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Inhalation Toxicology

Leslie C Thompson, Yong Ho Kim, Brandi L Martin, Allen D Ledbetter, Janice A Dye, Mehdi S Hazari, M Ian Gilmour, Aimen K Farraj
Exposure to wildland fire-related particulate matter (PM) causes adverse health outcomes. However, the impacts of specific biomass sources remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate cardiopulmonary responses in rats following exposure to PM extracts collected from peat fire smoke. We hypothesized that peat smoke PM would dose-dependently alter cardiopulmonary function. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 8/group) were exposed to 35 µg (Lo PM) or 350 µg (Hi PM) of peat smoke PM extracts suspended in saline, or saline alone (Vehicle) via oropharyngeal aspiration (OA)...
January 15, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Nguyen Lu Phuong, Nguyen Dang Khoa, Kiao Inthavong, Kazuhide Ito
Regional deposition of inhaled aerosols is essential for assessing health risks from toxic exposure. Upper airway physiology plays a significant role in respiratory defense by filtering micrometer particles, whose deposition mechanism is predominantly inertial impaction and is mainly controlled by airflow characteristics. The monkey is commonly used in tests that study inhalation toxicity as well as in preclinical tests as human surrogates due to their anatomical similarities to humans. Therefore, accurate predictions and an understanding of the inhaled particles and their distribution in monkeys are essential for extrapolating laboratory animal data to humans...
January 8, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Raymond F Hamilton, Zheqiong Wu, Megha Thakkar, Andrij Holian, Somenath Mitra
OBJECTIVE: The toxicity of silver nanomaterials in various forms has been extensively evaluated, but the toxicity of silver nanocarbon composites is less well understood. Therefore, silver-carbon nanotube composites (Ag-MWCNT-COOH) and silver-graphene oxide composites (Ag-GO) were synthesized by microwave irradiation and evaluated in two in vitro cell models. MATERIALS/METHODS: Toxicity of silver nanosphere (Ag), Ag-MWCNT-COOH and Ag-GO were analyzed by MTS assay and LDH assay in primary C57BL/6 murine alveolar macrophages and human THP-1 cells...
January 8, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Anna Bizoń, Monika Ołdakowska, Halina Milnerowicz
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) L55M polymorphism on the enzyme's activity and concentration in the serum as well as its association with lipid profile parameters in a group of healthy persons. We also evaluated the presence of PON1 L55M polymorphism in a group of subjects exposed to tobacco smoke and with overweight or obesity on those parameters. METHODS: Analysis of L55M polymorphism was done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR - RFLP)...
January 8, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
H Kan, D Pan, V Castranova
Human and animal studies have confirmed that inhalation of particles from ambient air or occupational settings not only causes pathophysiological changes in the respiratory system, but causes cardiovascular effects as well. At an equal mass lung burden, nanoparticles are more potent in causing systemic microvascular dysfunction than fine particles of similar composition. Thus, accumulated evidence from animal studies has led to heightened concerns about the potential short- and long-term deleterious effects of inhalation of engineered nanoparticles on the cardiovascular system...
January 3, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Eugene Demchuk, Shannon L Ball, San L Le, Andrew J Prussia
OBJECTIVE: Dimethyl sulfide (DMS, CAS 75-18-3) is an industrial chemical. It is both an irritant and neurotoxicant that may be life-threatening because of accidental release. The effects of DMS on public health and associated public health response depend on the exposure concentration and duration. However, currently, public health advisory information exists for only a 1 h exposure duration, developed by the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA). In the present work, the AIHA-reviewed data were computationally extrapolated to other common short-term durations...
January 2, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Carolyn Klocke, Valeriia Sherina, Uschi M Graham, Jakob Gunderson, Joshua L Allen, Marissa Sobolewski, Jason L Blum, Judith T Zelikoff, Deborah A Cory-Slechta
Accumulating evidence indicates the developing central nervous system (CNS) is a target of air pollution toxicity. Epidemiological reports increasingly demonstrate that exposure to the particulate matter (PM) fraction of air pollution during neurodevelopment is associated with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These observations are supported by animal studies demonstrating prenatal exposure to concentrated ambient PM induces neuropathologies characteristic of ASD, including ventriculomegaly and aberrant corpus callosum (CC) myelination...
