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Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493809/buildings-beauty-and-the-brain-a-neuroscience-of-architectural-experience
#1
Alex Coburn, Oshin Vartanian, Anjan Chatterjee
A burgeoning interest in the intersection of neuroscience and architecture promises to offer biologically inspired insights into the design of spaces. The goal of such interdisciplinary approaches to architecture is to motivate construction of environments that would contribute to peoples' flourishing in behavior, health, and well-being. We suggest that this nascent field of neuroarchitecture is at a pivotal point in which neuroscience and architecture is poised to extend to a neuroscience of architecture. In such a research program, architectural experiences themselves are the target of neuroscientific inquiry...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493808/prestimulus-alpha-oscillations-and-the-temporal-sequencing-of-audio-visual-events
#2
Laetitia Grabot, Anne Kösem, Leila Azizi, Virginie van Wassenhove
Perceiving the temporal order of sensory events typically depends on participants' attentional state, thus likely on the endogenous fluctuations of brain activity. Using magnetoencephalography, we sought to determine whether spontaneous brain oscillations could disambiguate the perceived order of auditory and visual events presented in close temporal proximity, that is, at the individual's perceptual order threshold (Point of Subjective Simultaneity [PSS]). Two neural responses were found to index an individual's temporal order perception when contrasting brain activity as a function of perceived order (i...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493807/what-is-actually-affected-by-the-scrambling-of-objects-when-localizing-the-lateral-occipital-complex
#3
Eshed Margalit, Irving Biederman, Bosco S Tjan, Manan P Shah
The lateral occipital complex (LOC), the cortical region critical for shape perception, is localized with fMRI by its greater BOLD activity when viewing intact objects compared with their scrambled versions (resembling texture). Despite hundreds of studies investigating LOC, what the LOC localizer accomplishes-beyond distinguishing shape from texture-has never been resolved. By independently scattering the intact parts of objects, the axis structure defining the relations between parts was no longer defined...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471729/distinct-hippocampal-versus-frontoparietal-network-contributions-to-retrieval-and-memory-guided-exploration
#4
Donna J Bridge, Neal J Cohen, Joel L Voss
Memory can profoundly influence new learning, presumably because memory optimizes exploration of to-be-learned material. Although hippocampus and frontoparietal networks have been implicated in memory-guided exploration, their specific and interactive roles have not been identified. We examined eye movements during fMRI scanning to identify neural correlates of the influences of memory retrieval on exploration and learning. After retrieval of one object in a multiobject array, viewing was strategically directed away from the retrieved object toward nonretrieved objects, such that exploration was directed toward to-be-learned content...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471728/brain-modularity-mediates-the-relation-between-task-complexity-and-performance
#5
Qiuhai Yue, Randi Martin, Simon Fischer-Baum, Aurora I Ramos-Nuñez, Fengdan Ye, Michael W Deem
Recent work in cognitive neuroscience has focused on analyzing the brain as a network, rather than as a collection of independent regions. Prior studies taking this approach have found that individual differences in the degree of modularity of the brain network relate to performance on cognitive tasks. However, inconsistent results concerning the direction of this relationship have been obtained, with some tasks showing better performance as modularity increases and other tasks showing worse performance. A recent theoretical model [Chen, M...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430044/syntactic-complexity-and-frequency-in-the-neurocognitive-language-system
#6
Yun-Hsuan Yang, William D Marslen-Wilson, Mirjana Bozic
Prominent neurobiological models of language follow the widely accepted assumption that language comprehension requires two principal mechanisms: a lexicon storing the sound-to-meaning mapping of words, primarily involving bilateral temporal regions, and a combinatorial processor for syntactically structured items, such as phrases and sentences, localized in a left-lateralized network linking left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and posterior temporal areas. However, recent research showing that the processing of simple phrasal sequences may engage only bilateral temporal areas, together with the claims of distributional approaches to grammar, raises the question of whether frequent phrases are stored alongside individual words in temporal areas...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430043/tuning-neural-phase-entrainment-to-speech
#7
Simone Falk, Cosima Lanzilotti, Daniele Schön
Musical rhythm positively impacts on subsequent speech processing. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are so far unclear. We investigated whether carryover effects from a preceding musical cue to a speech stimulus result from a continuation of neural phase entrainment to periodicities that are present in both music and speech. Participants listened and memorized French metrical sentences that contained (quasi-)periodic recurrences of accents and syllables. Speech stimuli were preceded by a rhythmically regular or an irregular musical cue...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430042/control-without-controllers-toward-a-distributed-neuroscience-of-executive-control
