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Inhalation Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110549/a-104-week-pulmonary-toxicity-assessment-of-long-and-short-single-wall-carbon-nanotubes-after-a-single-intratracheal-instillation-in-rats
#1
Kazumasa Honda, Masato Naya, Hiroshi Takehara, Hiromichi Kataura, Katsuhide Fujita, Makoto Ema
We compared long-term pulmonary toxicities after a single intratracheal instillation of two types of dispersed single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), namely, those with relatively long or short linear shapes with average lengths of 8.6 and 0.55 µm, respectively. Both types of SWCNTs were instilled intratracheally in male F344 rats at 0.2 or 1.0 mg/kg (long SWCNTs) or 1.0 mg/kg (short SWCNTs). Pulmonary responses were characterized at 26, 52 and 104 weeks after a single instillation. Inflammatory changes, test substance deposition, test substance engulfment by macrophages, and alveolar wall fibrosis were observed in the lungs of almost all test rats at 52 and 104 weeks after short nanotube instillation...
November 7, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064301/association-of-waterpipe-smoking-with-myocardial-infarction-and-determinants-of-metabolic-syndrome-among-catheterized-patients
#2
Daniel E Platt, Essa Hariri, Pascale Salameh, Mariana Helou, Nada Sabbah, Mahmoud Merhi, Elie Chammas, Walid Ammar, Antoine B Abchee, Pierre A Zalloua
BACKGROUND: Waterpipe smoking is a rising global public health epidemic perceived by many users to be less harmful, though its toxicity overlaps or even exceeds that of cigarette smoking. Short-term cardiovascular changes due to waterpipe smoking are well established, but longer-term health impacts are still not fully elucidated. OBJECTIVE: We aim to investigate the association of waterpipe smoking with myocardial infarction among patients undergoing cardiac catheterization...
October 24, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984146/nonclinical-safety-assessment-of-spx-101-a-novel-peptide-promoter-of-epithelial-sodium-channel-internalization-for-the-treatment-of-cystic-fibrosis
#3
Matthew P Walker, Matt Cowlen, Dale Christensen, Mutsumi Miyamoto, Phillip Barley, Timothy Crowder
BACKGROUND: ENaC inhibition has long been an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of cystic fibrosis. However, previous attempts at developing ENaC inhibitors have been unsuccessful due to complications arising from systemic circulation of the compounds. Here, we describe the preclinical toxicology assessment of a new inhaled peptide promoter of ENaC internalization delivered as a nebulized aerosol. METHODS: Preclinical assessment of SPX-101 safety was determined using an in vitro hERG assay, bolus injection of SPX-101 in a canine cardiovascular and respiratory safety pharmacology model and 28-day inhalation toxicology studies of nebulized drug in rats and dogs...
October 6, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967277/pulmonary-toxicity-following-acute-coexposures-to-diesel-particulate-matter-and-%C3%AE-quartz-crystalline-silica-in-the-sprague-dawley-rat
#4
Breanne Y Farris, James M Antonini, Jeffrey S Fedan, Robert R Mercer, Katherine A Roach, Bean T Chen, Diane Schwegler-Berry, Michael L Kashon, Mark W Barger, Jenny R Roberts
The effects of acute pulmonary coexposures to silica and diesel particulate matter (DPM), which may occur in various mining operations, were investigated in vivo. Rats were exposed by intratracheal instillation (IT) to silica (50 or 233 µg), DPM (7.89 or 50 µg) or silica and DPM combined in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or to PBS alone (control). At one day, one week, one month, two months and three months postexposure bronchoalveolar lavage and histopathology were performed to assess lung injury, inflammation and immune response...
October 1, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891353/development-of-an-inhalation-unit-risk-factor-for-ethylene-dibromide
#5
Heather R Schaefer, Jessica L Myers
The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) follows standard scientific methods to develop up-to-date toxicity factors for chemicals emitted in the state of Texas. An inhalation unit risk factor (URF) was developed for ethylene dibromide (EDB, CAS 106-93-4) based on an increased incidence of nasal cavity adenocarcinomas observed in female rats in a 2-year inhalation cancer bioassay conducted by the National Toxicology Program (NTP). The NTP study provided evidence of several EDB-induced tumors in male and female rats and in female mice...
