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Pediatric Exercise Science

Angus A Leahy, Narelle Eather, Jordan J Smith, Charles H Hillman, Philip J Morgan, Ronald C Plotnikoff, Michael Nilsson, Sarah A Costigan, Michael Noetel, David R Lubans
PURPOSE: This study was designed to assess the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a teacher-facilitated high-intensity interval training intervention for older adolescents (ie, 16-18 y). METHODS: Two secondary schools from New South Wales, Australia were recruited, and participants (ie, grade 11 students; 16.2 [0.4] y) were randomized at the school level to the Burn 2 Learn intervention (n = 38), or a wait-list control group (n = 30). Teachers were trained to facilitate the delivery of the novel high-intensity interval training program, which involved 3 sessions per week (∼12-20 min) for 14 weeks...
September 12, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Stephanie Mazzucca, Cody Neshteruk, Regan Burney, Amber E Vaughn, Derek Hales, Truls Østbye, Dianne Ward
PURPOSE: Many children attend family child care homes (FCCHs), an important setting to influence children's physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB). This study assessed children's PA and SB while in FCCHs, characteristics of the FCCH PA environment, and relationships between the environment and child PA and SB. METHOD: Children ages 1.5-4.0 years (n = 495) were recruited from 165 FCCHs in North Carolina. Children's moderate to vigorous PA and SB were measured via accelerometry for 3 days...
September 12, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Keren Susan Cherian, Ashok Sainoji, Balakrishna Nagalla, Venkata Ramana Yagnambhatt
PURPOSE: To evaluate energy expenditure, energy intake, and nutrient adequacy of Indian junior soccer players. METHOD: Forty junior national-level soccer players (Under-12 and Under-16 age groups) were assessed for 3-day weighed food records and 3-day energy expenditure. Energy and nutrient intake was analyzed from food records, and energy expenditure was measured using a portable metabolic analyzer and activity records. Nutrient adequacy was determined by comparing intake with prevailing recommendations...
September 12, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Kimberly A Clevenger, Karin A Pfeiffer, Cheryl A Howe
Portable metabolic units (PMUs) are used to assess energy expenditure, with the assumption that physical activity level and enjoyment are unaffected due to the light weight and small size. PURPOSE: To assess differences in physical activity level and enjoyment while wearing and not wearing a PMU. METHOD: Youth (8-17 y; N = 73) played children's games or active video games while wearing and not wearing a PMU (crossover design). Participants wore an accelerometer and heart rate monitor and responded to questions about enjoyment on a facial affective scale...
September 7, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Alexei Wong, Marcos A Sanchez-Gonzalez, Won-Mok Son, Yi-Sub Kwak, Song-Young Park
PURPOSE: Childhood and adolescent obesity is a major international public health crisis. It is crucial to prevent the negative effects of obesity at an early age by implementing appropriate lifestyle interventions, such as exercise training. We evaluated the effects of a combined resistance and aerobic exercise training (CET) regimen on arterial stiffness, vasoactive substances, inflammatory markers, metabolic profile, and body composition in obese adolescent girls. METHODS: A total of 30 obese adolescent girls were randomly assigned to a CET (n = 15) or a control group (n = 15)...
September 7, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Lütfiye Akkurt, İpek Alemdaroğlu Gürbüz, Ayşe Karaduman, Öznur Tunca Yilmaz
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of lower limb flexibility on the functional performance of children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. METHODS: Thirty children, whose functional levels were at 1 or 2 according to the Brooke Lower Extremity Functional Classification Scale, were included in this study. The flexibilities of the hamstrings, hip flexors, tensor fascia latae, and gastrocnemius muscles were evaluated in the children's dominant lower limbs. The children's functional performance was assessed using 6-minute walk tests and timed performance tests...
September 5, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Cheryl A Howe, Kimberly A Clevenger, Brian Plow, Steve Porter, Gaurav Sinha
PURPOSE: Traditional direct observation cannot provide continuous, individual-level physical activity (PA) data throughout recess. This study piloted video direct observation to characterize children's recess PA overall and by sex and weight status. METHODS: Children (N = 23; 11 boys; 6 overweight; third to fifth grade) were recorded during 2 recess periods, coding for PA duration, intensity, location, and type. Duration of PA type and intensity across sex and weight status overall and between/within locations were assessed using 1- and 2-way analysis of variances...
