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Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience

Gundula Zerbes, Franziska Magdalena Kausche, Jana Christina Müller, Klaus Wiedemann, Lars Schwabe
Glucocorticoids and noradrenaline can enhance memory consolidation but impair memory retrieval. Beyond their effects on quantitative memory performance, these major stress mediators bias the engagement of multiple memory systems toward "habitual" control during learning. However, if and how glucocorticoids and noradrenaline may also affect which memory system is recruited during recall, thereby affecting the control of retrieval, remain largely unknown. To address this question, we trained healthy participants in a probabilistic classification learning task, which can be supported both by cognitive and habitual strategies...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Nina Karalija, Goran Papenberg, Anders Wåhlin, Jarkko Johansson, Micael Andersson, Jan Axelsson, Katrine Riklund, Martin Lövdén, Ulman Lindenberger, Lars Bäckman, Lars Nyberg
The dopamine (DA) system plays an important role in cognition. Accordingly, normal variation in DA genes has been found to predict individual differences in cognitive performance. However, little is known of the impact of genetic differences on the link between empirical indicators of the DA system and cognition in humans. The present work used PET with 11 C-raclopride to assess DA D2-receptor binding potential (BP) and links to episodic memory, working memory, and perceptual speed in 179 healthy adults aged 64-68 years...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Gino Coudé, Giulia Toschi, Fabrizia Festante, Marco Bimbi, James Bonaiuto, Pier Francesco Ferrari
Although it is established that F5 neurons can distinguish between nonsocial goals such as bringing food to the mouth for eating or placing it in a container, it is not clear whether they discriminate between social and nonsocial goals. Here, we recorded single-unit activity in the ventral premotor cortex of two female macaques and used a simple reach-to-grasp motor task in which a monkey grasped an object with a precision grip in three conditions, which only differed in terms of their final goal, that is, a subsequent motor act that was either social (placing in the experimenter's hand ["Hand" condition]) or nonsocial (placing in a container ["Container" condition] or bringing to the mouth for eating ["Mouth" condition])...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
M Berk Mirza, Rick A Adams, Thomas Parr, Karl Friston
This article characterizes impulsive behavior using a patch-leaving paradigm and active inference-a framework for describing Bayes optimal behavior. This paradigm comprises different environments (patches) with limited resources that decline over time at different rates. The challenge is to decide when to leave the current patch for another to maximize reward. We chose this task because it offers an operational characterization of impulsive behavior, namely, maximizing proximal reward at the expense of future gain...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Ivan Patané, Lucilla Cardinali, Romeo Salemme, Francesco Pavani, Alessandro Farnè, Claudio Brozzoli
Peripersonal space is a multisensory representation relying on the processing of tactile and visual stimuli presented on and close to different body parts. The most studied peripersonal space representation is perihand space (PHS), a highly plastic representation modulated following tool use and by the rapid approach of visual objects. Given these properties, PHS may serve different sensorimotor functions, including guidance of voluntary actions such as object grasping. Strong support for this hypothesis would derive from evidence that PHS plastic changes occur before the upcoming movement rather than after its initiation, yet to date, such evidence is scant...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Adam Bryant Miller, Mitchell J Prinstein, Emily Munier, Laura S Machlin, Margaret A Sheridan
Failures in emotion regulation, especially as a result of interpersonal stress, are implicated as transdiagnostic risk factors for psychopathology. This study examines the effects of an experimentally timed targeted interpersonal rejection on emotion reactivity and regulation in typically developing adolescent girls. Girls ( N = 33, ages 9-16 years, M = 12.47, SD = 2.20) underwent fMRI involving a widely used emotion regulation task. The emotion task involves looking at negative stimuli and using cognitive reappraisal strategies to decrease reactions to negative stimuli...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Berit Brummerloh, Christopher Gundlach, Matthias M Müller
The integrated object account predicts that attention is spread across all features that constitute one object, regardless of their task relevance. We challenge that prediction with a novel stimulation technique that allows for simultaneous electrophysiological measurements of the allocation of attention to two distinct features within one object. A rotating square that flickers in different colors evoked two distinct steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) for rotation and color, respectively. If the integrated object account were true, we would expect identical SSVEP amplitudes regardless of what feature participants attended...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Christine D Wilson-Mendenhall, Alexa Henriques, Lawrence W Barsalou, Lisa Feldman Barrett
Studies of the classic exteroceptive sensory systems (e.g., vision, touch) consistently demonstrate that vividly imagining a sensory experience of the world-simulating it-is associated with increased activity in the corresponding primary sensory cortex. We hypothesized, analogously, that simulating internal bodily sensations would be associated with increased neural activity in primary interoceptive cortex. An immersive, language-based mental imagery paradigm was used to test this hypothesis (e.g., imagine your heart pounding during a roller coaster ride, your face drenched in sweat during a workout)...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Tobias Katus, Martin Eimer
We investigated the sources of dual-task costs arising in multisensory working memory (WM) tasks, where stimuli from different modalities have to be simultaneously maintained. Performance decrements relative to unimodal single-task baselines have been attributed to a modality-unspecific central WM store, but such costs could also reflect increased demands on central executive processes involved in dual-task coordination. To compare these hypotheses, we asked participants to maintain two, three, or four visual items...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Carmen Kohl, Laure Spieser, Bettina Forster, Sven Bestmann, Kielan Yarrow
The neural dynamics underpinning binary perceptual decisions and their transformation into actions are well studied, but real-world decisions typically offer more than two response alternatives. How does decision-related evidence accumulation dynamically influence multiple action representations in humans? The heightened conservatism required in multiple compared with binary choice scenarios suggests a mechanism that compensates for increased uncertainty when multiple choices are present by suppressing baseline activity...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Laura A Libby, Zachariah M Reagh, Nichole R Bouffard, J Daniel Ragland, Charan Ranganath
