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Inhalation Toxicology

N Rajendran, J C Seagrave, L M Plunkett, J A MacGregor
Vanadium compounds have become important in industrial processes, resulting in workplace exposure potential and are present in ambient air as a result of fossil fuel combustion. A series of acute nose-only inhalation toxicity studies was conducted in both rats and mice in order to obtain comparative data on the acute toxicity potential of compounds used commercially. V2O3, V2O4, and V2O5, which have different oxidation states (+3, +4, +5, respectively), were delivered as micronized powders; the highly water-soluble and hygroscopic VOSO4 (+4) could not be micronized and was instead delivered as a liquid aerosol from an aqueous solution...
October 6, 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
Yi Cao, Jimin Long, Yuejia Ji, Gui Chen, Yuexin Shen, Yu Gong, Juan Li
Increasing evidence suggests that exposure of particulate matter (PM) from traffic vehicles, e.g., diesel exhaust particles (DEP), was associated with adverse vascular effects, e.g., acceleration of atherosclerotic plaque progression. By analogy, engineered nanoparticles (NPs) could also induce similar effects. The formation of lipid laden foam cells, derived predominately from macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), is closely associated with the development of atherosclerosis and adverse vascular effects...
October 6, 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
A Abelmann, M E Glynn, J S Pierce, P K Scott, D J Paustenbach
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
Jing Zhang, Yiru Shao, Daikun He, Lin Zhang, Guoxiong Xu, Jie Shen
: An increase in epithelial cell permeability has been proposed to contribute to phosgene-induced acute lung injury (ALI). However, no specific and effective means for blocking increases in permeability are currently available. Cell-based therapy using bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is an attractive new approach. Canonical wnt/β-catenin signaling has been demonstrated to contribute to both epithelial cell injury and repair mechanisms in ALI. The goal of our study was to determine the effects of MSCs on epithelial permeability in phosgene-induced ALI in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and identify changes in major components of the wnt3a/β-catenin signaling pathway during this process...
October 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
Pascal Pratte, Stéphane Cosandey, Catherine Goujon-Ginglinger
CONTEXT: Knowledge of the droplet size distribution of inhalable aerosols is important to predict aerosol deposition yield at various respiratory tract locations in human. Optical methodologies are usually preferred over the multi-stage cascade impactor for high-throughput measurements of aerosol particle/droplet size distributions. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the Laser Aerosol Spectrometer technology based on Polystyrene Sphere Latex (PSL) calibration curve applied for the experimental determination of droplet size distributions in the diameter range typical of commercial e-cigarette aerosols (147-1361 nm)...
October 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
Gerhard Triebig, Isabel Triebig-Heller, Thomas Bruckner
CONTEXT: ε-Caprolactam is an important industrial chemical with a relatively low human toxicity; of importance is the irritations that occur after exposure to ε-caprolactam as aerosols or vapors. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine symptoms and objective effects, which occur on the mucous membranes of the eyes and the upper respiratory tract. METHODS: A total of 52 healthy volunteers (26 women and 26 men, aged between 19 and 50 years) were exposed by random to different ε-caprolactam concentrations (0...
October 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
Fazıl Yıldırım, Yunsur Çevik, Emine Emektar, Şeref Kerem Çorbacıoğlu, Yavuz Katırcı
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate whether increased carboxyhemoglobin (COHB) levels and ECG changes, which associated with fatal ventricular dysrhythmias, including increased QT, P-wave and T peak (Tp)-Tend (Te) dispersion, can be detected after smoking narghile, which is a traditional method of smoking tobacco that is smoked from hookah device. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After local ethics committee approval, this prospective study was conducted using healthy volunteer subjects at a "narghile café," which is used by people smoking narghile in an open area...
October 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
Ramon M Molina, Nagarjun V Konduru, Hugo Hirano, Thomas C Donaghey, Benoit Adamo, Brendan Laurenzi, Georgios Pyrgiotakis, Joseph D Brain
Particles can be delivered to the respiratory tract of animals using various techniques. Inhalation mimics environmental exposure but requires large amounts of aerosolized NPs over a prolonged dosing time, varies in deposited dose among individual animals, and results in nasopharyngeal and fur particle deposition. Although less physiological, intratracheal (IT) instillation allows quick and precise dosing. Insufflation delivers particles in their dry form as an aerosol. We compared the distribution of neutron-activated (141)CeO2 nanoparticles (5 mg/kg) in rats after (1) IT instillation, (2) left intrabronchial instillation, (3) microspraying of nanoceria suspension and (4) insufflation of nanoceria dry powder...
October 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
Jerry Campbell, Allison Franzen, Cynthia Van Landingham, Michael Lumpkin, Susan Crowell, Clive Meredith, Anne Loccisano, Robinan Gentry, Harvey Clewell
Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a by-product of incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and plant/wood products, including tobacco. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for BaP for the rat was extended to simulate inhalation exposures to BaP in rats and humans including particle deposition and dissolution of absorbed BaP and renal elimination of 3-hydroxy benzo[a]pyrene (3-OH BaP) in humans. The clearance of particle-associated BaP from lung based on existing data in rats and dogs suggest that the process is bi-phasic...
