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Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707571/how-do-you-see-me-the-neural-basis-of-motivated-meta-perception
#1
Taru Flagan, Jeanette A Mumford, Jennifer S Beer
We cannot see the minds of others, yet people often spontaneously interpret how they are viewed by other people (i.e., meta-perceptions) and often in a self-flattering manner. Very little is known about the neural associations of meta-perceptions, but a likely candidate is the ventromedial pFC (VMPFC). VMPFC has been associated with both self- and other-perception as well as motivated self-perception. Does this function extend to meta-perceptions? The current study examined neural activity while participants made meta-perceptive interpretations in various social scenarios...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707570/using-event-related-potentials-to-inform-the-neurocognitive-processes-underlying-knowledge-extension-through-memory-integration
#2
Nicole L Varga, Patricia J Bauer
To build a general knowledge base, it is imperative that individuals acquire, integrate, and further extend knowledge across experiences. For instance, in one episode an individual may learn that George Washington was the first president. In a separate episode he or she may then learn that Washington was the commander of the Continental Army. Integration of the information in memory may then support self-derivation of the new knowledge that the leader of the Continental Army was also the first president. Despite a considerable amount of fMRI research aimed at further elucidating the neuroanatomical regions supporting this ability, a consensus has yet to be reached with regards to the precise neurocognitive processes involved...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707569/imaginative-reinforcement-learning-computational-principles-and-neural-mechanisms
#3
Samuel J Gershman, Jimmy Zhou, Cody Kommers
Imagination enables us not only to transcend reality but also to learn about it. In the context of reinforcement learning, an agent can rationally update its value estimates by simulating an internal model of the environment, provided that the model is accurate. In a series of sequential decision-making experiments, we investigated the impact of imaginative simulation on subsequent decisions. We found that imagination can cause people to pursue imagined paths, even when these paths are suboptimal. This bias is systematically related to participants' optimism about how much reward they expect to receive along imagined paths; providing feedback strongly attenuates the effect...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707568/effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-neural-network-structure-in-young-and-older-adults
#4
Andrew Martin, Marcus Meinzer, Robert Lindenberg, Mira M Sieg, Laura Nachtigall, Agnes Flöel
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may be a viable tool to improve motor and cognitive function in advanced age. However, although a number of studies have demonstrated improved cognitive performance in older adults, other studies have failed to show restorative effects. The neural effects of beneficial stimulation response in both age groups is lacking. In the current study, tDCS was administered during simultaneous fMRI in 42 healthy young and older participants. Semantic word generation and motor speech baseline tasks were used to investigate behavioral and neural effects of uni- and bihemispheric motor cortex tDCS in a three-way, crossover, sham tDCS controlled design...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699809/acute-stress-time-dependently-modulates-multiple-memory-systems
#5
Elizabeth V Goldfarb, Yeva Mendelevich, Elizabeth A Phelps
Acute stress has been shown to modulate the engagement of different memory systems, leading to preferential expression of stimulus-response (SR) rather than episodic context memory when both types of memory can be used. However, questions remain regarding the cognitive mechanism that underlies this bias in humans-specifically, how each form of memory is individually influenced by stress in order for SR memory to be dominant. Here we separately measured context and SR memory and investigated how each was influenced by acute stress after learning (Experiment 1) and before retrieval (Experiment 2)...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699808/the-effects-of-physical-exercise-and-cognitive-training-on-memory-and-neurotrophic-factors
#6
Jennifer J Heisz, Ilana B Clark, Katija Bonin, Emily M Paolucci, Bernadeta Michalski, Suzanna Becker, Margaret Fahnestock
This study examined the combined effect of physical exercise and cognitive training on memory and neurotrophic factors in healthy, young adults. Ninety-five participants completed 6 weeks of exercise training, combined exercise and cognitive training, or no training (control). Both the exercise and combined training groups improved performance on a high-interference memory task, whereas the control group did not. In contrast, neither training group improved on general recognition performance, suggesting that exercise training selectively increases high-interference memory that may be linked to hippocampal function...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686139/neural-mechanisms-underlying-risk-and-ambiguity-attitudes
#7
Neeltje E Blankenstein, Jiska S Peper, Eveline A Crone, Anna C K van Duijvenvoorde
