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Development and Psychopathology

Anthony D Ong, Anthony L Burrow
This study examined whether individual differences in affective reactivity, defined as changes in positive or negative affect in response to daily racial discrimination, predicted subsequent depressive symptoms. Participants were African American graduate and postgraduate students (N = 174; M age = 30 years) recruited for a measurement-burst study. Data on depressive symptoms were gathered at two assessment points 1 year apart. Affective reactivity data was obtained from participants via a 14-day diary study of daily racial discrimination and affect...
September 12, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Keely A Muscatell, Ethan McCormick, Eva H Telzer
Adolescence is a sensitive period for sociocultural development in which facets of social identity, including social status and race, become especially salient. Despite the heightened importance of both social status and race during this developmental period, no known work has examined how individual differences in social status influence perceptions of race in adolescents. Thus, in the present study, we investigated how both subjective social status and objective socioeconomic status (SES) influence neural responses to race...
September 7, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Meike Slagt, Judith Semon Dubas, Bruce J Ellis, Marcel A G van Aken, Maja Deković
This study used a combination of microlevel observation data and longitudinal questionnaire data to study the relationship between differential reactivity and differential susceptibility, guided by three questions: (a) Does a subset of children exist that is both more likely to respond with increasingly negative emotions to increasingly negative emotions of mothers and with increasingly positive emotions to increasingly positive emotions of mothers ("emotional reactivity")? (b) Is emotional reactivity associated with temperament markers and rearing environment? (c) Are children who show high emotional reactivity "for better and for worse" also more susceptible to parenting predicting child behavior across a year? A total of 144 Dutch children (45...
September 3, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Jinni Su, Sally I-Chun Kuo, Jacquelyn L Meyers, Mignonne C Guy, Danielle M Dick
Numerous studies have demonstrated that genetic and environmental factors interact to influence alcohol problems. Yet prior research has primarily focused on samples of European descent and little is known about gene-environment interactions in relation to alcohol problems in non-European populations. In this study, we examined whether and how genetic risk for alcohol problems and peer deviance and interpersonal traumatic events independently and interactively influence trajectories of alcohol use disorder symptoms in a sample of African American students across the college years (N = 1,119; Mage = 18...
September 3, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Kit K Elam, Laurie Chassin, Danielle Pandika
Poor family cohesion and elevated adolescent aggression are associated with greater alcohol use in adolescence and early adulthood. In addition, evocative gene-environment correlations (rGEs) can underlie the interplay between offspring characteristics and negative family functioning, contributing to substance use. Gene-environment interplay has rarely been examined in racial/ethnic minority populations. The current study examined adolescents' polygenic risk scores for aggression in evocative rGEs underlying aggression and family cohesion during adolescence, their contributions to alcohol use in early adulthood (n = 479), and differences between Mexican American and European American subsamples...
August 31, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Adriana J Umaña-Taylor
The literature on developmental psychopathology has been criticized for its limited integration of culture and, particularly, the lack of research addressing cultural development in relation to psychopathology. In this paper, I present how the study of ethnic-racial identity provides a heuristic model for how culture can be examined developmentally and in relation to psychopathology. In addition, I introduce the Identity Project intervention program and discuss how its findings provide empirical support for the notions that cultural development can be modified with intervention, and that such modifications can lead to psychosocial benefits for adolescents...
August 24, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Jennifer E Lansford, Jennifer Godwin, Marc H Bornstein, Lei Chang, Kirby Deater-Deckard, Laura Di Giunta, Kenneth A Dodge, Patrick S Malone, Paul Oburu, Concetta Pastorelli, Ann T Skinner, Emma Sorbring, Laurence Steinberg, Sombat Tapanya, Liliana Maria Uribe Tirado, Liane Peña Alampay, Suha M Al-Hassan, Dario Bacchini
Using multilevel models, we examined mother-, father-, and child-reported (N = 1,336 families) externalizing behavior problem trajectories from age 7 to 14 in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States). The intercept and slope of children's externalizing behavior trajectories varied both across individuals within culture and across cultures, and the variance was larger at the individual level than at the culture level. Mothers' and children's endorsement of aggression as well as mothers' authoritarian attitudes predicted higher age 8 intercepts of child externalizing behaviors...
