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Development and Psychopathology

Lucy S King, Kathryn L Humphreys, M Catalina Camacho, Ian H Gotlib
Researchers are becoming increasingly interested in linking specific forms of early life stress (ELS) to specific neurobiological markers, including alterations in the morphology of stress-sensitive brain regions. We used a person-centered, multi-informant approach to investigate the associations of specific constellations of ELS with hippocampal and amygdala volume in a community sample of 211 9- to 13-year-old early adolescents. Further, we compared this approach to a cumulative risk model of ELS, in which ELS was quantified by the total number of stressors reported...
May 2, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Annette M Klein, Andrea Schlesier-Michel, Yvonne Otto, Lars O White, Anna Andreas, Susan Sierau, Sarah Bergmann, Sonja Perren, Kai von Klitzing
Recent proposals suggest early adversity sets in motion particularly chronic and neurobiologically distinct trajectories of internalizing symptoms. However, few prospective studies in high-risk samples delineate distinct trajectories of internalizing symptoms from preschool age onward. We examined trajectories in a high-risk cohort, oversampled for internalizing symptoms, several preschool risk/maintenance factors, and school-age outcomes. Parents of 325 children completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire on up to four waves of data collection from preschool (3-5 years) to school age (8-9 years) and Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment interviews at both ages...
April 29, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Ada H Zohar, Igor Zwir, Jiayu Wang, C Robert Cloninger, Andrey P Anokhin
We studied the pattern of personality development in a longitudinal population-based sample of 752 American adolescents. Personality was assessed reliably with the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory at 12, 14, and 16 years of age. The rank-order stability of Junior Temperament and Character Inventory traits from age 12 to 16 was moderate (r = .35). Hierarchical linear modeling of between-group variance due to gender and within-group variance due to age indicated that harm avoidance and persistence decreased whereas self-directedness and cooperativeness increased from age 12 to 16...
April 29, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Elaine Reese, Elizabeth Meins, Charles Fernyhough, Luna Centifanti
Maternal elaborative reminiscing supports preschool children's autobiographical memory, self-concept, and emotion understanding. What are the factors contributing to mothers' elaborative style of reminiscing? In a longitudinal community sample (n = 170 at the final data point), this study explored the role of maternal depression (8-44 months), maternal sensitivity and maternal mind-mindedness (8 months), as well as child factors of joint attention (15 months), attachment security (15 months), and language (26 months) for mother-child reminiscing about a positive (happy) and a negative (scared) event at 44 months...
April 26, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Matthew M Stevenson, Brenda L Volling, Richard Gonzalez
Fathers are a crucial source of support for children following the birth of an infant sibling. This study examined whether fathers were more vulnerable to the effects of interparental conflict than mothers, and whether there was a subsequent spillover cascade from interparental conflict to children's externalizing behavior problems. We followed 241 families after the birth of a second child. Mothers and fathers reported on interparental conflict and parental efficacy at 1 and 4 months postpartum and punitive discipline and firstborn children's externalizing behavior problems across a longitudinal investigation (prenatal and 4, 8, and 12 months postpartum)...
April 26, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Florence Charest, Martine Hébert, Annie Bernier, Rachel Langevin, Raphaële Miljkovitch
According to the developmental psychopathology framework, adverse childhood experiences, including child sexual abuse (CSA), may alter the course of normal development in children. Attachment security has been identified as a protective factor against psychopathology and may thus play a critical role in predicting victims' adaptation. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the mediating effect of attachment representations in the relation between CSA and behavior problems over a 1-year period...
April 23, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Delin Sun, Courtney C Haswell, Rajendra A Morey, Michael D De Bellis
Child maltreatment is a major cause of pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Previous studies have not investigated potential differences in network architecture in maltreated youth with PTSD and those resilient to PTSD. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging brain scans at 3 T were completed in maltreated youth with PTSD (n = 31), without PTSD (n = 32), and nonmaltreated controls (n = 57). Structural covariance network architecture was derived from between-subject intraregional correlations in measures of cortical thickness in 148 cortical regions (nodes)...