July 29, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Callum G Brownstein, Derek Ball, Dominic Micklewright, Neil V Gibson
PURPOSE: The purpose of this experiment was to assess performance during repeated sprints utilizing self-selected recovery intervals in youth football (soccer) players at different stages of maturation. METHODS: Quota sampling method was used to recruit 14 prepeak height velocity (PHV) and 14 post-PHV participants for the study (N = 28; age = 13 [0.9] y, stature = 162.5 [10.8] cm, mass = 50.2 [12.7] kg). Players performed repeated sprints comprising 10 × 30 m efforts under 2 experimental conditions: using 30-second and self-selected recovery intervals...
July 22, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Daisuke Kume, Akira Iguchi, Hiroshi Endoh
PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare the relative exercise intensity at which the onset of accelerated muscle deoxygenation occurs during the 20-m shuttle run test (20mSRT) between boys and men and to examine whether the timing of the onset of acceleration appearance is related to 20mSRT performance in boys. METHODS: Twenty-four boys performed the 20mSRT, during which concentration changes in oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin and myoglobin (ΔOxy-Hb and ΔDeoxy-Hb, respectively) in the m...
July 13, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Carlos Augusto Kalva-Filho, Argyris Toubekis, Alessandro Moura Zagatto, Adelino Sanchez Ramos da Silva, João Paulo Loures, Eduardo Zapaterra Campos, Marcelo Papoti
PURPOSE: To test the reliability and validity of tethered swimming lactate minimum test in young swimmers. METHODS: Lactate minimum test was performed twice to test the reliability (experiment 1; n = 13). In addition, the validity was investigated through lactate minimum test relationships with tethered swimming lactate threshold and peak force obtained during graded exercise test (experiment 2; n = 11). Finally, the correlations with mean speeds observed during 200-m (s200m) and 30-minute continuous efforts (s30min) were also analyzed (experiment 3; n = 15)...
August 1, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Senda Sammoud, Alan Michael Nevill, Yassine Negra, Raja Bouguezzi, Helmi Chaabene, Younés Hachana
This study aimed to estimate the optimal body size, limb segment length, and girth or breadth ratios of 100-m breaststroke performance in youth swimmers. In total, 59 swimmers [male: n = 39, age = 11.5 (1.3) y; female: n = 20, age = 12.0 (1.0) y] participated in this study. To identify size/shape characteristics associated with 100-m breaststroke swimming performance, we computed a multiplicative allometric log-linear regression model, which was refined using backward elimination. Results showed that the 100-m breaststroke performance revealed a significant negative association with fat mass and a significant positive association with the segment length ratio (arm ratio = hand length/forearm length) and limb girth ratio (girth ratio = forearm girth/wrist girth)...
August 1, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Asunción Ferri-Morales, Marcus Vinicius Nascimento-Ferreira, Dimitris Vlachopoulos, Esther Ubago-Guisado, Ana Torres-Costoso, Augusto Cesar F De Moraes, Alan R Barker, Luis A Moreno, Vicente Martínez-Vizcaino, Luis Gracia-Marco
PURPOSE: To examine the intermethods agreement of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to assess the percentage of body fat (%BF) in young male athletes using air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) as the reference method. METHODS: Standard measurement protocols were carried out in 104 athletes (40 swimmers, 37 footballers, and 27 cyclists, aged 12-14 y). RESULTS: Age-adjusted %BF ADP and %BF BIA were significantly higher in swimmers than footballers...
August 1, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Christine W St Laurent, Brittany Masteller, John Sirard
PURPOSE: The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the efficacy of a suspension-training movement program to improve muscular- and skill-related fitness and functional movement in children, compared with controls. METHODS: In total, 28 children [male: 46%; age: 9.3 (1.5) y; body mass index percentile: 68.6 (27.5)] were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 17) or control (n = 11) groups. The intervention group participated in a 6-week suspension-training movement program for two 1-hour sessions per week...
