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Inhalation Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819990/effects-of-maternal-high-fat-diet-and-sedentary-lifestyle-on-susceptibility-of-adult-offspring-to-ozone-exposure-in-rats
#1
C J Gordon, P M Phillips, A F M Johnstone, J Schmid, M C Schladweiler, A Ledbetter, S J Snow, U P Kodavanti
Epidemiological and experimental data suggest that obesity exacerbates the health effects of air pollutants such as ozone (O3). Maternal inactivity and calorically rich diets lead to offspring that show signs of obesity. Exacerbated O3 susceptibility of offspring could thus be manifested by maternal obesity. Thirty-day-old female Long-Evans rats were fed a control (CD) or high-fat (HF) (60% calories) diet for 6 wks and then bred. GD1 rats were then housed with a running wheel (RW) or without a wheel (SED) until parturition, creating four groups of offspring: CD-SED, CD-RW, HF-SED and HF-RW...
August 18, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816559/the-role-of-the-lectin-like-oxldl-receptor-lox-1-in-traffic-generated-air-pollution-exposure-mediated-alteration-of-the-brain-microvasculature-in-apolipoprotein-apo-e-knockout-mice
#2
JoAnn Lucero, Usa Suwannasual, Lindsay M Herbert, Jacob D McDonald, Amie K Lund
Recent studies have shown a strong correlation between air pollution-exposure and detrimental outcomes in the central nervous system, including alterations in blood brain barrier (BBB) integrity, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration. However, the mechanisms mediating these pathologies have not yet been fully elucidated. We have previously reported that exposure to traffic-generated air pollution results in increased circulating oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), associated with alterations in BBB integrity, in atherosclerotic Apolipoprotein E null (ApoE(-/-)) mice...
August 17, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805080/evaluation-of-the-amount-of-nanoparticles-emitted-in-welding-fume-from-stainless-steel-using-different-shielding-gases
#3
R P Pacheco, J F Gomes, R M Miranda, M L Quintino
The primary objective of this study was to correlate the emission of macro and nanoparticles released during the process of metal inert gas/metal active gas (MIG/MAG) of stainless steel with different gas mixtures. Using different gas mixtures with different heat inputs, it was possible to determine fume formation rates and surface areas of nanoparticles with alveolar lung deposition capacity. It was found, how the various transfer modes and the type of gas protection, in particular, the percentage of active elements in the chemical composition of the gas, affect the amount of fumes generated and also the generation of nanoparticles with a high capacity of deposition...
August 14, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762854/lethal-concentration-of-perfluoroisobutylene-induces-acute-lung-injury-in-mice-mediated-via-cytokine-storm-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis
#4
Yingjie Zhang, Lei Fan, Ronggang Xi, Zhonghua Mao, Dan Shi, Ding Ding, Zhiran Zhang, Xiaobo Wang
Perfluoroisobutylene (PFIB) is a highly toxic gas that targets the lungs. Low-level inhalation of the gas can lead to acute lung injury (ALI), pulmonary edema and even death. No specific anti-PFIB drugs are currently available and the pathogenesis of PFIB-induced ALI is not fully understood. Early direct oxidative injury and a secondary hyper-inflammatory response are recognized as the primary mechanisms of PFIB-induced ALI. In the present study, our data demonstrate for the first time that a cytokine storm is associated with PFIB-induced ALI...
August 1, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722486/neurotoxic-effects-of-subchronic-intratracheal-mn-nanoparticle-exposure-alone-and-in-combination-with-other-welding-fume-metals-in-rats
#5
Zsuzsanna Máté, Edina Horváth, András Papp, Krisztina Kovács, Etelka Tombácz, Dániel Nesztor, Tamás Szabó, Andrea Szabó, Edit Paulik
Manganese (Mn) is a toxic heavy metal exposing workers in various occupational settings and causing, among others, nervous system damage. Metal fumes of welding, a typical source of Mn exposure, contain a complex mixture of metal oxides partly in nanoparticle form. As toxic effects of complex substances cannot be sufficiently understood by examining its components separately, general toxicity and functional neurotoxicity of a main pathogenic welding fume metal, Mn, was examined alone and combined with iron (Fe) and chromium (Cr), also frequently found in fumes...
