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Development and Psychopathology

Stephanie G Craig, Marlene M Moretti
There is increasing evidence for multiple pathways in the development of callous-unemotional (CU) features, including primary and secondary profiles. Understanding affect regulation strategies among variants may provide further insight to the development and treatment of CU features. This study evaluated whether profiles of CU features could be identified within a clinical sample of youth using measures of affect dysregulation, affect suppression, anxiety, and maltreatment. We also examined whether these profiles were consistent across gender...
November 8, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Lisa R Starr, Meghan Huang
Research suggests that genetic variants linked to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis functioning moderate the association between environmental stressors and depression, but examining gene-environment interactions with single polymorphisms limits power. The current study used a multilocus genetic profile score (MGPS) approach to measuring HPA-axis-related genetic variation and examined interactions with acute stress, chronic stress, and childhood adversity (assessed using contextual threat interview methods) with depressive symptoms as outcomes in an adolescent sample (ages 14-17, N = 241; White subsample n = 192)...
November 5, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Brenda L Volling, Tianyi Yu, Richard Gonzalez, Elizabeth Tengelitsch, Matthew M Stevenson
The current study examined trajectories of maternal and paternal depression in the year following the birth of an infant sibling, and relations with family risk factors and firstborn children's internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Latent class growth analysis was conducted on 231 families in a longitudinal investigation (prebirth and 1, 4, 8, and 12 months postbirth) and revealed four classes of families: both mother and father low in depressive symptoms (40.7%); mother high-father low (25.1%); father high-mother low (24...
November 5, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Theodore P Beauchaine, Colin L Sauder, Christina M Derbidge, Lauren L Uyeji
Self-inflicted injury (SII) in adolescence is a serious public health concern that portends prospective vulnerability to internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, borderline personality development, suicide attempts, and suicide. To date, however, our understanding of neurobiological vulnerabilities to SII is limited. Behaviorally, affect dysregulation is common among those who self-injure. This suggests ineffective cortical modulation of emotion, as observed among adults with borderline personality disorder...
November 5, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
David P Laplante, Gabrielle Simcock, Lei Cao-Lei, Maya Mouallem, Guillaume Elgbeili, Alain Brunet, Vanessa Cobham, Sue Kildea, Suzanne King
The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism of the serotonin transporter has been shown to play a role in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Moreover, disaster-related prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) has also been shown to be associated with ASD. However, no study to date has examined whether these two factors, either individually or in combination, are predictive of ASD traits in the same sample. We hypothesized that children, particularly boys, with the LL genotype exposed to high levels of disaster-related PNMS would exhibit higher levels of ASD traits compared to boys with the LS or SS genotypes and girls regardless of genotype...
November 5, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Charlotte Gutenbrunner, Karen Salmon, Paul E Jose
Overgeneral autobiographical memory, the tendency to report general memories when asked to report specific event recollections, has been implicated in the development and maintenance of psychopathology. The dominant model of overgeneral memory, the CaR-FA-X model (Williams et al., 2007), proposes that three cognitive processes (increased rumination and avoidance, and reduced executive control) either independently, or in interaction, interfere with successful memory retrieval. Although psychopathology increases significantly during adolescence, no research has tested this model in its entirety, including interaction effects, longitudinally in community youth...
November 5, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
J Richard Jennings, Karen A Matthews, Dustin Pardini, Adrian Raine
A low resting heart rate across development from infancy to young adulthood relates to greater aggression/hostility. Adult aggression and a high heart rate relate to health risk. Do some aggressive individuals retain low heart rate and less health risk across development while others show high heart rate and more risk? A longitudinal sample of 203 men assessed as teens (age 16.1) and adults (mean age 32.0) permitted us to assess (a) stability of heart rate levels and reactivity, (b) stability of aggression/hostility, and (c) whether change or stability related to health risk...
October 31, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Rebecca J Goodman, Diana R Samek, Sylia Wilson, William G Iacono, Matt McGue
Previous research has shown that problematic parent-child, peer, and romantic partner relationships are associated with an increased likelihood for major depressive disorder (MDD). Less research has evaluated the developmental unfolding of how these interpersonal relationship features are both an antecedent versus a consequence of MDD symptoms from adolescence through young adulthood. These gaps were evaluated using a large community sample (N = 1,127; 54% female, 96% white) via a developmental cascade model...
October 29, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Rebecca L Brock, Grazyna Kochanska
Growing research has documented distinct developmental sequelae in insecure and secure parent-child relationships, supporting a model of early attachment as moderating future developmental processes rather than, or in addition to, a source of direct effects. We explored maladaptive developmental implications of infants' anger proneness in 102 community families. Anger was assessed in infancy through observations in the Car Seat episode and parents' ratings. Children's security with parents was assessed in the Strange Situation paradigm at 15 months...
October 26, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Ashley M Ebbert, Frank J Infurna, Suniya S Luthar
This study examined changes in adolescents' perceived relationship quality with mothers and fathers from middle school to high school, gender differences, and associated mental health consequences using longitudinal data from the New England Study of Suburban Youth cohort (n = 262, 48% female) with annual assessments (Grades 6-12). For both parents, alienation increased, and trust and communication decreased from middle school to high school, with greater changes among girls. Overall, closeness to mothers was higher than with fathers...
