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Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506192/the-expanding-prominence-of-toxic-leukoencephalopathy
#1
Christopher M Filley, Brice V McConnell, C Alan Anderson
Toxic leukoencephalopathy (TL) is a disorder of brain white matter caused by exposure to leukotoxic agents. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can readily identify this syndrome, and, together with diffusion tensor imaging, MRI continues to offer important insights into its nature. Since the first formal description of TL in 2001, many new leukotoxic disorders have been recognized, and the range of leukotoxins has expanded to include more therapeutic drugs, drugs of abuse, and environmental insults. While the understanding of pathophysiology remains incomplete, TL is increasingly common in clinical practice, and the potential long-term cognitive sequelae of toxic white matter injury merit attention...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506191/use-of-the-neuropsychiatric-inventory-to-characterize-the-course-of-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in-progressive-supranuclear-palsy
#2
Milica Ječmenica-Lukić, Tatjana Pekmezović, Igor N Petrović, Aleksandra Tomić, Marina Svetel, Vladimir S Kostić
The aim of this study was to determine the neuropsychiatric profile in a cohort of progressive supranucelar palsy (PSP) patients and their dynamic changes over a follow-up period of 1 year. A total of 59 patients were assessed at baseline, while 25 of them were accessible after 1 year of the follow-up. The most common symptoms were apathy and depression, which were also found to be, among other variables, the independent determinants of increased Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) total score. Moreover, apathy deteriorated most profoundly over the follow-up period...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464703/neural-correlates-of-error-monitoring-in-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-after-failed-inhibition-in-an-emotional-go-no-go-task
#3
Lívia Balogh, Brigitta Kakuszi, Szilvia Papp, László Tombor, István Bitter, Pál Czobor
The authors' aim was to investigate the modulation of event-related potentials (ERPs) by the affective content of stimuli in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients during error monitoring. By obtaining ERPs from 26 adult ADHD patients and 14 healthy controls in an emotional go/no-go task, the authors investigated two error-related ERP components, the error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe). In ADHD patients, the ERN amplitude decreased for negative stimuli after failed response inhibition ("nogo response") and Pe amplitude decreased for neutral stimuli compared with the controls...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464702/pavlov-s-orienting-response-in-frontotemporal-dementia
#4
Aditi Joshi, Elvira Jimenez, Mario F Mendez
Behavior variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with initial disturbances in socioemotional behavior in the absence of a sensitive diagnostic test. This study evaluated Pavlov's "orienting response" (OR) or "what is it?" reflex as a measure of their ability to refocus attention on socioemotional stimuli and as a potentially distinguishing measure for bvFTD. Ten patients with bvFTD were compared with 18 normal controls (NC) on ORs (defined as initial heart rate [HR] deceleration) to different pictures based on social and emotional (valence) differences from the International Affective Picture Stimuli...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464701/preliminary-evidence-on-cannabis-effectiveness-and-tolerability-for-adults-with-tourette-syndrome
#5
Elia Abi-Jaoude, Lei Chen, Patrina Cheung, Tracy Bhikram, Paul Sandor
The authors retrospectively evaluated effectiveness and tolerability of cannabis in 19 adults with Tourette syndrome. Tics scores decreased by 60%, and 18 of the 19 participants were at least "much improved." Cannabis was generally well tolerated, although most participants reported side effects.