August 1, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Heather Hayes Betz, Joey C Eisenmann, Kelly R Laurson, Katrina D DuBose, Mathew J Reeves, Joseph J Carlson, Karin A Pfeiffer
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to examine the independent and combined association of physical activity and body mass index (BMI) with blood pressure in youth. METHODS: Youth aged 8-18 years from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with BMI, blood pressure, and physical activity (accelerometer) were included in the analyses. A total of 2585 subjects (1303 males; 47% of all 8- to 18-year-olds) met these criteria. RESULTS: Obese youth had a systolic blood pressure that was 8 mm Hg higher than normal weight youth...
August 1, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Sarah A Amin, Paula J Duquesnay, Catherine M Wright, Kenneth Chui, Christina D Economos, Jennifer M Sacheck
PURPOSE: Socioeconomic status (SES) may impact children's physical activity (PA) behaviors and confidence to participate in PA. We examined how SES modifies the relationship between children's perceived athletic competence (PAC) and moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA). METHODS: Children (N = 1157; 45% male; grades 3-4) were recruited for the Fueling Learning through Exercise study. Free/reduced price lunch eligibility was used as an indicator of SES. Seven-day accelerometry (ActiGraph GT3X+) was used to measure daily MVPA, out-of-school MVPA (O-MVPA), and school-time MVPA...
August 1, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Rodrigo Antunes Lima, Lisbeth Runge Larsen, Anna Bugge, Lars Bo Andersen
PURPOSE: The current investigation aimed to investigate the longitudinal association between physical fitness and academic performance over 3 years in adolescents. A secondary aim was to determine to what extent waist circumference mediated the association between physical fitness and academic performance. METHODS: For the current study, 1020 students from first grade [mean age: 7.87 (0.34) y] to fifth grade [mean age: 11.87 (0.37) y] were monitored annually for 3 years (2010-2013)...
August 1, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Amanda Santos, Sandra Silva-Santos, Michael Duncan, Maria João Lagoa, Susana Vale, Jorge Mota
PURPOSES: To examine the association between sedentary time (ST) and light physical activity (LPA), moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), and body mass index (BMI), and to track these behaviors over a 3-year follow-up in young schoolchildren. METHODS: The final sample was 64 children (female: n = 36 or 56.3%), enrolled in schools in Porto, Portugal. Height and mass of children were measured by standard methods, and BMI was then calculated...
August 1, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Shannon S Block, Trevor R Tooley, Matthew R Nagy, Molly P O'Sullivan, Leah E Robinson, Natalie Colabianchi, Rebecca E Hasson
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of video game breaks and intermittent exercise breaks, performed at varying intensities, on math performance in preadolescent children. METHODS: A total of 39 children (18 males and 21 females; aged 7-11 y) completed 4 experimental conditions in random order: 8 hours of sitting interrupted with 20 two-minute low-, moderate-, or high-intensity exercise breaks or 20 two-minute sedentary computer game breaks...
August 1, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Adam M Hyde, Robert G McMurray, Frank A Chavoya, Daniela A Rubin
PURPOSE: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic neurobehavioral disorder presenting hypothalamic dysfunction and adiposity. At rest, PWS exhibits hypoventilation with hypercapnia. We characterized ventilatory responses in children with PWS during exercise. METHODS: Participants were children aged 7-12 years with PWS (n = 8) and without PWS with normal weight (NW; n = 9, body mass index ≤ 85th percentile) or obesity (n = 9, body mass index ≥ 95th percentile)...
August 1, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Mark De Ste Croix, Abigail Priestley, Rhodri Lloyd, Jon Oliver
PURPOSE: Fatigue negatively alters dynamic knee control, and the functional hamstring/quadriceps ratio (H/QFUNC ) plays an important role in stabilizing the joint. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of soccer-specific exercise on H/QFUNC in under (U) 13-, U15-, and U17-year-old female soccer players. METHODS: A total of 36 female players performed concentric and eccentric actions of the hamstrings at 60°, 120°, and 180°/s before and after an age group-specific field-based soccer protocol...
August 1, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
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