April 10, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Amy L Byrd, Stephen B Manuck, Samuel W Hawes, Tayler J Vebares, Vishwajit Nimgaonkar, Kodavali V Chowdari, Alison E Hipwell, Kate Keenan, Stephanie D Stepp
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 10, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Matilda A Frick, Tommie Forslund, Karin C Brocki
A need to identify early infant markers of later occurring inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive behaviors has come to the fore in the current attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder literature. The purpose of such studies is to identify driving mechanisms that could enable early detection of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder liability and thus facilitate early intervention. Here we study independent and interactive effects of cognitive regulation (inhibition and sustained attention), temperament (reactive and regulatory aspects), and maternal sensitivity (as external regulation) in a sample of 112 typically developing 10-month-old infants (59 boys, 52...
April 2, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Rosemarie E Perry, Eric D Finegood, Stephen H Braren, Meriah L Dejoseph, David F Putrino, Donald A Wilson, Regina M Sullivan, C Cybele Raver, Clancy Blair
Children reared in impoverished environments are at risk for enduring psychological and physical health problems. Mechanisms by which poverty affects development, however, remain unclear. To explore one potential mechanism of poverty's impact on social-emotional and cognitive development, an experimental examination of a rodent model of scarcity-adversity was conducted and compared to results from a longitudinal study of human infants and families followed from birth (N = 1,292) who faced high levels of poverty-related scarcity-adversity...
April 2, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Valeska Stonawski, Stefan Frey, Yulia Golub, Nicolas Rohleder, Jennifer Kriebel, Tamme W Goecke, Peter A Fasching, Matthias W Beckmann, Johannes Kornhuber, Oliver Kratz, Gunther H Moll, Hartmut Heinrich, Anna Eichler
Epigenetic DNA modifications in genes related to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are discussed as a mechanism underlying the association between prenatal depression and altered child HPA activity. In a longitudinal study, DNA methylation changes related to prenatal depressive symptoms were investigated in 167 children aged 6 to 9 years. At six candidate genes, 126 cytosine-guanine dinucleotides were considered without correcting for multiple testing due to the exploratory nature of the study. Further associations with the basal child HPA activity were examined...
April 2, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Denise Ma, Lisa A Serbin, Dale M Stack
Anxiety symptoms in childhood and adolescence can have a long-term negative impact on mental and physical health. Although studies have shown dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis is associated with anxiety disorders, it is unclear how and in what direction children's experiences of anxiety symptoms, which include physiological and cognitive-emotional dimensions, impact the functioning of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis over time. We hypothesized that higher physiological symptoms would be contemporaneously associated with hypercortisolism, whereas cognitive-emotional symptoms would be more chronic, reflecting traitlike stability, and would predict hypocortisolism over time...
April 2, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Isabelle Ouellet-Morin, Marie-Pier Robitaille, Stéphanie Langevin, Christina Cantave, Mara Brendgen, Sonia J Lupien
There is a relative consensus about the detrimental impact of childhood maltreatment on later mental health problems and behavioral difficulties. Prior research suggests that neurophysiological stress mechanisms may partly mediate this association. However, inconsistent findings regarding hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic responses to stress complicate this investigation. Furthermore, the concordance in these two stress systems is not well understood. We tested whether the severity of maltreatment affected the association between maltreatment and cortisol and heart rate (HR) stress responses and the symmetry of these responses...
April 2, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Michael Deuschle, Ferdinand Hendlmeier, Stephanie Witt, Marcella Rietschel, Maria Gilles, Alberto Sánchez-Guijo, Lourdes Fañanas, Sabine Hentze, Stefan A Wudy, Rainer Hellweg
The prenatal environment shapes the offspring's phenotype; moreover, transgenerational stress and stress during pregnancy may play a role. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glucocorticoids influence neurodevelopment during pregnancy, and there is evidence that BDNF in amniotic fluid is mainly of fetal origin, while the source of glucocorticoids is maternal. We tested the hypothesis that maternal early life stress, psychiatric diagnoses, anxiety, perceived stress, and socioeconomic status influence BDNF and glucocorticoid concentrations in amniotic fluid in the second trimester...
