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Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991186/timing-in-predictive-coding-the-roles-of-task-relevance-and-global-probability
#1
Chase Sherwell, Marta Garrido, Ross Cunnington
Predictive coding models of attention propose that attention and prediction operate synergistically to optimize perception, as reflected in interactive effects on early sensory neural responses. It is yet unclear whether attention and prediction based on the temporal attributes of expected events operate in a similar fashion. We investigated how attention and prediction based on timing interact by manipulating the task relevance and a priori probability of auditory stimulus onset timing within a go/no-go task while recording EEG...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991185/neural-correlates-of-the-false-consensus-effect-evidence-for-motivated-projection-and-regulatory-restraint
#2
B Locke Welborn, Benjamin C Gunter, I Stephanie Vezich, Matthew D Lieberman
The false consensus effect (FCE), the tendency to project our attitudes and opinions on to others, is a pervasive bias in social reasoning with a range of ramifications for individuals and society. Research in social psychology has suggested that numerous factors (anchoring and adjustment, accessibility, motivated projection, etc.) may contribute to the FCE. In this study, we examine the neural correlates of the FCE and provide evidence that motivated projection plays a significant role. Activity in reward regions (ventromedial pFC and bilateral nucleus accumbens) during consensus estimation was positively associated with bias, whereas activity in right ventrolateral pFC (implicated in emotion regulation) was inversely associated with bias...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991184/parahippocampal-and-entorhinal-resection-extent-predicts-verbal-memory-decline-in-an-epilepsy-surgery-cohort
#3
Anil Lu, Thomas Thesen, William Barr, Chris Morrison, Patricia Dugan, Xiuyuan Wang, Michael Meager, Werner Doyle, Ruben Kuzniecky, Orrin Devinsky, Karen Blackmon
The differential contribution of medial-temporal lobe regions to verbal declarative memory is debated within the neuroscience, neuropsychology, and cognitive psychology communities. We evaluate whether the extent of surgical resection within medial-temporal regions predicts longitudinal verbal learning and memory outcomes. This single-center retrospective observational study involved patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy undergoing unilateral anterior temporal lobe resection from 2007 to 2015. Thirty-two participants with Engel Classes 1 and 2 outcomes were included (14 left, 18 right) and followed for a mean of 2...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991183/the-ventromedial-frontal-lobe-contributes-to-forming-effective-solutions-to-real-world-problems
#4
Sarah L Peters, Lesley K Fellows, Signy Sheldon
Although the ventromedial frontal lobe (VMF) has been implicated in several complex cognitive tasks such as decision-making and problem solving, the processes for which this region is critical remain unclear. Laboratory studies have largely focused on how VMF contributes to decision-making when outcomes or options are provided, but in the real world generating appropriate options is likely a crucial and rate-limiting initial step. Here, we determined how VMF damage affected the option generation phase of naturalistic problem solving...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991182/salience-network-connectivity-modulates-skin-conductance-responses-in-predicting-arousal-experience
#5
Chenjie Xia, Alexandra Touroutoglou, Karen S Quigley, Lisa Feldman Barrett, Bradford C Dickerson
Individual differences in arousal experience have been linked to differences in resting-state salience network connectivity strength. In this study, we investigated how adding task-related skin conductance responses (SCR), a measure of sympathetic autonomic nervous system activity, can predict additional variance in arousal experience. Thirty-nine young adults rated their subjective experience of arousal to emotionally evocative images while SCRs were measured. They also underwent a separate resting-state fMRI scan...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991181/the-pivotal-role-of-the-right-parietal-lobe-in-temporal-attention
#6
Sara Agosta, Denise Magnago, Sarah Tyler, Emily Grossman, Emanuela Galante, Francesco Ferraro, Nunzia Mazzini, Gabriele Miceli, Lorella Battelli
The visual system is extremely efficient at detecting events across time even at very fast presentation rates; however, discriminating the identity of those events is much slower and requires attention over time, a mechanism with a much coarser resolution [Cavanagh, P., Battelli, L., & Holcombe, A. O. Dynamic attention. In A. C. Nobre & S. Kastner (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of attention (pp. 652-675). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013]. Patients affected by right parietal lesion, including the TPJ, are severely impaired in discriminating events across time in both visual fields [Battelli, L...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897678/a-tale-of-two-temporal-coding-strategies-common-and-dissociable-brain-regions-involved-in-recency-versus-associative-temporal-order-retrieval-strategies
#7
Jennifer S Lieberman, Colin T Kyle, Amber Schedlbauer, Jared Stokes, Arne D Ekstrom
