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Inhalation Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317464/molecular-mechanisms-of-pulmonary-response-progression-in-crystalline-silica-exposed-rats
#1
Rajendran Sellamuthu, Christina Umbright, Jenny R Roberts, Shih-Houng Young, Diana Richardson, Walter McKinney, Bean T Chen, Shengqiao Li, Michael Kashon, Pius Joseph
An understanding of the mechanisms underlying diseases is critical for their prevention. Excessive exposure to crystalline silica is a risk factor for silicosis, a potentially fatal pulmonary disease. Male Fischer 344 rats were exposed by inhalation to crystalline silica (15 mg/m(3), six hours/day, five days) and pulmonary response was determined at 44 weeks following termination of silica exposure. Additionally, global gene expression profiling in lungs and BAL cells and bioinformatic analysis of the gene expression data were done to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the progression of pulmonary response to silica...
March 19, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470142/multicomponent-aerosol-particle-deposition-in-a-realistic-cast-of-the-human-upper-respiratory-tract
#2
Markus Nordlund, Miloslav Belka, Arkadiusz K Kuczaj, Frantisek Lizal, Jan Jedelsky, Jakub Elcner, Miroslav Jicha, Youri Sauser, Soazig Le Bouhellec, Stephane Cosandey, Shoaib Majeed, Grégory Vuillaume, Manuel C Peitsch, Julia Hoeng
Inhalation of aerosols generated by electronic cigarettes leads to deposition of multiple chemical compounds in the human airways. In this work, an experimental method to determine regional deposition of multicomponent aerosols in an in vitro segmented, realistic human lung geometry was developed and applied to two aerosols, i.e. a monodisperse glycerol aerosol and a multicomponent aerosol. The method comprised the following steps: (1) lung cast model preparation, (2) aerosol generation and exposure, (3) extraction of deposited mass, (4) chemical quantification and (5) data processing...
February 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470141/a-comparative-study-of-electronic-cigarette-vapor-extracts-on-airway-related-cell-lines-in-vitro
#3
Laura J Leslie, Pranav Vasanthi Bathrinarayanan, Pamela Jackson, Justin A Mabiala Ma Muanda, Ross Pallett, Christopher J P Stillman, Lindsay J Marshall
The use of electronic cigarettes (ECs) is rapidly increasing worldwide; however, scientific evidence regarding EC cytotoxicity is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute cytotoxicity of EC vapor extract (ECE) on airway-related cells in vitro. Cigarette smoke extract (CSE), vapor extract of fifteen brands/flavors of ECs and the extract from the E-vehicle (propylene glycol and glycerin) was collected. Extracts, in concentrations of 100-12.5%, were added to human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B, IB3-1 and C38), fibroblast (Wi-38) and macrophage (J774 and THP-1) cell lines...
February 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470140/temporal-structure-function-variation-in-cultured-differentiated-human-nasal-epithelium-associated-with-acute-single-exposure-to-tobacco-smoke-or-e-cigarette-vapor
#4
Johnny L Carson, Laura Zhou, Luisa Brighton, Katherine H Mills, Haibo Zhou, Ilona Jaspers, Milan Hazucha
OBJECTIVE: Mucociliary clearance sustains a baseline functionality and an "on demand" capability to upregulate clearance upon irritant exposure involving mucus hypersecretion and accelerated ciliary beat frequency (CBF) modulated by nitric oxide (NO). This study characterized these elements as well as cellular and exogenous NO concentrations subsequent to a single exposure to tobacco smoke (TS) or e-cigarette vapor (EV) on cultured human airway epithelium. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Air-liquid interface (ALI) airway epithelial cultures per nonsmoking human subjects were subjected to single TS or EV exposures...
February 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413916/extent-of-allergic-inflammation-depends-on-intermittent-versus-continuous-sensitization-to-house-dust-mite
#5
Jane Tully Jones, Dereje D Tassew, Lois K Herrera, Stephanie R Walton-Filipczak, Marena A Montera, Hitendra S Chand, Monica Delgado, Yohannes A Mebratu, Yohannes Tesfaigzi
OBJECTIVE: House dust mite (HDM) exposure is used to model experimental asthma in mice. However, a direct comparison of inflammatory responses following continuous versus intermittent HDM exposure has not been reported. Therefore, we investigated whether the HDM dose at sensitization or challenge affects extent of inflammation in mice that were either continuously or intermittently sensitized with HDM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C57BL/6 mice received either 10 continuous exposures with 10 μg HDM per exposure or two intermittent HDM exposures over a period of two weeks and were subsequently challenged by three instillations with HDM during the third week...
February 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412860/modeling-vascular-inflammation-and-atherogenicity-after-inhalation-of-ambient-levels-of-ozone-exploratory-lessons-from-transcriptomics
#6
Andrea Tham, Dominic Lullo, Sarah Dalton, Siyang Zeng, Ian van Koeverden, Mehrdad Arjomandi
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have linked inhalation of air pollutants such as ozone to cardiovascular mortality. Human exposure studies have shown that inhalation of ambient levels of ozone causes airway and systemic inflammation and an imbalance in sympathetic/parasympathetic tone. METHODS: To explore molecular mechanisms through which ozone inhalation contributes to cardiovascular mortality, we compared transcriptomics data previously obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells obtained from healthy subjects after inhalational exposure to ozone (200 ppb for 4 h) to those of various cell samples from 11 published studies of patients with atherosclerotic disease using the Nextbio genomic data platform...