#8
Benjamin R Eisenreich, Rei Akaishi, Benjamin Y Hayden
Executive control refers to the regulation of cognition and behavior by mental processes and is a hallmark of higher cognition. Most approaches to understanding its mechanisms begin with the assumption that our brains have anatomically segregated and functionally specialized control modules. The modular approach is intuitive: Control is conceptually distinct from basic mental processing, so an organization that reifies that distinction makes sense. An alternative approach sees executive control as self-organizing principles of a distributed organization...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430041/integrative-modeling-of-pfc
#9
William H Alexander, Eliana Vassena, James Deraeve, Zachary D Langford
pFC is generally regarded as a region critical for abstract reasoning and high-level cognitive behaviors. As such, it has become the focus of intense research involving a wide variety of subdisciplines of neuroscience and employing a diverse range of methods. However, even as the amount of data on pFC has increased exponentially, it appears that progress toward understanding the general function of the region across a broad array of contexts has not kept pace. Effects observed in pFC are legion, and their interpretations are generally informed by a particular perspective or methodology with little regard with how those effects may apply more broadly...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430040/foraging-value-risk-avoidance-and-multiple-control-signals-how-the-acc-controls-value-based-decision-making
#10
Joshua W Brown, William H Alexander
Recent work on the role of the ACC in cognition has focused on choice difficulty, action value, risk avoidance, conflict resolution, and the value of exerting control among other factors. A main underlying question is what are the output signals of ACC, and relatedly, what is their effect on downstream cognitive processes? Here we propose a model of how ACC influences cognitive processing in other brain regions that choose actions. The model builds on the earlier Predicted Response Outcome model and suggests that ACC learns to represent specifically the states in which the potential costs or risks of an action are high, on both short and long timescales...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430039/distractor-resistant-stm-is-supported-by-transient-changes-in-neural-stimulus-representations
#11
Jan Derrfuss, Matthias Ekman, Michael Hanke, Marc Tittgemeyer, Christian J Fiebach
Goal-directed behavior in a complex world requires the maintenance of goal-relevant information despite multiple sources of distraction. However, the brain mechanisms underlying distractor-resistant working or STM are not fully understood. Although early single-unit recordings in monkeys and fMRI studies in humans pointed to an involvement of lateral prefrontal cortices, more recent studies highlighted the importance of posterior cortices for the active maintenance of visual information also in the presence of distraction...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387590/encoding-of-predictable-and-unpredictable-stimuli-by-inferior-temporal-cortical-neurons
#12
Susheel Kumar, Peter Kaposvari, Rufin Vogels
Animals and humans learn statistical regularities that are embedded in sequences of stimuli. The neural mechanisms of such statistical learning are still poorly understood. Previous work in macaque inferior temporal (IT) cortex demonstrated suppressed spiking activity to visual images of a sequence in which the stimulus order was defined by transitional probabilities (labeled as "standard" sequence), compared with a sequence in which the stimulus order was random ("random" sequence). Here, we asked whether IT neurons encode the images of the standard sequence more accurately compared with images of the random sequence...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387589/inhibition-of-pre-sma-by-continuous-theta-burst-stimulation-leads-to-more-cautious-decision-making-and-more-efficient-sensory-evidence-integration
#13
Tuğçe Tosun, Dilara Berkay, Alexander T Sack, Yusuf Ö Çakmak, Fuat Balcı
Decisions are made based on the integration of available evidence. The noise in evidence accumulation leads to a particular speed-accuracy tradeoff in decision-making, which can be modulated and optimized by adaptive decision threshold setting. Given the effect of pre-SMA activity on striatal excitability, we hypothesized that the inhibition of pre-SMA would lead to higher decision thresholds and an increased accuracy bias. We used offline continuous theta burst stimulation to assess the effect of transient inhibition of the right pre-SMA on the decision processes in a free-response two-alternative forced-choice task within the drift diffusion model framework...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387588/modulation-of-oscillatory-power-and-connectivity-in-the-human-posterior-cingulate-cortex-supports-the-encoding-and-retrieval-of-episodic-memories
#14
Bradley Lega, James Germi, Michael Rugg
