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Pediatric Exercise Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281949/a-brief-history-of-pediatric-exercise-physiology
#1
Bareket Falk, Panagiota Klentrou, Neil Armstrong, Thomas Rowland, Han C G Kemper
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276859/defining-accelerometer-nonwear-time-to-maximize-detection-of-sedentary-time-in-youth
#2
Kelli L Cain, Edith Bonilla, Terry L Conway, Jasper Schipperijn, Carrie M Geremia, Alexandra Mignano, Jacqueline Kerr, James F Sallis
PURPOSE: The present study examined various accelerometer nonwear definitions and their impact on detection of sedentary time using different ActiGraph models, filters, and axes. METHODS: In total, 61 youth (34 children and 27 adolescents; aged 5-17 y) wore a 7164 and GT3X+ ActiGraph on a hip-worn belt during a 90-minute structured sedentary activity. Data from GT3X+ were downloaded using the Normal filter (N) and low-frequency extension (LFE), and vertical axis (V) and vector magnitude (VM) counts were examined...
December 23, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276857/mental-fatigue-impairs-physical-performance-in-young-swimmers
#3
Eduardo Macedo Penna, Edson Filho, Samuel Penna Wanner, Bruno Teobaldo Campos, Gabriel Resende Quinan, Thiago Teixeira Mendes, Mitchell Robert Smith, Luciano Sales Prado
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the impact of mental fatigue on heart rate variability, subjective measures of fatigue, and swimming performance in young athletes. METHODS: Sixteen swimmers [15.45 (0.51) y old, 7.35 (2.20) y of swimming experience] performed a 1500-m time trial on 2 occasions separated by an interval of at least 72 hours. The 1500-m swimming was preceded by a 30-minute treatment that consisted of performing the Stroop Color and Word test to induce mental fatigue (experimental trial) or watching an emotionally neutral video (control trial)...
December 23, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276855/assessing-differences-in-cardiorespiratory-fitness-with-respect-to-maturity-status-in-highly-trained-youth-soccer-players
#4
Greg Doncaster, John Iga, Viswanath Unnithan
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to examine differences in measures of cardiorespiratory fitness and determinants of running economy with respect to maturity status in a group of highly trained youth soccer players. METHODS: A total of 21 highly trained youth soccer players participated in this study. On separate visits, players' peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), running economy at 3 different speeds [8 km·h-1, 80% gaseous exchange threshold (GET), and 95% GET], and pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2) kinetics were determined...
December 23, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276854/the-impact-of-physical-activity-on-serum-inflammatory-markers-in-overweight-pubertal-boys-24-month-follow-up-study
#5
Liina Remmel, Vallo Tillmann, Eva Mengel, Pille Kool, Priit Purge, Evelin Lätt, Jaak Jürimäe
PURPOSE: To investigate the differences in the pattern of changes in serum inflammatory cytokines measured annually over a 24-month period, between less active and more active overweight boys. PARTICIPANTS/METHODS: In total, 25 pubertal overweight boys were divided by their moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels into 2 groups: less active group (LAG; n = 10; MVPA < 60 min/d) and more active group (MAG; n = 15; MVPA > 60 min/d)...
December 23, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275750/responding-to-the-commentary-on-the-article-improving-the-prediction-of-maturity-from-anthropometric-variables-using-a-maturity-ratio
#6
Job Fransen, Adam Baxter-Jones, Stephen Woodcock
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 23, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168422/evaluation-of-youth-enjoyment-toward-physical-activity-and-sedentary-behavior
#7
Yang Bai, Kelly Allums-Featherston, Pedro F Saint-Maurice, Gregory J Welk, Norma Candelaria
PURPOSE: The consensus is that physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) are independent behaviors, but past findings suggest that they may be influenced by common underlying factors. To clarify this issue, we examined associations between enjoyment of PA and participation in both PA and SB in a large sample of 4th- to 12th-grade US youth. METHODS: A total of 18,930 students from 187 schools completed the youth activity profile, a self-report 15-item survey that assesses time spent in PA and SB in school and home settings...
