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Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30187822/the-relationship-between-prior-concussions-and-depression-is-modified-by-somatic-symptomatology-in-retired-nfl-athletes
#1
Benjamin L Brett, Nishit Mummareddy, Andrew W Kuhn, Aaron M Yengo-Kahn, Scott L Zuckerman
A positive relationship between sport-related concussion (SRC) history and depressive symptoms in retired National Football League (NFL) athletes has been observed, with self-rated physical functioning identified as a confounding factor. The authors examined the influence of somatic symptom endorsement on the relationship between SRC history and self-reported depressive symptom severity in retired NFL athletes. Forty-three former NFL athletes completed self-report inventories of depression (with the Beck Depression Inventory II) and somatic symptoms (with the adjusted Patient Health Questionnaire-15)...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30187821/anxiety-independently-contributes-to-severity-of-freezing-of-gait-in-people-with-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Milla Pimenta, Dandara Moreira, Taísa Nogueira, Carolina Silva, Elen B Pinto, Guilherme T Valenca, Lorena R S Almeida
Freezing of gait is a disabling feature of Parkinson's disease, and it has been shown that nonmotor symptoms, such as anxiety and cognitive impairment, may be involved in the pathophysiology of the phenomenon. However, the association between freezing of gait severity and nonmotor symptoms is yet to be determined. Therefore, the overall aim of this study was to determine factors that contribute to severity of freezing of gait in people with Parkinson's disease. Participants (N=78) were assessed by disease-specific and self-report measures, including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and the Freezing of Gait Questionnaire (FOG-Q)...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30187820/depressive-symptoms-are-associated-with-more-negative-functional-outcomes-than-anxiety-symptoms-in-persons-with-multiple-sclerosis
#3
Sascha Gill, Jonathan Santo, Mervin Blair, Sarah A Morrow
Depression and anxiety are common among persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), and both negatively affect functional status. However, studies rarely account for overlap in depressive and anxiety symptoms on functional outcomes among people with MS. The authors aimed to examine the differential impact of depression and anxiety, measured by the Anxiety and Depression subscales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-A and HADS-D), on functional outcomes among people with MS. Using a retrospective chart review of 128 people with MS, the authors used exploratory structural equation modeling to examine the relation of HADS-A and HADS-D to functional outcomes, namely employment status, fatigue (with the Fatigue Severity Scale), disability (with the Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS]), and cognition (with the Symbol Digit Modalities Test [SDMT])...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30141727/an-fmri-pilot-study-of-cognitive-flexibility-in-trichotillomania
#4
Jon E Grant, Richard Daws, Adam Hampshire, Samuel R Chamberlain
Trichotillomania is a relatively common psychiatric condition, although its neurobiological basis is unknown. Abnormalities of flexible responding have been implicated in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder and thus may be relevant in trichotillomania. The purpose of this study was to probe reversal learning and attentional set-shifting in trichotillomania. Twelve adults with trichotillomania and 13 matched healthy control subjects undertook a functional MRI task of cognitive flexibility. Group-level activation maps for extradimensional and reversal switches were independently parcellated into discrete regions of interest using a custom watershed algorithm...
August 24, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30141726/failure-of-pet-scan-a-case-of-psychiatric-catatonia-mistaken-for-encephalitis
#5
Thanh Thuy Truong, Eileen Glocer, Shana Coshal, Ranjit Chacko
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 24, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30141725/six-landmark-case-reports-essential-for-neuropsychiatric-literacy
#6
Sheldon Benjamin, Lindsey MacGillivray, Barbara Schildkrout, Alexis Cohen-Oram, Margo D Lauterbach, Leonard L Levin
Well-described clinical case reports have been a core component of the neuropsychiatry literature and have led to: a deepened understanding of brain-behavior relationships and neuropsychiatric phenomenology, new paths for research, and compelling material for physicians who are studying neurology and psychiatry. Six landmark neuropsychiatry cases were selected for being well described, paradigmatic, and illuminating of brain-behavior correlations: Phineas Gage, Louis Victor Leborgne ("Tan"), Auguste Deter, Solomon Shereshevsky ("S"), "JP," and Henry Gustav Molaison ("HM")...
