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Inhalation Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780378/anthropometric-measurements-of-newborns-of-women-who-smoke-waterpipe-during-pregnancy-a-comparative-retrospective-design
#1
Nihaya A Al-Sheyab, Rawa A Al-Fuqha, Khalid A Kheirallah, Omar F Khabour, Karem H Alzoubi
Waterpipe tobacco smoking carries adverse health consequences due to high level of chemical toxicants. This study investigated the anthropometric measurements of singleton newborns of Jordanian women with no known chronic diseases who smoked waterpipe during pregnancy, and the difference in these measurements in newborns of pregnant women who smoked waterpipe, cigarettes, both types, and none during pregnancy. The study also investigated the pattern of different types of tobacco smoking as a function of pregnancy trimester...
October 26, 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973945/sevoflurane-induces-cognitive-impairments-via-the-mir-27b-limk1-signaling-pathway-in-developing-rats
#2
Yue Yu, Peihong Zhang, Jia Yan, Yuanqing Sun, Xiaoyang Wu, Siwei Xi, Lei Zhang, Yu Sun, Rong Hu, Hong Jiang
Exposure to sevoflurane in neonatal rats could induce learning deficits and abnormal social behaviors, but the specific molecular mechanism is unknown. Postnatal day-7 SD rats were treated with 3% sevoflurane plus 30% oxygen/air or 30% oxygen/air. As the rats grew, the Morris water maze (MWM) and fear conditioning tests were performed to evaluate cognitive function, while the expression of LIMK1 was analyzed by western blot. Luciferase reporter assay was performed to investigate the interaction between LIMK1 and miR-27b...
December 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973944/a-population-based-study-of-smoking-serum-cotinine-and-exhaled-nitric-oxide-among-asthmatics-and-a-healthy-population-in-the-usa
#3
Xiaohui Xu, Hui Hu, Gregory D Kearney, Haidong Kan, Genny Carrillo, Xinguang Chen
BACKGROUND: Fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is recommended by the American Thoracic Society (ATS) as a noninvasive biomarker of airway inflammation. In addition to inflammation, many factors may be associated with FeNO, particularly tobacco exposure; however, only age has been included as an influential factor for children below 12 years. Numerous studies have demonstrated negative associations between tobacco exposure and FeNO levels with self-reported data, but few with an objective assessment of smoking...
December 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919184/role-of-engineered-metal-oxide-nanoparticle-agglomeration-in-reactive-oxygen-species-generation-and-cathepsin-b-release-in-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-and-pulmonary-toxicity
#4
Tina M Sager, Michael Wolfarth, Stephen S Leonard, Anna M Morris, Dale W Porter, Vincent Castranova, Andrij Holian
Incomplete understanding of the contributions of dispersants and engineered nanoparticles/materials (ENM) agglomeration state to biological outcomes presents an obstacle for toxicological studies. Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is often regarded as the primary indicator of ENM bioactivity and toxicity, it remains unclear whether ENM produce ROS or whether ROS is an outcome of ENM-induced cell injury. Phagolysosomal disruption and cathepsin B release also promote bioactivity through inflammasome activation...
December 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919178/comparison-of-respiratory-inductive-plethysmography-versus-head-out-plethysmography-for-anesthetized-nonhuman-primates-in-an-animal-biosafety-level-4-facility
#5
J Kyle Bohannon, Anna N Honko, Rebecca J Reeder, Kurt Cooper, Russ Byrum, Laura Bollinger, Jens H Kuhn, Jiro Wada, Jing Qin, Peter B Jahrling, Matthew G Lackemeyer
For inhalational studies and aerosol exposures to viruses, head-out plethysmography acquisition has been traditionally used for the determination of estimated inhaled dose in anesthetized nonhuman primates prior to or during an aerosol exposure. A pressure drop across a pneumotachograph is measured within a sealed chamber during inspiration/exhalation of the nonhuman primate, generating respiratory values and breathing frequencies. Due to the fluctuation of depth of anesthesia, pre-exposure respiratory values can be variable, leading to less precise and accurate dosing calculations downstream...
December 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919173/carbon-monoxide-poisoning-during-camping-in-korea
#6
Youn-Jung Kim, Chang Hwan Sohn, Bum Jin Oh, Kyoung Soo Lim, Won Young Kim
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology and characteristics of unintentional carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during camping in Korea. METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational study on patients with unintentional camping-related CO poisoning who were admitted to the emergency department (ED) from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2014. News reports about incidents of camping-related CO poisoning were collected using news search engines...
