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Inhalation Toxicology

Yiru Shao, Jie Shen, Fangqing Zhou, Daikun He
Phosgene-induced acute lung injury (P-ALI) is characterized by inflammation and effective treatments are lacking. Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) has the beneficial effects on P-ALI. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potential for re-epithelization and recovery in lung injury. Thus, we hypothesized that Ang1 expressing MSCs would have beneficial effects on P-ALI. Here, an Ang1 expressing lentiviral vector was constructed and infected into rat bone marrow MSCs. Histological analyses revealed significant pathological improvements especially after treatment with MSCs in the rats exposed to phosgene...
November 5, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Caroline Gamalho da Silveira, Marlise Di Domenico, Paulo Hilário Nascimento Saldiva, Cláudia Ramos Rhoden
The investigation of the relationship between air pollution and obesity has captured the interest of researchers. However, the mechanism regarding the association between air pollution exposure and metabolic diseases and obesity still remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the effects of subchronic ROFA exposure on consumption and preference for highly palatable food and its interference on biochemical, lipid and oxidative stress parameters in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided in groups: control, ROFA, chocolate and ROFA + chocolate...
November 2, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Konstantinos E Farsalinos, Brad Rodu
INTRODUCTION: A recent study reported levels of metal emissions in e-cigarette (EC) aerosol. Herein we present a risk assessment analysis of the published findings using total daily exposure limits. METHODS: Median and 75th percentile metal concentrations in EC aerosols were used to determine the level of daily liquid consumption (g/d) that would exceed the permissible daily exposures (PDEs) defined for inhalation medications (cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, antimony and tin)...
November 2, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Devyani Swami, Ruchi Yadav, A S B Bhaskar, A Soni, D P Nagar, J Acharya, H N Karade, K P Singh, Pravin Kumar
Efficacy of two oximes treatments evaluated during inhalation of sarin vapor (LCt50 , 755.9 mg/min/m3 ) in simulated real scenario in vivo. Majority of mice either became moribund or died within 1-2 min during exposure to multifold-lethal concentrations of sarin vapor. Protection indices were determined by exposing to sarin vapor in two sessions, 1 min exposure followed by treatments with or without HNK-102 (56.56 mg/kg, im) or 2-PAM (30 mg/kg, im) and atropine (10 mg/kg, ip), and again exposed for remaining 14 min...
October 30, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Charis Girvalaki, Manolis Tzatzarakis, Christina N Kyriakos, Alexander I Vardavas, Polychronis D Stivaktakis, Matthaios Kavvalakis, Aristidis Tsatsakis, Constantine Vardavas
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to identify the composition and reported chemical health hazards of the most common electronic cigarette liquids (e-liquids) in nine European Union (EU) Member States (MS) prior to adoption of the Tobacco Product Directive (TPD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Within the Horizon2020, EUREST-PLUS study, 122 of the most commonly sold e-liquids in 9 EU MS were randomly selected and purchased. A quantitative and qualitative chemical analysis was performed using a previously validated based gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method...
October 29, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Matthew S P Boyles, David Brown, Jilly Knox, Michael Horobin, Mark R Miller, Helinor J Johnston, Vicki Stone
High-Temperature Insulation Wools (HTIW), such as alumino silicate wools (Refractory Ceramic Fibers) and Alkaline Earth Silicate wools, are used in high-temperature industries for thermal insulation. These materials have an amorphous glass-like structure. In some applications, exposure to high temperatures causes devitrification resulting in the formation of crystalline species including crystalline silica. The formation of this potentially carcinogenic material raises safety concerns regarding after-use handling and disposal...
October 17, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
E C Hensel, S Jayasekera, R J Robinson
Laboratory emissions testing of electronic cigarettes continues to be a focus in the tobacco research community. In particular, to inform policy regarding appropriate test protocols to regulate the manufacture, marketing and sale of tobacco products. This study aims to enhance current understanding of the way laboratory systems used to generate topography profiles and capture resultant emissions from inhaled tobacco products may interact with the device under test. A programmable emission system (vaping machine) is introduced and characterized...