Numerous studies indicate the importance of the hippocampus to temporal order retrieval. However, behavioral studies suggest that there are different ways to retrieve temporal order information from encoded sequences, one involving an associative strategy (retrieving associations using neighboring items in a list) and another involving a recency strategy (determining which of two items came first). It remains unresolved, however, whether both strategies recruit the hippocampus or only associative strategies, consistent with the hippocampus's role in relational processing...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897677/cognitive-training-in-the-elderly-bottlenecks-and-new-avenues
#8
Nahid Zokaei, Christopher MacKellar, Giedrė Čepukaitytė, Eva Zita Patai, Anna Christina Nobre
Development of measures to preserve cognitive function or even reverse cognitive decline in the ever-growing elderly population is the focus of many research and commercial efforts. One such measure gaining in popularity is the development of computer-based interventions that "exercise" cognitive functions. Computer-based cognitive training has the potential to be specific and flexible, accommodates feedback, and is highly accessible. As in most budding fields, there are still considerable inconsistencies across methodologies and results, as well as a lack of consensus on a comprehensive assessment protocol...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897676/the-effects-of-face-inversion-and-face-race-on-the-p100-erp
#9
Clara Colombatto, Gregory McCarthy
Research about the neural basis of face recognition has investigated the timing and anatomical substrates of different stages of face processing. Scalp-recorded ERP studies of face processing have focused on the N170, an ERP with a peak latency of ∼170 msec that has long been associated with the initial structural encoding of faces. However, several studies have reported earlier ERP differences related to faces, suggesting that face-specific processes might occur before N170. Here, we examined the influence of face inversion and face race on the timing of face-sensitive scalp-recorded ERPs by examining neural responses to upright and inverted line-drawn and luminance-matched White and Black faces in a sample of White participants...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897675/mediofrontal-negativity-signals-unexpected-timing-of-salient-outcomes
#10
Sara Garofalo, Christopher Timmermann, Simone Battaglia, Martin E Maier, Giuseppe di Pellegrino
The medial pFC (mPFC) and ACC have been consistently implicated in learning predictions of future outcomes and signaling prediction errors (i.e., unexpected deviations from such predictions). A computational model of ACC/mPFC posits that these prediction errors should be modulated by outcomes occurring at unexpected times, even if the outcomes themselves are predicted. However, unexpectedness per se is not the only variable that modulates ACC/mPFC activity, as studies reported its sensitivity to the salience of outcomes...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897674/dopamine-alters-the-fidelity-of-working-memory-representations-according-to-attentional-demands
#11
Sean James Fallon, Nahid Zokaei, Agnes Norbury, Sanjay G Manohar, Masud Husain
Capacity limitations in working memory (WM) necessitate the need to effectively control its contents. Here, we examined the effect of cabergoline, a dopamine D2 receptor agonist, on WM using a continuous report paradigm that allowed us to assess the fidelity with which items are stored. We assessed recall performance under three different gating conditions: remembering only one item, being cued to remember one target among distractors, and having to remember all items. Cabergoline had differential effects on recall performance according to whether distractors had to be ignored and whether mnemonic resources could be deployed exclusively to the target...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897673/soap-opera-self-as-object-and-agent-in-prioritizing-attention
#12
Grace Truong, Rebecca M Todd
A growing body of evidence has demonstrated that multiple sources of salience tune attentional sets toward aspects of the environment, including affectively and motivationally significant categories of stimuli such as angry faces and reward-associated target locations. Recent evidence further indicates that objects that have gained personal significance through ownership can elicit similar attentional prioritization. Here we discuss current research on sources of attentional prioritization that shape our awareness of the visual world from moment to moment and the underlying neural systems and contextualize what is known about attentional prioritization of our possessions within that research...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897672/acute-exercise-modulates-feature-selective-responses-in-human-cortex
#13
Tom Bullock, James C Elliott, John T Serences, Barry Giesbrecht
An organism's current behavioral state influences ongoing brain activity. Nonhuman mammalian and invertebrate brains exhibit large increases in the gain of feature-selective neural responses in sensory cortex during locomotion, suggesting that the visual system becomes more sensitive when actively exploring the environment. This raises the possibility that human vision is also more sensitive during active movement. To investigate this possibility, we used an inverted encoding model technique to estimate feature-selective neural response profiles from EEG data acquired from participants performing an orientation discrimination task...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897671/high-intensity-interval-exercise-promotes-motor-cortex-disinhibition-and-early-motor-skill-consolidation