December 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919164/differences-in-allergic-inflammatory-responses-in-murine-lungs-comparison-of-pm2-5-and-coarse-pm-collected-during-the-hazy-events-in-a-chinese-city
#7
Miao He, Takamichi Ichinose, Seiichi Yoshida, Fumiko Shiba, Keiichi Arashidani, Hirohisa Takano, Guifan Sun, Takayuki Shibamoto
Urban particulate matter (PM) is associated with an increase in asthma. PM2.5 (<PM2.5 μm) and coarse PM (CPM: PM2.5-PM10 μm) were collected from the air in a Chinese city during haze events. The amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were higher in PM2.5 than in CPM. Conversely, microbial elements LPS and β-glucan were much higher in CPM than in PM2.5. Concentrations of Si, Al, Fe, and Ti in CPM were greater than in PM2.5, while Pb, Cu and As concentrations were lower than in PM2.5. When RAW264...
December 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884072/the-biological-effect-of-asbestos-exposure-is-dependent-on-changes-in-iron-homeostasis
#8
Andrew J Ghio, Joleen M Soukup, Lisa A Dailey, Judy H Richards, Haiyan Tong
Functional groups on the surface of fibrous silicates can complex iron. We tested the postulate that (1) asbestos complexes and sequesters host cell iron resulting in a disruption of metal homeostasis and (2) this loss of essential metal results in an oxidative stress and biological effect in respiratory epithelial cells. Exposure of BEAS-2B cells to 50 μg/mL chrysotile resulted in diminished concentrations of mitochondrial iron. Preincubation of these cells with 200 μM ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) prevented significant mitochondrial iron loss following the same exposure...
December 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829308/sex-and-strain-based-inflammatory-response-to-repeated-tobacco-smoke-exposure-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-and-wistar-kyoto-rats
#9
Yi-Hsin Shen, Alexa K Pham, Benjamin Davis, Suzette Smiley-Jewell, Lei Wang, Urmila P Kodavanti, Minoru Takeuchi, Daniel J Tancredi, Kent E Pinkerton
CONTEXT: Approximately four million people die every year from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), with more than 80% of the cases attributed to smoking. OBJECT: The purpose of this study was to examine the rat strain and sex-related differences and the extended tobacco smoke exposure to induce lung injury and inflammation with the goal of finding a suitable rodent model to study COPD. METHODS: Male and female spontaneously hypertensive (SH) and male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were exposed to filtered air (FA) or to tobacco smoke (TS: 90 mg/m(3) particulate concentration) for 6 h/day, three days/week for 4 or 12 weeks...
December 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829301/historical-state-of-knowledge-of-the-health-risks-of-asbestos-posed-to-seamen-on-merchant-ships
#10
David G Dodge, Barbara D Beck
We examined the development of knowledge concerning the risks posed by asbestos to seamen working aboard merchant ships at sea (i.e. commercial, rather than naval vessels). Seamen were potentially exposed to "in-place" asbestos on merchant ships by performing intermittent repair and maintenance tasks. We reviewed studies measuring airborne asbestos onboard merchant ships and health outcomes of merchant seamen, as well as studies, communications, and actions of U.S. organizations with roles in maritime health and safety...
December 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829296/development-and-characterization-of-electronic-cigarette-exposure-generation-system-ecig-egs-for-the-physico-chemical-and-toxicological-assessment-of-electronic-cigarette-emissions
#11
Jiayuan Zhao, Georgios Pyrgiotakis, Philip Demokritou
Electronic cigarettes (e-cig) have been introduced as a nicotine replacement therapy and have gained increasing attention and popularity. However, while findings on possible toxicological implications continue to grow, major knowledge gaps on both the complex chemistry of the exposure and toxicity exist, prohibiting public health assessors from assessing risks. Here, a versatile electronic cigarette exposure generation system (Ecig-EGS) has been developed and characterized. Ecig-EGS allows generation of real world e-cig emission profiles under controlled operational conditions, real time monitoring and time-integrated particle/gas sampling for physico-chemical characterization, and toxicological assessment (both in vitro and in vivo)...
December 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809675/bentonite-toxicology-and-epidemiology-a-review
#12
L Daniel Maxim, Ron Niebo, Ernest E McConnell
Bentonite, a clay with numerous industrial and consumer applications, is mined and processed in many countries of the world. Its many beneficial uses also create the potential for widespread occupational and consumer exposure. The available studies on toxicity and epidemiology indicate that the principal exposure pathway of concern is inhalation of respirable dust by occupationally exposed cohorts. Bentonite itself is probably not more toxic than any other particulate not otherwise regulated and is not classified as a carcinogen by any regulatory or advisory body, but some bentonite may contain variable amounts of respirable crystalline silica, a recognized human carcinogen...
November 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706953/foam-cell-formation-by-particulate-matter-pm-exposure-a-review
#13
Yi Cao, Jimin Long, Yuejia Ji, Gui Chen, Yuexin Shen, Yu Gong, Juan Li
Increasing evidence suggests that exposure of particulate matter (PM) from traffic vehicles, e.g., diesel exhaust particles (DEP), was associated with adverse vascular effects, e.g., acceleration of atherosclerotic plaque progression. By analogy, engineered nanoparticles (NPs) could also induce similar effects. The formation of lipid laden foam cells, derived predominately from macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), is closely associated with the development of atherosclerosis and adverse vascular effects...