September 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
Ke Zu, Ge Tao, Julie E Goodman
BACKGROUND: In the 2014 Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) assessment for Libby amphibole asbestos (LAA), US EPA calculated a reference concentration (RfC) based on the prevalence of pleural plaques in a group of vermiculite workers in Marysville, Ohio. This RfC is based on the assumption that pleural plaques are associated with adverse lung function. In this study, we evaluated the association between pleural plaques and lung function in the Marysville worker cohort to determine whether they are associated with adverse effects or, rather, are more likely a biomarker of cumulative exposure to LAA...
September 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
Jenni Tirkkonen, Martin Täubel, Maija-Riitta Hirvonen, Hanna Leppänen, William G Lindsley, Bean T Chen, Anne Hyvärinen, Kati Huttunen
There is a need for toxicity tests capable of recognizing indoor environments with compromised air quality, especially in the context of moisture damage. One of the key issues is sampling, which should both provide meaningful material for analyses and fulfill requirements imposed by practitioners using toxicity tests for health risk assessment. We aimed to evaluate different existing methods of sampling indoor particulate matter (PM) to develop a suitable sampling strategy for a toxicological assay. During three sampling campaigns in moisture-damaged and non-damaged school buildings, we evaluated one passive and three active sampling methods: the Settled Dust Box (SDB), the Button Aerosol Sampler, the Harvard Impactor and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Bioaerosol Cyclone Sampler...
September 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
Robyn L Prueitt, Julie E Goodman
Exposure to elevated levels of ozone has been associated with a variety of respiratory-related health endpoints in both epidemiology and controlled human exposure studies, including lung function decrements and airway inflammation. A mode of action (MoA) for these effects has not been established, but it has been proposed that they may occur through ozone-induced activation of neural reflexes. We critically reviewed experimental studies of ozone exposure and neural reflex activation and applied the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) mode-of-action/human relevance framework to evaluate the biological plausibility and human relevance of this proposed MoA...
September 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
Abeer M Rababa'h, Bilal B Sultan, Karem H Alzoubi, Omar F Khabour, Mera A Ababneh
CONTEXT: Waterpipe smoking (WPS) has been known for over 400 years. It has been spread widely especially between youth because of the addition of pleasant flavor and because it was misconsidered to be less harmful than cigarette. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated the effect of waterpipe smoking on renal oxidative and functional parameters and compared that at acute and chronic exposure time in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were divided into three groups, namely acute, chronic and fresh air control...
September 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
Mark S Goldberg, Richard T Burnett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
Peter N Lee, Jan S Hamling
CONTEXT: In 2006, we reviewed the evidence on environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and breast cancer in nonsmoking women. Since then various studies and reviews have been published but opinion remains divided. OBJECTIVE: To provide an updated review. METHODS: We extracted study details, derived relative risk (RR) estimates with confidence intervals (CIs) for various ETS exposure indices, and conducted meta-analyses. RESULTS: The update increased the number of studies from 22 to 47...
August 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
Murray Martin Finkelstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
Thomas Hofmann, Lan Ma-Hock, Volker Strauss, Silke Treumann, Maria Rey Moreno, Nicole Neubauer, Wendel Wohlleben, Sibylle Gröters, Karin Wiench, Ulrich Veith, Wera Teubner, Bennard van Ravenzwaay, Robert Landsiedel
Diketopyrrolopyrroles (DPP) are a relatively new class of organic high-performance pigments. The present inhalation and particle characterization studies were performed to compare the effects of five DPP-based pigments (coarse and fine Pigment Red 254, coarse and fine meta-chloro DPP isomer and one form of mixed chlorinated DPP isomers) and compare it to coarse and fine inorganic Pigment Red 101. Wistar rats were exposed head-nose to atmospheres of the respective materials for 6 h/day on 5 consecutive days...
August 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
Li Pang, Ning Dong, Dawei Wang, Nan Zhang, Jihong Xing
CONTEXT: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning results in neuronal injury. The expression of Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) has not been investigated previously after CO poisoning. OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to investigate the DKK-1 expression levels in humans and rats with acute CO poisoning and to analyze their correlation with poisoning severity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We measured serum DKK-1 levels in patients with acute CO poisoning (n = 94) and in healthy controls (n = 90)...
August 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
Shuhei Noguchi, Masamitsu Eitoku, Hidenori Kiyosawa, Narufumi Suganuma
Occupational inhalation of indium compounds can cause the so-called "indium lung disease". Most affected individuals show pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) and fibrotic interstitial lung disease. In animal experiments, inhalation of indium tin oxide or indium oxide has been shown to cause lung damage. However, the mechanisms by which indium compounds lead to indium lung disease remain unknown. In this study, we constructed a mouse model of indium lung disease and analyzed gene expression in response to indium exposure...
August 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
Jessica L Myers
The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) conducts up-to-date carcinogenic assessments for chemicals emitted in Texas. An inhalation unit risk factor (URF) was developed for ethylene dichloride (EDC, CAS 107-06-2) based on tumorigenicity results observed in a 2-year animal inhalation study conducted by Nagano et al. More specifically, the incidence of combined mammary gland tumors (adenomas, fibroadenomas, adenocarcinomas) in female rats demonstrated a statistically significant dose-response relationship, was amenable to benchmark concentration (BMC) modeling, was ultimately determined to be the most sensitive tumorigenic effect in the most sensitive species and sex, and was utilized as the carcinogenic endpoint for the development of the URF...
August 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
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