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Inhalation Toxicology

Christoph Bisig, Alke Petri-Fink, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser
Ambient air pollutant levels vary widely in space and time, therefore thorough local evaluation of possible effects is needed. In vitro approaches using lung cell cultures grown at the air-liquid interface and directly exposed to ambient air can offer a reliable addition to animal experimentations and epidemiological studies. To evaluate the adverse effects of ambient air in summer and winter a multi-cellular lung model (16HBE14o-, macrophages, and dendritic cells) was exposed in a mobile cell exposure system...
March 6, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Peter N Lee
BACKGROUND: Opinions differ on the relationship between tar level and risk of smoking-related disease. However, except for lung cancer, few reviews have evaluated the epidemiological evidence. Here the relationship of tar level to risk of the four main smoking-related diseases is considered. METHODS: Papers comparing risk of lung cancer, COPD, heart disease or stroke in smokers of lower and higher tar yield cigarettes were identified from reviews and searches, relative risk estimates being extracted comparing the lowest and highest tar groups...
February 28, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Jingliang Dong, Yidan Shang, Lin Tian, Kiao Inthavong, Jiyuan Tu
Rats have been widely used as surrogates for evaluating the health effects of inhaled airborne particulate matter. To provide a thorough understanding of particle transport and deposition mechanisms in the rat nasal airway, this article presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study of particle exposure in a realistic rat nasal passage under a resting flow condition. Particles covering a diameter range from 1 nm to 4 µm were passively released in front of the rat's breathing zone, and the Lagrangian particle tracking approach was used to calculate individual particle trajectories...
February 28, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Stephen M Roberts, Annette C Rohr, Vladimir B Mikheev, John Munson, Tara Sabo-Attwood
OBJECTIVE: Most studies report that inhaled volatile and semivolatile organic compounds (VOCs/SVOCs) tend to deposit in the upper respiratory tract, while ultrafine (or near ultrafine) particulate matter (PM) (∼100 nm) reaches the lower airways. The objective of this study was to determine whether carbon particle co-exposure carries VOCs/SVOCs deeper into the lungs where they are deposited. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed by inhalation (nose-only) to radiolabeled toluene (20 ppm) or naphthalene (20 ppm) on a single occasion for 1 h, with or without concurrent carbon particle exposure (∼5 mg/m3 )...
February 21, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Brent L Finley, Stacey M Benson, Gary M Marsh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 21, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Frederick J Miller, Rory B Conolly, Julia S Kimbell
Study of the mode of action (MOA) relating exposure to a given chemical with an associated adverse outcome is an iterative process with each iteration driven by new understandings of the relevant biology. Here, we revisit a previously described, MOA-based clonal growth model of the human respiratory tract cancer risk associated with formaldehyde inhalation. Changes reflect a better understanding of populations of cells at risk of carcinogenic transformation in the pharynx, larynx and respiratory bronchiolar portions of the human respiratory tract and inclusion of basal cells in the pool of cells at risk...
February 6, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Murat F Gorgun, Ming Zhuo, IbDanelo Cortez, Kelly T Dineley, Ella W Englander
CONTEXT: Acute inhalation of combustion smoke triggers neurologic sequelae in survivors. Due to the challenges posed by heterogeneity of smoke exposures in humans, mechanistic links between acute smoke inhalation and neuropathologic sequelae have not been systematically investigated. METHODS: Here, using mouse model of acute inhalation of combustion smoke, we studied longitudinal neurobehavioral manifestations of smoke exposures and molecular/cellular changes in the mouse brain...
February 6, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Jae Hoon Shin, KiSoo Jeon, Jin Kwon Kim, Younghun Kim, Mi Seong Jo, Jong Seong Lee, Jin Ee Baek, Hye Seon Park, Hyo Jin An, Jung Duck Park, Kangho Ahn, Seung Min Oh, Il Je Yu
Synthetic amorphous silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) are one of the most applied nanomaterials and are widely used in a broad variety of industrial and biomedical fields. However, no recent long-term inhalation studies evaluating the toxicity of SiNPs are available and results of acute studies are limited. Thus, we conducted a subacute inhalation toxicity study of SiNPs in Sprague-Dawley rats using a nose-only inhalation system. Rats were separated into four groups and target concentrations selected in this study were as follows: control (fresh air), low- (0...
