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Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience

Maryam Vaziri-Pashkam, JohnMark Taylor, Yaoda Xu
Primate ventral and dorsal visual pathways both contain visual object representations. Dorsal regions receive direct input from magnocellular layers of LGN while ventral regions receive directly input from both magnocellular and parvocellular layers of LGN. Because magnocellular layers prefer low SF and parvocellular layers prefer mid- to high-SF components of the image, object representations in ventral and dorsal regions may differ in how they represent visual input from different spatial scales. To test this prediction, we asked observers to view blocks of images from six object categories shown in full spectrum, high SF, or low SF...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Jean-Paul Noel, Andrea Serino, Mark T Wallace
The actionable space surrounding the body, referred to as peripersonal space (PPS), has been the subject of significant interest of late within the broader framework of embodied cognition. Neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies have shown the representation of PPS to be built from visuotactile and audiotactile neurons within a frontoparietal network and whose activity is modulated by the presence of stimuli in proximity to the body. In contrast to single-unit and fMRI studies, an area of inquiry that has received little attention is the EEG characterization associated with PPS processing...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Andrea De Cesarei, Shari Cavicchi, Antonia Micucci, Maurizio Codispoti
Understanding natural scenes involves the contribution of bottom-up analysis and top-down modulatory processes. However, the interaction of these processes during the categorization of natural scenes is not well understood. In the current study, we approached this issue using ERPs and behavioral and computational data. We presented pictures of natural scenes and asked participants to categorize them in response to different questions (Is it an animal/vehicle? Is it indoors/outdoors? Are there one/two foreground elements?)...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Heather D Lucas, Melissa C Duff, Neal J Cohen
It is well established that the hippocampus is critical for memory. Recent evidence suggests that one function of hippocampal memory processing is to optimize how people actively explore the world. Here we demonstrate that the link between the hippocampus and exploration extends even to the moment-to-moment use of eye movements during visuospatial memory encoding. In Experiment 1, we examined relationships between study-phase eye movements in healthy individuals and subsequent performance on a spatial reconstruction test...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Sibel Altikula├ž, Nikki C Lee, Chiel van der Veen, Ilona Benneker, Lydia Krabbendam, Nienke van Atteveldt
Over the past decade, important insights have been obtained into the neurocognitive development during adolescence. To better understand how these neuroscientific insights impact the real world, we investigated how neuroscience has shaped public perceptions of the "teenage brain" and if these perceptions influence adolescent behavior. When asking to generate free associations with the word "teenage brain," adolescents ( n = 363, Mage = 14.47 years) and parents ( n = 164, Mage = 47.16 years) more often mention undesirable behaviors (e...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Valentina Borghesani, Marco Buiatti, Evelyn Eger, Manuela Piazza
A single word (the noun " elephant") encapsulates a complex multidimensional meaning, including both perceptual (" big," " gray," " trumpeting") and conceptual (" mammal," " can be found in India") features. Opposing theories make different predictions as to whether different features (also conceivable as dimensions of the semantic space) are stored in similar neural regions and recovered with similar temporal dynamics during word reading. In this magnetoencephalography study, we tracked the brain activity of healthy human participants while reading single words varying orthogonally across three semantic dimensions: two perceptual ones (i...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Rachel M Brown, Virginia B Penhune
Humans must learn a variety of sensorimotor skills, yet the relative contributions of sensory and motor information to skill acquisition remain unclear. Here we compare the behavioral and neural contributions of perceptual learning to that of motor learning, and we test whether these contributions depend on the expertise of the learner. Pianists and nonmusicians learned to perform novel melodies on a piano during fMRI scanning in four learning conditions: listening (auditory learning), performing without auditory feedback (motor learning), performing with auditory feedback (auditory-motor learning), or observing visual cues without performing or listening (cue-only learning)...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Deborah Talmi, Martina Slapkova, Matthias J Wieser
Signals for reward or punishment attract attention preferentially, a principle termed "value-modulated attention capture" (VMAC). The mechanisms that govern the allocation of attention resources can be described with a terminology that is more often applied to the control of overt behaviors, namely, the distinction between instrumental and Pavlovian control, and between model-free and model-based control. Although instrumental control of VMAC can be either model-free or model-based, it is not known whether Pavlovian control of VMAC can be model-based...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Juliet Y Davidow, Margaret A Sheridan, Koene R A Van Dijk, Rosario M Santillana, Jenna Snyder, Constanza M Vidal Bustamante, Bruce R Rosen, Leah H Somerville
Inhibitory control, the capacity to suppress an inappropriate response, is a process employed for guiding action selection in the service of goal-directed behavior. Under neutral circumstances, inhibitory control success improves from childhood to adulthood and has been associated with developmental shifts in functional activation and connectivity of the pFC. However, the ability to exercise inhibitory control is challenged in certain contexts by including appetitive cues, a phenomenon that may be particularly pronounced in youths...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Charlotte Murphy, Shirley-Ann Rueschemeyer, Jonathan Smallwood, Elizabeth Jefferies
In the absence of sensory information, we can generate meaningful images and sounds from representations in memory. However, it remains unclear which neural systems underpin this process and whether tasks requiring the top-down generation of different kinds of features recruit similar or different neural networks. We asked people to internally generate the visual and auditory features of objects, either in isolation (car, dog) or in specific and complex meaning-based contexts (car/dog race). Using an fMRI decoding approach, in conjunction with functional connectivity analysis, we examined the role of auditory/visual cortex and transmodal brain regions...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Nick Berggren, Martin Eimer
Mental representations of target features (attentional templates) control the selection of candidate target objects in visual search. The question where templates are maintained remains controversial. We employed the N2pc component as an electrophysiological marker of template-guided target selection to investigate whether and under which conditions templates are held in visual working memory (vWM). In two experiments, participants memorized one or four shapes (low vs. high vWM load) before either being tested on their memory or performing a visual search task...
