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Inhalation Toxicology

Jillian M Staugler, Michael C Babin, M Claire Matthews, Matthew K Brittain, Mark R Perry
OBJECTIVE: Cyanide is a highly toxic chemical, and acute exposure depletes cells and tissue of oxygen, depressing the respiratory, cardiovascular and neurological systems and potentially leading to death. Cyanide has been used as a weapon since ancient Rome and continues to pose a potential threat today. A well-characterized animal model is necessary for the development of novel methods of rapid detection and treatment. This manuscript describes the development of an inhalation exposure system designed to evaluate the lethality of acute cyanide inhalation in the porcine model...
September 10, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 7, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Jose Zavala, Allen D Ledbetter, David S Morgan, Lisa A Dailey, Earl Puckett, Shaun D McCullough, Mark Higuchi
A cell culture exposure system (CCES) was developed to expose cells established at an air-liquid interface (ALI) to volatile chemicals. We characterized the CCES by exposing indigo dye-impregnated filter inserts inside culture wells to 125 ppb ozone (O3 ) for 1 h at flow rates of 5 and 25 mL/min/well; the reaction of O3 with an indigo dye produces a fluorescent product. A 5-fold increase in fluorescence at 25 mL/min/well versus 5 mL/min/well was observed, suggesting higher flows were more effective...
August 8, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Colette N Miller, Janice A Dye, Mette C Schladweiler, Judy H Richards, Allen D Ledbetter, Erica J Stewart, Urmila P Kodavanti
Apelin has cardiopulmonary protective properties that promote vasodilation and maintenance of the endothelial barrier. While reductions in apelin have been identified as a contributor to various lung diseases, including pulmonary edema, its role in the effect of air pollutants has not been examined. Thus, in the current study, we sought to investigate if apelin is a downstream target of inhaled ozone and if such change in expression is related to altered DNA methylation in the lung. Male, Long-Evans rats were exposed to filtered air or 1...
June 27, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Tomasz R Sosnowski, Katarzyna Jabłczyńska, Marcin Odziomek, Walter K Schlage, Arkadiusz K Kuczaj
Direct physicochemical interactions between the major components of electronic cigarette liquids (e-liquids): glycerol (VG) and propylene glycol (PG), and lung surfactant (LS) were studied by determining the dynamic surface tension under a simulated breathing cycle using drop shape method. The studies were performed for a wide range of concentrations based on estimated doses of e-liquid aerosols (up to 2500 × the expected nominal concentrations) and for various VG/PG ratios. The results are discussed as relationships among mean surface tension, surface tension amplitude, and surface rheological properties (dilatational elasticity and viscosity) versus concentration and composition of e-liquid...
June 22, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Masayuki Ohyama, Ichiro Horie, Yoichiro Isohama, Kenichi Azuma, Shuichi Adachi, Chika Minejima, Norimichi Takenaka
We examined the baseline pulmonary resistance (RLung), baseline dynamic lung compliance (Cdyn), cytokine inductions, and histological alterations in rats exposed to nitrous acid (HONO) with secondary products of nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) and nitric oxide (NO) to assess its biological effects. We exposed three groups of nine male F344 rats to different doses of HONO for six weeks (24 h/day). The cumulative values of HONO concentration were measured twice. The average concentrations of nitrogen oxide for each group were 5...
June 4, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Mohammad A Y Alqudah, Karem H Alzoubi, Ghida'a M Ma'abrih, Omar F Khabour
Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) was previously shown to be associated with memory deficits, which were related to oxidative stress. Vitamin C (VitC) has established antioxidant properties against memory deficits associated with several diseases and conditions. In this study, the potential protective effect of VitC on memory impairment induced by WTS exposure was evaluated in a rat model. VitC was administered to animals via oral gavage (100 mg/kg/day, 6 days a week for 4 weeks). At the same period, animals were exposed to WTS for one hour/day, 6 days a week for 4 weeks...
May 22, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Ke Zu, Liuhua Shi, Robyn L Prueitt, Xiaobin Liu, Julie E Goodman
Asthma, a chronic respiratory disorder with complex etiology and various phenotypes, is a considerable public health concern in the USA and worldwide. While there is evidence suggesting ambient ozone exposure may exacerbate asthma, information regarding the potential role of ozone in asthma development is more limited. Thus, we conducted a critical review of observational epidemiology studies to determine whether long-term ambient ozone exposure is a risk factor for asthma development. We identified 14 relevant studies; 11 evaluated asthma development in children, while three studies, based on a single cohort, assessed this outcome in adults...
February 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Deepak Chandra, Jill A Poole, Kristina L Bailey, Elizabeth Staab, Jenea M Sweeter, Jane M DeVasure, Debra J Romberger, Todd A Wyatt
OBJECTIVE: Workers exposed to dusts from concentrated animal feeding operations have a high prevalence of pulmonary diseases. These exposures lead to chronic inflammation and aberrant airway remodeling. Previous work shows that activating cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) enhances airway epithelial wound repair while activating protein kinase C (PKC) inhibits wound repair. Hog barn dust extracts slow cell migration and wound repair via a PKC-dependent mechanism. Further, blocking nitric oxide (NO) production in bronchial epithelial cells prevents PKA activation...
February 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Adolph J Januszkiewicz, Matthew A Bazar, Lee C B Crouse, Michael A Chapman, Steven E Hodges, Steven J McCormick, Arthur J O'Neill
OBJECTIVE: Experiments were undertaken to compare morbidity and mortality from brief inhalation exposures to high levels of hydrogen fluoride (HF) and carbonyl fluoride (COF2 ). METHODS: Rats from both sexes were exposed for durations of 5 and 10 min to nominal concentrations of 10,000 to 57,000 ppm HF or 500 to 10,000 ppm COF2 . Respiration was monitored before, during, and after exposure. Animals were observed up to 6 days post-exposure. Terminal blood samples were collected for routine clinical chemistry and hematology...