December 20, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Renate Valand, Pål Magnusson, Katarzyna Dziendzikowska, Malgorzata Gajewska, Jacek Wilczak, Michał Oczkowski, Dariusz Kamola, Tomasz Królikowski, Marcin Kruszewski, Anna Lankoff, Remigiusz Mruk, Dag Marcus Eide, Rafał Sapierzyński, Joanna Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Nur Duale, Johan Øvrevik, Oddvar Myhre
While the impact of emissions from combustion of fossil fuel on human health has been extensively studied, current knowledge of exhaust exposure from combustion of biofuels provides limited and inconsistent information about its neurotoxicity. The objective of the present work was to compare the gene expression patterns in rat frontal cortex and hippocampus after exposure to diesel exhaust emissions (DEE) from combustion of two 1st generation fuels, 7% fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) (B7) and 20% FAME (B20), and a 2nd generation 20% FAME/hydrotreated vegetable oil (SHB20: synthetic hydrocarbon biofuel), with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF)...
December 20, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
David K Scoville, Collin C White, Dianne Botta, Dowon An, Zahra Afsharinejad, Theo K Bammler, Xiaohu Gao, William A Altemeier, Terrance J Kavanagh
INTRODUCTION: Concerns have been raised regarding occupational exposure to engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Potential impacts on lung function from inhalation exposures are of concern as the lung is a sensitive ENM target in animals. Epidemiological data suggest that occupational exposure to ENMs may impact respiratory and cardiovascular health. Quantum dots (QDs) are ENMs with outstanding semiconductor and fluorescent properties with uses in biomedicine and electronics. QDs are known to induce inflammation and cytotoxicity in rodents and high dose exposures impact lung function 2 weeks after exposure...
December 7, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Marie McGee Hargrove, John K McGee, Eugene A Gibbs-Flournoy, Charles E Wood, Yong Ho Kim, M Ian Gilmour, Stephen H Gavett
Exposure to coarse particulate matter (PM) is associated with lung inflammation and exacerbation of respiratory symptoms in sensitive populations, but the degree to which specific emission sources contribute to these effects is unclear. We examined whether coarse PM samples enriched with diverse sources differentially exacerbate allergic airway responses. Coarse PM was collected weekly (7/2009-6/2010) from urban (G.T. Craig [GTC]) and rural (Chippewa Lake Monitor [CLM]) sites in the Cleveland, Ohio area. Source apportionment results were used to pool GTC filter PM extracts into five samples dominated by traffic, coal, steel (two samples), or road salt sources...
December 5, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Andrew J Ghio, Joleen M Soukup, Michael C Madden
The epidemiologic investigation has successively delineated associations of air pollution exposure with non-malignant and malignant lung disease, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, pregnancy outcomes, perinatal effects and other extra-pulmonary disease including diabetes. Defining these relationships between air pollution exposure and human health closely parallels results of an earlier epidemiologic investigation into cigarette smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), two other particle-related exposures...
December 5, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Zahra Zamanian, Saeed Yousefinejad, Mohammad Javad Khoshnoud, Farideh Golbabaie, Somayeh Farhang Dehghan, Aboutaleb Modaresi, Sasan Amanat, Mohammad Reza Zare, Abdolrasoul Rahmani
The current study evaluated the inhalation toxicity of trichloroethylene (TCE) at 0, 10, 100, 250 and 400 ppm in Sprague-Dawley rats for 10 day period, because the subacute inhalation toxicity of TCE on serum lipid profile, glucose and some biochemical parameters has not been previously reported. TCE vapors were generated using the dynamic generation system based on evaporation method in the exposure chamber. On the basis of the results, mean serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and albumin (ALB) decreased significantly in all the groups exposed to TCE compared with the control group (p < ...
November 27, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Yiru Shao, Jie Shen, Fangqing Zhou, Daikun He
Phosgene-induced acute lung injury (P-ALI) is characterized by inflammation and effective treatments are lacking. Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) has the beneficial effects on P-ALI. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potential for re-epithelization and recovery in lung injury. Thus, we hypothesized that Ang1 expressing MSCs would have beneficial effects on P-ALI. Here, an Ang1 expressing lentiviral vector was constructed and infected into rat bone marrow MSCs. Histological analyses revealed significant pathological improvements especially after treatment with MSCs in the rats exposed to phosgene...