July 19, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697635/the-perpetuation-of-the-misconception-that-rats-receive-a-3-5-times-lower-lung-tissue-dose-than-humans-at-the-same-ozone-concentration
#6
Darrell McCant, Sabine Lange, Joseph Haney, Michael Honeycutt
This paper highlights the pervasive misconception concerning 1994 findings from Hatch et al. about ozone (O3) tissue dose in humans versus rats. That study exposed humans to 0.4 ppm and rats to 2 ppm (18)O-labeled O3 and found comparable incorporation of (18)O into bronchoalveolar lavage constituents. However, during O3 exposure humans were exercising, which increased their ventilation rate five-fold, while rats were at rest. This resulted in similar O3 tissue doses between the two species, and predominantly explained the comparable (18)O incorporation at five-fold different concentrations...
July 12, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651470/cosmetic-talc-as-a-risk-factor-for-pleural-mesothelioma-a-weight-of-evidence-evaluation-of-the-epidemiology
#7
Brent L Finley, Stacey M Benson, Gary M Marsh
OBJECTIVE: Due to some historical (and inaccurate) reports that asbestos might be present in some cosmetic talc products, questions are occasionally raised regarding the potential pleural mesothelioma risks associated with cosmetic talc products. Our objective was to determine the incidence of pleural mesothelioma of individuals exposed to cosmetic talc. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of the epidemiological literature for cosmetic talc miners and millers and found three occupational cohort studies that evaluated pleural mesothelioma incidence in workers in Italy, Norway, France, and Austria...
June 27, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617149/comparison-of-airway-deposition-distributions-of-particles-in-healthy-and-diseased-workers-in-an-egyptian-industrial-site
#8
Péter Füri, Werner Hofmann, Ágnes Jókay, Imre Balásházy, Mona Moustafa, Blanka Czitrovszky, Gábor Kudela, Árpád Farkas
The objective of this study is the prediction and comparison of airway deposition patterns of an industrial aerosol in healthy workers and workers suffering from silicosis. Mass concentrations and related size distributions of particulate matter were measured in the industrial area of Samalut in Minia, Egypt. A novel stochastic lung deposition model, simulating the symptoms of silicosis by chronic bronchial (Br) obstruction and emphysema in the acinar (Ac) region, was applied to compute mass deposition fractions, deposition density, deposition rate and deposition density rate distributions in healthy and diseased workers...
June 15, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595469/application-of-the-icrp-respiratory-tract-model-to-estimate-pulmonary-retention-of-industrially-sampled-indium-containing-dusts
#9
Aleksandr B Stefaniak, M Abbas Virji, Melissa A Badding, Kristin J Cummings
Inhalation of indium-containing dusts is associated with the development of indium lung disease. Workers may be exposed to several different chemical forms of indium; however, their lung dosimetry is not fully understood. We characterized the physicochemical properties and measured the lung dissolution kinetics of eight indium-containing dusts. Indium dissolution rates in artificial lung fluids spanned two orders of magnitude. We used the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) human respiratory model (HRTM) to estimate pulmonary indium deposition, retention and biokinetic clearance to blood...
June 8, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585473/computer-aided-generation-and-lung-deposition-modeling-of-nano-scale-particle-aggregates
#10
Robert Sturm
The study sets its main focus on the introduction of a random-walk-based model for the generation of variably shaped particle aggregates consisting of a predefined number of spherical components. With the help of a well-defined algorithm, the user is enabled to select between isodimensional, chain-like and platelet-like aggregates, for which related aerodynamic parameters (dynamic shape factors, volume-equivalent diameters, aerodynamic diameters) are determined automatically. The theoretical approach for random aggregate construction is directly connected with the previously developed stochastic particle transport and deposition model...
