effects produced by oral THC (20 mg) administration were determined twice in the same cannabis users: once after treatment with placebo and once after treatment with guanfacine (3 mg/day)...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558482/low-frequency-rtms-ameliorates-akathisia-during-pregnancy
#19
José Luis Guerrero Solano, Elena Molina Pacheco
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 31, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558480/anorexia-nervosa-and-functional-motor-symptoms-two-faces-of-the-same-coin
#20
Benedetta Demartini, Diana Goeta, Luigi Romito, Simona Anselmetti, Sara Bertelli, Armando D'Agostino, Orsola Gambini
The aim of this study was to compare anorexia nervosa (AN) patients and functional motor symptoms (FMS) patients by assessing their variability in demographic and clinical characteristics, risk factors, precipitators, and family history. The authors assessed levels of depression and anxiety, alexithymia, dissociation, body awareness, self-objectification, and interoception in the two groups, using 20 healthy controls (HCs) as a control group for psychometric assessment and for interoception. Unexpectedly, no differences in the three groups were observed for the measures related to awareness of physical state, including body awareness, self-objectification, and interoceptive ability via the heartbeat task...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
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