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449636/intrathecal-thyroid-autoantibody-synthesis-in-a-subgroup-of-patients-with-schizophreniform-syndromes
#6
Dominique Endres, Rick Dersch, Benedikt Hochstuhl, Bernd Fiebich, Tilman Hottenrott, Evgeniy Perlov, Simon Maier, Benjamin Berger, Annette Baumgartner, Nils Venhoff, Oliver Stich, Ludger Tebartz van Elst
Schizophreniform syndromes in combination with autoimmune thyroiditis and increased serum thyroid antibodies lead healthcare practitioners to consider a diagnosis of Hashimoto's encephalopathy. To detect specific biomarkers, the authors analyzed whether intrathecal antithyroid antibody synthesis occurred in a subgroup of schizophreniform patients. In doing so, the authors analyzed thyroid antibodies in paired cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples from 100 schizophreniform patients. Increased antibody indices (AIs) for antithyroid peroxidase or antithyroglobulin autoantibodies in 13 schizophreniform patients were found...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449635/seizure-control-and-memory-impairment-are-related-to-disrupted-brain-functional-integration-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#7
Chang-Hyun Park, Yun Seo Choi, A-Reum Jung, Hwa-Kyoung Chung, Hyeon Jin Kim, Jeong Hyun Yoo, Hyang Woon Lee
Brain functional integration can be disrupted in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but the clinical relevance of this disruption is not completely understood. The authors hypothesized that disrupted functional integration over brain regions remote from, as well as adjacent to, the seizure focus could be related to clinical severity in terms of seizure control and memory impairment. Using resting-state functional MRI data acquired from 48 TLE patients and 45 healthy controls, the authors mapped functional brain networks and assessed changes in a network parameter of brain functional integration, efficiency, to examine the distribution of disrupted functional integration within and between brain regions...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449634/neuropsychiatric-associations-with-gender-illness-duration-work-disability-and-motor-subtype-in-a-u-s-functional-neurological-disorders-clinic-population
#8
Nassim Matin, Sigrid S Young, Benjamin Williams, W Curt LaFrance, Julie N King, David Caplan, Zeina Chemali, Jeffery B Weilburg, Bradford C Dickerson, David L Perez
The assessment of functional neurological disorders (FND) requires an interdisciplinary approach. The authors retrospectively reviewed charts for 100 outpatients with FND and used univariate and regression analyses to investigate neuropsychiatric associations with gender, illness duration, and work disability; secondary analyses evaluated for differences across motor FND subtypes. Men reported higher rates of cognitive complaints and functional weakness, whereas women endorsed increased past physical/sexual trauma...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412878/-top-down-mu-opioid-system-function-in-humans-mu-opioid-receptors-in-ventrolateral-prefrontal-cortex-mediate-the-relationship-between-hedonic-tone-and-executive-function-in-major-depressive-disorder
#9
Sharee N Light, Linas A Bieliauskas, Jon-Kar Zubieta
Cognitive dysfunction and anhedonia, the reduced ability to experience pleasure, are commonly comorbid symptoms that are persistent following successful resolution of negative affect in major depressive disorder (MDD). Little is known about whether they share common etiology. In the present study, the relationship between ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) activity, cognitive dysfunction (i.e., executive dysfunction), and positive emotionality was investigated in conjunction with mu-opioid neurotransmission in a sample of 39 MDD patients...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412877/retrospective-time-perception-in-korsakoff-s-syndrome
#10
Mohamad El Haj, Jean-Louis Nandrino, Roy P C Kessels, Christian Matton, Jean-Eudes Bacquet, Laurent Urso, Pascal Antoine
The authors investigated retrospective timing in participants with Korsakoff's syndrome. Patients were assessed on four retrospective tasks on which they were instructed to read three-digit numbers aloud (15 seconds), fill connected squares (30 seconds), decide whether words were abstract or concrete (45 seconds), or read aloud a text about mushroom picking (60 seconds). Participants were not aware of the task's timing until the end of the tasks, when they were asked to estimate the elapsed time. Results revealed an underestimation of the elapsed time in Korsakoff participants, suggesting that time is perceived to pass quickly for these participants...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347214/delusions-and-the-right-hemisphere-a-review-of-the-case-for-the-right-hemisphere-as-a-mediator-of-reality-based-belief
#11
Lindsey Gurin, Sonja Blum
Delusions are beliefs that remain fixed despite evidence that they are incorrect. Although the precise neural mechanism of delusional belief remains to be elucidated, there is a predominance of right-hemisphere lesions among patients with delusional syndromes accompanied by structural pathology, suggesting that right-hemisphere lesions, or networks with key nodes in the right hemisphere, may be playing a role. The authors discuss the potential theoretical basis and empiric support for a specific right-hemisphere role in delusion production, drawing on its roles in pragmatic communication; perceptual integration; attentional surveillance and anomaly/novelty detection; and belief updating...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347213/limb-misidentification-a-clinical-anatomical-prospective-study
#12
Daniel Antoniello, Reena Gottesman
The misidentification of one's own limb (LM) after right hemisphere stroke is a striking phenomenon that is incompletely understood. The authors prospectively studied the natural history and anatomy of LM in 36 patients with hyperacute right middle cerebral artery infarct. Unlike in previous studies, rapid clinical assessment was prioritized. The authors found LM to be common and transient, involving 61% at onset, evolving to 15% at 1 week. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping found supramarginal gyrus (SMG) damage associated with LM...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294711/potential-bedside-utility-of-the-clock-drawing-test-in-evaluating-rapid-therapeutic-response-in-the-natural-course-of-schizophrenia-a-preliminary-study