October 17, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Marceli Rocha Leite, Dirce Maria Trevisan Zanetta, Leila Antonangelo, Lia Junqueira Marçal, Dionei Ramos, Emmanuel Almeida Burdmann, Ubiratan Paula Santos
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of burnt sugarcane harvesting on the plasmatic and urinary concentrations of the club cell secretory protein (CC16) and inflammatory systemic biomarkers in a group of sugarcane cutters. METHODS: Seventy-eight sugar cane workers were evaluated. The plasmatic and urinary concentrations of CC16, a pulmonary damage marker and inflammatory systemic biomarkers were collected at three time points: before, three months after and six months after the onset of the burnt sugarcane harvesting period...
October 17, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Susan Dekkers, Lan Ma-Hock, Iseult Lynch, Mike Russ, Mark R Miller, Roel P F Schins, Jana Keller, Isabella Römer, Karin Küttler, Volker Strauss, Wim H De Jong, Robert Landsiedel, Flemming R Cassee
Considerable differences in pulmonary responses have been observed in animals exposed to cerium dioxide nanoparticles via inhalation. These differences in pulmonary toxicity might be explained by differences in lung deposition, species susceptibility or physicochemical characteristics of the tested cerium dioxide nanoforms (i.e. same chemical substance, different size, shape, surface area or surface chemistry). In order to distinguish the relative importance of these different influencing factors, we performed a detailed analysis of the data from several inhalation studies with different exposure durations, species and nanoforms, namely published data on NM211 and NM212 (JRC repository), NanoAmor (commercially available) and our published and unpublished data on PROM (industry provided)...
October 4, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Cheol Hong Lim, Yong Hoon Lee, Yong Soon Kim, Hyun Sung Choi, Dong Seok Seo
BACKGROUND: Cyclohexanone is a chemical used in various industries and many workers are exposed to it. Therefore, in this study, we determined the toxicity of cyclohexanone in inhalation-exposed F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice, so as to apply the findings in hazard and risk assessments. METHODS: Ten male and 10 female rats and mice per test group were exposed to cyclohexanone vapors at 0, 100, 250, and 625 ppm concentrations for 6 h per day, 5 d per week, and for 13 weeks...
September 28, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Li-Teng Yang, Xin Liu, Gao-Hui Wu, Li-Fang Chen
BACKGROUND: Many studies have attempted to clarify the association between TNF-a -308G/A polymorphism and pneumoconiosis, but there has been no definite consensus to date. To further assess the effects of TNF-a -308G/A polymorphism on the risk of pneumoconiosis, a meta-analysis was performed in Chinese population. METHODS: We searched the related literature in PubMed and Chinese databases through June 2018. The strength of the associations was assessed used pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
September 26, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Jingyi Xu, Xing Qiu, Zhou Liang, Suzette Smiley-Jewell, Faqiang Lu, Mang Yu, Kent E Pinkerton, Dewei Zhao, Bingyin Shi
PURPOSE: To define if exposure to tobacco smoke (TS) could induce reduction of bone mass and impairment of bone architecture, features observed in osteoporosis in normotensive rats and the influence of TS exposure on the osteoporotic features exhibited in the spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats. METHODS: Normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and SH rats were exposed to filtered air or TS for 8 weeks, then their proximal femurs were extracted for micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) assessment, histological and immune-histological examinations to quantify the adverse influence of TS exposure on the bone mass and density, as well as bone architecture...
September 26, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Omar F Khabour, Karem H Alzoubi, Nihaya A Al-Sheyab, Mohammad A Azab, Adnan M Massadeh, Ahmed A Alomary, Thomas E Eissenberg
In this case-control study, the influence of waterpipe tobacco smoking on the plasma and saliva levels of cadmium, lead and zinc was examined in participants who were waterpipe tobacco smokers (WS) or never-smokers (NS). The concentration of metals was higher in WS relative to NS. The mean (SEM) cadmium concentration in plasma was 3.3 (0.18) µg/dL in WS versus 0.82 (0.09) µg/L in NS (p < .001) and in saliva was 5.1 (0.36) µg/L in WS versus 0.64 (0.2) µg/L in NS (p < .001). The mean (SEM) lead concentration in plasma was 5...