August 22, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Man-Kit Lei, Steven R H Beach, Ronald L Simons
The present study extends prior research on the link between neighborhood disadvantage and chronic illness by testing an integrated model in which neighborhood characteristics exert effects on health conditions through accelerated cardiometabolic aging. Hypotheses were tested using a sample of 408 African Americans from the Family and Community Health Study. Using four waves of data spanning young adulthood (ages 18-29), we first found durable effects of neighborhood disadvantage on accelerated cardiometabolic aging and chronic illness...
August 14, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Jay Belsky, Irina Pokhvisneva, Anu Sathyan Sathyapalan Rema, Birit F P Broekman, Michael Pluess, Kieran J O'Donnell, Michael J Meaney, Patrícia P Silveira
A recent article in this journal reported a number of gene × environment interactions involving a serotonin transporter-gene network polygenic score and a composite index of prenatal adversity predicting several problem behavior outcomes at 48 months (e.g., anxious/depressed, pervasive developmental problems) and at 60 months (e.g., withdrawal, internalizing problems), yet did not illuminate the nature or form these genetic × environment interactions took. Here we report results of six additional analyses to evaluate whether these interactions reflected diathesis-stress or differential-susceptibility related processes...
August 7, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Jessica J Chiang, Ahra Ko, Julienne E Bower, Shelley E Taylor, Michael R Irwin, Andrew J Fuligni
Psychosocial stress during childhood and adolescence is associated with alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and with heightened inflammation, both of which are implicated in poor health; however, factors that may protect against these effects relatively early in life are not well understood. Thus, we examined whether psychosocial resources protect against stress-related alterations in the HPA axis and heightened inflammation in a sample of 91 late adolescents. Participants completed measures of various stressors (major life events, daily interpersonal stress, early adversity), and psychosocial resources (mastery, optimism, self-esteem, and positive reappraisal)...
August 6, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Phoebe H Lam, Gregory E Miller, Jessica J Chiang, Cynthia S Levine, Van Le, Madeleine U Shalowitz, Rachel E Story, Edith Chen
The links between low socioeconomic status and poor health are well established, yet despite adversity, some individuals with low socioeconomic status appear to avoid these negative consequences through adaptive coping. Previous research found a set of strategies, called shift-and-persist (shifting the self to stressors while persisting by finding meaning), to be particularly adaptive for individuals with low socioeconomic status, who typically face more uncontrollable stressors. This study tested (a) whether perceived social status, similar to objective socioeconomic status, would moderate the link between shift-and-persist and health, and (b) whether a specific uncontrollable stressor, unfair treatment, would similarly moderate the health correlates of shift-and-persist...
August 6, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Alexandria S Curlee, Leona S Aiken, Suniya S Luthar
In an upper-middle class setting, we explored associations between students' peer reputation in Grades 6 and 7 with adjustment at Grade 12. With a sample of 209 students, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of peer reputation dimensions supported a 4-factor model (i.e., popular, prosocial, aggressive, isolated). Structural equation models were used to examine prospective links between middle school peer reputation and diverse Grade 12 adjustment indices, including academic achievement (Scholastic Aptitude Test scores and grade point average), internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana...
July 24, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
S Alexandra Burt, Amber L Pearson, Amanda Rzotkiewicz, Kelly L Klump, Jenae M Neiderhiser
Although there is growing recognition that disadvantaged contexts attenuate genetic influences on youth misbehavior, it is not yet clear how this dampening occurs. The current study made use of a "geographic contagion" model to isolate specific contexts contributing to this effect, with a focus on nonaggressive rule-breaking behaviors (RB) in the families' neighbors. Our sample included 847 families residing in or near modestly-to-severely disadvantaged neighborhoods who participated in the Michigan State University Twin Registry...
