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Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience

Sarah M Kark, Scott D Slotnick, Elizabeth A Kensinger
Most studies using a recognition memory paradigm examine the neural processes that support the ability to consciously recognize past events. However, there can also be nonconscious influences from the prior study episode that reflect repetition suppression effects-a reduction in the magnitude of activity for repeated presentations of stimuli-that are revealed by comparing neural activity associated with forgotten items to correctly rejected novel items. The present fMRI study examined the effect of emotional valence (positive vs...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Jordan E Pierce, Jennifer E McDowell
Cognitive control is engaged to facilitate stimulus-response mappings for novel, complex tasks and supervise performance in unfamiliar, challenging contexts-processes supported by pFC, ACC, and posterior parietal cortex. With repeated task practice, however, the appropriate task set can be selected in a more automatic fashion with less need for top-down cognitive control and weaker activation in these brain regions. One model system for investigating cognitive control is the ocular motor circuitry underlying saccade production, with basic prosaccade trials (look toward a stimulus) and complex antisaccade trials (look to the mirror image location) representing low and high levels of cognitive control, respectively...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Jonathan S Cant, Yaoda Xu
Our visual system can extract summary statistics from large collections of objects without forming detailed representations of the individual objects in the ensemble. In a region in ventral visual cortex encompassing the collateral sulcus and the parahippocampal gyrus and overlapping extensively with the scene-selective parahippocampal place area (PPA), we have previously reported fMRI adaptation to object ensembles when ensemble statistics repeated, even when local image features differed across images (e...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Goran Papenberg, Nina Becker, Beata Ferencz, Moshe Naveh-Benjamin, Erika J Laukka, Lars Bäckman, Yvonne Brehmer
Previous research shows that associative memory declines more than item memory in aging. Although the underlying mechanisms of this selective impairment remain poorly understood, animal and human data suggest that dopaminergic modulation may be particularly relevant for associative binding. We investigated the influence of dopamine (DA) receptor genes on item and associative memory in a population-based sample of older adults (n = 525, aged 60 years), assessed with a face-scene item associative memory task...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Anastasia Klimovich-Gray, Mirjana Bozic, William D Marslen-Wilson
The processing of words containing inflectional affixes triggers morphophonological parsing and affix-related grammatical information processing. Increased perceptual complexity related to stem-affix parsing is hypothesized to create predominantly domain-general processing demands, whereas grammatical processing primarily implicates domain-specific linguistic demands. Exploiting the properties of Russian morphology and syntax, we designed an fMRI experiment to separate out the neural systems supporting these two demand types, contrasting inflectional complexity, syntactic (phrasal) complexity, and derivational complexity in three comparisons: (a) increase in parsing demands while controlling for grammatical complexity (inflections vs...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Akiko Callan, Daniel Callan, Hiroshi Ando
Humans can easily recognize the motion of living creatures using only a handful of point-lights that describe the motion of the main joints (biological motion perception). This special ability to perceive the motion of animate objects signifies the importance of the spatiotemporal information in perceiving biological motion. The posterior STS (pSTS) and posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) region has been established by many functional neuroimaging studies as a locus for biological motion perception. Because listening to a walking human also activates the pSTS/pMTG region, the region has been proposed to be supramodal in nature...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Connor Lane, Shipra Kanjlia, Hilary Richardson, Anne Fulton, Akira Omaki, Marina Bedny
Language processing depends on a left-lateralized network of frontotemporal cortical regions. This network is remarkably consistent across individuals and cultures. However, there is also evidence that developmental factors, such as delayed exposure to language, can modify this network. Recently, it has been found that, in congenitally blind individuals, the typical frontotemporal language network expands to include parts of "visual" cortices. Here, we report that blindness is also associated with reduced left lateralization in frontotemporal language areas...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Zheng Ye, Arjen Stolk, Ivan Toni, Peter Hagoort
Listeners interpret utterances by integrating information from multiple sources including word level semantics and world knowledge. When the semantics of an expression is inconsistent with his or her knowledge about the world, the listener may have to search through the conceptual space for alternative possible world scenarios that can make the expression more acceptable. Such cognitive exploration requires considerable computational resources and might depend on motivational factors. This study explores whether and how oxytocin, a neuropeptide known to influence social motivation by reducing social anxiety and enhancing affiliative tendencies, can modulate the integration of world knowledge and sentence meanings...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Guglielmo Lucchese, Jeff Hanna, Anne Autenrieb, Tally McCormick Miller, Friedemann Pulvermüller
The human brain stores an immense repertoire of linguistic symbols (morphemes, words) and combines them into a virtually unlimited set of well-formed strings (phrases, sentences) that serve as efficient communicative tools. Communication is hampered, however, if strings include meaningless items (e.g., "pseudomorphemes"), or if the rules for combining string elements are violated. Prior research suggests that, when participants attentively process sentences in a linguistic task, syntactic processing can occur quite early, but lexicosemantic processing, or any interaction involving this factor, is manifest later in time (ca...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Brighid Lynch, Patrick Beukema, Timothy Verstynen
The dual-system model of sequence learning posits that during early learning there is an advantage for encoding sequences in sensory frames; however, it remains unclear whether this advantage extends to long-term consolidation. Using the serial RT task, we set out to distinguish the dynamics of learning sequential orders of visual cues from learning sequential responses. On each day, most participants learned a new mapping between a set of symbolic cues and responses made with one of four fingers, after which they were exposed to trial blocks of either randomly ordered cues or deterministic ordered cues (12-item sequence)...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Satoshi Tsujimoto, Aldo Genovesio
