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Teaching and Learning in Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753383/quantifying-heuristic-bias-anchoring-availability-and-representativeness
#1
Megan Richie, S Andrew Josephson
Construct: Authors examined whether a new vignette-based instrument could isolate and quantify heuristic bias. BACKGROUND: Heuristics are cognitive shortcuts that may introduce bias and contribute to error. There is no standardized instrument available to quantify heuristic bias in clinical decision making, limiting future study of educational interventions designed to improve calibration of medical decisions. This study presents validity data to support a vignette-based instrument quantifying bias due to the anchoring, availability, and representativeness heuristics...
July 28, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753084/development-and-implementation-of-a-school-wide-institute-for-excellence-in-education-to-enable-educational-scholarship-by-medical-school-faculty
#2
Joseph Cofrancesco, Michael A Barone, Janet R Serwint, Mitchell Goldstein, Michael Westman, Pamela A Lipsett
PROBLEM: Educational scholarship is an important component for faculty at Academic Medical Centers, especially those with single-track promotion systems. Yet, faculty may lack the skills and mentorship needed to successfully complete projects. In addition, many educators feel undervalued. INTERVENTION: To reinvigorate our school's educational mission, the Institute for Excellence in Education (IEE) was created. Here we focus on one of the IEE's strategic goals, that of inspiring and supporting educational research, scholarship, and innovation...
July 28, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753068/a-qualitative-exploration-of-multiple-perspectives-on-transfer-of-learning-between-classroom-and-clinical-workplace
#3
Sanne Peters, Geraldine Clarebout, Marc van Nuland, Bert Aertgeerts, Ann Roex
Phenomenon: Transfer of learning between classroom and workplace appears to be difficult. Various conceptions about learning in either the classroom or the workplace exist among stakeholders, yet little is known about their conceptions of the transfer of learning between both settings. This study explored stakeholders' conceptions about transfer of learning between classroom-based learning and workplace practice. APPROACH: Homogeneous focus groups with students, medical teachers, and workplace supervisors were conducted using a constructivist grounded theory approach...
July 28, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753049/medical-students-use-of-different-coping-strategies-and-relationship-with-academic-performance-in-preclinical-and-clinical-years
#4
Jocelyn H Schiller, R Brent Stansfield, David C Belmonte, Joel A Purkiss, Rishindra M Reddy, Joseph B House, Sally A Santen
Phenomenon: Medical students' coping abilities are important for academic success and emotional health. The authors explored differences in students' use of active, problem-solving strategies and emotional, inwardly directed approaches; the change in coping strategies used during medical school; and coping strategy impact on performance. APPROACH: One hundred eighty-three students completed the Ways of Coping Scale at matriculation and end of the 2nd and 3rd years. Frequency of each of 8 ways of coping, changes in coping strategy use over time, and relationship of coping method with preclinical and clinical scores were calculated...
July 28, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753047/leadership-identity-development-through-reflection-and-feedback-in-team-based-learning-medical-student-teams
#5
Maryam Alizadeh, Azim Mirzazadeh, Dean X Parmelee, Elizabeth Peyton, Neda Mehrdad, Leila Janani, Hooman Shahsavari
PROBLEM: Studies on leadership identity development through reflection with Team-Based Learning (TBL) in medical student education are rare. We assumed that reflection and feedback on the team leadership process would advance the progression through leadership identity development stages in medical students within the context of classes using TBL. INTERVENTION: This study is a quasi-experimental design with pretest-posttest control group. The pretest and posttest were reflection papers of medical students about their experience of leadership during their TBL sessions...
July 28, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753041/students-perceptions-of-trigger-warnings-in-medical-education
#6
Elizabeth A Beverly, Sebastián Díaz, Anna M Kerr, Jane T Balbo, Kayla E Prokopakis, Todd R Fredricks
Phenomenon: Trigger warnings are verbal statements or written warnings that alert students in advance to potentially distressing material. Medical education includes numerous subjects frequently identified as triggers, such as abuse, rape, self-injurious behaviors, eating disorders, drug and alcohol addiction, and suicide. Thus, exploring medical students' perceptions of trigger warnings may provide a valuable perspective on the use of these warnings in higher education. APPROACH: As part of a larger descriptive, cross-sectional survey study on medical education, we assessed 1st- and 2nd-year medical students' perceptions of trigger warnings in the preclinical curriculum...