September 11, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880688/neonatal-rat-age-sex-and-strain-modify-acute-antioxidant-response-to-ozone
#6
Janice A Dye, Eugene A Gibbs-Flournoy, Judy H Richards, Joel Norwood, Katherine Kraft, Gary E Hatch
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death in the US and its impact continues to increase in women. Oxidant insults during critical periods of early life appear to increase risk of COPD through-out the life course. To better understand susceptibility to early life exposure to oxidant air pollutants we used Fisher (F344), Sprague-Dawley (SD) and Wistar (WIS) male and female neonatal rat pups to assess: (A) if strain (i.e. genetics), sex, or stage of early life development affected baseline lung antioxidant or redox enzyme levels and (B) if these same factors modulated antioxidant responsiveness to acute ozone exposure (1 ppm × 2 h) on post-natal day (PND) 14, 21, or 28...
September 7, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819990/effects-of-maternal-high-fat-diet-and-sedentary-lifestyle-on-susceptibility-of-adult-offspring-to-ozone-exposure-in-rats
#7
C J Gordon, P M Phillips, A F M Johnstone, J Schmid, M C Schladweiler, A Ledbetter, S J Snow, U P Kodavanti
Epidemiological and experimental data suggest that obesity exacerbates the health effects of air pollutants such as ozone (O3). Maternal inactivity and calorically rich diets lead to offspring that show signs of obesity. Exacerbated O3 susceptibility of offspring could thus be manifested by maternal obesity. Thirty-day-old female Long-Evans rats were fed a control (CD) or high-fat (HF) (60% calories) diet for 6 wks and then bred. GD1 rats were then housed with a running wheel (RW) or without a wheel (SED) until parturition, creating four groups of offspring: CD-SED, CD-RW, HF-SED and HF-RW...
August 18, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816559/the-role-of-the-lectin-like-oxldl-receptor-lox-1-in-traffic-generated-air-pollution-exposure-mediated-alteration-of-the-brain-microvasculature-in-apolipoprotein-apo-e-knockout-mice
#8
JoAnn Lucero, Usa Suwannasual, Lindsay M Herbert, Jacob D McDonald, Amie K Lund
Recent studies have shown a strong correlation between air pollution-exposure and detrimental outcomes in the central nervous system, including alterations in blood brain barrier (BBB) integrity, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration. However, the mechanisms mediating these pathologies have not yet been fully elucidated. We have previously reported that exposure to traffic-generated air pollution results in increased circulating oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), associated with alterations in BBB integrity, in atherosclerotic Apolipoprotein E null (ApoE(-/-)) mice...
August 17, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805080/evaluation-of-the-amount-of-nanoparticles-emitted-in-welding-fume-from-stainless-steel-using-different-shielding-gases
#9
R P Pacheco, J F Gomes, R M Miranda, M L Quintino
The primary objective of this study was to correlate the emission of macro and nanoparticles released during the process of metal inert gas/metal active gas (MIG/MAG) of stainless steel with different gas mixtures. Using different gas mixtures with different heat inputs, it was possible to determine fume formation rates and surface areas of nanoparticles with alveolar lung deposition capacity. It was found, how the various transfer modes and the type of gas protection, in particular, the percentage of active elements in the chemical composition of the gas, affect the amount of fumes generated and also the generation of nanoparticles with a high capacity of deposition...
August 14, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124998/evaluation-of-the-presence-of-asbestos-in-cosmetic-talcum-products
#10
Jennifer S Pierce, Alexander S Riordan, Eric W Miller, Shannon H Gaffney, Dana M Hollins
Talc has been used for over a century in a variety of cosmetic products. While pure cosmetic talc (free of asbestos) is not considered a risk factor for mesothelioma, it has been recently suggested that inhalation of cosmetic talc containing trace levels of asbestos is a risk factor for mesothelioma. Bulk analyses of cosmetic talcum products were performed in the 1960s and 1970s, however, the analytical methods used at that time were incapable of determining whether asbestos minerals were present in the asbestiform versus non-asbestiform habit...