August 24, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30045681/the-need-for-consensus-on-primary-familial-brain-calcification-nomenclature
#7
Laura Durão Ferreira, João Ricardo Mendes de Oliveira
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 26, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30045680/cognitive-impairments-and-dysexecutive-behavioral-disorders-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#8
Laurent Puy, Jean-Marc Bugnicourt, Sophie Liabeuf, Lucie Desjardins, Martine Roussel, Momar Diouf, Jean Marc Chillon, Gabriel Choukroun, Ziad A Massy, Olivier Godefroy
The purpose of this study was to characterize cognitive impairments and behavioral disorders in a sample of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A total of 52 patients with CKD were prospectively recruited over a 344-day period. Cognitive functions (memory, action speed, executive function, and language) and behavioral characteristics were assessed with a standardized comprehensive battery. The patients' performances were interpreted with a validated method on the basis of normative data from 1,003 healthy control subjects...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30045679/delirium-phenotype-by-age-and-sex-in-a-pooled-data-set-of-adult-patients
#9
Paula T Trzepacz, José G Franco, David J Meagher, Yanghyun Lee, Jeong-Lan Kim, Yasuhiro Kishi, Leticia M Furlanetto, Daniel Negreiros, Ming-Chyi Huang, Chun-Hsin Chen, Jacob Kean, Maeve Leonard
The authors aimed to evaluate whether the clinical phenotype of delirium differs if dichotomized either by sex or age (cutoff age, 65 years old) in a pooled sample of 406 nondemented adult patients with delirium as defined by DSM-IV criteria. Delirium characteristics were measured with the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS-R-98). DRS-R-98 items were subgrouped to represent subscores representing the three core domains of delirium (cognitive, higher-order thinking, and circadian), noncore accessory symptoms (psychotic and affective), and diagnostic characteristics (temporal onset, fluctuation, and physical disorder)...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29939106/epidemiology-and-natural-history-of-psychiatric-disorders-after-tbi
#10
Jennie Ponsford, Yvette Alway, Kate Rachel Gould
This article outlines the epidemiology of psychiatric disorders in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI), with a focus on DSM axis I disorders diagnosed on the basis of structured clinical interview. The epidemiology of psychiatric disorders in the general population is described as a basis for understanding the disorders that occur before and after TBI. For each disorder category, including mood disorders, anxiety disorders, acute stress disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance use disorders, psychotic disorders, eating disorders, somatoform disorders, and adjustment disorders, the evidence from retrospective, cross-sectional and prospective studies is reviewed, showing the frequency, time course, and predictors of the disorders...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29939105/bridging-the-great-divide-what-can-neurology-learn-from-psychiatry
#11
David L Perez, Matcheri S Keshavan, Jeremiah M Scharf, Aaron D Boes, Bruce H Price
Neurology and psychiatry share common historical origins and rely on similar tools to study brain disorders. Yet the practical integration of medical and scientific approaches across these clinical neurosciences remains elusive. Although much has been written about the need to incorporate emerging systems-level, cellular-molecular, and genetic-epigenetic advances into a science of mind for psychiatric disorders, less attention has been given to applying clinical neuroscience principles to conceptualize neurologic conditions with an integrated neurobio-psycho-social approach...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29843586/relationships-between-confabulations-and-mental-time-travel-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Myriam Noel, Frank Larøi, Karim Gallouj, Mohamad El Haj
The authors assessed the relationship between confabulations in Alzheimer's disease and the ability to mentally travel in time to reexperience memories. Twenty-seven patients with Alzheimer's disease were administered evaluations of provoked confabulations, spontaneous confabulations, and mental time travel. Provoked and spontaneous confabulations were evaluated with questions probing personal and general knowledge and with a scale rated by nursing and medical staff. Mental time travel was assessed by asking patients to retrieve personal memories...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29843584/the-neural-correlates-of-self-regulatory-fatigability-during-inhibitory-control-of-eye-blinking