November 23, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160762/commentary-on-the-article-improving-the-prediction-of-maturity-from-anthropometric-variables-using-a-maturity-ratio
#8
Alan Nevill, Richard F Burton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787247/hip-flexor-and-knee-extensor-muscularity-are-associated-with-sprint-performance-in-sprint-trained-preadolescent-boys
#9
Nobuaki Tottori, Tadashi Suga, Yuto Miyake, Ryo Tsuchikane, Mitsuo Otsuka, Akinori Nagano, Satoshi Fujita, Tadao Isaka
PURPOSE: We attempted to determine the relationships between the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the trunk and lower limb muscles and sprint performance in male preadolescent sprinters. METHODS: Fifteen sprint-trained preadolescent boys (age 11.6 ± 0.4 y) participated in this study. The CSAs of the participants' trunk and lower limb muscles were measured using magnetic resonance imaging, and these muscles were normalized with free-fat mass. To assess participants' sprint performance, sprint time and variables during the 50-m sprint test were measured...
October 20, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787242/nutrition-status-of-young-elite-female-german-football-players
#10
Hans Braun, Judith von Andrian-Werburg, Wilhelm Schänzer, Mario Thevis
PURPOSE: To investigate energy intake, energy expenditure, and the nutritional status of young female elite football players using 7-day food and activity records and blood parameters. METHODS: A total of 56 female elite football players [14.8 (0.7) y] completed the requested food and activity protocols. Misreporting was assessed by the ratio of energy intake to energy expenditure. The food records were analyzed concerning energy and macronutrient and micronutrient intakes, and energy expenditure was calculated using predictive equations...
October 20, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661717/structural-strength-benefits-observed-at-the-hip-of-premenarcheal-gymnasts-are-maintained-into-young-adulthood-10-years-after-retirement-from-the-sport
#11
Marta C Erlandson, Shonah B Runalls, Stefan A Jackowski, Robert A Faulkner, Adam D G Baxter-Jones
PURPOSE: Premenarcheal female gymnasts have been consistently found to have greater bone mass and structural advantages. However, little is known about whether these structural advantages are maintained after the loading stimulus is removed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the structural properties at the hip after long-term retirement from gymnastics. METHODS: Structural properties were derived from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans using the hip structural analysis program for the same 24 gymnasts and 21 nongymnasts both in adolescence (8-15 y) and adulthood (22-30 y)...
November 1, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605250/exercise-for-bone-in-childhood-hitting-the-sweet-spot
#12
Belinda R Beck
PURPOSE: The goal of the current work is to challenge the enduring notion that prepuberty is the optimum timing for maximum bone response to exercise in childhood and to present the evidence that early puberty is a more potently receptive period. METHOD: The relevant literature is reviewed and the causes of the misconception are addressed in detail. RESULTS: Contrary to prevailing opinion, ample evidence exists to suggest that the peripubertal years represent the developmental period during which bone is likely to respond most robustly to exercise intervention...
November 1, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605234/the-impact-of-training-load-on-bone-mineral-density-of-adolescent-swimmers-a-structural-equation-modeling-approach
#13
Ricardo Ribeiro Agostinete, Santiago Maillane-Vanegas, Kyle R Lynch, Bruna Turi-Lynch, Manuel J Coelho-E-Silva, Eduardo Zapaterra Campos, Suziane Ungari Cayres, Romulo Araújo Fernandes
PURPOSE: To investigate the mediating effect of muscle mass on the relationship between training load and bone density in adolescent swimmers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 87 control and 22 swimmers aged 10-19 years (overall sample: n = 109). Swimmers had a minimum of 1 year of competition in regional and national championships, and control adolescents reported 1 year without any organized sport. Bone density was the main outcome (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), which was measured in upper limbs, lower limbs, spine, and whole body...
November 1, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556682/bouts-of-vigorous-physical-activity-and-bone-strength-accrual-during-adolescence
#14
Leigh Gabel, Heather M Macdonald, Lindsay Nettlefold, Heather A McKay
PURPOSE: We examined the influence of vigorous physical activity (VPA) bout frequency on bone strength accrual across adolescence, independent of total volume of VPA. METHODS: We measured VPA (6 metabolic equivalents; total volume and bout frequency <5 min in duration) annually using waist-worn accelerometers (ActiGraph GT1M) in 309 adolescents (9-20 y at baseline: 99, <13 y; 126, 13-18 y; 84, >18 y) over a maximum of 4 years. We applied finite element analysis to high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans of the distal tibia (8% site) to estimate bone strength (failure load; F...