November 5, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Caroline Gamalho da Silveira, Marlise Di Domenico, Paulo Hilário Nascimento Saldiva, Cláudia Ramos Rhoden
The investigation of the relationship between air pollution and obesity has captured the interest of researchers. However, the mechanism regarding the association between air pollution exposure and metabolic diseases and obesity still remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the effects of subchronic ROFA exposure on consumption and preference for highly palatable food and its interference on biochemical, lipid and oxidative stress parameters in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided in groups: control, ROFA, chocolate and ROFA + chocolate...
November 2, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Konstantinos E Farsalinos, Brad Rodu
INTRODUCTION: A recent study reported levels of metal emissions in e-cigarette (EC) aerosol. Herein we present a risk assessment analysis of the published findings using total daily exposure limits. METHODS: Median and 75th percentile metal concentrations in EC aerosols were used to determine the level of daily liquid consumption (g/d) that would exceed the permissible daily exposures (PDEs) defined for inhalation medications (cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, antimony and tin)...
November 2, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Devyani Swami, Ruchi Yadav, A S B Bhaskar, A Soni, D P Nagar, J Acharya, H N Karade, K P Singh, Pravin Kumar
Efficacy of two oximes treatments evaluated during inhalation of sarin vapor (LCt50 , 755.9 mg/min/m3 ) in simulated real scenario in vivo. Majority of mice either became moribund or died within 1-2 min during exposure to multifold-lethal concentrations of sarin vapor. Protection indices were determined by exposing to sarin vapor in two sessions, 1 min exposure followed by treatments with or without HNK-102 (56.56 mg/kg, im) or 2-PAM (30 mg/kg, im) and atropine (10 mg/kg, ip), and again exposed for remaining 14 min...
October 30, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Charis Girvalaki, Manolis Tzatzarakis, Christina N Kyriakos, Alexander I Vardavas, Polychronis D Stivaktakis, Matthaios Kavvalakis, Aristidis Tsatsakis, Constantine Vardavas
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to identify the composition and reported chemical health hazards of the most common electronic cigarette liquids (e-liquids) in nine European Union (EU) Member States (MS) prior to adoption of the Tobacco Product Directive (TPD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Within the Horizon2020, EUREST-PLUS study, 122 of the most commonly sold e-liquids in 9 EU MS were randomly selected and purchased. A quantitative and qualitative chemical analysis was performed using a previously validated based gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method...
October 29, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Matthew S P Boyles, David Brown, Jilly Knox, Michael Horobin, Mark R Miller, Helinor J Johnston, Vicki Stone
High-Temperature Insulation Wools (HTIW), such as alumino silicate wools (Refractory Ceramic Fibers) and Alkaline Earth Silicate wools, are used in high-temperature industries for thermal insulation. These materials have an amorphous glass-like structure. In some applications, exposure to high temperatures causes devitrification resulting in the formation of crystalline species including crystalline silica. The formation of this potentially carcinogenic material raises safety concerns regarding after-use handling and disposal...
October 17, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
E C Hensel, S Jayasekera, R J Robinson
Laboratory emissions testing of electronic cigarettes continues to be a focus in the tobacco research community. In particular, to inform policy regarding appropriate test protocols to regulate the manufacture, marketing and sale of tobacco products. This study aims to enhance current understanding of the way laboratory systems used to generate topography profiles and capture resultant emissions from inhaled tobacco products may interact with the device under test. A programmable emission system (vaping machine) is introduced and characterized...
October 17, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Marceli Rocha Leite, Dirce Maria Trevisan Zanetta, Leila Antonangelo, Lia Junqueira Marçal, Dionei Ramos, Emmanuel Almeida Burdmann, Ubiratan Paula Santos
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of burnt sugarcane harvesting on the plasmatic and urinary concentrations of the club cell secretory protein (CC16) and inflammatory systemic biomarkers in a group of sugarcane cutters. METHODS: Seventy-eight sugar cane workers were evaluated. The plasmatic and urinary concentrations of CC16, a pulmonary damage marker and inflammatory systemic biomarkers were collected at three time points: before, three months after and six months after the onset of the burnt sugarcane harvesting period...
October 17, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
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