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Development and Psychopathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065187/marital-stress-and-children-s-externalizing-behavior-as-predictors-of-mothers-and-fathers-parenting
#1
Kit K Elam, Laurie Chassin, Nancy Eisenberg, Tracy L Spinrad
Previous research suggests that mothers' and fathers' parenting may be differentially influenced by marital and child factors within the family. Some research indicates that marital stress is more influential in fathers' than mothers' parenting, whereas other research shows that children's difficult behavior preferentially affects mothers' parenting. The present study examined marital stress and children's externalizing behavior in middle childhood as predictors of mothers' versus fathers' consistency, monitoring, and support and care in early adolescence, and the subsequent associations of these parenting behaviors with externalizing behavior 1...
January 9, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052783/statistical-tests-of-differential-susceptibility-performance-limitations-and-improvements
#2
Marco Del Giudice
Statistical tests of differential susceptibility have become standard in the empirical literature, and are routinely used to adjudicate between alternative developmental hypotheses. However, their performance and limitations have never been systematically investigated. In this paper I employ Monte Carlo simulations to explore the functioning of three commonly used tests proposed by Roisman et al. (2012). Simulations showed that critical tests of differential susceptibility require considerably larger samples than standard power calculations would suggest...
January 5, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043239/longitudinal-synergies-between-cortisol-reactivity-and-diurnal-testosterone-and-antisocial-behavior-in-young-adolescents
#3
Elizabeth J Susman, Melissa K Peckins, Jacey L Bowes, Lorah D Dorn
The aims were to identify the correspondence between simultaneous, longitudinal changes in cortisol reactivity and diurnal testosterone and to test the hypothesis that cortisol reactivity and diurnal testosterone interact so as to influence antisocial behavior. Participants were 135 children and young adolescents assessed at 6-month intervals over 1 year. Upon enrollment girls were age 8, 10, or 12 years (N = 69, M = 10.06 years) and boys were age 9, 11, or 13 years (N = 66, M = 10.94 years). Assessments included Tanner staging by a nurse, cortisol reactivity (Trier Social Stress Test for Children), diurnal testosterone, and interviews and questionnaires...
January 3, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031080/the-interaction-between-monoamine-oxidase-a-and-punitive-discipline-in-the-development-of-antisocial-behavior-mediation-by-maladaptive-social-information-processing
#4
Chardée A Galán, Daniel Ewon Choe, Erika E Forbes, Daniel S Shaw
Previous studies demonstrate that boys' monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype interacts with adverse rearing environments in early childhood, including punitive discipline, to predict later antisocial behavior. Yet the mechanisms by which MAOA and punitive parenting interact during childhood to amplify risk for antisocial behavior are not well understood. In the present study, hostile attributional bias and aggressive response generation during middle childhood, salient aspects of maladaptive social information processing, were tested as possible mediators of this relation in a sample of 187 low-income men followed prospectively from infancy into early adulthood...
December 29, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031069/adolescent-cannabis-use-change-in-neurocognitive-function-and-high-school-graduation-a-longitudinal-study-from-early-adolescence-to-young-adulthood
#5
Natalie Castellanos-Ryan, Jean-Baptiste Pingault, Sophie Parent, Frank Vitaro, Richard E Tremblay, Jean R Séguin
The main objective of this prospective longitudinal study was to investigate bidirectional associations between adolescent cannabis use (CU) and neurocognitive performance in a community sample of 294 young men from ages 13 to 20 years. The results showed that in early adolescence, and prior to initiation to CU, poor short-term and working memory, but high verbal IQ, were associated with earlier age of onset of CU. In turn, age of CU onset and CU frequency across adolescence were associated with (a) specific neurocognitive decline in verbal IQ and executive function tasks tapping trial and error learning and reward processing by early adulthood and (b) lower rates of high-school graduation...
December 29, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031065/phenotypic-and-genetic-associations-between-reading-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-dimensions-in-adolescence
#6
Vickie Plourde, Michel Boivin, Mara Brendgen, Frank Vitaro, Ginette Dionne
Multiple studies have shown that reading abilities and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, mainly inattention symptoms, are phenotypically and genetically associated during childhood. However, few studies have looked at these associations during adolescence to investigate possible developmental changes. The aim of the study is to examine the genetic and environmental etiology of the associations between inattention and hyperactivity reported by parents, and reading accuracy, reading speed, and word reading in a population-based twin sample (Quebec Newborn Twin Study)...