August 20, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Nicol├▓ F Bernardi, Floris T Van Vugt, Ricardo Valle-Mena, Shahabeddin Vahdat, David J Ostry
The relationship between neural activation during movement training and the plastic changes that survive beyond movement execution is not well understood. Here we ask whether the changes in resting-state functional connectivity observed following motor learning overlap with the brain networks that track movement error during training. Human participants learned to trace an arched trajectory using a computer mouse in an MRI scanner. Motor performance was quantified on each trial as the maximum distance from the prescribed arc...
August 20, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Tal Ness, Aya Meltzer-Asscher
It was recently proposed that lexical prediction in sentence context encompasses two qualitatively distinct prediction mechanisms: "preactivation," namely activating representations stored in long-term memory, and "preupdating," namely updating the sentence's representation, built online in working memory (WM), to include the predicted content [Lau, E. F., Holcomb, P. J., & Kuperberg, G. R. Dissociating N400 effects of prediction from association in single-word contexts. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 25, 484-502, 2013]...
August 20, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Roger E Beaty, Preston P Thakral, Kevin P Madore, Mathias Benedek, Daniel L Schacter
The core network refers to a set of neural regions that have been consistently associated with episodic memory retrieval and episodic future simulation. This network is thought to support the constructive thought processes that allow the retrieval and flexible combination of stored information to reconstruct past and construct novel future experiences. Recent behavioral research points to an overlap between these constructive processes and those also engaged during divergent thinking-the ability to think creatively and generate novel ideas-but the extent to which they involve common neural correlates remains unclear...
August 20, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Rachel Rac-Lubashevsky, Yoav Kessler
Optimal working memory (WM) functioning depends on a control mechanism that balances between maintenance and updating by closing or opening the gate to WM, respectively. Here, we examined the neural oscillation correlates of WM updating and of the control processes involved in gating. The reference-back paradigm was employed to manipulate gate opening, gate closing, and updating independently and examine how the control functions involved in these processes are mapped to oscillatory EEG activity. The results established that different oscillatory patterns were associated with the control process related to gate opening than in gate closing...
August 20, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Alex Clarke, Barry J Devereux, Lorraine K Tyler
Object recognition requires dynamic transformations of low-level visual inputs to complex semantic representations. Although this process depends on the ventral visual pathway, we lack an incremental account from low-level inputs to semantic representations and the mechanistic details of these dynamics. Here we combine computational models of vision with semantics and test the output of the incremental model against patterns of neural oscillations recorded with magnetoencephalography in humans. Representational similarity analysis showed visual information was represented in low-frequency activity throughout the ventral visual pathway, and semantic information was represented in theta activity...
August 20, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Vishnu P Murty, Sarah DuBrow, Lila Davachi
The ability for individuals to actively make decisions engages regions within the mesolimbic system and enhances memory for chosen items. In other behavioral contexts, mesolimbic engagement has been shown to enhance episodic memory by supporting consolidation. However, research has yet to investigate how consolidation may support interactions between decision-making and episodic memory. Across two studies, participants encoded items that were covered by occluder screens and could either actively decide which of two items to uncover or were preselected by the experimenter...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Marieke Jepma, Stephen B R E Brown, Peter R Murphy, Stephany C Koelewijn, Boukje de Vries, Arn M van den Maagdenberg, Sander Nieuwenhuis
To make optimal predictions in a dynamic environment, the impact of new observations on existing beliefs-that is, the learning rate-should be guided by ongoing estimates of change and uncertainty. Theoretical work has proposed specific computational roles for various neuromodulatory systems in the control of learning rate, but empirical evidence is still sparse. The aim of the current research was to examine the role of the noradrenergic and cholinergic systems in learning rate regulation. First, we replicated our recent findings that the centroparietal P3 component of the EEG-an index of phasic catecholamine release in the cortex-predicts trial-to-trial variability in learning rate and mediates the effects of surprise and belief uncertainty on learning rate (Study 1, N = 17)...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Rachel Wu, Andria Shimi, Michael Solis, Gaia Scerif
Research in adult cognitive neuroscience addresses the bidirectional relationship between attentional selection and prior knowledge gained from learning and experience. This research area is ready for integration with developmental cognitive neuroscience, in particular with educational neuroscience. We review one aspect of this research area, learning what to attend to, to propose a path of integration from highly controlled experiments based on developmental and adult cognitive theories to inform cognitive interventions for learners across the lifespan...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Ian A Clark, Misun Kim, Eleanor A Maguire
It is widely agreed that patients with bilateral hippocampal damage are impaired at binding pairs of words together. Consequently, the verbal paired associates (VPA) task has become emblematic of hippocampal function. This VPA deficit is not well understood and is particularly difficult for hippocampal theories with a visuospatial bias to explain (e.g., cognitive map and scene construction theories). Resolving the tension among hippocampal theories concerning the VPA could be important for leveraging a fuller understanding of hippocampal function...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
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