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Pediatric Exercise Science

Damien McKay, Carolyn Broderick, Katharine Steinbeck
With the advent of long term athlete development programs and early sport specialisation, the training of elite athletes now spans the period of adolescence. Adolescence represents a period of physical, psychosocial and cognitive development, but also a time of physical and psychological vulnerability. Changes in skeletal and physiological attributes coincide with an increased risk of sport related injury. A window of vulnerability is shaped by the properties of the musculoskeletal system, the influence of pubertal hormones and the lag time between physical and cognitive development...
October 5, 2016: Pediatric Exercise Science
Tamara Kramer, Barbara Ch Huijgen, Marije T Elferink-Gemser, Chris Visscher
PURPOSE: To analyze how physical fitness (PF) improves in elite junior tennis players related to age, maturity, and performance level. METHODS: Elite junior tennis players (n=113 boys, n=83 girls) divided by performance level were monitored longitudinally from U14 to U16. Maturity, upper and lower body power, speed, and agility were measured during subsequent competitive seasons. Improvement was analyzed per sex using multilevel analysis. RESULTS: PF components for boys and girls improved over age (U14-U16) (ES ...
October 5, 2016: Pediatric Exercise Science
Kirsten Legerlotz, Robert Marzilger, Sebastian Bohm, Adamantios Arampatzis
PURPOSE: To understand the mechanisms for the effects of resistance training on functional parameters, and to assess the injury risk of the involved tissues, it is necessary to examine the underlying morphological and structural changes of the respective tissues. METHODS: The presented information on physiological adaptations have been deduced from cross-sectional studies comparing youth athletes with controls and children with adults as well as from longitudinal studies examining the effects of resistance training in untrained children and adolescents and in youth athletes...
October 5, 2016: Pediatric Exercise Science
Sidnei Jorge Fonseca-Junior, Aldair J Oliveira, Luiz Lannes Loureiro, Anna Paola Trindade Pierucci
PURPOSE: Body composition of adolescent athletes is often evaluated scientifically and in sports by using reference equations developed from non-athlete adolescent populations. The aim of this study was to analyse the validity of predictive equations based on skinfold measurements, as compared with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), to estimate body fat in adolescent modern pentathlon athletes. METHODS: 51 athletes, 27 male (mean age=15.1 years; standard deviation, SD=1...
October 5, 2016: Pediatric Exercise Science
Fotini Venetsanou, Antonis Kambas
BACKGROUND: This study investigated if Motor Proficiency (MP) in preschool age associate with Physical Activity (PA) in adolescence. METHODS: In 2004, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Short Form (BOTMP-SF) (7) was administered to 413 children, aged 4-6 years, who were classified to MP groups according to their BOTMP-SF total score (TS). In 2014, the PA of 106 former participants (47 boys, 59 girls) was measured with Omron pedometers. MP [three (high; above average; average)] X gender (two) ANOVA and Bonferroni tests were computed on average of steps/week...
October 5, 2016: Pediatric Exercise Science
Ilias Smilios, Konstantinos Sotiropoulos, Karolina Barzouka, Marios Christou, Savvas P Tokmakidis
PURPOSE: This study examined the acute effects of contrast loading on mechanical power output during bench-press throws in junior volleyball players. METHOD: Eleven males (age: 16.5±0.5 years) performed a contrast loading and a control protocol. The contrast protocol included the execution of 3 bench-throws with a 30% load of 1RM, after 3 min a conditioning set of 5 bench-throws with a 60% load of 1RM and after 3 and 5 min two more sets of 3 bench-throws with a 30% load of 1RM...
September 6, 2016: Pediatric Exercise Science
Carla Cristiane Silva, Maurizio Bertollo, Felipe Fossati Reichert, Daniel Alexandre Boullosa, Fábio Yuzo Nakamura
PURPOSE: To examine which body position and indices present better reliability of heart rate variability (HRV) measures in children; and to compare the HRV analyzed in different body positions between sexes. METHOD: Twenty eutrophic pre-pubertal children of each sex participated in the study. The RR intervals were recorded using a portable heart rate monitor twice a day for 7 minutes in the supine, sitting, and standing positions. The reproducibility was analyzed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC; two way mixed) and within-subject coefficient of variation (CV)...