July 19, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
John A Damerow, Raymond C Tervo, Michael Ehrhardt, Angela Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Frank J Symons
The proopiomelanocortin (POMC) molecule has been implicated in models of self-injurious behavior (SIB) in neurodevelopmental disorders, but it has never been specifically sequenced in search of base specific polymorphisms. The empirical focus of this preliminary study was to sequence the POMC gene in 11 children (mean age = 41.8 months, range = 12-60 months; 73% male) with clinical concerns regarding global developmental delay, 5 with reported self-injury. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples, and the POMC gene was amplified by specific oligonucleotide primers via polymerase chain reaction...
July 16, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Daiva Daukantaitė, Lars-Gunnar Lundh, Margit Wångby-Lundh
We sought to determine which patterns of direct and indirect aggression and victimization are most clearly associated with self-harm in adolescent girls and boys cross-sectionally at two time points, as well as prospectively over one year. A cluster analysis using the LICUR procedure (Bergman, 1998) was employed to identify stable patterns of aggression and victimization in a community cohort of 883 Swedish adolescents (51% girls; mean age 14.5). The results showed that a pattern combining high aggression with high victimization was consistently associated with high levels of self-harm in both genders, both cross-sectionally and prospectively...
July 16, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Joyce Weeland, Rabia R Chhangur, Sara R Jaffee, Danielle van der Giessen, Walter Matthys, Bram Orobio de Castro, Geertjan Overbeek
In their commentary, Beauchaine and Slep (2018) raise important issues regarding research on behavioral parenting training (BPT). In this reply we highlight key points of agreement and respond to issues that we feel require clarification. BPT has been repeatedly proven effective in decreasing disruptive child behavior (also in the work of our research team). Yet, there is much to learn about for whom and how BPT is effective. Specifically, assessing the how (i.e., mediation) comes with many challenges. One of these challenges is taking into account the timeline of change, and being able to infer causal mechanisms of change...
October 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Theodore P Beauchaine, Amy Slep
Recently in this journal, Weeland et al. (2018) published a thought-provoking article reporting moderating effects of children's serotonin transporter-linked polymorphisms (5-HTTLPR) on negative parenting during prevention with the Incredible Years series. Participants were parents and young children of 387 families enrolled in the Observational Randomized Control Trial of Childhood Differential Susceptibility study. An equally important finding, which we focus on in this comment, involved null effects for all tests of parenting as a mediator of prevention-induced improvements in children's externalizing behavior...
October 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Desiree Y Phua, Michelle K Z L Kee, Dawn X P Koh, Anne Rifkin-Graboi, Mary Daniels, Helen Chen, Yap Seng Chong, Birit F P Broekman, Iliana Magiati, Neerja Karnani, Michael Pluess, Michael J Meaney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Jerome Kagan
This paper argues that investigators should consider replacing the popular practice of comparing individuals varying in gender, social class, and/or ethnicity on one or more continuous measures with a search for kinds of individuals defined by patterns of properties that include not only their values on outcome measures but also their gender, social class, and ethnicity. Investigators who believe that a particular predictor contributes to an outcome independent of the gender, class, or ethnicity of the participants often implement statistical procedures that promise to remove the contributions of the above categories...
October 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Maria A Gartstein, Michael K Skinner
This review summarizes current knowledge and outlines future directions relevant to questions concerning environmental epigenetics and the processes that contribute to temperament development. Links between prenatal adversity, epigenetic programming, and early manifestations of temperament are important in their own right, also informing our understanding of biological foundations for social-emotional development. In addition, infant temperament attributes represent key etiological factors in the onset of developmental psychopathology, and studies elucidating their prenatal foundations expand our understanding of developmental origins of health and disease...
October 2018: Development and Psychopathology
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