February 5, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Georgia K Roberts, Cynthia J Willson, Dorian S Olivera, David E Malarkey, Daniel L Morgan
The C9 alkylbenzenes, composed mostly of ethyltoluenes and trimethylbenzenes, comprise 75-90% of the naphtha fraction of crude oil. Occupational and environmental exposure to C9 alkylbenzenes occur via inhalation. We conducted short-term inhalation studies on the ethyltoluene isomers (2-, 3- or 4-) to select one isomer for more comprehensive studies. Male Hsd:Sprague Dawley rats and female B6C3F1/N mice (n = 10) were exposed by nose-only inhalation to 2-, 3- or 4-ethyltoluene (0, 1000 or 2000 ppm) or cumene (a reference compound: 0, 500 or 1000 ppm) 3 h/day, 5 days/week, for 2 weeks...
January 29, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
J Daniel Heck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 23, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Anders Abelmann, Joshua R Maskrey, Jason T Lotter, Aaron M Chapman, Melanie D Nembhard, Jennifer S Pierce, John M Wilmoth, Richard J Lee, Dennis J Paustenbach
Although industrial uses of asbestos have declined since the 1970s, in recent years there has been a renewed interest in para-occupational ("take-home") exposure to these fibers. The aim of this study was to quantify the release of asbestos fibers, if any, during the shaking out of crocidolite- and chrysotile-contaminated clothing in a simulated at-home setting. An exposure study was conducted in which personal and area air samples were collected during the handling (i.e. shake-out) of work clothing (shirt and pants) previously worn by an operator who had cut asbestos-containing cement pipe...
January 16, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Benjamin Wong, Rebecca Lewandowski, Justin Tressler, Katherine Sherman, Jaclynn Andres, Jennifer Devorak, Cristin Rothwell, Tracey Hamilton, Heidi Hoard-Fruchey, Alfred M Sciuto
Phosphine (PH3) is a toxidrome-spanning chemical that is widely used as an insecticide and rodenticide. Exposure to PH3 causes a host of target organ and systemic effects, including oxidative stress, cardiopulmonary toxicity, seizure-like activity and overall metabolic disturbance. A custom dynamic inhalation gas exposure system was designed for the whole-body exposure of conscious male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-350 g) to PH3. An integrated plethysmography system was used to collect respiratory parameters in real-time before, during and after PH3 exposure...
December 18, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
Kazumasa Honda, Masato Naya, Hiroshi Takehara, Hiromichi Kataura, Katsuhide Fujita, Makoto Ema
We compared long-term pulmonary toxicities after a single intratracheal instillation of two types of dispersed single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), namely, those with relatively long or short linear shapes with average lengths of 8.6 and 0.55 µm, respectively. Both types of SWCNTs were instilled intratracheally in male F344 rats at 0.2 or 1.0 mg/kg (long SWCNTs) or 1.0 mg/kg (short SWCNTs). Pulmonary responses were characterized at 26, 52 and 104 weeks after a single instillation. Inflammatory changes, test substance deposition, test substance engulfment by macrophages, and alveolar wall fibrosis were observed in the lungs of almost all test rats at 52 and 104 weeks after short nanotube instillation...
November 7, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
Daniel E Platt, Essa Hariri, Pascale Salameh, Mariana Helou, Nada Sabbah, Mahmoud Merhi, Elie Chammas, Walid Ammar, Antoine B Abchee, Pierre A Zalloua
BACKGROUND: Waterpipe smoking is a rising global public health epidemic perceived by many users to be less harmful, though its toxicity overlaps or even exceeds that of cigarette smoking. Short-term cardiovascular changes due to waterpipe smoking are well established, but longer-term health impacts are still not fully elucidated. OBJECTIVE: We aim to investigate the association of waterpipe smoking with myocardial infarction among patients undergoing cardiac catheterization...
