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Inhalation Toxicology

Mohammad A Y Alqudah, Karem H Alzoubi, Ghida'a M Ma'abrih, Omar F Khabour
Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) was previously shown to be associated with memory deficits, which were related to oxidative stress. Vitamin C (VitC) has established antioxidant properties against memory deficits associated with several diseases and conditions. In this study, the potential protective effect of VitC on memory impairment induced by WTS exposure was evaluated in a rat model. VitC was administered to animals via oral gavage (100 mg/kg/day, 6 days a week for 4 weeks). At the same period, animals were exposed to WTS for one hour/day, 6 days a week for 4 weeks...
May 22, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Adolph J Januszkiewicz, Matthew A Bazar, Lee C B Crouse, Michael A Chapman, Steven E Hodges, Steven J McCormick, Arthur J O'Neill
OBJECTIVE: Experiments were undertaken to compare morbidity and mortality from brief inhalation exposures to high levels of hydrogen fluoride (HF) and carbonyl fluoride (COF2 ). METHODS: Rats from both sexes were exposed for durations of 5 and 10 min to nominal concentrations of 10,000 to 57,000 ppm HF or 500 to 10,000 ppm COF2 . Respiration was monitored before, during, and after exposure. Animals were observed up to 6 days post-exposure. Terminal blood samples were collected for routine clinical chemistry and hematology...
May 15, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Pamela Dalton, Brianna Soreth, Christopher Maute, Carolyn Novaleski, Marcy Banton
OBJECTIVE: Propylene glycol (PG) is a widely used solvent, chemical intermediate and carrier substance for foods, pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. Professional and occupational exposure to PG aerosol and vapor may occur from theatrical smoke generators and during application of deicing products to airplanes. While PG is considered to have low toxicity, the results of one study suggested that brief (1-min) exposure to PG mist elicited ocular and respiratory effects in humans. Because the high concentrations and brief exposure duration in that study were not representative of most occupational exposures, a controlled experimental exposure study was conducted to clarify or confirm the earlier findings...
May 15, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Zeyad H Al-Sowygh, Meshari Kh Aldamkh, Abdulelah M Binmahfooz, Khulud Abdulrahman Al-Aali, Zohaib Akram, Osama A Qutub, Fawad Javed, Tariq Abduljabbar
OBJECTIVES: It is hypothesized that levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 and MMP-9 are significantly higher in the peri-implant sulcular fluid (PISF) of waterpipe-smokers (WS) compared with never-smokers with peri-implantitis. The aim of the present convenience sample case-control study was to compare the levels of MMP-8 and MMP-9 in the PISF of WS and never-smokers with peri-implantitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Individuals smoking waterpipe (Group 1) and never-smokers (Group 2) were included...
March 22, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
L Daniel Maxim, Mark J Utell
This literature review on refractory ceramic fibers (RCF) summarizes relevant information on manufacturing, processing, applications, occupational exposure, toxicology and epidemiology studies. Rodent toxicology studies conducted in the 1980s showed that RCF caused fibrosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma. Interpretation of these studies was difficult for various reasons (e.g. overload in chronic inhalation bioassays), but spurred the development of a comprehensive product stewardship program under EPA and later OSHA oversight...
March 22, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Ravindra M Satpute, Pramod K Kushwaha, D P Nagar, P V L Rao
Riot control agents (RCA) are lachrymatory, irritating compounds which temporarily incapacitate the uncontainable crowd. Ortho-Chlorobenzylidene-malononitrile (CS), 2-chloroacetophenone (CN), dibenz[b,f]1:4-oxazepine (CR), and nonivamide (PAVA) are synthetic RCAs, while oleoresin extract of chili known as oleoresin capsicum (OC) a natural irritant has been in use by various law enforcement agencies. Though efficacy of these agents is beyond doubt, they suffer from certain drawbacks including toxicity, production cost, and ecological compatibility...
