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Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820676/saccade-reorienting-is-facilitated-by-pausing-the-oculomotor-program
#1
Antimo Buonocore, Simran Purokayastha, Robert D McIntosh
As we look around the world, selecting for targets, competing events may occur at other locations. Depending on current goals, the viewer must decide whether to look at new events or to ignore them. Two experimental paradigms formalize these response options: double-step saccades and saccadic inhibition. In the first, the viewer must reorient to a newly appearing target; in the second, they must ignore it. Until now, the relationship between reorienting and inhibition has been unexplored. In three experiments, we found saccadic inhibition ∼100 msec after a new target onset, regardless of the task instruction...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820675/on-the-role-of-situational-stressors-in-the-disruption-of-global-neural-network-stability-during-problem-solving
#2
Mengting Liu, Chad E Forbes, Rachel C Amey
When individuals are placed in stressful situations, they are likely to exhibit deficits in cognitive capacity over and above situational demands. Despite this, individuals may still persevere and ultimately succeed in these situations. Little is known, however, about neural network properties that instantiate success or failure in both neutral and stressful situations, particularly with respect to regions integral for problem-solving processes that are necessary for optimal performance on more complex tasks...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820674/restoration-of-fmri-decodability-does-not-imply-latent-working-memory-states
#3
Sebastian Schneegans, Paul M Bays
Recent imaging studies have challenged the prevailing view that working memory is mediated by sustained neural activity. Using machine learning methods to reconstruct memory content, these studies found that previously diminished representations can be restored by retrospective cueing or other forms of stimulation. These findings have been interpreted as evidence for an activity-silent working memory state that can be reactivated dependent on task demands. Here, we test the validity of this conclusion by formulating a neural process model of working memory based on sustained activity and using this model to emulate a spatial recall task with retro-cueing...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820673/asymmetric-compression-of-representational-space-for-object-animacy-categorization-under-degraded-viewing-conditions
#4
Tijl Grootswagers, J Brendan Ritchie, Susan G Wardle, Andrew Heathcote, Thomas A Carlson
Animacy is a robust organizing principle among object category representations in the human brain. Using multivariate pattern analysis methods, it has been shown that distance to the decision boundary of a classifier trained to discriminate neural activation patterns for animate and inanimate objects correlates with observer RTs for the same animacy categorization task [Ritchie, J. B., Tovar, D. A., & Carlson, T. A. Emerging object representations in the visual system predict reaction times for categorization...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777061/the-nature-of-task-set-representations-in-working-memory
#5
Atsushi Kikumoto, Ulrich Mayr
Selection and preparation of action plans (task sets) is often assumed to occur in working memory (WM). Yet, the absence of consistent evidence that WM capacity and task selection efficiency is correlated raises questions about the functional relationship between these two aspects of executive control. We used the EEG-derived contralateral delay activity (CDA) to index the WM load of task sets. In Experiment 1, we found a CDA set size effect (2 vs. 4 stimulus-response [S-R] rules) for high-WM, but not for low-WM, individuals when S-R sets were novel...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777060/temporal-anticipation-based-on-memory
#6
André M Cravo, Gustavo Rohenkohl, Karin Moreira Santos, Anna C Nobre
The fundamental role that our long-term memories play in guiding perception is increasingly recognized, but the functional and neural mechanisms are just beginning to be explored. Although experimental approaches are being developed to investigate the influence of long-term memories on perception, these remain mostly static and neglect their temporal and dynamic nature. Here, we show that our long-term memories can guide attention proactively and dynamically based on learned temporal associations. Across two experiments, we found that detection and discrimination of targets appearing within previously learned contexts are enhanced when the timing of target appearance matches the learned temporal contingency...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777059/modality-specific-changes-in-motor-cortex-excitability-after-visuo-proprioceptive-realignment
#7
Felipe Munoz-Rubke, Jasmine L Mirdamadi, Anna K Lynch, Hannah J Block
Spatial realignment of visual and proprioceptive estimates of hand position is necessary both to keep the estimates in register over time and to compensate for sensory perturbations. Such realignment affects perceived hand position, which the brain must use to plan hand movements. We would therefore expect visuo-proprioceptive realignment to affect the motor system at some level, but the physiological basis of this interaction is unknown. Here, we asked whether activity in primary motor cortex (M1), a well-known substrate of motor control, shows evidence of change after visuo-proprioceptive realignment...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777058/causal-evidence-from-humans-for-the-role-of-mediodorsal-nucleus-of-the-thalamus-in-working-memory