July 28, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753038/physician-experiences-with-high-value-care-in-internal-medicine-residency-mixed-methods-study-of-2003-2013-residency-graduates
#7
Kira L Ryskina, Eric S Holmboe, Judy A Shea, Esther Kim, Judith A Long
Phenomenon: High healthcare costs and relatively poor health outcomes in the United States have led to calls to improve the teaching of high value care (defined as care that balances potential benefits of interventions with their harms including costs) to physicians-in-training. Numerous interventions to increase high value care in graduate medical education were implemented at the national and local levels over the past decade. However, there has been little evaluation of their impact on physician experiences during training and perceived preparedness for practice...
July 28, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727980/presenting-the-third-annual-editors-choice-award
#8
Anna T Cianciolo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632015/the-associations-between-clerkship-objective-structured-clinical-examination-osce-grades-and-subsequent-performance
#9
Ting Dong, Christopher Zahn, Aaron Saguil, Kimberly A Swygert, Michelle Yoon, Jessica Servey, Steven Durning
Construct: We investigated the extent of the associations between medical students' clinical competency measured by performance in Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE) during Obstetrics/Gynecology and Family Medicine clerkships and later performance in both undergraduate and graduate medical education. BACKGROUND: There is a relative dearth of studies on the correlations between undergraduate OSCE scores and future exam performance within either undergraduate or graduate medical education and almost none on linking these simulated encounters to eventual patient care...
July 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632014/coaching-the-coach-a-program-for-development-of-faculty-portfolio-coaches
#10
Jack Kopechek, Cheryl Bardales, A Todd Lash, Curtis Walker, Sheryl Pfeil, Cynthia H Ledford
PROBLEM: Faculty coaching is recognized as an essential element for effective use of portfolios in undergraduate medical education, yet best practices for training these coaches are uncertain. INTERVENTION: New portfolio coaches participated in a multifaceted training program that included orienting modules, a 7.5-hr training workshop featuring analysis of reflective writing, an Observed Structured Teaching Exercise (OSTE), and subsequent longitudinal coaches' meetings for timely task training...
July 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632013/task-demands-in-osces-influence-learning-strategies
#11
Alexandre Lafleur, Jonathan Laflamme, Jimmie Leppink, Luc Côté
THEORY: Models on pre-assessment learning effects confirmed that task demands stand out among the factors assessors can modify in an assessment to influence learning. However, little is known about which tasks in objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) improve students' cognitive and metacognitive processes. Research is needed to support OSCE designs that benefit students' metacognitive strategies when they are studying, reinforcing a hypothesis-driven approach. With that intent, hypothesis-driven physical examination (HDPE) assessments ask students to elicit and interpret findings of the physical exam to reach a diagnosis ("Examine this patient with a painful shoulder to reach a diagnosis")...
July 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632012/medical-school-outcomes-primary-care-specialty-choice-and-practice-in-medically-underserved-areas-by-physician-alumni-of-medprep-a-postbaccalaureate-premedical-program-for-underrepresented-and-disadvantaged-students
#12
Anneke M Metz
PROBLEM: Minorities continue to be underrepresented as physicians in medicine, and the United States currently has a number of medically underserved communities. MEDPREP, a postbaccalaureate medical school preparatory program for socioeconomically disadvantaged or underrepresented in medicine students, has a stated mission to increase the numbers of physicians from minority or disadvantaged backgrounds and physicians working with underserved populations. This study aims to determine how MEDPREP enhances U...
July 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632011/essential-public-health-competencies-for-medical-students-establishing-a-consensus-in-family-medicine
#13
Christopher P Morley, Scott R Rosas, Ranit Mishori, William Jordan, Yumi Shitama Jarris, Family Medicine/Public Health Competencies Work Group, Jacob Prunuske
Phenomenon: The integration of public health (PH) competency training into medical education, and further integration of PH and primary care, has been urged by the U.S. Institute of Medicine. However, PH competencies are numerous, and no consensus exists over which competencies are most important for adoption by current trainees. Our objective was to conduct a group concept mapping exercise with stakeholders identifying the most important and feasible PH skills to incorporate in medical and residency curricula...