October 25, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Paulo de Sousa, William Sellwood, Kirsten Fien, Helen Sharp, Andrew Pickles, Jonathan Hill, Kate Abbott, Louise Fisher, Richard P Bentall
Communication deviance (CD) reflects features of the content or manner of a person's speech that may confuse the listener and inhibit the establishment of a shared focus of attention. The construct was developed in the context of the study of familial risks for psychosis based on hypotheses regarding its effects during childhood. It is not known whether parental CD is associated with nonverbal parental behaviors that may be important in early development. This study explored the association between CD in a cohort of mothers (n = 287) at 32 weeks gestation and maternal sensitivity with infants at 29 weeks in a standard play procedure...
October 23, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Andrew Dismukes, Elizabeth Shirtcliff, Christopher W Jones, Charles Zeanah, Katherine Theall, Stacy Drury
Acute reactivity of the stress hormone cortisol is reflective of early adversity and stress exposure, with some studies finding that the impact of adversity on the stress response differs by race. The objectives of the current study were to characterize cortisol reactivity to two dyadically based stress paradigms across the first year of life, to examine cortisol reactivity within Black and White infants, and to assess the impact of correlates of racial inequity including socioeconomic status, experiences of discrimination, and urban life stressors, as well as the buffering by racial socialization on cortisol patterns...
October 17, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Mirjam Meeuwsen, Oliver Perra, Stephanie H M van Goozen, Dale F Hay
We tested the hypothesis that high activity levels in infancy would predict self-regulatory problems and later symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a longitudinal study of British families (N = 321). Infants' activity levels were assessed at 6 months, using 3 informants' reports from the Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ) and ActiGraphs during baseline, attention, and restraint tasks. At a mean of 33 months, the children were assessed on self-regulatory tasks; at a mean of 36 months, 3 informants reported symptoms of ADHD...
October 15, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Lillybelle K Deer, Grant S Shields, Susannah L Ivory, Camelia E Hostinar, Eva H Telzer
Racial/ethnic minorities are more vulnerable to mental and physical health problems, but we know little about the psychobiological underpinnings of these disparities. In this study, we examined racial/ethnic differences in cortisol diurnal patterns and affect as initial steps toward elucidating long-term health disparities. A racially/ethnically diverse (39.5% White, 60.5% minority) sample of 370 adolescents (57.3% female) between the ages of 11.9 and 18 years (M = 14.65 years, SD = 1.39) participated in this study...
October 12, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Fatima Tuba Yaylaci
Following the civil war in Syria, there has been a growing interest in the impact of war, violent conflict, and refuge on the development and mental health of refugee children in general and Syrian refugee children in particular. The objective of this paper is threefold: (a) to critically review the existing literature on the psychological functioning of Syrian refugee children, with a particular focus on those residing in the urban areas or camps in Turkey; (b) to identify the main theoretical and methodological problems of this emerging literature; and (c) to suggest guidelines for how to improve research and practice in this field...
October 8, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Nancy A Gonzales, Megan Johnson, Elizabeth A Shirtcliff, Jenn-Yun Tein, Brenda Eskenazi, Julianna Deardorff
Scarce research has examined stress responsivity among Latino youths, and no studies have focused on the role of acculturation in shaping cortisol stress response in this population. This study assessed Mexican American adolescents' Mexican and Anglo cultural orientations and examined prospective associations between their patterns of bicultural orientation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortisol reactivity to an adapted Trier Social Stress Test. The sample included 264 youths from a longitudinal birth cohort study who completed the Trier Social Stress Test and provided saliva samples at age 14...
October 8, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Rebecca M B White, Katharine H Zeiders, M Dalal Safa
Ethnic-racial and socioeconomic residential segregation are endemic in the United States, representing societal-level sociocultural processes that likely shape development. Considered alongside communities' abilities to respond to external forces, like stratification, in ways that promote youth adaptive functioning and mitigate maladaptive functioning, it is likely that residence in segregated neighborhoods during adolescence has both costs and benefits. We examined the influences that early adolescents' neighborhood structural characteristics, including Latino concentration and concentrated poverty, had on a range of developmentally salient downstream outcomes (i...
October 5, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Linda P Juang, Yishan Shen, Catherine L Costigan, Yang Hou
The aim of our study was twofold: to examine (a) whether the link between racial discrimination and adjustment showed age-related changes across early to late adolescence for Chinese-heritage youth and (b) whether the age-related associations of the discrimination-adjustment link differed by gender, nativity, and geographical region. We pooled two independently collected longitudinal data sets in the United States and Canada (N = 498, ages 12-19 at Wave 1) and used time-varying effect modeling to show that discrimination is consistently associated with poorer adjustment across all ages...
October 5, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
George P Knight, M Dalal Safa, Rebecca M B White
This paper aims to advance the scientific understanding of the role of culture, particularly cultural orientation, in development and psychopathology. We advance a theoretical framework that conceptualizes cultural orientation as a developmental construct represented by multiple psychological dimensions and social identities, and influenced by the contexts in which individuals are embedded. This perspective suggests that cultural orientation changes within individuals over time as a function of their experiences with and memberships in multiple groups, including the mainstream and ethnic culture groups, as well as a function of their normative developmental changes (i...
October 4, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Alan Meca, Seth J Schwartz, Charles R Martinez, Heather H McClure
A great deal of research has focused on acculturation and enculturation, which represent the processes of adapting to a new culture. Despite this growing literature, results have produced inconsistent findings that may be attributable to differences in terms of the instruments used to assess acculturation and enculturation. Utilizing a 3-year longitudinal data set (with 1-year lags between assessments), the present study explored the psychometric properties of the Bicultural Involvement Questionnaire-Short Version (BIQ-S) and the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans II (ARSMA-II) and examined the overlap between changes in these measures as they relate to internalizing and externalizing problem behavior...
October 2, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
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