#8
Jari Peräkylä, Lihua Sun, Kai Lehtimäki, Jukka Peltola, Juha Öhman, Timo Möttönen, Keith H Ogawa, Kaisa M Hartikainen
The mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD) with its extensive connections to the lateral pFC has been implicated in human working memory and executive functions. However, this understanding is based solely on indirect evidence from human lesion and imaging studies and animal studies. Direct, causal evidence from humans is missing. To obtain direct evidence for MD's role in humans, we studied patients treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS) for refractory epilepsy. This treatment is thought to prevent the generalization of a seizure by disrupting the functioning of the patient's anterior nuclei of the thalamus (ANT) with high-frequency electric stimulation...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777057/what-you-see-is-what-you-remember-visual-chunking-by-temporal-integration-enhances-working-memory
#9
Elkan G Akyürek, Nils Kappelmann, Marc Volkert, Hedderik van Rijn
Human memory benefits from information clustering, which can be accomplished by chunking. Chunking typically relies on expertise and strategy, and it is unknown whether perceptual clustering over time, through temporal integration, can also enhance working memory. The current study examined the attentional and working memory costs of temporal integration of successive target stimulus pairs embedded in rapid serial visual presentation. ERPs were measured as a function of behavioral reports: One target, two separate targets, or two targets reported as a single integrated target...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777056/neural-representation-of-working-memory-content-is-modulated-by-visual-attentional-demand
#10
Anastasia Kiyonaga, Emma Wu Dowd, Tobias Egner
Recent theories assert that visual working memory (WM) relies on the same attentional resources and sensory substrates as visual attention to external stimuli. Behavioral studies have observed competitive tradeoffs between internal (i.e., WM) and external (i.e., visual) attentional demands, and neuroimaging studies have revealed representations of WM content as distributed patterns of activity within the same cortical regions engaged by perception of that content. Although a key function of WM is to protect memoranda from competing input, it remains unknown how neural representations of WM content are impacted by incoming sensory stimuli and concurrent attentional demands...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707571/how-do-you-see-me-the-neural-basis-of-motivated-meta-perception
#11
Taru Flagan, Jeanette A Mumford, Jennifer S Beer
We cannot see the minds of others, yet people often spontaneously interpret how they are viewed by other people (i.e., meta-perceptions) and often in a self-flattering manner. Very little is known about the neural associations of meta-perceptions, but a likely candidate is the ventromedial pFC (VMPFC). VMPFC has been associated with both self- and other-perception as well as motivated self-perception. Does this function extend to meta-perceptions? The current study examined neural activity while participants made meta-perceptive interpretations in various social scenarios...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707570/using-event-related-potentials-to-inform-the-neurocognitive-processes-underlying-knowledge-extension-through-memory-integration
#12
Nicole L Varga, Patricia J Bauer
To build a general knowledge base, it is imperative that individuals acquire, integrate, and further extend knowledge across experiences. For instance, in one episode an individual may learn that George Washington was the first president. In a separate episode he or she may then learn that Washington was the commander of the Continental Army. Integration of the information in memory may then support self-derivation of the new knowledge that the leader of the Continental Army was also the first president. Despite a considerable amount of fMRI research aimed at further elucidating the neuroanatomical regions supporting this ability, a consensus has yet to be reached with regards to the precise neurocognitive processes involved...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707569/imaginative-reinforcement-learning-computational-principles-and-neural-mechanisms
#13
Samuel J Gershman, Jimmy Zhou, Cody Kommers
Imagination enables us not only to transcend reality but also to learn about it. In the context of reinforcement learning, an agent can rationally update its value estimates by simulating an internal model of the environment, provided that the model is accurate. In a series of sequential decision-making experiments, we investigated the impact of imaginative simulation on subsequent decisions. We found that imagination can cause people to pursue imagined paths, even when these paths are suboptimal. This bias is systematically related to participants' optimism about how much reward they expect to receive along imagined paths; providing feedback strongly attenuates the effect...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707568/effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-neural-network-structure-in-young-and-older-adults
#14
Andrew Martin, Marcus Meinzer, Robert Lindenberg, Mira M Sieg, Laura Nachtigall, Agnes Flöel