June 6, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714748/no-adverse-lung-effects-of-7-and-28-day-inhalation-exposure-of-rats-to-emissions-from-petrodiesel-fuel-containing-20-rapeseed-methyl-esters-b20-with-and-without-particulate-filter-the-fuelhealth-project
#11
Pål Magnusson, Michał Oczkowski, Johan Øvrevik, Malgorzata Gajewska, Jacek Wilczak, Jacek Biedrzycki, Katarzyna Dziendzikowska, Dariusz Kamola, Tomasz Królikowski, Marcin Kruszewski, Anna Lankoff, Remigiusz Mruk, Gunnar Brunborg, Christine Instanes, Joanna Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Oddvar Myhre
Increased use of biofuels raises concerns about health effects of new emissions. We analyzed relative lung health effects, on Fisher 344 rats, of diesel engine exhausts emissions (DEE) from a Euro 5-classified diesel engine running on petrodiesel fuel containing 20% rapeseed methyl esters (B20) with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF). One group of animals was exposed to DEE for 7 days (6 h/day), and another group for 28 days (6 h/day, 5 days/week), both with and without DPF. The animals (n = 7/treatment) were exposed in whole body exposure chambers...
April 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714745/long-term-use-of-inhaled-corticosteroids-and-risk-of-upper-respiratory-tract-infection-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-meta-analysis
#12
Mingjin Yang, Hong Chen, Yan Zhang, Yuejun Du, Ying Xu, Ping Jiang, Zhibo Xu
Recent studies have suggested that inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) may be associated with higher risks of tuberculosis and pneumonia in patients with COPD. However, it is not known whether ICS increases the risk of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI). Aim of this study was to explore the relationship between ICS and URTI. Through a comprehensive literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar from inception to March 2016, we identified randomized controlled trials of ICS therapy lasting at least 6 months...
April 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651446/acute-and-chronic-in-vivo-effects-of-exposure-to-nicotine-and-propylene-glycol-from-an-e-cigarette-on-mucociliary-clearance-in-a-murine-model
#13
Beth L Laube, Nima Afshar-Mohajer, Kirsten Koehler, Gang Chen, Philip Lazarus, Joseph M Collaco, Sharon A McGrath-Morrow
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of an acute (1 week) and chronic (3 weeks) exposure to E-cigarette (E-cig) emissions on mucociliary clearance (MCC) in murine lungs. METHODS: C57BL/6 male mice (age 10.5 ± 2.4 weeks) were exposed for 20 min/day to E-cigarette aerosol generated by a Joyetech 510-T(®) E-cig containing either 0% nicotine (N)/propylene glycol (PG) for 1 week (n = 6), or 3 weeks (n = 9), or 2.4% N/PG for one week (n = 6), or 3 weeks (n = 9), followed by measurement of MCC...
April 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317464/molecular-mechanisms-of-pulmonary-response-progression-in-crystalline-silica-exposed-rats
#14
Rajendran Sellamuthu, Christina Umbright, Jenny R Roberts, Shih-Houng Young, Diana Richardson, Walter McKinney, Bean T Chen, Shengqiao Li, Michael Kashon, Pius Joseph
An understanding of the mechanisms underlying diseases is critical for their prevention. Excessive exposure to crystalline silica is a risk factor for silicosis, a potentially fatal pulmonary disease. Male Fischer 344 rats were exposed by inhalation to crystalline silica (15 mg/m(3), six hours/day, five days) and pulmonary response was determined at 44 weeks following termination of silica exposure. Additionally, global gene expression profiling in lungs and BAL cells and bioinformatic analysis of the gene expression data were done to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the progression of pulmonary response to silica...
March 19, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685620/an-update-of-the-equation-for-predicting-the-dissolution-rate-of-glass-fibers-from-their-chemical-compositions
#15
Russell M Potter, John Hoffman, John Hadley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470142/multicomponent-aerosol-particle-deposition-in-a-realistic-cast-of-the-human-upper-respiratory-tract
#16
Markus Nordlund, Miloslav Belka, Arkadiusz K Kuczaj, Frantisek Lizal, Jan Jedelsky, Jakub Elcner, Miroslav Jicha, Youri Sauser, Soazig Le Bouhellec, Stephane Cosandey, Shoaib Majeed, Grégory Vuillaume, Manuel C Peitsch, Julia Hoeng
Inhalation of aerosols generated by electronic cigarettes leads to deposition of multiple chemical compounds in the human airways. In this work, an experimental method to determine regional deposition of multicomponent aerosols in an in vitro segmented, realistic human lung geometry was developed and applied to two aerosols, i.e. a monodisperse glycerol aerosol and a multicomponent aerosol. The method comprised the following steps: (1) lung cast model preparation, (2) aerosol generation and exposure, (3) extraction of deposited mass, (4) chemical quantification and (5) data processing...