August 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124997/perinatal-exposure-to-environmental-tobacco-smoke-is-associated-with-changes-in-dna-methylation-that-precede-the-adult-onset-of-lung-disease-in-a-mouse-model
#11
Elizabeth Cole, Traci A Brown, Kent E Pinkerton, Britten Postma, Keegan Malany, Mihi Yang, Yang Jee Kim, Raymond F Hamilton, Andrij Holian, Yoon Hee Cho
Prenatal and early-life environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure can induce epigenetic alterations associated with inflammation and respiratory disease. The objective of this study was to address the long-term epigenetic consequences of perinatal ETS exposure on latent respiratory disease risk, which are still largely unknown. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to prenatal and early-life ETS; offspring lung pathology, global DNA, and gene-specific methylation were measured at two adult ages. Significant alterations in global DNA methylation and promoter methylation of IFN-γ and Thy-1 were found in ETS-exposed offspring at 10-12 and 20 weeks of age...
August 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124996/a-30-year-mortality-and-respiratory-morbidity-study-of-refractory-ceramic-fiber-workers
#12
Grace LeMasters, James E Lockey, Timothy J Hilbert, Linda S Levin, Jeff W Burkle, Ralph Shipley, Charles Perme, Cristopher A Meyer, Carol H Rice
AIM: Report mortality (n = 1119), cancer incidence (n = 1207) and radiographic (n = 1451) findings from a 30-year investigation of current and former refractory ceramic fiber (RCF) workers. METHODS: Cause of death, health and work histories, radiographs and spirometry were collected. Mortality and cancer incidence were analyzed. Logistic regression analysis investigated the associations of latency and cumulative fiber exposure (CFE) on radiographic changes...
August 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124995/peri-implant-soft-tissue-parameters-and-crestal-bone-levels-among-narghile-smokers-and-nonsmokers
#13
Tariq Abduljabbar, Nawaf Al-Hamoudi, Muath AlQunayan, Abdullah AlAhmari, Alwaleed AlMalki, Elham Gholamiazizi, Fahim Vohra
This retrospective convenient sample case-control study investigated the peri-implant soft-tissue inflammatory parameters and crestal bone loss (CBL) among narghile smokers (NS) (Group I) and nonsmoking controls (Group II). Demographic data were collected using a questionnaire. Peri-implant plaque index (PI), bleeding-on-probing (BOP) and pocket-depth (PD) were assessed; and peri-implant CBL was measured on standardized digital bite-wing radiographs. Sample-size was estimated and statistical analysis were done using Mann-Whitney U-test...
August 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043874/the-risk-of-occupational-exposure-to-mercury-vapor-in-some-public-dental-clinics-of-baghdad-city-iraq
#14
Enas Sultan Al-Zubaidi, Adel Mashaan Rabee
BACKGROUND: Dental workers are exposed to elevated levels of elemental mercury vapor substantially above the occupational exposure standards when placing or removing mercury/silver tooth restorations and disposing of mercury waste. This results in a significant increase in occupational exposure and risk of mercury intoxication. METHODS: To evaluate the occupational exposure of dental workers to amalgam in four dental clinics in Baghdad city, the concentrations of mercury vapor were measured seasonally from February to November 2016...
August 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039228/evaluation-of-the-respiratory-tract-toxicity-of-ortho-phthalaldehyde-a-proposed-alternative-for-the-chemical-disinfectant-glutaraldehyde
#15
Natasha R Catlin, Cynthia J Willson, Matthew Stout, Grace E Kissling, Suramya Waidyanatha, Gregory L Baker, Barry K Hayden, Michael Wyde
ortho-Phthalaldehyde (OPA) is a high-level chemical disinfectant that is commonly used for chemical sterilization of dental and medical instruments as an alternative to glutaraldehyde, a known skin and respiratory sensitizer. Concern for safe levels of human exposure remains due to a lack of toxicity data as well as human case reports of skin and respiratory sensitization following OPA exposure. The present study evaluated the inhalational toxicity of OPA in Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats and B6C3F1/N mice. Groups of 10 male and female rats and mice were exposed to OPA by whole-body inhalation for 3 months at concentrations of 0 (control), 0...