February 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Pamela Dalton, Brianna Soreth, Christopher Maute, Carolyn Novaleski, Marcy Banton
OBJECTIVE: Propylene glycol (PG) is a widely used solvent, chemical intermediate and carrier substance for foods, pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. Professional and occupational exposure to PG aerosol and vapor may occur from theatrical smoke generators and during application of deicing products to airplanes. While PG is considered to have low toxicity, the results of one study suggested that brief (1-min) exposure to PG mist elicited ocular and respiratory effects in humans. Because the high concentrations and brief exposure duration in that study were not representative of most occupational exposures, a controlled experimental exposure study was conducted to clarify or confirm the earlier findings...
February 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Ravindra M Satpute, Pramod K Kushwaha, D P Nagar, P V L Rao
Riot control agents (RCA) are lachrymatory, irritating compounds which temporarily incapacitate the uncontainable crowd. Ortho-Chlorobenzylidene-malononitrile (CS), 2-chloroacetophenone (CN), dibenz[b,f]1:4-oxazepine (CR), and nonivamide (PAVA) are synthetic RCAs, while oleoresin extract of chili known as oleoresin capsicum (OC) a natural irritant has been in use by various law enforcement agencies. Though efficacy of these agents is beyond doubt, they suffer from certain drawbacks including toxicity, production cost, and ecological compatibility...
February 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Jiayuan Zhao, Jordan Nelson, Oluwabunmi Dada, Georgios Pyrgiotakis, Ilias G Kavouras, Philip Demokritou
Users of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) are exposed to particles and other gaseous pollutants. However, major knowledge gaps on the physico-chemical properties of such exposures and contradictory data in published literature prohibit health risk assessment. Here, the effects of product brand, type, e-liquid flavoring additives, operational voltage, and user puffing patterns on emissions were systematically assessed using a recently developed, versatile, e-cig exposure generation platform and state-of-the-art analytical methods...
February 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Zeyad H Al-Sowygh, Meshari Kh Aldamkh, Abdulelah M Binmahfooz, Khulud Abdulrahman Al-Aali, Zohaib Akram, Osama A Qutub, Fawad Javed, Tariq Abduljabbar
OBJECTIVES: It is hypothesized that levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 and MMP-9 are significantly higher in the peri-implant sulcular fluid (PISF) of waterpipe-smokers (WS) compared with never-smokers with peri-implantitis. The aim of the present convenience sample case-control study was to compare the levels of MMP-8 and MMP-9 in the PISF of WS and never-smokers with peri-implantitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Individuals smoking waterpipe (Group 1) and never-smokers (Group 2) were included...
February 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
L Daniel Maxim, Mark J Utell
This literature review on refractory ceramic fibers (RCF) summarizes relevant information on manufacturing, processing, applications, occupational exposure, toxicology and epidemiology studies. Rodent toxicology studies conducted in the 1980s showed that RCF caused fibrosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma. Interpretation of these studies was difficult for various reasons (e.g. overload in chronic inhalation bioassays), but spurred the development of a comprehensive product stewardship program under EPA and later OSHA oversight...
February 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Christoph Bisig, Alke Petri-Fink, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser
Ambient air pollutant levels vary widely in space and time, therefore thorough local evaluation of possible effects is needed. In vitro approaches using lung cell cultures grown at the air-liquid interface and directly exposed to ambient air can offer a reliable addition to animal experimentations and epidemiological studies. To evaluate the adverse effects of ambient air in summer and winter a multi-cellular lung model (16HBE14o-, macrophages, and dendritic cells) was exposed in a mobile cell exposure system...
January 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Peter N Lee
BACKGROUND: Opinions differ on the relationship between tar level and risk of smoking-related disease. However, except for lung cancer, few reviews have evaluated the epidemiological evidence. Here the relationship of tar level to risk of the four main smoking-related diseases is considered. METHODS: Papers comparing risk of lung cancer, COPD, heart disease or stroke in smokers of lower and higher tar yield cigarettes were identified from reviews and searches, relative risk estimates being extracted comparing the lowest and highest tar groups...
January 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Jingliang Dong, Yidan Shang, Lin Tian, Kiao Inthavong, Jiyuan Tu
Rats have been widely used as surrogates for evaluating the health effects of inhaled airborne particulate matter. To provide a thorough understanding of particle transport and deposition mechanisms in the rat nasal airway, this article presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study of particle exposure in a realistic rat nasal passage under a resting flow condition. Particles covering a diameter range from 1 nm to 4 µm were passively released in front of the rat's breathing zone, and the Lagrangian particle tracking approach was used to calculate individual particle trajectories...
January 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Stephen M Roberts, Annette C Rohr, Vladimir B Mikheev, John Munson, Tara Sabo-Attwood
OBJECTIVE: Most studies report that inhaled volatile and semivolatile organic compounds (VOCs/SVOCs) tend to deposit in the upper respiratory tract, while ultrafine (or near ultrafine) particulate matter (PM) (∼100 nm) reaches the lower airways. The objective of this study was to determine whether carbon particle co-exposure carries VOCs/SVOCs deeper into the lungs where they are deposited. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed by inhalation (nose-only) to radiolabeled toluene (20 ppm) or naphthalene (20 ppm) on a single occasion for 1 h, with or without concurrent carbon particle exposure (∼5 mg/m3 )...
January 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Brent L Finley, Stacey M Benson, Gary M Marsh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
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