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may be a viable tool to improve motor and cognitive function in advanced age. However, although a number of studies have demonstrated improved cognitive performance in older adults, other studies have failed to show restorative effects. The neural effects of beneficial stimulation response in both age groups is lacking. In the current study, tDCS was administered during simultaneous fMRI in 42 healthy young and older participants. Semantic word generation and motor speech baseline tasks were used to investigate behavioral and neural effects of uni- and bihemispheric motor cortex tDCS in a three-way, crossover, sham tDCS controlled design...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699809/acute-stress-time-dependently-modulates-multiple-memory-systems
#15
Elizabeth V Goldfarb, Yeva Mendelevich, Elizabeth A Phelps
Acute stress has been shown to modulate the engagement of different memory systems, leading to preferential expression of stimulus-response (SR) rather than episodic context memory when both types of memory can be used. However, questions remain regarding the cognitive mechanism that underlies this bias in humans-specifically, how each form of memory is individually influenced by stress in order for SR memory to be dominant. Here we separately measured context and SR memory and investigated how each was influenced by acute stress after learning (Experiment 1) and before retrieval (Experiment 2)...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699808/the-effects-of-physical-exercise-and-cognitive-training-on-memory-and-neurotrophic-factors
#16
Jennifer J Heisz, Ilana B Clark, Katija Bonin, Emily M Paolucci, Bernadeta Michalski, Suzanna Becker, Margaret Fahnestock
This study examined the combined effect of physical exercise and cognitive training on memory and neurotrophic factors in healthy, young adults. Ninety-five participants completed 6 weeks of exercise training, combined exercise and cognitive training, or no training (control). Both the exercise and combined training groups improved performance on a high-interference memory task, whereas the control group did not. In contrast, neither training group improved on general recognition performance, suggesting that exercise training selectively increases high-interference memory that may be linked to hippocampal function...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686139/neural-mechanisms-underlying-risk-and-ambiguity-attitudes
#17
Neeltje E Blankenstein, Jiska S Peper, Eveline A Crone, Anna C K van Duijvenvoorde
Individual differences in attitudes to risk (a taste for risk, known probabilities) and ambiguity (a tolerance for uncertainty, unknown probabilities) differentially influence risky decision-making. However, it is not well understood whether risk and ambiguity are coded differently within individuals. Here, we tested whether individual differences in risk and ambiguity attitudes were reflected in distinct neural correlates during choice and outcome processing of risky and ambiguous gambles. To these ends, we developed a neuroimaging task in which participants ( N = 50) chose between a sure gain and a gamble, which was either risky or ambiguous, and presented decision outcomes (gains, no gains)...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686138/automatic-recruitment-of-the-motor-system-by-undetected-graspable-objects-a-motor-evoked-potential-study
#18
Nicolas A McNair, Ashleigh D Behrens, Irina M Harris
Previous behavioral and neuroimaging studies have suggested that the motor properties associated with graspable objects may be automatically accessed when people passively view these objects. We directly tested this by measuring the excitability of the motor pathway when participants viewed pictures of graspable objects that were presented during the attentional blink (AB), when items frequently go undetected. Participants had to identify two briefly presented objects separated by either a short or long SOA...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686137/using-a-large-scale-neural-model-of-cortical-object-processing-to-investigate-the-neural-substrate-for-managing-multiple-items-in-short-term-memory
#19
Qin Liu, Antonio Ulloa, Barry Horwitz
Many cognitive and computational models have been proposed to help understand working memory. In this article, we present a simulation study of cortical processing of visual objects during several working memory tasks using an extended version of a previously constructed large-scale neural model [Tagamets, M. A., & Horwitz, B. Integrating electrophysiological and anatomical experimental data to create a large-scale model that simulates a delayed match-to-sample human brain imaging study. Cerebral Cortex, 8, 310-320, 1998]...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654360/interhemispheric-binding-of-ambiguous-visual-motion-is-associated-with-changes-in-beta-oscillatory-activity-but-not-with-gamma-range-synchrony
#20
Gabriel Nascimento Costa, João Valente Duarte, Ricardo Martins, Michael Wibral, Miguel Castelo-Branco
In vision, perceptual features are processed in several regions distributed across the brain. Yet, the brain achieves a coherent perception of visual scenes and objects through integration of these features, which are encoded in spatially segregated brain areas. How the brain seamlessly achieves this accurate integration is currently unknown and is referred to as the "binding problem." Among the proposed mechanisms meant to resolve the binding problem, the binding-by-synchrony hypothesis proposes that binding is carried out by the synchronization of distant neuronal assemblies...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
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