February 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330430/effect-of-waterpipe-tobacco-smoking-on-airway-inflammation-in-murine-model-of-asthma
#7
Nour A Al-Sawalha, Ala'a M Migdadi, Karem H Alzoubi, Omar F Khabour, Nidal A Qinna
OBJECTIVE: There has been an increase in the popularity of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) worldwide, especially in the younger population, including asthma patients. In this study, we investigated the effects of waterpipe smoking on airway inflammation, cytokine levels and oxidative stress markers in an antigen-driven murine model of asthma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Balb/c mice were divided into four groups; (1) control (received fresh air, ovalbumin sensitization and saline challenge), (2) WTS (received WTS, ovalbumin sensitization and saline challenge), (3) Ova S/C (received fresh air, ovalbumin sensitization and ovalbumin challenge) and (4) simultaneous WTS and Ova S/C (received WTS, ovalbumin sensitization and ovalbumin challenge)...
February 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330429/effects-of-inhaled-aerosolized-carfentanil-on-real-time-physiological-responses-in-mice-a-preliminary-evaluation-of-naloxone
#8
Benjamin Wong, Michael W Perkins, Justin Tressler, Ashley Rodriguez, Jennifer Devorak, Alfred M Sciuto
This study examined the real-time exposure-response effects of aerosolized carfentanil (CRF) on opioid-induced toxicity, respiratory dynamics and cardiac function in mice. Unrestrained, conscious male CD-1 mice (25-30 g) were exposed to 0.4 or 4.0 mg/m(3) of aerosolized CRF for 15 min (Ct = 6 or 60 mg min/m(3)) in a whole-body plethysmograph chamber. Minute volume (MV), core body temperature (Tc), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were evaluated in animals exposed to CRF or sterile H2O...
February 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330428/toxicity-of-airborne-dust-as-an-indicator-of-moisture-problems-in-school-buildings
#9
Jenni Tirkkonen, Martin Täubel, Hanna Leppänen, Matti Peltonen, William Lindsley, Bean T Chen, Anne Hyvärinen, Maija-Riitta Hirvonen, Kati Huttunen
Moisture-damaged indoor environments are thought to increase the toxicity of indoor air particulate matter (PM), indicating that a toxicological assay could be used as a method for recognizing buildings with indoor air problems. We aimed to test if our approach of analyzing the toxicity of actively collected indoor air PM in vitro differentiates moisture-damaged from non-damaged school buildings. We collected active air samples with NIOSH Bioaerosol Cyclone Samplers from moisture-damaged (index) and non-damaged (reference) school buildings (4 + 4)...
February 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330427/comparison-of-airway-response-in-na%C3%A3-ve-and-ovalbumin-sensitized-mice-during-short-term-inhalation-exposure-to-chlorine
#10
Mia Johansson, Åsa Gustafsson, Gunnar Johanson, Mattias Öberg
OBJECTIVE: It has been suggested that asthmatics are more susceptible than healthy individuals to airborne irritating chemicals in general. However, there is limited human data available to support this hypothesis due to ethical and practical difficulties. We explored a murine model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced airway inflammation to study susceptibility during acute exposure to chemicals with chlorine as a model substance. METHODS: Naïve and OVA sensitized female BALB/c mice were exposed to chlorine at four different concentrations (0, 5, 30 and 80 ppm) for 15 minutes with online recording of the respiratory function by plethysmography...
February 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330426/comment-on-pleural-plaques-and-lung-function-in-the-marysville-worker-cohort-a-re-analysis-by-zu-et%C3%A2-al-2016
#11
James E Lockey, Kari Dunning, Timothy J Hilbert, Eric Borton, Linda Levin, Carol H Rice, Roy T McKay, Ralph Shipley, Cristopher A Meyer, Charles Perme, Grace K LeMasters
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316251/response-to-goldberg-and-burnett-2016-it
#12
Christian J Murray, Frederick W Lipfert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183203/adverse-respiratory-effects-in-rats-following-inhalation-exposure-to-ammonia-respiratory-dynamics-and-histopathology
#13
Michael W Perkins, Benjamin Wong, Justin Tressler, Ashley Rodriguez, Katherine Sherman, Jaclynn Andres, Jennifer Devorak, William L Wilkins, Alfred M Sciuto
Acute respiratory dynamics and histopathology of the lungs and trachea following inhaled exposure to ammonia were investigated. Respiratory dynamic parameters were collected from male Sprague-Dawley rats (300-350 g) during (20 min) and 24 h (10 min) after inhalation exposure for 20 min to 9000, 20,000, and 23,000 ppm of ammonia in a head-only exposure system. Body weight loss, analysis of blood cells, and lungs and trachea histopathology were assessed 1, 3, and 24 h following inhalation exposure to 20,000 ppm of ammonia...