February 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Jiayuan Zhao, Jordan Nelson, Oluwabunmi Dada, Georgios Pyrgiotakis, Ilias G Kavouras, Philip Demokritou
Users of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) are exposed to particles and other gaseous pollutants. However, major knowledge gaps on the physico-chemical properties of such exposures and contradictory data in published literature prohibit health risk assessment. Here, the effects of product brand, type, e-liquid flavoring additives, operational voltage, and user puffing patterns on emissions were systematically assessed using a recently developed, versatile, e-cig exposure generation platform and state-of-the-art analytical methods...
February 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Christoph Bisig, Alke Petri-Fink, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser
Ambient air pollutant levels vary widely in space and time, therefore thorough local evaluation of possible effects is needed. In vitro approaches using lung cell cultures grown at the air-liquid interface and directly exposed to ambient air can offer a reliable addition to animal experimentations and epidemiological studies. To evaluate the adverse effects of ambient air in summer and winter a multi-cellular lung model (16HBE14o-, macrophages, and dendritic cells) was exposed in a mobile cell exposure system...
January 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Peter N Lee
BACKGROUND: Opinions differ on the relationship between tar level and risk of smoking-related disease. However, except for lung cancer, few reviews have evaluated the epidemiological evidence. Here the relationship of tar level to risk of the four main smoking-related diseases is considered. METHODS: Papers comparing risk of lung cancer, COPD, heart disease or stroke in smokers of lower and higher tar yield cigarettes were identified from reviews and searches, relative risk estimates being extracted comparing the lowest and highest tar groups...
January 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Jingliang Dong, Yidan Shang, Lin Tian, Kiao Inthavong, Jiyuan Tu
Rats have been widely used as surrogates for evaluating the health effects of inhaled airborne particulate matter. To provide a thorough understanding of particle transport and deposition mechanisms in the rat nasal airway, this article presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study of particle exposure in a realistic rat nasal passage under a resting flow condition. Particles covering a diameter range from 1 nm to 4 µm were passively released in front of the rat's breathing zone, and the Lagrangian particle tracking approach was used to calculate individual particle trajectories...
January 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Stephen M Roberts, Annette C Rohr, Vladimir B Mikheev, John Munson, Tara Sabo-Attwood
OBJECTIVE: Most studies report that inhaled volatile and semivolatile organic compounds (VOCs/SVOCs) tend to deposit in the upper respiratory tract, while ultrafine (or near ultrafine) particulate matter (PM) (∼100 nm) reaches the lower airways. The objective of this study was to determine whether carbon particle co-exposure carries VOCs/SVOCs deeper into the lungs where they are deposited. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed by inhalation (nose-only) to radiolabeled toluene (20 ppm) or naphthalene (20 ppm) on a single occasion for 1 h, with or without concurrent carbon particle exposure (∼5 mg/m3 )...
January 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Brent L Finley, Stacey M Benson, Gary M Marsh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Daniel E Platt, Essa Hariri, Pascale Salameh, Mariana Helou, Nada Sabbah, Mahmoud Merhi, Elie Chammas, Walid Ammar, Antoine B Abchee, Pierre A Zalloua
BACKGROUND: Waterpipe smoking is a rising global public health epidemic perceived by many users to be less harmful, though its toxicity overlaps or even exceeds that of cigarette smoking. Short-term cardiovascular changes due to waterpipe smoking are well established, but longer-term health impacts are still not fully elucidated. OBJECTIVE: We aim to investigate the association of waterpipe smoking with myocardial infarction among patients undergoing cardiac catheterization...
October 24, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
Matthew P Walker, Matt Cowlen, Dale Christensen, Mutsumi Miyamoto, Phillip Barley, Timothy Crowder
BACKGROUND: ENaC inhibition has long been an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of cystic fibrosis. However, previous attempts at developing ENaC inhibitors have been unsuccessful due to complications arising from systemic circulation of the compounds. Here, we describe the preclinical toxicology assessment of a new inhaled peptide promoter of ENaC internalization delivered as a nebulized aerosol. METHODS: Preclinical assessment of SPX-101 safety was determined using an in vitro hERG assay, bolus injection of SPX-101 in a canine cardiovascular and respiratory safety pharmacology model and 28-day inhalation toxicology studies of nebulized drug in rats and dogs...