December 29, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031059/suicide-ideation-among-high-risk-adolescent-females-examining-the-interplay-between-parasympathetic-regulation-and-friendship-support
#7
Matteo Giletta, Paul D Hastings, Karen D Rudolph, Daniel J Bauer, Matthew K Nock, Mitchell J Prinstein
Poor physiological self-regulation has been proposed as a potential biological vulnerability for adolescent suicidality. This study tested this hypothesis by examining the effect of parasympathetic stress responses on future suicide ideation. In addition, drawing from multilevel developmental psychopathology theories, the interplay between parasympathetic regulation and friendship support, conceptualized as an external source of regulation, was examined. At baseline, 132 adolescent females (M age = 14.59, SD = 1...
December 29, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031057/examining-bidirectional-relationships-between-parenting-and-child-maladjustment-in-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-9-year-longitudinal-study
#8
Lisa M Dieleman, Sarah S W De Pauw, Bart Soenens, Wim Beyers, Peter Prinzie
Longitudinal bidirectional effects between parents and children are usually studied in samples of typically developing children, but remain understudied in families with a child with autism spectrum disorder. This three-wave longitudinal study examined how parents and children with autism spectrum disorder influence one another, relying on parent reports of parenting behaviors and children's problem behaviors across 9 years, in a sample of 139 youngsters (M age Time 1 = 10.2 years, 83% boys). Cross-lagged analyses indicated that children's externalizing problems at Time 1 predicted negative controlling parenting 6 years later (Time 2) that in turn predicted externalizing problems 3 years later (Time 3)...
December 29, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031056/affective-startle-potentiation-differentiates-primary-and-secondary-variants-of-juvenile-psychopathy
#9
Eva R Kimonis, Kostas A Fanti, Natalie Goulter, Jason Hall
Individuals with psychopathic traits show an attenuated emotional response to aversive stimuli. However, recent evidence suggests heterogeneity in emotional reactivity among individuals with psychopathic or callous-unemotional (CU) traits in the identification of primary and secondary subtypes, or variants. We hypothesized that primary CU variants will respond with blunted affect to negatively valenced stimuli, whereas individuals with a history of childhood maltreatment, fitting with theoretical conceptualizations of secondary psychopathy, will display heightened emotional reactivity...
December 29, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027713/parenting-and-adolescents-psychological-adjustment-longitudinal-moderation-by-adolescents-genetic-sensitivity
#10
Clare M Stocker, April S Masarik, Keith F Widaman, Ben T Reeb, Jason D Boardman, Andrew Smolen, Tricia K Neppl, Katherine J Conger
We examined whether adolescents' genetic sensitivity, measured by a polygenic index score, moderated the longitudinal associations between parenting and adolescents' psychological adjustment. The sample included 323 mothers, fathers, and adolescents (177 female, 146 male; Time 1 [T1] average age = 12.61 years, SD = 0.54 years; Time 2 [T2] average age = 13.59 years, SD = 0.59 years). Parents' warmth and hostility were rated by trained, independent observers using videotapes of family discussions. Adolescents reported their symptoms of anxiety, depressed mood, and hostility at T1 and T2...
December 28, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025955/attention-allocation-to-facial-expressions-of-emotion-among-persons-with-williams-and-down-syndromes
#11
Karen J Goldman, Cory Shulman, Yair Bar-Haim, Rany Abend, Jacob A Burack
Individuals with Williams syndrome and those with Down syndrome are both characterized by heightened social interest, although the manifestation is not always similar. Using a dot-probe task, we examined one possible source of difference: allocation of attention to facial expressions of emotion. Thirteen individuals with Williams syndrome (mean age = 19.2 years, range = 10-28.6), 20 with Down syndrome (mean age = 18.8 years, range = 12.1-26.3), and 19 typically developing children participated. The groups were matched for mental age (mean = 5...
December 27, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004614/disrupting-intergenerational-continuity-in-harsh-parenting-self-control-and-a-supportive-partner
#12
Thomas J Schofield, Rand D Conger, Kathi J Conger
Harsh, abusive, and rejecting behavior by parents toward their children is associated with increased risk for many developmental problems for youth. Children raised by harsh parents are also more likely to treat their own children harshly. The present study addresses conditions that would break this intergenerational cycle of harsh parenting. Data come from a three-generation study of a cohort of 290 adolescents (Generation 2 [G2], 52% female) grown to adulthood and their parents (Generation 1 [G1]). During adolescence, observers rated G1 harsh parenting to G2...
