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Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195526/regulating-the-access-to-awareness-brain-activity-related-to-probe-related-and-spontaneous-reversals-in-binocular-rivalry
#1
Brian A Metzger, Kyle E Mathewson, Evelina Tapia, Monica Fabiani, Gabriele Gratton, Diane M Beck
Research on the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) has implicated an assortment of brain regions, ERP components, and network properties associated with visual awareness. Recently, the P3b ERP component has emerged as a leading NCC candidate. However, typical P3b paradigms depend on the detection of some stimulus change, making it difficult to separate brain processes elicited by the stimulus itself from those associated with updates or changes in visual awareness. Here we used binocular rivalry to ask whether the P3b is associated with changes in awareness even in the absence of changes in the object of awareness...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195525/observing-others-speak-or-sing-activates-spt-and-neighboring-parietal-cortex
#2
Daniele Corbo, Guy A Orban
To obtain further evidence that action observation can serve as a proxy for action execution and planning in posterior parietal cortex, we scanned participants while they were (1) observing two classes of action: vocal communication and oral manipulation, which share the same effector but differ in nature, and (2) rehearsing and listening to nonsense sentences to localize area Spt, thought to be involved in audio-motor transformation during speech. Using this localizer, we found that Spt is specifically activated by vocal communication, indicating that Spt is not only involved in planning speech but also in observing vocal communication actions...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195524/the-sources-of-sequential-modulations-of-control-processes-in-arithmetic-strategies-a-magnetoencephalography-study
#3
Thomas Hinault, Jean-Michel Badier, Sylvain Baillet, Patrick Lemaire
In a wide variety of cognitive domains, performance is determined by the selection and execution of cognitive strategies to solve problems. We used magnetoencephalography to identify the brain regions involved and specify the time course of dynamic modulations of executive control processes during strategy execution. Participants performed a computational estimation task in which they were instructed to execute a poorer or better strategy to estimate results of two-digit multiplication problems. When participants were asked to execute the poorer strategy, two distinct sets of brain activations were identified, depending on whether the poorer strategy (engaging the left inferior frontal junction) or the better strategy (engaging ACC) had been executed on the immediately preceding items...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195523/characteristics-of-implicit-sensorimotor-adaptation-revealed-by-task-irrelevant-clamped-feedback
#4
John Ryan Morehead, Jordan A Taylor, Darius Parvin, Richard B Ivry
Sensorimotor adaptation occurs when there is a discrepancy between the expected and actual sensory consequences of a movement. This learning can be precisely measured, but its source has been hard to pin down because standard adaptation tasks introduce two potential learning signals: task performance errors and sensory prediction errors. Here we employed a new method that induces sensory prediction errors without task performance errors. This method combines the use of clamped visual feedback that is angularly offset from the target and independent of the direction of motion, along with instructions to ignore this feedback while reaching to targets...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195522/source-localization-of-brain-states-associated-with-canonical-neuroimaging-postures
#5
Michael Lifshitz, Robert T Thibault, Raquel R Roth, Amir Raz
Cognitive neuroscientists rarely consider the influence that body position exerts on brain activity; yet, postural variation holds important implications for the acquisition and interpretation of neuroimaging data. Whereas participants in most behavioral and EEG experiments sit upright, many prominent brain imaging techniques (e.g., fMRI) require participants to lie supine. Here we demonstrate that physical comportment profoundly alters baseline brain activity as measured by magnetoencephalography (MEG)-an imaging modality that permits multipostural acquisition...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195521/a-computational-model-of-perceptual-and-mnemonic-deficits-in-medial-temporal-lobe-amnesia
#6
Patrick S Sadil, Rosemary A Cowell
Damage to the medial temporal lobe (MTL) has long been known to impair declarative memory, and recent evidence suggests that it also impairs visual perception. A theory termed the representational-hierarchical account explains such impairments by assuming that MTL stores conjunctive representations of items and events, and that individuals with MTL damage must rely upon representations of simple visual features in posterior visual cortex, which are inadequate to support memory and perception under certain circumstances...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195520/creating-colored-letters-familial-markers-of-grapheme-color-synesthesia-in-parietal-lobe-activation-and-structure
#7
Olympia Colizoli, Jaap M J Murre, H Steven Scholte, Romke Rouw
