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Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience

Maheen Shermohammed, Pranjal H Mehta, Joan Zhang, Cassandra M Brandes, Luke J Chang, Leah H Somerville
Cognitive reappraisal (CR) is regarded as an effective emotion regulation strategy. Acute stress, however, is believed to impair the functioning of prefrontal-based neural systems, which could result in lessened effectiveness of CR under stress. This study tested the behavioral and neurobiological impact of acute stress on CR. While undergoing fMRI, adult participants ( n = 54) passively viewed or used CR to regulate their response to negative and neutral pictures and provided ratings of their negative affect in response to each picture...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Su Keun Jeong, Yaoda Xu
A host of recent studies have reported robust representations of visual object information in the human parietal cortex, similar to those found in ventral visual cortex. In ventral visual cortex, both monkey neurophysiology and human fMRI studies showed that the neural representation of a pair of unrelated objects can be approximated by the averaged neural representation of the constituent objects shown in isolation. In this study, we examined whether such a linear relationship between objects exists for object representations in the human parietal cortex...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Lampros Perogamvros, Benjamin Baird, Mitja Seibold, Brady Riedner, Melanie Boly, Giulio Tononi
Thoughts occur during wake as well as during dreaming sleep. Using experience sampling combined with high-density EEG, we investigated the phenomenal qualities and neural correlates of spontaneously occurring thoughts across wakefulness, non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, and REM sleep. Across all states, thoughts were associated with activation of a region of the midcingulate cortex. Thoughts during wakefulness additionally involved a medial prefrontal region, which was associated with metacognitive thoughts during wake...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
William H Alexander, Joshua W Brown, Anne G E Collins, Benjamin Y Hayden, Eliana Vassena
Sometime in the past two decades, neuroimaging and behavioral research converged on pFC as an important locus of cognitive control and decision-making, and that seems to be the last thing anyone has agreed on since. Every year sees an increase in the number of roles and functions attributed to distinct subregions within pFC, roles that may explain behavior and neural activity in one context but might fail to generalize across the many behaviors in which each region is implicated. Emblematic of this ongoing proliferation of functions is dorsal ACC (dACC)...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Lucía Magis-Weinberg, Sarah-Jayne Blakemore, Iroise Dumontheil
Reasoning during social interactions requires the individual manipulation of mental representations of one's own traits and those of other people as well as their joint consideration (relational integration). Research using nonsocial paradigms has linked relational integration to activity in the rostrolateral pFC. Here, we investigated whether social reasoning is supported by the same general system or whether it additionally relies on regions of the social brain network, such as the medial pFC. We further assessed the development of social reasoning...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Luis Carretié, Dominique Kessel, María J García-Rubio, Tamara Giménez-Fernández, Sandra Hoyos, María Hernández-Lorca
Exogenous attention is a set of mechanisms that allow us to detect and reorient toward salient events-such as appetitive or aversive-that appear out of the current focus of attention. The nature of these mechanisms, particularly the involvement of the parvocellular and magnocellular visual processing systems, was explored. Thirty-four participants performed a demanding digit categorization task while salient (spiders or S) and neutral (wheels or W) stimuli were presented as distractors under two figure ground formats: heterochromatic/isoluminant (exclusively processed by the parvocellular system, Par trials) and isochromatic/heteroluminant (preferentially processed by the magnocellular system, Mag trials)...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Andrew C Papanicolaou, Marina Kilintari, Roozbeh Rezaie, Shalini Narayana, Abbas Babajani-Feremi
The results of this magnetoencephalography study challenge two long-standing assumptions regarding the brain mechanisms of language processing: First, that linguistic processing proper follows sensory feature processing effected by bilateral activation of the primary sensory cortices that lasts about 100 msec from stimulus onset. Second, that subsequent linguistic processing is effected by left hemisphere networks outside the primary sensory areas, including Broca's and Wernicke's association cortices. Here we present evidence that linguistic analysis begins almost synchronously with sensory, prelinguistic verbal input analysis and that the primary cortices are also engaged in these linguistic analyses and become, consequently, part of the left hemisphere language network during language tasks...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Mika Koivisto, Simone Grassini, Niina Salminen-Vaparanta, Antti Revonsuo
Detecting the presence of an object is a different process than identifying the object as a particular object. This difference has not been taken into account in designing experiments on the neural correlates of consciousness. We compared the electrophysiological correlates of conscious detection and identification directly by measuring ERPs while the participants performed either a task only requiring the conscious detection of the stimulus or a higher-level task requiring its conscious identification. Behavioral results showed that, even if the stimulus was consciously detected, it was not necessarily identified...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Mark A Thornton, Jason P Mitchell
How does the brain encode and organize our understanding of the people we know? In this study, participants imagined personally familiar others in a variety of contexts while undergoing fMRI. Using multivoxel pattern analysis, we demonstrated that thinking about familiar others elicits consistent fine-grained patterns of neural activity. Person-specific patterns were distributed across many regions previously associated with social cognition, including medial prefrontal, medial parietal, and lateral temporoparietal cortices, as well as other regions including the anterior and mid-cingulate, insula, and precentral gyrus...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Colin J Palmer, Colin W G Clifford
The direction of others' gaze is a strong social signal to their intentions and future behavior. Pioneering electrophysiological research identified cell populations in the primate visual cortex that are tuned to specific directions of observed gaze, but the functional architecture of this system is yet to be precisely specified. Here, we develop a computational model of how others' gaze direction is flexibly encoded across sensory channels within the gaze system. We incorporate the divisive normalization of sensory responses-a computational mechanism that is thought to be widespread in sensory systems but has not been examined in the context of social vision...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Lena Veit, Galyna Pidpruzhnykova, Andreas Nieder