#13
Elia Abi-Jaoude, Barbara Segura, Sang Soo Cho, Adrian Crawley, Paul Sandor
The capacity to regulate urges is an important human characteristic associated with a range of social and health outcomes. Self-regulatory capacity has been postulated to have a limited reserve, which when depleted leads to failure. The authors aimed to investigate the neural correlates of self-regulatory fatigability. Functional MRI was used to detect brain activations in 19 right-handed healthy subjects during inhibition of eye blinking, in a block design. The increase in number of blinks during blink inhibition from the first to the last block was used as covariate of interest...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685063/methylphenidate-treatment-for-patients-with-posterior-cortical-atrophy
#14
Mario F Mendez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30085897/interrelationships-of-anger-and-ptsd-contributions-from-functional-neuroimaging
#15
Kossi Sevon, Robin A Hurley, Katherine H Taber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29843585/huntington-s-disease-gene-expansion-carriers-are-aware-of-their-degree-of-apathy
#16
Verena Baake, Erik van Duijn, Raymund A C Roos
Huntington's disease is characterized by motor and behavioral symptoms as well as cognitive decline. Apathy is a common behavioral symptom, and its severity is related to disease progression. It has been suggested that Huntington's disease gene expansion carriers (HDGECs) are unaware of the signs and symptoms of the disease, which may account for their own level of awareness of their apathy. Therefore, the authors investigated the level of agreement on the degree of apathy severity between HDGECs and their proxies by using a self-report questionnaire...
2018: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685065/noninvasive-brain-stimulation-challenges-and-opportunities-for-a-new-clinical-specialty
#17
Aaron D Boes, Michael S Kelly, Nicholas T Trapp, Adam P Stern, Daniel Z Press, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
Noninvasive brain stimulation refers to a set of technologies and techniques with which to modulate the excitability of the brain via transcranial stimulation. Two major modalities of noninvasive brain stimulation are transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial current stimulation. Six TMS devices now have approved uses by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and are used in clinical practice: five for treating medication refractory depression and the sixth for presurgical mapping of motor and speech areas...
2018: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685064/neuroanatomical-correlates-of-impulsive-action-in-excoriation-skin-picking-disorder
#18
Austin W Blum, Samuel R Chamberlain, Michael D Harries, Brian L Odlaug, Sarah A Redden, Jon E Grant
Excoriation (skin-picking) disorder (SPD) has similarities to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and is included within the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRD) diagnostic class in DSM-5. Separate neuroimaging and neurocognitive studies suggest that people affected by SPD find it difficult to inhibit dominant motor responses due to a failure of "top-down" control mechanisms. No study has examined the neural correlates of SPD in participants with varying degrees of impulsive motor behavior...
2018: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661102/essential-tremor-more-than-a-motor-disorder
#19
Robert D Shura, Robin A Hurley, Katherine H Taber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621927/skin-conduction-levels-differentiate-frontotemporal-dementia-from-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Mario F Mendez, Sylvia S Fong, Mark M Ashla, Elvira E Jimenez, Andrew R Carr
Patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) differ in basic emotional tone. Skin conduction levels (SCLs), a measure of sympathetic tone, may be a sensitive test for discriminating these two dementias early in their course. Previous research has shown differences in resting SCLs between patients with bvFTD and AD, but no study has evaluated the discriminability of SCLs during different environmental conditions. The authors compared bvFTD patients (N=8), AD patients (N=10), and healthy control subjects (N=9) on SCL measures pertaining to real-life vignettes or scenarios differing in valence and emotional intensity...
2018: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
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