Perception is inherently subjective, and individual differences in phenomenology are well illustrated by the phenomenon of synesthesia (highly specific, consistent, and automatic cross-modal experiences, in which the external stimulus corresponding to the additional sensation is absent). It is unknown why some people develop synesthesia and others do not. In the current study, we tested whether neural markers related to having synesthesia in the family were evident in brain function and structure. Relatives of synesthetes (who did not have any type of synesthesia themselves) and matched controls read specially prepared books with colored letters for several weeks and were scanned before and after reading using magnetic resonance imaging...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129066/individual-differences-in-rhythmic-skills-links-with-neural-consistency-and-linguistic-ability
#8
Adam Tierney, Travis White-Schwoch, Jessica MacLean, Nina Kraus
Durational patterns provide cues to linguistic structure, and so variations in rhythm skills may have consequences for language development. Understanding individual differences in rhythm skills, therefore, could help explain variability in language ability across the population. We investigated the neural foundations of rhythmic proficiency and its relation to language skills in young adults. We hypothesized that rhythmic abilities can be characterized by at least two constructs, which are tied to independent language abilities and neural profiles...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129065/neural-oscillations-and-a-nascent-corticohippocampal-theory-of-reference
#9
Mante S Nieuwland, Andrea E Martin
The ability to use words to refer to the world is vital to the communicative power of human language. In particular, the anaphoric use of words to refer to previously mentioned concepts (antecedents) allows dialogue to be coherent and meaningful. Psycholinguistic theory posits that anaphor comprehension involves reactivating a memory representation of the antecedent. Whereas this implies the involvement of recognition memory or the mnemonic subroutines by which people distinguish old from new, the neural processes for reference resolution are largely unknown...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129064/pace-yourself-intraindividual-variability-in-context-use-revealed-by-self-paced-event-related-brain-potentials
#10
Brennan R Payne, Kara D Federmeier
Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) have revealed multiple mechanisms by which contextual constraints impact language processing. At the same time, little work has examined the trial-to-trial dynamics of context use in the brain. In the current study, we probed intraindividual variability in behavioral and neural indices of context processing during reading. In a concurrent self-paced reading and ERP paradigm, participants read sentences that were either strongly or weakly constraining completed with an expected or unexpected target word...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129062/-nonspatial-attentional-deficits-interact-with-spatial-position-in-neglect
#11
Dongyun Li, Christopher Rorden, Hans-Otto Karnath
A widely debated question concerns whether or not spatial and nonspatial components of visual attention interact in attentional performance. Spatial neglect is a common consequence of brain injury where individuals fail to respond to stimuli presented on their contralesional side. It has been argued that, beyond the spatial bias, these individuals also tend to exhibit nonspatial perceptual deficits. Here we demonstrate that the "nonspatial" deficits affecting the temporal dynamics of attentional deployment are in fact modulated by spatial position...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129061/inferior-frontal-cortex-contributions-to-the-recognition-of-spoken-words-and-their-constituent-speech-sounds
#12
Jack C Rogers, Matthew H Davis
Speech perception and comprehension are often challenged by the need to recognize speech sounds that are degraded or ambiguous. Here, we explore the cognitive and neural mechanisms involved in resolving ambiguity in the identity of speech sounds using syllables that contain ambiguous phonetic segments (e.g., intermediate sounds between /b/ and /g/ as in "blade" and "glade"). We used an audio-morphing procedure to create a large set of natural sounding minimal pairs that contain phonetically ambiguous onset or offset consonants (differing in place, manner, or voicing)...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129059/speaking-style-influences-the-brain-s-electrophysiological-response-to-grammatical-errors-in-speech-comprehension
#13
Malte C Viebahn, Mirjam Ernestus, James M McQueen
This electrophysiological study asked whether the brain processes grammatical gender violations in casual speech differently than in careful speech. Native speakers of Dutch were presented with utterances that contained adjective-noun pairs in which the adjective was either correctly inflected with a word-final schwa (e.g., een spannende roman, "a suspenseful novel") or incorrectly uninflected without that schwa (een spannend roman). Consistent with previous findings, the uninflected adjectives elicited an electrical brain response sensitive to syntactic violations when the talker was speaking in a careful manner...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129058/a-tms-investigation-on-the-role-of-lateral-occipital-and-caudal-intraparietal-sulcus-in-the-perception-of-object-form-and-orientation
#14
Philippe A Chouinard, Deiter K Meena, Robert L Whitwell, Matthew D Hilchey, Melvyn A Goodale