August 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039225/toxicological-impact-of-waterpipe-smoking-and-flavorings-in-the-oral-cavity-and-respiratory-system
#16
Fawad Javed, Shatha Subhi ALHarthi, Munerah Saleh BinShabaib, Sangeeta Gajendra, Georgios E Romanos, Irfan Rahman
Waterpipe smoking (WS), an emerging trend has major health concerns. It is prevalent worldwide as a recreational activity both indoors and outdoors. The aim of this review was to assess the impact of waterpipe smoke on the oral and respiratory system (oral cavity and pulmonary tissues). A number of studies have shown that periodontal health status is compromised in waterpipe smokers when compared with nonsmokers. Some studies have associated WS with oral premalignant and malignant lesions; however, due to the poor quality of these studies, the presented outcomes should be interpreted with caution...
August 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039215/a-clinical-assessment-and-lung-tissue-burden-from-an-individual-who-worked-as-a-libby-vermiculite-miner
#17
Brad Black, Ronald F Dodson, James R Bruce, Lee W Poye, Claudia Henschke, Gregory Loewen
During its days of operation (1920s-1990), the world's largest source of vermiculite was extracted from a mine located near Libby, Montana. The material mined at this site was shipped for various commercial applications to numerous sites in the United States. There was a "fibrous" component with toxic potential within the vermiculite deposit that has resulted in "asbestos-like" diseases/deaths being reported in numerous studies involving miners as well as residents of the town of Libby. The present case involves the clinical assessments of an individual who worked at the mine from 1969 to 1990...
August 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039209/re-brent-l-finley-stacey-m-benson-gary-m-marsh-2017-cosmetic-talc-as-a-risk-factor-for-pleural-mesothelioma-a-weight-of-evidence-evaluation-of-the-epidemiology-inhalation-toxicology-doi-10-1080-08958378-2017-1336187
#18
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762854/lethal-concentration-of-perfluoroisobutylene-induces-acute-lung-injury-in-mice-mediated-via-cytokine-storm-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis
#19
Yingjie Zhang, Lei Fan, Ronggang Xi, Zhonghua Mao, Dan Shi, Ding Ding, Zhiran Zhang, Xiaobo Wang
Perfluoroisobutylene (PFIB) is a highly toxic gas that targets the lungs. Low-level inhalation of the gas can lead to acute lung injury (ALI), pulmonary edema and even death. No specific anti-PFIB drugs are currently available and the pathogenesis of PFIB-induced ALI is not fully understood. Early direct oxidative injury and a secondary hyper-inflammatory response are recognized as the primary mechanisms of PFIB-induced ALI. In the present study, our data demonstrate for the first time that a cytokine storm is associated with PFIB-induced ALI...
August 1, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722486/neurotoxic-effects-of-subchronic-intratracheal-mn-nanoparticle-exposure-alone-and-in-combination-with-other-welding-fume-metals-in-rats
#20
Zsuzsanna Máté, Edina Horváth, András Papp, Krisztina Kovács, Etelka Tombácz, Dániel Nesztor, Tamás Szabó, Andrea Szabó, Edit Paulik
Manganese (Mn) is a toxic heavy metal exposing workers in various occupational settings and causing, among others, nervous system damage. Metal fumes of welding, a typical source of Mn exposure, contain a complex mixture of metal oxides partly in nanoparticle form. As toxic effects of complex substances cannot be sufficiently understood by examining its components separately, general toxicity and functional neurotoxicity of a main pathogenic welding fume metal, Mn, was examined alone and combined with iron (Fe) and chromium (Cr), also frequently found in fumes...
July 19, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
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