November 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706956/a-comparative-assessment-of-the-acute-inhalation-toxicity-of-vanadium-compounds
#14
N Rajendran, J C Seagrave, L M Plunkett, J A MacGregor
Vanadium compounds have become important in industrial processes, resulting in workplace exposure potential and are present in ambient air as a result of fossil fuel combustion. A series of acute nose-only inhalation toxicity studies was conducted in both rats and mice in order to obtain comparative data on the acute toxicity potential of compounds used commercially. V2O3, V2O4, and V2O5, which have different oxidation states (+3, +4, +5, respectively), were delivered as micronized powders; the highly water-soluble and hygroscopic VOSO4 (+4) could not be micronized and was instead delivered as a liquid aerosol from an aqueous solution...
October 6, 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706952/authors-response-to-finkelstein-s-letter-to-the-editor-regarding-our-recent-review-of-ambient-airborne-asbestos-concentrations-abelmann-et-al-2015
#15
A Abelmann, M E Glynn, J S Pierce, P K Scott, D J Paustenbach
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644345/evidence-that-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-reduce-epithelial-permeability-following-phosgene-induced-acute-lung-injury-via-activation-of-wnt3a-protein-induced-canonical-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#16
Jing Zhang, Yiru Shao, Daikun He, Lin Zhang, Guoxiong Xu, Jie Shen
: An increase in epithelial cell permeability has been proposed to contribute to phosgene-induced acute lung injury (ALI). However, no specific and effective means for blocking increases in permeability are currently available. Cell-based therapy using bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is an attractive new approach. Canonical wnt/β-catenin signaling has been demonstrated to contribute to both epithelial cell injury and repair mechanisms in ALI. The goal of our study was to determine the effects of MSCs on epithelial permeability in phosgene-induced ALI in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and identify changes in major components of the wnt3a/β-catenin signaling pathway during this process...
October 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644268/a-scattering-methodology-for-droplet-sizing-of-e-cigarette-aerosols
#17
Pascal Pratte, Stéphane Cosandey, Catherine Goujon-Ginglinger
CONTEXT: Knowledge of the droplet size distribution of inhalable aerosols is important to predict aerosol deposition yield at various respiratory tract locations in human. Optical methodologies are usually preferred over the multi-stage cascade impactor for high-throughput measurements of aerosol particle/droplet size distributions. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the Laser Aerosol Spectrometer technology based on Polystyrene Sphere Latex (PSL) calibration curve applied for the experimental determination of droplet size distributions in the diameter range typical of commercial e-cigarette aerosols (147-1361 nm)...
October 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644138/exposure-study-to-examine-chemosensory-effects-of-%C3%A9-caprolactam-in-healthy-men-and-women
#18
Gerhard Triebig, Isabel Triebig-Heller, Thomas Bruckner
CONTEXT: ε-Caprolactam is an important industrial chemical with a relatively low human toxicity; of importance is the irritations that occur after exposure to ε-caprolactam as aerosols or vapors. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine symptoms and objective effects, which occur on the mucous membranes of the eyes and the upper respiratory tract. METHODS: A total of 52 healthy volunteers (26 women and 26 men, aged between 19 and 50 years) were exposed by random to different ε-caprolactam concentrations (0...
October 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618930/evaluating-ecg-and-carboxyhemoglobin-changes-due-to-smoking-narghile
#19
Fazıl Yıldırım, Yunsur Çevik, Emine Emektar, Şeref Kerem Çorbacıoğlu, Yavuz Katırcı
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate whether increased carboxyhemoglobin (COHB) levels and ECG changes, which associated with fatal ventricular dysrhythmias, including increased QT, P-wave and T peak (Tp)-Tend (Te) dispersion, can be detected after smoking narghile, which is a traditional method of smoking tobacco that is smoked from hookah device. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After local ethics committee approval, this prospective study was conducted using healthy volunteer subjects at a "narghile café," which is used by people smoking narghile in an open area...
October 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618878/pulmonary-distribution-of-nanoceria-comparison-of-intratracheal-microspray-instillation-and-dry-powder-insufflation
#20
Ramon M Molina, Nagarjun V Konduru, Hugo Hirano, Thomas C Donaghey, Benoit Adamo, Brendan Laurenzi, Georgios Pyrgiotakis, Joseph D Brain
Particles can be delivered to the respiratory tract of animals using various techniques. Inhalation mimics environmental exposure but requires large amounts of aerosolized NPs over a prolonged dosing time, varies in deposited dose among individual animals, and results in nasopharyngeal and fur particle deposition. Although less physiological, intratracheal (IT) instillation allows quick and precise dosing. Insufflation delivers particles in their dry form as an aerosol. We compared the distribution of neutron-activated (141)CeO2 nanoparticles (5 mg/kg) in rats after (1) IT instillation, (2) left intrabronchial instillation, (3) microspraying of nanoceria suspension and (4) insufflation of nanoceria dry powder...
October 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
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