We used TMS to assess the causal roles of the lateral occipital (LO) and caudal intraparietal sulcus (cIPS) areas in the perceptual discrimination of object features. All participants underwent fMRI to localize these areas using a protocol in which they passively viewed images of objects that varied in both form and orientation. fMRI identified six significant brain regions: LO, cIPS, and the fusiform gyrus, bilaterally. In a separate experimental session, we applied TMS to LO or cIPS while the same participants performed match-to-sample form or orientation discrimination tasks...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129056/motivational-salience-modulates-early-visual-cortex-responses-across-task-sets
#15
Valentina Rossi, Naomi Vanlessen, Mareike Bayer, Annika Grass, Gilles Pourtois, Annekathrin Schacht
Motivationally relevant stimuli benefit from strengthened sensory processing. It is unclear, however, if motivational value of positive and negative valence has similar or dissociable effects on early visual processing. Moreover, whether these perceptual effects are task-specific, stimulus-specific, or more generally feature-based is unknown. In this study, we compared the effects of positive and negative motivational value on early sensory processing using ERPs. We tested the extent to which these effects could generalize to new task contexts and to stimuli sharing common features with the motivationally significant ones...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129054/interindividual-variability-and-intraindividual-reliability-of-intermittent-theta-burst-stimulation-induced-neuroplasticity-mechanisms-in-the-healthy-brain
#16
Lukas Schilberg, Teresa Schuhmann, Alexander T Sack
We combined patterned TMS with EMG in several sessions of a within-subject design to assess and characterize intraindividual reliability and interindividual variability of TMS-induced neuroplasticity mechanisms in the healthy brain. Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) was applied over M1 to induce long-term potentiation-like mechanisms as assessed by changes in corticospinal excitability. Furthermore, we investigated the association between the observed iTBS effects and individual differences in prolonged measures of corticospinal excitability...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129053/dopamine-selectively-modulates-the-outcome-of-learning-unnatural-action-outcome-associations
#17
Nelleke C Van Wouwe, Daniel O Claassen, Joseph S Neimat, Kristen E Kanoff, Scott A Wylie
Learning the contingencies between stimulus, action, and outcomes is disrupted in disorders associated with altered dopamine (DA) function in the BG, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Although the role of DA in learning to act has been extensively investigated in PD, the role of DA in "learning to withhold" (or inhibit) action to influence outcomes is not as well understood. The current study investigated the role of DA in learning to act or to withhold action to receive rewarding, or avoid punishing outcomes, in patients with PD tested "off" and "on" dopaminergic medication (n = 19) versus healthy controls (n = 30)...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129051/mere-exposure-preference-change-for-novel-drinks-reflected-in-human-ventral-tegmental-area
#18
Ian C Ballard, Kelly Hennigan, Samuel M McClure
Preferences for novel stimuli tend to develop slowly over many exposures. Psychological accounts of this effect suggest that it depends on changes in the brain's valuation system. Participants consumed a novel fluid daily for 10 days and underwent fMRI on the first and last days. We hypothesized that changes in activation in areas associated with the dopamine system would accompany changes in preference. The change in activation in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) between sessions scaled with preference change...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129050/effects-of-cross-modal-asynchrony-on-informational-masking-in-human-cortex
#19
Lars Hausfeld, Alexander Gutschalk, Elia Formisano, Lars Riecke
In many everyday listening situations, an otherwise audible sound may go unnoticed amid multiple other sounds. This auditory phenomenon, called informational masking (IM), is sensitive to visual input and involves early (50-250 msec) activity in the auditory cortex (the so-called awareness-related negativity). It is still unclear whether and how the timing of visual input influences the neural correlates of IM in auditory cortex. To address this question, we obtained simultaneous behavioral and neural measures of IM from human listeners in the presence of a visual input stream and varied the asynchrony between the visual stream and the rhythmic auditory target stream (in-phase, antiphase, or random)...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991186/timing-in-predictive-coding-the-roles-of-task-relevance-and-global-probability
#20
Chase Sherwell, Marta Garrido, Ross Cunnington
Predictive coding models of attention propose that attention and prediction operate synergistically to optimize perception, as reflected in interactive effects on early sensory neural responses. It is yet unclear whether attention and prediction based on the temporal attributes of expected events operate in a similar fashion. We investigated how attention and prediction based on timing interact by manipulating the task relevance and a priori probability of auditory stimulus onset timing within a go/no-go task while recording EEG...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
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