November 1, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530511/wnt-signaling-related-osteokines-and-transforming-growth-factors-before-and-after-a-single-bout-of-plyometric-exercise-in-child-and-adolescent-females
#15
Jennifer Dekker, Katlynne Nelson, Nigel Kurgan, Bareket Falk, Andrea Josse, Panagiota Klentrou
This study examined resting levels of catabolic and anabolic osteokines related to Wnt signaling and their responses to a single bout of plyometric exercise in child and adolescent females. Fourteen premenarcheal girls [10.5 (1.8) y old] and 12 postmenarcheal adolescent girls [15.0 (1.0) y old] performed a plyometric exercise trial. One resting and 3 postexercise blood samples (5 min, 1 h, and 24 h postexercise) were analyzed for sclerostin, dickkopf-1 (DKK-1), osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-β ligand (RANKL), and transforming growth factors (TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3)...
November 1, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338426/the-role-of-exercise-in-prevention-and-treatment-of-osteopenia-of-prematurity-an-update
#16
Alon Eliakim, Ita Litmanovitz, Dan Nemet
Premature infants have an increased risk of osteopenia due to limited bone mass accretion in utero and a greater need for bone nutrients. Until recently, most efforts to prevent osteopenia of prematurity focused on nutritional changes. Recent studies indicate that passive range-of-motion exercise of the extremities may lead to beneficial effects on body weight, increased bone mineralization, increased bone formation markers and leptin levels, and attenuation of the natural postnatal decline in bone speed of sound...
November 1, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039261/one-year-follow-up-of-the-capo-kids-trial-are-physical-benefits-maintained
#17
Rossana C Nogueira, Benjamin K Weeks, Belinda Beck
PURPOSE: To determine the 12-month maintenance of a 9-month, thrice-weekly, 10-minute high-intensity exercise program, delivered in schools, on bone and other health-related performance variables in prepubertal children. METHODS: All participants (N = 311) of the CAPO kids trial (testing times T1-T2) were contacted to undergo retesting (T3) of all original measures-including weight, standing and sitting height, calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation (Achilles, GE), and stiffness index (Achilles, GE)-waist circumference, resting heart rate, blood pressure, vertical jump, and aerobic capacity...
October 17, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039246/regular-practice-of-competitive-sports-does-not-impair-sleep-in-adolescents-dados-study
#18
María Reyes Beltran-Valls, Enrique García Artero, Ana Capdevila-Seder, Alejandro Legaz-Arrese, Mireia Adelantado-Renau, Diego Moliner-Urdiales
PURPOSE: To analyze differences in sleep quality and duration by athletic status and sex, and to examine the association between physical activity (PA) recommendation and sleep in adolescents. METHODS: A total of 267 adolescents [13.9 (0.3) y] from Deporte, ADOlescencia y Salud (DADOS) study (129 girls) were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Athletes competed regularly in organized sport events and trained ≥3 days per week, but nonathletes did not compete...
October 17, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872422/bone-turnover-markers-and-lean-mass-in-pubescent-boys-comparison-between-elite-soccer-players-and-controls
#19
Ammar Nebigh, Mohamed Elfethi Abed, Rihab Borji, Sonia Sahli, Slaheddine Sellami, Zouhair Tabka, Haithem Rebai
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between bone mass and bone turnover markers with lean mass (LM) in pubescent soccer players. Two groups participated in this study, which included 65 elite young soccer players who trained for 6-8 hours per week and 60 controls. Bone mineral density; bone mineral content in the whole body, lower limbs, lumbar spine, and femoral neck; biochemical markers of osteocalcin; bone-specific alkaline phosphatase; C-telopeptide type I collagen; and total LM were assessed...
October 17, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661716/gene-by-activity-interactions-on-obesity-traits-of-6-year-old-new-zealand-european-children-a-children-of-scope-study
#20
Mohanraj Krishnan, Andrew N Shelling, Clare R Wall, Edwin A Mitchell, Rinki Murphy, Lesley M E McCowan, John M D Thompson
PURPOSE: The decline of physical activity in children is considered an important determinant to explain the rising rates of obesity. However, this risk may be augmented in children who are genetically susceptible to increased weight gain. We hypothesized that a sedentary lifestyle and moderate activity will interact with genetic loci, resulting in differential effects in relation to obesity risk. METHODS: We recruited 643 European children born to participants in the New Zealand-based Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study...
October 17, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
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