Individual differences in attitudes to risk (a taste for risk, known probabilities) and ambiguity (a tolerance for uncertainty, unknown probabilities) differentially influence risky decision-making. However, it is not well understood whether risk and ambiguity are coded differently within individuals. Here, we tested whether individual differences in risk and ambiguity attitudes were reflected in distinct neural correlates during choice and outcome processing of risky and ambiguous gambles. To these ends, we developed a neuroimaging task in which participants ( N = 50) chose between a sure gain and a gamble, which was either risky or ambiguous, and presented decision outcomes (gains, no gains)...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686138/automatic-recruitment-of-the-motor-system-by-undetected-graspable-objects-a-motor-evoked-potential-study
#8
Nicolas A McNair, Ashleigh D Behrens, Irina M Harris
Previous behavioral and neuroimaging studies have suggested that the motor properties associated with graspable objects may be automatically accessed when people passively view these objects. We directly tested this by measuring the excitability of the motor pathway when participants viewed pictures of graspable objects that were presented during the attentional blink (AB), when items frequently go undetected. Participants had to identify two briefly presented objects separated by either a short or long SOA...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686137/using-a-large-scale-neural-model-of-cortical-object-processing-to-investigate-the-neural-substrate-for-managing-multiple-items-in-short-term-memory
#9
Qin Liu, Antonio Ulloa, Barry Horwitz
Many cognitive and computational models have been proposed to help understand working memory. In this article, we present a simulation study of cortical processing of visual objects during several working memory tasks using an extended version of a previously constructed large-scale neural model [Tagamets, M. A., & Horwitz, B. Integrating electrophysiological and anatomical experimental data to create a large-scale model that simulates a delayed match-to-sample human brain imaging study. Cerebral Cortex, 8, 310-320, 1998]...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654361/enhancing-spatial-attention-and-working-memory-in-younger-and-older-adults
#10
Camarin E Rolle, Joaquin A Anguera, Sasha N Skinner, Bradley Voytek, Adam Gazzaley
Daily experiences demand both focused and broad allocation of attention for us to interact efficiently with our complex environments. Many types of attention have shown age-related decline, although there is also evidence that such deficits may be remediated with cognitive training. However, spatial attention abilities have shown inconsistent age-related differences, and the extent of potential enhancement of these abilities remains unknown. Here, we assessed spatial attention in both healthy younger and older adults and trained this ability in both age groups for 5 hr over the course of 2 weeks using a custom-made, computerized mobile training application...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654360/interhemispheric-binding-of-ambiguous-visual-motion-is-associated-with-changes-in-beta-oscillatory-activity-but-not-with-gamma-range-synchrony
#11
Gabriel Nascimento Costa, João Valente Duarte, Ricardo Martins, Michael Wibral, Miguel Castelo-Branco
In vision, perceptual features are processed in several regions distributed across the brain. Yet, the brain achieves a coherent perception of visual scenes and objects through integration of these features, which are encoded in spatially segregated brain areas. How the brain seamlessly achieves this accurate integration is currently unknown and is referred to as the "binding problem." Among the proposed mechanisms meant to resolve the binding problem, the binding-by-synchrony hypothesis proposes that binding is carried out by the synchronization of distant neuronal assemblies...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654359/differential-tuning-of-ventral-and-dorsal-streams-during-the-generation-of-common-and-uncommon-tool-uses
#12
Heath E Matheson, Laurel J Buxbaum, Sharon L Thompson-Schill
Our use of tools is situated in different contexts. Prior evidence suggests that diverse regions within the ventral and dorsal streams represent information supporting common tool use. However, given the flexibility of object concepts, these regions may be tuned to different types of information when generating novel or uncommon uses of tools. To investigate this, we collected fMRI data from participants who reported common or uncommon tool uses in response to visually presented familiar objects. We performed a pattern dissimilarity analysis in which we correlated cortical patterns with behavioral measures of visual, action, and category information...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654358/predicting-motivation-computational-models-of-pfc-can-explain-neural-coding-of-motivation-and-effort-based-decision-making-in-health-and-disease
#13
Eliana Vassena, James Deraeve, William H Alexander
Human behavior is strongly driven by the pursuit of rewards. In daily life, however, benefits mostly come at a cost, often requiring that effort be exerted to obtain potential benefits. Medial pFC (MPFC) and dorsolateral pFC (DLPFC) are frequently implicated in the expectation of effortful control, showing increased activity as a function of predicted task difficulty. Such activity partially overlaps with expectation of reward and has been observed both during decision-making and during task preparation. Recently, novel computational frameworks have been developed to explain activity in these regions during cognitive control, based on the principle of prediction and prediction error (predicted response-outcome [PRO] model [Alexander, W...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598734/does-psychosocial-stress-impact-cognitive-reappraisal-behavioral-and-neural-evidence
#14
Maheen Shermohammed, Pranjal H Mehta, Joan Zhang, Cassandra M Brandes, Luke J Chang, Leah H Somerville