#13
Ramdas Sarjerao Ransing, Praveen Homdeorao Khairkar, Kshirod Mishra, Gajanan Sakekar
The Clock-Drawing Test (CDT) is a brief, relatively time-efficient, easy to administer at bedside, and well-proven cognitive screening test that assesses a broad range of cognitive abilities in stroke, delirium, and dementia. However, challenges of comprehensive therapeutic outcome evaluations in schizophrenia can also be potentially overcome using CDT. The authors aimed to measure the therapeutic outcome using CDT in 101 schizophrenia patients, irrespective of their diagnostic subtypes. A repeated measures analysis of variance found that improvements on CDT and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were closely correlated, reflecting critical information about therapeutic response measures in schizophrenia...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294710/behavioral-disconnection-syndrome-manifesting-as-combined-mania-and-visual-auditory-hallucinations-secondary-to-isolated-right-thalamic-hemorrhage
#14
Parunyou Julayanont, Doungporn Ruthirago, Khondoker Alam, Yazan J Alderazi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294709/cross-lagged-panel-analysis-of-depression-and-behavioral-dysfunction-in-the-first-year-after-moderate-to-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Shannon B Juengst, John M Myrga, Jesse R Fann, Amy K Wagner
Timely treatment of depression and behavioral dysfunction after moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) could improve health, function, and quality of life. The authors hypothesized that 6-month depression would be the stronger contributor to later depression and behavioral dysfunction in a sample of 88 adults with moderate-to-severe TBI. A structural equation modeling cross-lagged panel analysis, adjusting for all 6-month predictors, revealed that 6-month depression had a stronger relationship to 12-month depression (βstand=0...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294708/sleep-patterns-and-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in-hospitalized-patients-with-dementia
#16
Kaloyan S Tanev, Andrew Winokur, Roger K Pitman
The authors examined 28 dementia inpatients receiving treatment as usual. Beginning-to-end differences in neuropsychiatric symptoms and actigraphic sleep patterns were measured. Using a mixed-model, the authors regressed neuropsychiatric symptoms on average sleep minutes (between-subjects effect) and each night's deviation from average (within-subject effect). Sleep did not significantly differ from beginning to end of participation, whereas neuropsychiatric symptoms did. Average sleep minutes predicted average neuropsychiatric symptoms (p=0...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238273/a-novel-approach-to-identifying-a-neuroimaging-biomarker-for-patients-with-serious-mental-illness
#17
Alok Madan, J Christopher Fowler, Michelle A Patriquin, Ramiro Salas, Philip R Baldwin, Kenia M Velasquez, Humsini Viswanath, David L Molfese, Carla Sharp, Jon G Allen, Susan Hardesty, John M Oldham, B Christopher Frueh
Serious mental illness (SMI) is disabling, and current interventions are ineffective for many. This exploratory study sought to demonstrate the feasibility of applying topological data analysis (TDA) to resting-state functional connectivity data obtained from a heterogeneous sample of 235 adult inpatients to identify a biomarker of treatment response. TDA identified two groups based on connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and striatal regions: patients admitted with greater functional connectivity between these regions evidenced less improvement from admission to discharge than patients with lesser connectivity between them...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238272/psychiatric-presentations-of-c9orf72-mutation-what-are-the-diagnostic-implications-for-clinicians
#18
Simon Ducharme, Sepideh Bajestan, Bradford C Dickerson, Valerie Voon
The C9orf72 mutation was identified as the most frequent genetic cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). In light of multiple reports of predominant psychiatric presentations of FTD secondary to C9orf72 mutation, the American Neuropsychiatric Association Committee on Research reviewed all studies on psychiatric aspects of this mutation to identify clinically relevant features for diagnosis. The most common psychiatric presentation is psychosis (21%-56%), with delusions, and/or multimodal hallucinations. Other presentations include late-onset mania and depression with cognitive impairment or catatonia...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238271/clozapine-treatment-for-cabergoline-induced-psychosis-in-a-patient-with-a-giant-prolactinoma
#19
Rodrigo Pérez-Esparza, Carlos Alberto Rojas-Guerrero, Gerson Geovany Andino-Rios, Patricia Arias-Garro, Jesús Ramírez-Bermúdez, Lesly Portocarrero-Ortiz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 27, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193126/predictors-of-major-depression-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-following-traumatic-brain-injury-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Maryse C Cnossen, Annemieke C Scholten, Hester F Lingsma, Anneliese Synnot, Juanita Haagsma, Prof Ewout W Steyerberg, Suzanne Polinder
Although major depressive disorder (MDD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are prevalent after traumatic brain injury (TBI), little is known about which patients are at risk for developing them. The authors systematically reviewed the literature on predictors and multivariable models for MDD and PTSD after TBI. The authors included 26 observational studies. MDD was associated with female gender, preinjury depression, postinjury unemployment, and lower brain volume, whereas PTSD was related to shorter posttraumatic amnesia, memory of the traumatic event, and early posttraumatic symptoms...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
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