#14
Ellen L Stavrinos, James P Coxon
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibition shapes motor cortex output, gates synaptic plasticity in the form of long-term potentiation, and plays an important role in motor learning. Remarkably, recent studies have shown that acute cardiovascular exercise can improve motor memory, but the cortical mechanisms are not completely understood. We investigated whether an acute bout of lower-limb high-intensity interval (HIT) exercise could promote motor memory formation in humans through changes in cortical inhibition within the hand region of the primary motor cortex...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897670/boosting-cognition-effects-of-multiple-session-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-working-memory
#15
Lotte J Talsma, Henryk A Kroese, Heleen A Slagter
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising tool for neurocognitive enhancement. Several studies have shown that just a single session of tDCS over the left dorsolateral pFC (lDLPFC) can improve the core cognitive function of working memory (WM) in healthy adults. Yet, recent studies combining multiple sessions of anodal tDCS over lDLPFC with verbal WM training did not observe additional benefits of tDCS in subsequent stimulation sessions nor transfer of benefits to novel WM tasks posttraining...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897669/domain-general-stroop-performance-and-hemispheric-asymmetries-a-resting-state-eeg-study
#16
Ettore Ambrosini, Antonino Vallesi
The ability to suppress irrelevant information while executing a task or interference resistance is a function of pFC that is critical for successful goal-directed human behavior. In the study of interference resistance and, more generally, executive functions, two key questions are still open: Does pFC contribute to cognitive control abilities through lateralized but domain-general mechanisms or through hemispheric specialization of domain-specific processes? And what are the underlying causes of interindividual differences in executive control performance? To shed light on these issues, here we employed an interindividual difference approach to investigate whether participants' hemispheric asymmetry in resting-state electrophysiological brain dynamics may reflect their variability in domain-general interference resistance...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897668/global-enhancement-but-local-suppression-in-feature-based-attention
#17
Norman Forschack, Søren K Andersen, Matthias M Müller
A key property of feature-based attention is global facilitation of the attended feature throughout the visual field. Previously, we presented superimposed red and blue randomly moving dot kinematograms (RDKs) flickering at a different frequency each to elicit frequency-specific steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) that allowed us to analyze neural dynamics in early visual cortex when participants shifted attention to one of the two colors. Results showed amplification of the attended and suppression of the unattended color as measured by SSVEP amplitudes...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791433/representational-dynamics-of-facial-viewpoint-encoding
#18
Tim C Kietzmann, Anna L Gert, Frank Tong, Peter König
Faces provide a wealth of information, including the identity of the seen person and social cues, such as the direction of gaze. Crucially, different aspects of face processing require distinct forms of information encoding. Another person's attentional focus can be derived based on a view-dependent code. In contrast, identification benefits from invariance across all viewpoints. Different cortical areas have been suggested to subserve these distinct functions. However, little is known about the temporal aspects of differential viewpoint encoding in the human brain...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791432/intermodal-attention-shifts-in-multimodal-working-memory
#19
Tobias Katus, Anna Grubert, Martin Eimer
Attention maintains task-relevant information in working memory (WM) in an active state. We investigated whether the attention-based maintenance of stimulus representations that were encoded through different modalities is flexibly controlled by top-down mechanisms that depend on behavioral goals. Distinct components of the ERP reflect the maintenance of tactile and visual information in WM. We concurrently measured tactile (tCDA) and visual contralateral delay activity (CDA) to track the attentional activation of tactile and visual information during multimodal WM...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791431/neuronal-oscillations-indicate-sleep-dependent-changes-in-the-cortical-memory-trace
#20
Moritz Köster, Holger Finger, Maren Kater, Christoph Schenk, Thomas Gruber
Sleep promotes the consolidation of newly acquired associative memories. Here we used neuronal oscillations in the human EEG to investigate sleep-dependent changes in the cortical memory trace. The retrieval activity for object-color associations was assessed immediately after encoding and after 3 hr of sleep or wakefulness. Sleep had beneficial effects on memory performance and led to reduced event-related theta and gamma power during the retrieval of associative memories. Furthermore, event-related alpha suppression was attenuated in the wake group for memorized and novel stimuli...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
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