Crows quickly learn arbitrary associations. As a neuronal correlate of this behavior, single neurons in the corvid endbrain area "nidopallium caudolaterale" (NCL) change their response properties during association learning. In crows performing a delayed association task that required them to map both familiar and novel sample pictures to the same two choice pictures, NCL neurons established a common, prospective code for associations. Here, we report that neuronal tuning changes during learning were not distributed equally in the recorded population of NCL neurons...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Alex Coburn, Oshin Vartanian, Anjan Chatterjee
A burgeoning interest in the intersection of neuroscience and architecture promises to offer biologically inspired insights into the design of spaces. The goal of such interdisciplinary approaches to architecture is to motivate construction of environments that would contribute to peoples' flourishing in behavior, health, and well-being. We suggest that this nascent field of neuroarchitecture is at a pivotal point in which neuroscience and architecture is poised to extend to a neuroscience of architecture. In such a research program, architectural experiences themselves are the target of neuroscientific inquiry...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Laetitia Grabot, Anne Kösem, Leila Azizi, Virginie van Wassenhove
Perceiving the temporal order of sensory events typically depends on participants' attentional state, thus likely on the endogenous fluctuations of brain activity. Using magnetoencephalography, we sought to determine whether spontaneous brain oscillations could disambiguate the perceived order of auditory and visual events presented in close temporal proximity, that is, at the individual's perceptual order threshold (Point of Subjective Simultaneity [PSS]). Two neural responses were found to index an individual's temporal order perception when contrasting brain activity as a function of perceived order (i...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Eshed Margalit, Irving Biederman, Bosco S Tjan, Manan P Shah
The lateral occipital complex (LOC), the cortical region critical for shape perception, is localized with fMRI by its greater BOLD activity when viewing intact objects compared with their scrambled versions (resembling texture). Despite hundreds of studies investigating LOC, what the LOC localizer accomplishes-beyond distinguishing shape from texture-has never been resolved. By independently scattering the intact parts of objects, the axis structure defining the relations between parts was no longer defined...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Donna J Bridge, Neal J Cohen, Joel L Voss
Memory can profoundly influence new learning, presumably because memory optimizes exploration of to-be-learned material. Although hippocampus and frontoparietal networks have been implicated in memory-guided exploration, their specific and interactive roles have not been identified. We examined eye movements during fMRI scanning to identify neural correlates of the influences of memory retrieval on exploration and learning. After retrieval of one object in a multiobject array, viewing was strategically directed away from the retrieved object toward nonretrieved objects, such that exploration was directed toward to-be-learned content...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Qiuhai Yue, Randi Martin, Simon Fischer-Baum, Aurora I Ramos-Nuñez, Fengdan Ye, Michael W Deem
Recent work in cognitive neuroscience has focused on analyzing the brain as a network, rather than as a collection of independent regions. Prior studies taking this approach have found that individual differences in the degree of modularity of the brain network relate to performance on cognitive tasks. However, inconsistent results concerning the direction of this relationship have been obtained, with some tasks showing better performance as modularity increases and other tasks showing worse performance. A recent theoretical model [Chen, M...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Yun-Hsuan Yang, William D Marslen-Wilson, Mirjana Bozic
Prominent neurobiological models of language follow the widely accepted assumption that language comprehension requires two principal mechanisms: a lexicon storing the sound-to-meaning mapping of words, primarily involving bilateral temporal regions, and a combinatorial processor for syntactically structured items, such as phrases and sentences, localized in a left-lateralized network linking left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and posterior temporal areas. However, recent research showing that the processing of simple phrasal sequences may engage only bilateral temporal areas, together with the claims of distributional approaches to grammar, raises the question of whether frequent phrases are stored alongside individual words in temporal areas...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Simone Falk, Cosima Lanzilotti, Daniele Schön
Musical rhythm positively impacts on subsequent speech processing. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are so far unclear. We investigated whether carryover effects from a preceding musical cue to a speech stimulus result from a continuation of neural phase entrainment to periodicities that are present in both music and speech. Participants listened and memorized French metrical sentences that contained (quasi-)periodic recurrences of accents and syllables. Speech stimuli were preceded by a rhythmically regular or irregular musical cue...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Benjamin R Eisenreich, Rei Akaishi, Benjamin Y Hayden
Executive control refers to the regulation of cognition and behavior by mental processes and is a hallmark of higher cognition. Most approaches to understanding its mechanisms begin with the assumption that our brains have anatomically segregated and functionally specialized control modules. The modular approach is intuitive: Control is conceptually distinct from basic mental processing, so an organization that reifies that distinction makes sense. An alternative approach sees executive control as self-organizing principles of a distributed organization...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
William H Alexander, Eliana Vassena, James Deraeve, Zachary D Langford
pFC is generally regarded as a region critical for abstract reasoning and high-level cognitive behaviors. As such, it has become the focus of intense research involving a wide variety of subdisciplines of neuroscience and employing a diverse range of methods. However, even as the amount of data on pFC has increased exponentially, it appears that progress toward understanding the general function of the region across a broad array of contexts has not kept pace. Effects observed in pFC are legion, and their interpretations are generally informed by a particular perspective or methodology with little regard with how those effects may apply more broadly...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
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