Existing data from noninvasive studies have led researchers to posit that the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) supports mnemonic processes: It exhibits degeneration in memory disorders, and fMRI investigations have demonstrated memory-related activation principally during the retrieval of memory items. Despite these data, the role of the PCC in episodic memory has received only limited treatment using the spatial and temporal precision of intracranial EEG, with previous analyses focused on item retrieval. Using data gathered from 21 human participants who underwent stereo-EEG for seizure localization, we characterized oscillatory patterns in the PCC during the encoding and retrieval of episodic memories...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387587/multiple-object-tracking-as-a-tool-for-parametrically-modulating-memory-reactivation
#15
Jordan Poppenk, Ken A Norman
Converging evidence supports the "nonmonotonic plasticity" hypothesis that, although complete retrieval may strengthen memories, partial retrieval weakens them. Yet, the classic experimental paradigms used to study effects of partial retrieval are not ideally suited to doing so, because they lack the parametric control needed to ensure that the memory is activated to the appropriate degree (i.e., that there is some retrieval but not enough to cause memory strengthening). Here, we present a novel procedure designed to accommodate this need...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387586/separating-erp-effects-for-conceptual-fluency-and-episodic-familiarity
#16
Regine Bader, Axel Mecklinger
ERP old/new effects have been associated with different subprocesses of episodic recognition memory. The notion that recollection is reflected in the left parietal old/new effect seems to be uncontested. However, an association between episodic familiarity and the mid-frontal old/new effect is not uncontroversial. It has been argued that the mid-frontal old/new effect is functionally equivalent to the N400 and hence merely reflects differences in conceptual fluency between old and new items. Therefore, it is related to episodic familiarity only in situations in which conceptual fluency covaries with familiarity...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387585/parsing-the-roles-of-the-frontal-lobes-and-bg-in-task-control-using-multivoxel-pattern-analysis
#17
Angie A Kehagia, Rong Ye, Dan W Joyce, Orla M Doyle, James B Rowe, Trevor W Robbins
Cognitive control has traditionally been associated with pFC based on observations of deficits in patients with frontal lesions. However, evidence from patients with Parkinson's disease indicates that subcortical regions also contribute to control under certain conditions. We scanned 17 healthy volunteers while they performed a task-switching paradigm that previously dissociated performance deficits arising from frontal lesions in comparison with Parkinson's disease, as a function of the abstraction of the rules that are switched...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358660/individual-differences-in-face-identity-processing-with-fast-periodic-visual-stimulation
#18
Buyun Xu, Joan Liu-Shuang, Bruno Rossion, James Tanaka
A growing body of literature suggests that human individuals differ in their ability to process face identity. These findings mainly stem from explicit behavioral tasks, such as the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT). However, it remains an open question whether such individual differences can be found in the absence of an explicit face identity task and when faces have to be individualized at a single glance. In the current study, we tested 49 participants with a recently developed fast periodic visual stimulation (FPVS) paradigm [Liu-Shuang, J...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358659/when-to-take-a-gesture-seriously-on-how-we-use-and-prioritize-communicative-cues
#19
Thomas C Gunter, J E Douglas Weinbrenner
When people talk, their speech is often accompanied by gestures. Although it is known that co-speech gestures can influence face-to-face communication, it is currently unclear to what extent they are actively used and under which premises they are prioritized to facilitate communication. We investigated these open questions in two experiments that varied how pointing gestures disambiguate the utterances of an interlocutor. Participants, whose event-related brain responses were measured, watched a video, where an actress was interviewed about classical literature (e...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358658/supramodal-theta-gamma-and-sustained-fields-predict-modality-specific-modulations-of-alpha-and-beta-oscillations-during-visual-and-tactile-working-memory
#20
Freek van Ede, Ole Jensen, Eric Maris
Flexible control over currently relevant sensory representations is an essential feature of primate cognition. We investigated the neurophysiological bases of such flexible control in humans during an intermodal working memory task in which participants retained visual or tactile sequences. Using magnetoencephalography, we first show that working memory retention engages early visual and somatosensory areas, as reflected in the sustained load-dependent suppression of alpha and beta oscillations. Next, we identify three components that are also load dependent but modality independent: medial prefrontal theta synchronization, frontoparietal gamma synchronization, and sustained parietal event-related fields...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
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