September 26, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Efthimios Zervas, Eleni Litsiou, Konstantinos Konstantopoulos, Stavros Poulopoulos, Paraskevi Katsaounou
Electronic cigarettes are used to evaporate a mixture of solvents, nicotine and flavors. Liquid particles can be generated under these conditions due to evaporation/condensation. The objective of this work is to measure the physical characteristics of the aerosol emission of an e-cigarette using different refill liquids. The aerosol particle number and size are determined with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer. Seven liquids are used: propylene glycol (PG), glycerol (VG), a mixture 1:1 of PG/VG, the mixture with 2% or 5% of a commercial flavor, the mixture with 1...
September 26, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Shuo Jiang, Ji Zhou, Jia Zhang, Xihao Du, Xuejiao Zeng, Kun Pan, Yuquan Xie, Haidong Kan, Qinghua Sun, Jing Cai, Jinzhuo Zhao
Lots of epidemiological and experimental studies have found that ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) exposure is associated with the development of cardiopulmonary diseases, obesity and diabetes. This study focused on the effects of cumulative PM2.5 exposure on pulmonary and systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. Thirty-two 6-week-old male Balb/c mice were randomly divided into four groups (FA, PM, WEEK and DAY groups) and were continuously or intermittently exposed to concentrated PM2.5 or filtered air (FA) for four weeks using Shanghai Meteorological and Environmental Animal Exposure System ("Shanghai-METAS")...
September 24, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Dai-Kun He, Jun-Feng Chen, Yi-Ru Shao, Fang-Qing Zhou, Jie Shen
OBJECTIVE: Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) is reported to have the ability to attenuate endothelial permeability and inflammation during the stress condition and is considered to play a critical role in vascular stabilization. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms involved in the protective effects of adenovirus-delivered Ang1 in phosgene-induced acute lung injury (ALI). METHODS: ALI was induced in rats by phosgene exposure at 8.33 g/m3 for 5 min, followed by an intravenous injection of adenovirus-Ang1 (Ad/Ang1)...
March 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Jillian M Staugler, Michael C Babin, M Claire Matthews, Matthew K Brittain, Mark R Perry
OBJECTIVE: Cyanide is a highly toxic chemical, and acute exposure depletes cells and tissue of oxygen, depressing the respiratory, cardiovascular and neurological systems and potentially leading to death. Cyanide has been used as a weapon since ancient Rome and continues to pose a potential threat today. A well-characterized animal model is necessary for the development of novel methods of rapid detection and treatment. This manuscript describes the development of an inhalation exposure system designed to evaluate the lethality of acute cyanide inhalation in the porcine model...
March 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
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March 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Jose Zavala, Allen D Ledbetter, David S Morgan, Lisa A Dailey, Earl Puckett, Shaun D McCullough, Mark Higuchi
A cell culture exposure system (CCES) was developed to expose cells established at an air-liquid interface (ALI) to volatile chemicals. We characterized the CCES by exposing indigo dye-impregnated filter inserts inside culture wells to 125 ppb ozone (O3 ) for 1 h at flow rates of 5 and 25 mL/min/well; the reaction of O3 with an indigo dye produces a fluorescent product. A 5-fold increase in fluorescence at 25 mL/min/well versus 5 mL/min/well was observed, suggesting higher flows were more effective...
March 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Colette N Miller, Janice A Dye, Mette C Schladweiler, Judy H Richards, Allen D Ledbetter, Erica J Stewart, Urmila P Kodavanti
Apelin has cardiopulmonary protective properties that promote vasodilation and maintenance of the endothelial barrier. While reductions in apelin have been identified as a contributor to various lung diseases, including pulmonary edema, its role in the effect of air pollutants has not been examined. Thus, in the current study, we sought to investigate if apelin is a downstream target of inhaled ozone and if such change in expression is related to altered DNA methylation in the lung. Male, Long-Evans rats were exposed to filtered air or 1...
March 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
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