July 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632010/designing-a-national-longitudinal-faculty-development-curriculum-focused-on-educational-scholarship-process-outcomes-and-lessons-learned
#14
Latha Chandran, Maryellen E Gusic, J Lindsey Lane, Constance D Baldwin
PROBLEM: Clinical educators at U.S. academic health centers are frequently disadvantaged in the academic promotion system, lacking needed faculty development, mentoring, and networking support. INTERVENTION: In 2006, we implemented the national Educational Scholars Program to offer faculty development in educational scholarship for early career educators in pediatrics. We aimed to provide them with skills, experience, and initial success in educational scholarship and dissemination...
July 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632009/self-observation-and-peer-feedback-as-a-faculty-development-approach-for-problem-based-learning-tutors-a-program-evaluation
#15
Irène Garcia, Richard W James, Paul Bischof, Anne Baroffio
PROBLEM: Good teaching requires spontaneous, immediate, and appropriate action in response to various situations. It is even more crucial in problem-based learning (PBL) tutorials, as the tutors, while directing students toward the identification and attainment of learning objectives, must stimulate them to contribute to the process and provide them with constructive feedback. PBL tutors in medicine lack opportunities to receive feedback from their peers on their teaching strategies. Moreover, as tutorials provide little or no time to stop and think, more could be learned by reflecting on the experience than from the experience itself...
July 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632008/a-cloud-with-a-silver-lining-helping-students-learn-about-professionalism
#16
Rhea J Cohn, Margaret M Plack
PROBLEM: Educators face many challenges in teaching professionalism. Despite attempts to define professionalism, it remains abstract for students and often not fully appreciated until they are in clinic. Without a way to make it personally relevant, students will likely be less motivated to learn. INTERVENTION: We used student-generated word clouds to facilitate reflection and discussions, thereby helping students make their perceptions of professionalism more explicit...
July 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632007/what-do-medical-students-do-for-self-care-a-student-centered-approach-to-well-being
#17
Erin E Ayala, Aisha M Omorodion, Dennis Nmecha, Jeffrey S Winseman, Hyacinth R C Mason
Phenomenon: Despite the promotion of medical student health and wellness through recent program and curricular changes, research continues to show that medical education is associated with decreased well-being in medical students. Although many institutions have sought to more effectively assess and improve self-care in medical students, no self-care initiatives have been designed using the explicit perspectives of students themselves. APPROACH: Using concept mapping methodology, the research team created a student-generated taxonomy of self-care behaviors taken from a national sample of medical students in response to a brainstorming prompt...
July 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358219/supporting-evidence-informed-teaching-in-biomedical-and-health-professions-education-through-knowledge-translation-an-interdisciplinary-literature-review
#18
Rochelle E Tractenberg, Morris Gordon
Phenomenon: The purpose of "systematic" reviews/reviewers of medical and health professions educational research is to identify best practices. This qualitative article explores the question of whether systematic reviews can support "evidence informed" teaching and contrasts traditional systematic reviewing with a knowledge translation (KT) approach to this objective. APPROACH: Degrees of freedom analysis (DOFA) is used to examine the alignment of systematic review methods with educational research and the pedagogical strategies and approaches that might be considered with a decision-making framework developed to support valid assessment...
July 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296513/who-is-the-preferred-tutor-in-clinical-skills-training-physicians-nurses-or-peers
#19
Ece Şükriye Abay, Sevgi Turan, Orhan Odabaşı, Melih Elçin
Phenomenon: Clinical skills centers allow structured training of undergraduate medical students for the acquisition of clinical skills in a simulated environment. Physician, nurse, or peer tutors are employed for training in those centers. All tutors should have appropriate training about the methodology used in the clinical skills training. Many of the studies revealed the effectiveness of various types of tutors. The aim of our study was to evaluate medical students' satisfaction with clinical skills training, and their opinions about the differences in coaching skills among the physician, nurse, and peer tutors...
July 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272900/the-development-and-impact-of-a-social-media-and-professionalism-course-for-medical-students
#20
Alexandra W Gomes, Gisela Butera, Katherine C Chretien, Terry Kind
PROBLEM: Inappropriate social media behavior can have detrimental effects on students' future opportunities, but medical students are given little opportunity to reflect upon ways of integrating their social media identities with their newly forming professional identities. INTERVENTION: In 2012, a required educational session was developed for 1st-year medical students on social media and professional identity. Objectives include identifying professionalism issues and recognizing positive social media use...
July 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
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