October 24, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
Matthew P Walker, Matt Cowlen, Dale Christensen, Mutsumi Miyamoto, Phillip Barley, Timothy Crowder
BACKGROUND: ENaC inhibition has long been an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of cystic fibrosis. However, previous attempts at developing ENaC inhibitors have been unsuccessful due to complications arising from systemic circulation of the compounds. Here, we describe the preclinical toxicology assessment of a new inhaled peptide promoter of ENaC internalization delivered as a nebulized aerosol. METHODS: Preclinical assessment of SPX-101 safety was determined using an in vitro hERG assay, bolus injection of SPX-101 in a canine cardiovascular and respiratory safety pharmacology model and 28-day inhalation toxicology studies of nebulized drug in rats and dogs...
October 6, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
Paweł Gać, Małgorzata Poręba, Krystyna Pawlas, Małgorzata Sobieszczańska, Rafał Poręba
Exposure to tobacco smoke is a significant problem of environmental medicine. Tobacco smoke contains over one thousand identified chemicals including numerous toxicants. Cardiovascular system diseases are the major cause of general mortality. The recent development of diagnostic imaging provided methods which enable faster and more precise diagnosis of numerous diseases, also those of cardiovascular system. This paper reviews the most significant scientific research concerning relationship between environmental exposure to tobacco smoke and the morphology and function of cardiovascular system carried out using diagnostic imaging methods, i...
October 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
Hajime Kawasaki
Chronic exposure to titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) induces slight but significant pulmonary inflammation in experimental animals, and among potential mechanisms, particle overload is likely. Although mechanisms of particle overload are poorly understood, excess accumulation of dust particles in dust containing macrophages (dust cells) can impair their mobility, resulting in reduced clearance ability. Accordingly, retention half-times of inhaled TiO2 increase linearly with lung burden in rodents, and mathematical (Michaelis-Menten-like) models for pulmonary clearance rates of TiO2 as a function of lung burden have suggested an alternative mechanism for particle overload, involving excess accumulation of macrophages in the translocation pathway due to the narrow exit to the ciliated airway region, and leading to reduced pulmonary TiO2 clearance rates...
October 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
Shreosi Sanyal, Fouad Amrani, Arnaud Dallongeville, Soutrik Banerjee, Oliver Blanchard, Séverine Deguen, Nathalie Costet, Denis Zmirou-Navier, Isabella Annesi-Maesano
BACKGROUND: Galaxolide (HHCB) is used for fragrance in many consumer products. The aim of the current study was to use objective assessments of HHCB to build a predictive model in order to estimate indoor-measured HHCB concentrations from questionnaire-based data on dwelling characteristics and occupants' habits and activities. METHODS: Environmental assessments of indoor HHCB, dwelling characteristics were carried out in 150 dwellings in Brittany (France). Among the various models that were tested, the best predictive model for the reduced set of characteristics was identified on the basis of the coefficient of determination (R2 ) criterion...
October 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
Christy A Barlow, Matthew Grespin, Elizabeth A Best
Differences in chemical and crystalline composition, fiber dimension, aerodynamic characteristics and biodurability are among the critical factors that define the toxicological and pathological consequences of asbestos exposure. Specifically, fiber dimension can impact whether the fiber is respired, whether and how deeply it is deposited in the lung, and how efficiently and rapidly it may be cleared. This paper provides a current, comprehensive evaluation of the weight of evidence regarding the relationship between asbestos fiber length and disease potency (for malignant and nonmalignant endpoints)...
October 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
Breanne Y Farris, James M Antonini, Jeffrey S Fedan, Robert R Mercer, Katherine A Roach, Bean T Chen, Diane Schwegler-Berry, Michael L Kashon, Mark W Barger, Jenny R Roberts
The effects of acute pulmonary coexposures to silica and diesel particulate matter (DPM), which may occur in various mining operations, were investigated in vivo. Rats were exposed by intratracheal instillation (IT) to silica (50 or 233 µg), DPM (7.89 or 50 µg) or silica and DPM combined in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or to PBS alone (control). At one day, one week, one month, two months and three months postexposure bronchoalveolar lavage and histopathology were performed to assess lung injury, inflammation and immune response...
October 1, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
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