December 22, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995833/risk-and-protective-factors-for-comorbid-internalizing-and-externalizing-problems-among-economically-disadvantaged-african-american-youth
#13
Jingwen Liu, Brian Mustanski, Danielle Dick, John Bolland, Darlene A Kertes
Comorbidity of internalizing and externalizing problems and its risk and protective factors have not been well incorporated into developmental research, especially among racial minority youth from high-poverty neighborhoods. The present study identified a latent comorbid factor as well as specific factors underlying internalizing and externalizing problems among 592 African American adolescents living in economically disadvantaged neighborhoods (291 male; M age = 15.9 years, SD = 1.43 years). Stressful life events and racial discrimination were associated with higher comorbid problems, whereas stressful life events and exposure to violence were associated with higher specific externalizing problems...
December 20, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995816/breaking-cycles-of-risk-the-mitigating-role-of-maternal-working-memory-in-associations-among-socioeconomic-status-early-caregiving-and-children-s-working-memory
#14
Jennifer H Suor, Melissa L Sturge-Apple, Michael A Skibo
Previous research has documented socioeconomic-related disparities in children's working memory; however, the putative proximal caregiving mechanisms that underlie these effects are less known. The present study sought to examine whether the effects of early family socioeconomic status on children's working memory were mediated through experiences of caregiving, specifically maternal harsh discipline and responsiveness. Utilizing a psychobiological framework of parenting, the present study also tested whether maternal working memory moderated the initial paths between the family socioeconomic context and maternal harsh discipline and responsiveness in the mediation model...
December 20, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995815/the-role-of-parental-marital-discord-in-the-etiology-of-externalizing-problems-during-childhood-and-adolescence
#15
Amber M Jarnecke, Susan C South, Irene J Elkins, Robert F Krueger, Erin C Tully, William G Iacono
Previous research has established that parental marital discord is associated with higher levels of offspring externalizing behaviors, but it is unclear how parental relationship functioning is associated with the genetic and environmental variance on a factor of externalizing problems. Thus, the current study assessed how parental marital discord moderates genetic and environmental variance on offspring externalizing problems at two different ages: childhood and late adolescence. That is, the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on offspring externalizing at ages 11 and 17 was examined as a function of parental marital discord...
December 20, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976598/callous-unemotional-behaviors-in-early-childhood-genetic-and-environmental-contributions-to-stability-and-change
#16
Megan Flom, Kimberly J Saudino
Callous-unemotional (CU) behaviors demonstrate meaningful individual differences in early childhood, even in nonclinical samples with low mean levels of CU, but the factors underlying this variation have not been examined. This study investigated genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences and to sources of continuity and change in CU in toddler twins (145 monozygotic, 169 dizygotic) assessed at ages 2 and 3 years. CU, as assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist 1.5-5 (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000), was moderately stable across age (r = ...
December 15, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871339/methodological-considerations-for-research-on-ethnopolitical-violence
#17
Todd D Little
The methodological and epistemological challenges that research on ethnopolitical violence faces are examined. This research area is fundamentally important for political reasons and for understanding, as well as subsequent interventions to ameliorate, youths' responses to ethnopolitical violence. Advances in methods are reviewed that can overcome the obstacles placed by the various challenges. These issues are discussed in the context of the articles that comprise this Special Section.
November 22, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869066/developmental-and-social-ecological-perspectives-on-children-political-violence-and-armed-conflict
#18
E Mark Cummings, Christine E Merrilees, Laura K Taylor, Christina F Mondi
An increasing number of researchers and policymakers have been moved to study and intervene in the lives of children affected by violent conflicts (Masten, 2014). According to a United Nations Children's Fund (2009) report, over 1 billion children under the age of 18 are growing up in regions where acts of political violence and armed conflict are, as Ladds and Cairns (1996, p. 15) put it, "a common occurrence-a fact of life." In recent years, the United Nations Children's Fund, advocacy and human rights groups, journalists, and researchers have drawn public attention to the high rates of child casualties in these regions, and to the plights of those children still caught in the crossfire...
November 21, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869055/commentary-on-aber-et-al
#19
Sarah Smith, Aissatou Balde, Paul Frisoli, Nina Weisenhorn, Jeannie Annan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869047/children-s-exposure-to-violent-political-conflict-stimulates-aggression-at-peers-by-increasing-emotional-distress-aggressive-script-rehearsal-and-normative-beliefs-favoring-aggression
#20
L Rowell Huesmann, Eric F Dubow, Paul Boxer, Simha F Landau, Shira Dvir Gvirsman, Khalil Shikaki
We examine the hypothesis that children's exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence over the course of a year stimulates their increased aggression toward their own in-group peers in subsequent years. In addition, we examine what social cognitive and emotional processes mediate these effects and how these effects are moderated by gender, age, and ethnic group. To accomplish these aims, we collected three waves of data from 901 Israeli and 600 Palestinian youths (three age cohorts: 8, 11, and 14 years old) and their parents at 1-year intervals...
November 21, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
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