Episodic memory is known to rely on the hippocampus, but how the hippocampus organizes different episodes to permit their subsequent retrieval remains controversial. One major area of debate hinges on a discrepancy between two hypothesized roles of the hippocampus: differentiating between similar events to reduce interference and assigning similar representations to events that share overlapping items and contextual information. Here, we used multivariate analyses of activity patterns measured with fMRI to characterize how the hippocampus distinguishes between memories based on similarity at the level of items and/or context...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Daniela J Palombo, Joseph M Di Lascio, Marc W Howard, Mieke Verfaellie
Medial-temporal lobe (MTL) lesions are associated with severe impairments in episodic memory. In the framework of the temporal context model, the hypothesized mechanism for episodic memory is the reinstatement of a prior experienced context (i.e., "jump back in time"), which relies upon the MTL [Howard, M. W., Fotedar, M. S., Datey, A. V., & Hasselmo, M. E. The temporal context model in spatial navigation and relational learning: Toward a common explanation of medial temporal lobe function across domains...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Moti Salti, Asaf Harel, Sébastien Marti
Understanding the neural mechanisms underlying conscious perception has become a central endeavor in cognitive neuroscience. In theories of conscious perception, a stimulus gaining conscious access is usually considered as a discrete neuronal event to be characterized in time or space, sometimes referred to as a conscious "episode." Surprisingly, the alternative hypothesis according to which conscious perception is a dynamic process has rarely been considered. Here, we discuss this hypothesis and its implications...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
J Brendan Ritchie, Hans Op de Beeck
The human capacity for visual categorization is core to how we make sense of the visible world. Whereas a substantive body of research in cognitive neuroscience has localized this capacity to regions of human visual cortex, relatively few studies have investigated the role of abstraction in how representations for novel object categories are constructed from the neural representation of stimulus dimensions. Using human fMRI coupled with formal modeling of observer behavior, we assess a wide range of categorization models that vary in their level of abstraction from collections of subprototypes to representations of individual exemplars...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Helen C Mayrhofer, Felix Duecker, Vincent van de Ven, Heidi I L Jacobs, Alexander T Sack
The dorsal attention network (DAN) is known to be involved in shifts of spatial attention or orienting. However, the involvement of each hemisphere in shifts to either hemifield is still a matter of debate. In this study, interindividual hemifield-specific attentional benefits in RTs were correlated with cue-related blood oxygen level dependent responses specific to directive cues in the left and right frontal and posterior nodes of the DAN, measured in a Spatial Orienting Paradigm. The pattern of correlations was analyzed with respect to its fit with three existing hypotheses of spatial attention control: the contralateral, right dominance, and hybrid hypotheses...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Chantel S Prat, Brianna L Yamasaki, Erica R Peterson
The current study used quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) to characterize individual differences in neural rhythms at rest and to relate them to fluid reasoning ability, to first language proficiency, and to subsequent second language (L2) learning ability, with the goal of obtaining a better understanding of the neurocognitive bases of L2 aptitude. Mean spectral power, laterality, and coherence metrics were extracted across theta, alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands obtained from eyes-closed resting-state qEEG data from 41 adults aged 18-34 years...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Amy S Finn, Maria Kharitonova, Natalie Holtby, Margaret A Sheridan
Statistical learning can be used to gain sensitivity to many important regularities in our environment, including structure that is foundational to language and visual perception. As yet, little is known about how statistical learning takes place in the human brain, especially in children's developing brains and with regard to the broader neurobiology of learning and memory. We therefore explored the relationship between statistical learning and the thickness and volume of structures that are traditionally implicated in declarative and procedural memory, focusing specifically on the left inferior pFC, the hippocampus, and the caudate during early childhood (5-8...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
José J F Ribas-Fernandes, Danesh Shahnazian, Clay B Holroyd, Matthew M Botvinick
A longstanding view of the organization of human and animal behavior holds that behavior is hierarchically organized, in other words, directed toward achieving superordinate goals through the achievement of subordinate goals or subgoals. However, most research in neuroscience has focused on tasks without hierarchical structure. In past work, we have shown that negative reward prediction error (RPE) signals in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) can be linked not only to superordinate goals but also to subgoals...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Sophia Vinci-Booher, Hu Cheng, Karin H James
Complex visual-motor behaviors dominate human-environment interactions. Letter production, writing individual letters by hand, is an example of a complex visual-motor behavior composed of numerous behavioral components, including the required motor movements and the percepts that those motor movements create. By manipulating and isolating components of letter production, we provide experimental evidence that this complex visual-motor behavior is supported by a widespread neural system that is composed of smaller subsystems related to different sensorimotor components...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Maryam Vaziri-Pashkam, JohnMark Taylor, Yaoda Xu
Primate ventral and dorsal visual pathways both contain visual object representations. Dorsal regions receive direct input from magnocellular layers of LGN while ventral regions receive directly input from both magnocellular and parvocellular layers of LGN. Because magnocellular layers prefer low SF and parvocellular layers prefer mid- to high-SF components of the image, object representations in ventral and dorsal regions may differ in how they represent visual input from different spatial scales. To test this prediction, we asked observers to view blocks of images from six object categories shown in full spectrum, high SF, or low SF...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
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