January 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183202/mesothelial-cell-autoantibodies-upregulate-transcription-factors-associated-with-fibrosis
#14
John Gilmer, Tanner Harding, Linda Woods, Brad Black, Raja Flores, Jean Pfau
Amphibole asbestos exposure is associated with the production of mesothelial cell autoantibodies (MCAA). These MCAA have been linked with pleural fibrotic disease in the asbestos exposed community of Libby, Montana, and induce collagen deposition by cultured mesothelial cells. However, the exact intracellular mechanism by which these autoantibodies cause an increase in collagen deposition remains unknown. This study sought to gain insight into the transcription factors involved in the collagen production after human mesothelial cells are exposed to MCAA...
January 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183201/effect-of-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles-tio2-nps-on-the-expression-of-mucin-genes-in-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#15
Gui Ok Kim, Yoon Seok Choi, Chang Hoon Bae, Si-Youn Song, Yong-Dae Kim
OBJECTIVE: Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are utilized with growing frequency for a wide variety of industrial applications. Recently, acute and chronic exposures to TiO2 NPs have been found to induce inflammatory response in the human respiratory tract. However, the effect and mechanism underlying the induction of major airway mucins by TiO2 NPs have not been elucidated. This study was conducted to characterize the effect of TiO2 NPs, and the mechanism involved, on the expressions of airway mucins in human airway epithelial cells...
January 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183200/spirometry-a-predictor-of-lung-cancer-among-asbestos-workers
#16
Beata Świątkowska, Neonila Szeszenia-Dąbrowska
OBJECTIVE: The significance of lung function as an independent risk factor for lung cancer remains unclear. The objective of the study is to answer the question if spirometry can identify patients at risk for lung cancer among people occupationally exposed to asbestos dust in the past. METHODS: In order to identify a group of individuals with the highest risk of lung cancer incidence based on lung function levels of FEV1% predicted value, we examined 6882 subjects enrolled in the health surveillance program for asbestos related diseases over the years 2000-2014...
January 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183199/recombinant-human-keratinocyte-growth-factor-attenuates-apoptosis-in-elastase-induced-emphysematous-mice-lungs
#17
Sudhir Kotnala, Sumit Baghel, Deepali Verma, Amit Tyagi, Jai Prakash Muyal
Alveolar cell apoptosis is one of the potential factors involved in the pathogenesis of emphysema. Recently, exogenous recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor (rHuKGF) has been reported to induce the regeneration of gas exchange structures. Therefore, the rationale of the present study was to investigate the potential effect of rHuKGF in ameliorating tissue destruction in the emphysematous mice lungs. Four experimental groups (i.e. control-, emphysema-, therapy- and therapy control-group) were prepared...
January 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973945/sevoflurane-induces-cognitive-impairments-via-the-mir-27b-limk1-signaling-pathway-in-developing-rats
#18
Yue Yu, Peihong Zhang, Jia Yan, Yuanqing Sun, Xiaoyang Wu, Siwei Xi, Lei Zhang, Yu Sun, Rong Hu, Hong Jiang
Exposure to sevoflurane in neonatal rats could induce learning deficits and abnormal social behaviors, but the specific molecular mechanism is unknown. Postnatal day-7 SD rats were treated with 3% sevoflurane plus 30% oxygen/air or 30% oxygen/air. As the rats grew, the Morris water maze (MWM) and fear conditioning tests were performed to evaluate cognitive function, while the expression of LIMK1 was analyzed by western blot. Luciferase reporter assay was performed to investigate the interaction between LIMK1 and miR-27b...
December 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973944/a-population-based-study-of-smoking-serum-cotinine-and-exhaled-nitric-oxide-among-asthmatics-and-a-healthy-population-in-the-usa
#19
Xiaohui Xu, Hui Hu, Gregory D Kearney, Haidong Kan, Genny Carrillo, Xinguang Chen
BACKGROUND: Fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is recommended by the American Thoracic Society (ATS) as a noninvasive biomarker of airway inflammation. In addition to inflammation, many factors may be associated with FeNO, particularly tobacco exposure; however, only age has been included as an influential factor for children below 12 years. Numerous studies have demonstrated negative associations between tobacco exposure and FeNO levels with self-reported data, but few with an objective assessment of smoking...
December 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919184/role-of-engineered-metal-oxide-nanoparticle-agglomeration-in-reactive-oxygen-species-generation-and-cathepsin-b-release-in-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-and-pulmonary-toxicity
#20
Tina M Sager, Michael Wolfarth, Stephen S Leonard, Anna M Morris, Dale W Porter, Vincent Castranova, Andrij Holian
Incomplete understanding of the contributions of dispersants and engineered nanoparticles/materials (ENM) agglomeration state to biological outcomes presents an obstacle for toxicological studies. Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is often regarded as the primary indicator of ENM bioactivity and toxicity, it remains unclear whether ENM produce ROS or whether ROS is an outcome of ENM-induced cell injury. Phagolysosomal disruption and cathepsin B release also promote bioactivity through inflammasome activation...
December 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
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