In previous reports, we described neuronal activity in the polar (PFp), dorsolateral (PFdl), and orbital (PFo) pFC as monkeys performed a cued strategy task with two spatial goals. On each trial, a cue instructed one of two strategies: Stay with the previous goal or shift to the alternative. A delay period followed each cue, and feedback followed each choice, also at a delay. Our initial analysis showed that the mean firing rate of a population of PFp cells encoded the goal chosen on a trial, but only near the time of feedback, not earlier in the trial...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Inês Bramão, Mikael Johansson
This study investigated context-dependent episodic memory retrieval. An influential idea in the memory literature is that performance benefits when the retrieval context overlaps with the original encoding context. However, such memory facilitation may not be driven by the encoding-retrieval overlap per se but by the presence of diagnostic features in the reinstated context that discriminate the target episode from competing episodes. To test this prediction, the encoding-retrieval overlap and the diagnostic value of the context were manipulated in a novel associative recognition memory task...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Jade Jackson, Anina N Rich, Mark A Williams, Alexandra Woolgar
Human cognition is characterized by astounding flexibility, enabling us to select appropriate information according to the objectives of our current task. A circuit of frontal and parietal brain regions, often referred to as the fronto-parietal attention network or multiple-demand (MD) regions, are believed to play a fundamental role in this flexibility. There is evidence that these regions dynamically adjust their responses to selectively process information that is currently relevant for behavior, as proposed by the "adaptive coding hypothesis" [Duncan, J...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Bruce P Doré, Chelsea Boccagno, Daisy Burr, Alexa Hubbard, Kan Long, Jochen Weber, Yaakov Stern, Kevin N Ochsner
Neuroimaging research has identified systems that facilitate minimizing negative emotion, but how the brain is able to transform the valence of an emotional response from negative to positive is unclear. Behavioral and psychophysiological studies suggest a distinction between minimizing reappraisal, which entails diminishing the arousal elicited by negative stimuli, and positive reappraisal, which instead changes the emotional valence of arousal from negative to positive. Here we show that successful minimizing reappraisal decreased activity in the amygdala, but successful positive reappraisal increased activity in regions involved in computing reward value, including the ventral striatum and ventromedial pFC (vmPFC)...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Ima Trempler, Anne-Marike Schiffer, Nadiya El-Sourani, Christiane Ahlheim, Gereon R Fink, Ricarda I Schubotz
Surprising events may be relevant or irrelevant for behavior, requiring either flexible adjustment or stabilization of our model of the world and according response strategies. Cognitive flexibility and stability in response to environmental demands have been described as separable cognitive states, associated with activity of striatal and lateral prefrontal regions, respectively. It so far remains unclear, however, whether these two states act in an antagonistic fashion and which neural mechanisms mediate the selection of respective responses, on the one hand, and a transition between these states, on the other...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Zhuo Fang, Valya Sergeeva, Laura B Ray, Jeremy Viczko, Adrian M Owen, Stuart M Fogel
Sleep spindles-short, phasic, oscillatory bursts of activity that characterize non-rapid eye movement sleep-are one of the only electrophysiological oscillations identified as a biological marker of human intelligence (e.g., cognitive abilities commonly assessed using intelligence quotient tests). However, spindles are also important for sleep maintenance and are modulated by circadian factors. Thus, the possibility remains that the relationship between spindles and intelligence quotient may be an epiphenomenon of a putative relationship between good quality sleep and cognitive ability or perhaps modulated by circadian factors such as morningness-eveningness tendencies...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Yvonne Y Chen, Jeremy B Caplan
During study trials of a recognition memory task, alpha (∼10 Hz) oscillations decrease, and concurrently, theta (4-8 Hz) oscillations increase when later memory is successful versus unsuccessful (subsequent memory effect). Likewise, at test, reduced alpha and increased theta activity are associated with successful memory (retrieval success effect). Here we take an individual differences approach to test three hypotheses about theta and alpha oscillations in verbal, old/new recognition, measuring the difference in oscillations between hit trials and miss trials...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Kamila Śmigasiewicz, Gabriel Sami Hasan, Rolf Verleger
In dynamically changing environments, spatial attention is not equally distributed across the visual field. For instance, when two streams of stimuli are presented left and right, the second target (T2) is better identified in the left visual field (LVF) than in the right visual field (RVF). Recently, it has been shown that this bias is related to weaker stimulus-driven orienting of attention toward the RVF: The RVF disadvantage was reduced with salient task-irrelevant valid cues and increased with invalid cues...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Stephen M Emrich, Jeffrey S Johnson, David W Sutterer, Bradley R Postle
Numerous studies have demonstrated that visual STM (VSTM) and attention are tightly linked processes that share a number of neuroanatomical substrates. Here, we used repetitive TMS (rTMS) along with simultaneous EEG to examine the causal relationship between intraparietal sulcus functioning and performance on tasks of attention and VSTM. Participants performed two tasks in which they were required to attend to or remember colored items over a brief interval, with 10-Hz rTMS applied on some of the trials. Although no overall behavioral changes were observed across either task, rTMS did affect individual performance on both the attention and VSTM tasks in a manner that was predicted by individual differences in baseline performance...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Federico Nemmi, Charlotte Nymberg, Elin Helander, Torkel Klingberg
There is a long-standing interest in the determinants of successful learning in children. "Grit" is an individual trait, reflecting the ability to pursue long-term goals despite temporary setbacks. Although grit is known to be predictive of future success in real-world learning situations, an understanding of the underlying neural basis and mechanisms is still lacking. Here we show that grit in a sample of 6-year-old children (n = 55) predicts the working memory improvement during 8 weeks of training on working memory tasks (p = ...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
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