October 6, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
Paweł Gać, Małgorzata Poręba, Krystyna Pawlas, Małgorzata Sobieszczańska, Rafał Poręba
Exposure to tobacco smoke is a significant problem of environmental medicine. Tobacco smoke contains over one thousand identified chemicals including numerous toxicants. Cardiovascular system diseases are the major cause of general mortality. The recent development of diagnostic imaging provided methods which enable faster and more precise diagnosis of numerous diseases, also those of cardiovascular system. This paper reviews the most significant scientific research concerning relationship between environmental exposure to tobacco smoke and the morphology and function of cardiovascular system carried out using diagnostic imaging methods, i...
October 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
Hajime Kawasaki
Chronic exposure to titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) induces slight but significant pulmonary inflammation in experimental animals, and among potential mechanisms, particle overload is likely. Although mechanisms of particle overload are poorly understood, excess accumulation of dust particles in dust containing macrophages (dust cells) can impair their mobility, resulting in reduced clearance ability. Accordingly, retention half-times of inhaled TiO2 increase linearly with lung burden in rodents, and mathematical (Michaelis-Menten-like) models for pulmonary clearance rates of TiO2 as a function of lung burden have suggested an alternative mechanism for particle overload, involving excess accumulation of macrophages in the translocation pathway due to the narrow exit to the ciliated airway region, and leading to reduced pulmonary TiO2 clearance rates...
October 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
Shreosi Sanyal, Fouad Amrani, Arnaud Dallongeville, Soutrik Banerjee, Oliver Blanchard, Séverine Deguen, Nathalie Costet, Denis Zmirou-Navier, Isabella Annesi-Maesano
BACKGROUND: Galaxolide (HHCB) is used for fragrance in many consumer products. The aim of the current study was to use objective assessments of HHCB to build a predictive model in order to estimate indoor-measured HHCB concentrations from questionnaire-based data on dwelling characteristics and occupants' habits and activities. METHODS: Environmental assessments of indoor HHCB, dwelling characteristics were carried out in 150 dwellings in Brittany (France). Among the various models that were tested, the best predictive model for the reduced set of characteristics was identified on the basis of the coefficient of determination (R2 ) criterion...
October 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
Christy A Barlow, Matthew Grespin, Elizabeth A Best
Differences in chemical and crystalline composition, fiber dimension, aerodynamic characteristics and biodurability are among the critical factors that define the toxicological and pathological consequences of asbestos exposure. Specifically, fiber dimension can impact whether the fiber is respired, whether and how deeply it is deposited in the lung, and how efficiently and rapidly it may be cleared. This paper provides a current, comprehensive evaluation of the weight of evidence regarding the relationship between asbestos fiber length and disease potency (for malignant and nonmalignant endpoints)...
October 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
Frederick J Miller, Rory B Conolly, Julia S Kimbell
Study of the mode of action (MOA) relating exposure to a given chemical with an associated adverse outcome is an iterative process with each iteration driven by new understandings of the relevant biology. Here, we revisit a previously described, MOA-based clonal growth model of the human respiratory tract cancer risk associated with formaldehyde inhalation. Changes reflect a better understanding of populations of cells at risk of carcinogenic transformation in the pharynx, larynx and respiratory bronchiolar portions of the human respiratory tract and inclusion of basal cells in the pool of cells at risk...
October 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
Murat F Gorgun, Ming Zhuo, IbDanelo Cortez, Kelly T Dineley, Ella W Englander
CONTEXT: Acute inhalation of combustion smoke triggers neurologic sequelae in survivors. Due to the challenges posed by heterogeneity of smoke exposures in humans, mechanistic links between acute smoke inhalation and neuropathologic sequelae have not been systematically investigated. METHODS: Here, using mouse model of acute inhalation of combustion smoke, we studied longitudinal neurobehavioral manifestations of smoke exposures and molecular/cellular changes in the mouse brain...
October 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
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