February 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470141/a-comparative-study-of-electronic-cigarette-vapor-extracts-on-airway-related-cell-lines-in-vitro
#17
Laura J Leslie, Pranav Vasanthi Bathrinarayanan, Pamela Jackson, Justin A Mabiala Ma Muanda, Ross Pallett, Christopher J P Stillman, Lindsay J Marshall
The use of electronic cigarettes (ECs) is rapidly increasing worldwide; however, scientific evidence regarding EC cytotoxicity is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute cytotoxicity of EC vapor extract (ECE) on airway-related cells in vitro. Cigarette smoke extract (CSE), vapor extract of fifteen brands/flavors of ECs and the extract from the E-vehicle (propylene glycol and glycerin) was collected. Extracts, in concentrations of 100-12.5%, were added to human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B, IB3-1 and C38), fibroblast (Wi-38) and macrophage (J774 and THP-1) cell lines...
February 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470140/temporal-structure-function-variation-in-cultured-differentiated-human-nasal-epithelium-associated-with-acute-single-exposure-to-tobacco-smoke-or-e-cigarette-vapor
#18
Johnny L Carson, Laura Zhou, Luisa Brighton, Katherine H Mills, Haibo Zhou, Ilona Jaspers, Milan Hazucha
OBJECTIVE: Mucociliary clearance sustains a baseline functionality and an "on demand" capability to upregulate clearance upon irritant exposure involving mucus hypersecretion and accelerated ciliary beat frequency (CBF) modulated by nitric oxide (NO). This study characterized these elements as well as cellular and exogenous NO concentrations subsequent to a single exposure to tobacco smoke (TS) or e-cigarette vapor (EV) on cultured human airway epithelium. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Air-liquid interface (ALI) airway epithelial cultures per nonsmoking human subjects were subjected to single TS or EV exposures...
February 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413916/extent-of-allergic-inflammation-depends-on-intermittent-versus-continuous-sensitization-to-house-dust-mite
#19
Jane Tully Jones, Dereje D Tassew, Lois K Herrera, Stephanie R Walton-Filipczak, Marena A Montera, Hitendra S Chand, Monica Delgado, Yohannes A Mebratu, Yohannes Tesfaigzi
OBJECTIVE: House dust mite (HDM) exposure is used to model experimental asthma in mice. However, a direct comparison of inflammatory responses following continuous versus intermittent HDM exposure has not been reported. Therefore, we investigated whether the HDM dose at sensitization or challenge affects extent of inflammation in mice that were either continuously or intermittently sensitized with HDM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C57BL/6 mice received either 10 continuous exposures with 10 μg HDM per exposure or two intermittent HDM exposures over a period of two weeks and were subsequently challenged by three instillations with HDM during the third week...
February 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412860/modeling-vascular-inflammation-and-atherogenicity-after-inhalation-of-ambient-levels-of-ozone-exploratory-lessons-from-transcriptomics
#20
Andrea Tham, Dominic Lullo, Sarah Dalton, Siyang Zeng, Ian van Koeverden, Mehrdad Arjomandi
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have linked inhalation of air pollutants such as ozone to cardiovascular mortality. Human exposure studies have shown that inhalation of ambient levels of ozone causes airway and systemic inflammation and an imbalance in sympathetic/parasympathetic tone. METHODS: To explore molecular mechanisms through which ozone inhalation contributes to cardiovascular mortality, we compared transcriptomics data previously obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells obtained from healthy subjects after inhalational exposure to ozone (200 ppb for 4 h) to those of various cell samples from 11 published studies of patients with atherosclerotic disease using the Nextbio genomic data platform...
February 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
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