March 26, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Tobias Hecker, Victoria S Boettcher, Markus A Landolt, Katharin Hermenau
Child maltreatment is known to engender negative emotional and behavioral consequences. Although neglect is the most frequent form of maltreatment, it has thus far only received little attention, especially when looking at low-resource countries. The current study investigated possible associations between neglect and internalizing and externalizing problems. As neglect and abuse often co-occur, the latter was controlled for. In total, 409 Tanzanian primary school students (52% boys, M = 10.5 years, range = 6-15) participated in the cross-sectional study...
March 26, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Evangelia-Chrysanthi Kouklari, Stella Tsermentseli, Claire P Monks
The development of executive function (EF) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been investigated using only "cool"-cognitive EF tasks while there is limited knowledge regarding the development of "hot"-affective EF. Although cool EF development and its links to theory of mind (ToM) have been widely examined, understanding of the influence of hot EF to ToM mechanisms is minimal. The present study introduced a longitudinal design to examine the developmental changes in cool and hot EF of children with ASD (n = 45) and matched (to age and IQ) controls (n = 37) as well as the impact of EF on ToM development over a school year...
March 26, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Isabelle Roskam
The aim of the current research was to disentangle four theoretically sound models of externalizing behavior etiology (i.e., attachment, language, inhibition, and parenting) by testing their relation with behavioral trajectories from early childhood to adolescence. The aim was achieved through a 10-year prospective longitudinal study conducted over five waves with 111 referred children aged 3 to 5 years at the onset of the study. Clinical referral was primarily based on externalizing behavior. A multimethod (questionnaires, testing, and observations) approach was used to estimate the four predictors in early childhood...
March 22, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Sara R Berzenski
Efforts to differentiate between the developmental sequelae of childhood emotional abuse and childhood emotional neglect are critical to both research and practice efforts. As an oft-identified mechanism of the effects of child maltreatment on later adjustment, emotion dysregulation represents a key potential pathway. The present study explored a higher order factor model of specific emotion regulation skills, and the extent to which these skill sets would indicate distinct developmental pathways from unique emotional maltreatment experiences to multidomain adjustment...
March 22, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Wendy Troop-Gordon, Robert D Gordon, Bethany M Schwandt, Gregor A Horvath, Elizabeth Ewing Lee, Kari J Visconti
As approximately one-third of peer-victimized children evidence heightened aggression (Schwartz, Proctor, & Chien, 2001), it is imperative to identify the circumstances under which victimization and aggression co-develop. The current study explored two potential moderators of victimization-aggression linkages: (a) attentional bias toward cues signaling threat and (b) attentional bais toward cues communicating interpersonal support. Seventy-two fifth- and sixth-grade children (34 boys; M age = 11.67) were eye tracked while watching video clips of bullying...
March 22, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Karmel W Choi, Renate Houts, Louise Arseneault, Carmine Pariante, Kathleen J Sikkema, Terrie E Moffitt
Mothers who have experienced childhood maltreatment are more likely to have children also exposed to maltreatment, a phenomenon known as intergenerational transmission. Factors in the perinatal period may contribute uniquely to this transmission, but timing effects have not been ascertained. Using structural equation modeling with 1,016 mothers and their 2,032 children in the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study, we tested the mediating role of postpartum depression between maternal childhood maltreatment and a cascade of negative child outcomes, specifically child exposure to maltreatment, internalizing symptoms, and externalizing symptoms: (a) adjusting for later maternal depression, (b) comparing across sex differences, and (c) examining the relative role of maltreatment subtypes...
March 22, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
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