Cognitive reappraisal (CR) is regarded as an effective emotion regulation strategy. Acute stress, however, is believed to impair the functioning of prefrontal-based neural systems, which could result in lessened effectiveness of CR under stress. This study tested the behavioral and neurobiological impact of acute stress on CR. While undergoing fMRI, adult participants ( n = 54) passively viewed or used CR to regulate their response to negative and neutral pictures and provided ratings of their negative affect in response to each picture...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598733/task-context-dependent-linear-representation-of-multiple-visual-objects-in-human-parietal-cortex
#15
Su Keun Jeong, Yaoda Xu
A host of recent studies have reported robust representations of visual object information in the human parietal cortex, similar to those found in ventral visual cortex. In ventral visual cortex, both monkey neurophysiology and human fMRI studies showed that the neural representation of a pair of unrelated objects can be approximated by the averaged neural representation of the constituent objects shown in isolation. In this study, we examined whether such a linear relationship between objects exists for object representations in the human parietal cortex...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562209/the-phenomenal-contents-and-neural-correlates-of-spontaneous-thoughts-across-wakefulness-nrem-sleep-and-rem-sleep
#16
Lampros Perogamvros, Benjamin Baird, Mitja Seibold, Brady Riedner, Melanie Boly, Giulio Tononi
Thoughts occur during wake as well as during dreaming sleep. Using experience sampling combined with high-density EEG, we investigated the phenomenal qualities and neural correlates of spontaneously occurring thoughts across wakefulness, non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, and REM sleep. Across all states, thoughts were associated with activation of a region of the midcingulate cortex. Thoughts during wakefulness additionally involved a medial prefrontal region, which was associated with metacognitive thoughts during wake...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562208/pfc-in-control-broadening-the-scope-to-identify-mechanisms
#17
William H Alexander, Joshua W Brown, Anne G E Collins, Benjamin Y Hayden, Eliana Vassena
Sometime in the past two decades, neuroimaging and behavioral research converged on pFC as an important locus of cognitive control and decision-making, and that seems to be the last thing anyone has agreed on since. Every year sees an increase in the number of roles and functions attributed to distinct subregions within pFC, roles that may explain behavior and neural activity in one context but might fail to generalize across the many behaviors in which each region is implicated. Emblematic of this ongoing proliferation of functions is dorsal ACC (dACC)...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562207/social-and-nonsocial-relational-reasoning-in-adolescence-and-adulthood
#18
Lucía Magis-Weinberg, Sarah-Jayne Blakemore, Iroise Dumontheil
Reasoning during social interactions requires the individual manipulation of mental representations of one's own traits and those of other people as well as their joint consideration (relational integration). Research using nonsocial paradigms has linked relational integration to activity in the rostrolateral pFC. Here, we investigated whether social reasoning is supported by the same general system or whether it additionally relies on regions of the social brain network, such as the medial pFC. We further assessed the development of social reasoning...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557693/magnocellular-bias-in-exogenous-attention-to-biologically-salient-stimuli-as-revealed-by-manipulating-their-luminosity-and-color
#19
Luis Carretié, Dominique Kessel, María J García-Rubio, Tamara Giménez-Fernández, Sandra Hoyos, María Hernández-Lorca
Exogenous attention is a set of mechanisms that allow us to detect and reorient toward salient events-such as appetitive or aversive-that appear out of the current focus of attention. The nature of these mechanisms, particularly the involvement of the parvocellular and magnocellular visual processing systems, was explored. Thirty-four participants performed a demanding digit categorization task while salient (spiders or S) and neutral (wheels or W) stimuli were presented as distractors under two figure ground formats: heterochromatic/isoluminant (exclusively processed by the parvocellular system, Par trials) and isochromatic/heteroluminant (preferentially processed by the magnocellular system, Mag trials)...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557692/the-role-of-the-primary-sensory-cortices-in-early-language-processing
#20
Andrew C Papanicolaou, Marina Kilintari, Roozbeh Rezaie, Shalini Narayana, Abbas Babajani-Feremi
The results of this magnetoencephalography study challenge two long-standing assumptions regarding the brain mechanisms of language processing: First, that linguistic processing proper follows sensory feature processing effected by bilateral activation of the primary sensory cortices that lasts about 100 msec from stimulus onset. Second, that subsequent linguistic processing is effected by left hemisphere networks outside the primary sensory areas, including Broca's and Wernicke's association cortices. Here we present evidence that linguistic analysis begins almost synchronously with sensory, prelinguistic verbal input analysis and that the primary cortices are also engaged in these linguistic analyses and become, consequently, part of the left hemisphere language network during language tasks...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
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