September 6, 2016: Pediatric Exercise Science
Carla Caroliny de Almeida Santana, Liane Beretta de Azevedo, Thrudur Gunnarsdottir, Edna Cristina do Prado, Breno Quintela Farah, James O Hill, João Paulo Botero, Wagner Luiz do Prado
: Obesity has been associated with poor academic achievement, while cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) has been linked to academic success. PURPOSE: To investigate whether CRF is associated with academic performance in Brazilian students, independently of body mass index (BMI), fatness and socioeconomic status (SES). METHODS: Three hundred and nine two 5(th) and 6(th) grade students (193 girls) (12.11±0.75 years old) were evaluated in 2012. Skinfold thickness measures were performed, and students were classified according to BMI-percentile...
September 6, 2016: Pediatric Exercise Science
Olivier Rey, Jean-Marc Vallier, Caroline Nicol, Charles-Symphorien Mercier, Christophe Maïano
PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of a five-week intervention combining vigorous interval training (VIT) with diet among twenty-four obese adolescents. Fourteen girls and ten boys (aged 14 to 15) schooled in a pediatric rehabilitation center participated. PURPOSE: The VIT intensity was targeted and remained above 80% of maximal heart rate (HR) and over six kilocalories per minute. Pre- and post-intervention measures were body composition (BMI, weight, body fat percentage), physical self-perceptions (PSP), physical fitness (six-minute walking distance and work) and its associated physiological responses (HRpeak and blood lactate concentration)...
September 6, 2016: Pediatric Exercise Science
Aoife O'Neill, Kieran Dowd, Clodagh O'Gorman, Ailish Hannigan, Cathal Walsh, Helen Purtill
PURPOSE: Profiling activity behaviours in young children is important to understand changes in weight status over time. The purpose of this study is to identify activity profiles from self- and parental-reported Physical Activity (PA) and Sedentary Behaviour (SB) variables by gender, and determine if the identified profiles are predictive of weight change from age 9 to 13 years. METHODS: Cluster analysis was used to generate activity profiles for the National Longitudinal Study of 8570 9-year-old children (Growing Up in Ireland)...
September 6, 2016: Pediatric Exercise Science
Charles H Hillman, John R Biggan
This manuscript, which arose from the inaugural Tom Rowland Lecture Series at the 2016 North American Society for Pediatric Exercise Medicine conference, provides a brief descriptive review of what is known (i.e., the state of the science) regarding the relation of childhood physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) to brain health, cognition, and academic outcomes. Gaps in the knowledgebase are identified, including characteristics of the PA stimulus that promotes changes in brain and cognition, whether critical periods in development exist in which PA/CRF may have a disproportionately large influence, the understanding of individual difference factors, and the influence upon learning...
September 6, 2016: Pediatric Exercise Science
Blair T Crewther, Zbigniew Obminski, Christian J Cook
PURPOSE: To examine the steroid hormone effect on the physical performance of young athletes during an Olympic weightlifting competition. METHODS: 26 boys and 26 girls were monitored across 2 weightlifting competitions. Pre- and post-competition testosterone (T), cortisol (C) and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-s) were measured in blood, with pre-event free T (FT) and the free androgen index (FAI) calculated. Body mass (BM) and weightlifting performance were recorded...
September 6, 2016: Pediatric Exercise Science
Jonathan J Reid, R M Greene, Nehara Herat, Daniel D Hodgson, Israel Halperin, David G Behm
PURPOSE: Contrary to adult force reserve strategies, it is not known whether adolescent females with less experience performing maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) have specific responses to a known or unknown fatigue endpoint. METHODS: Using a counterbalanced random crossover design, fourteen inexperienced female adolescents completed three elbow flexor (EF) fatiguing protocols. Participants were randomly assigned to a control (informed they would perform 12 MVCs), unknown (not informed of the number of MVCs to be completed, but stopped after 12) or deception condition (instructed to complete 6 MVCs, however, after the 6th repetition performed another 6 MVCs)...
August 19, 2016: Pediatric Exercise Science
Hugo Maciejewski, Abderrahmane Rahmani, Frédéric Chorin, Julien Lardy, Caroline Giroux, Sébastien Ratel
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to determine whether the anaerobic performance assessed by a modified Wingate test could account for the 1,500-m rowing ergometer performance in young competitive rowers. METHODS: Fourteen national-level adolescent rowers performed on a rowing ergometer i) a 30-s all-out exercise (i.e., modified Wingate test) and ii) a 1,500-m all-out exercise (i.e., rowing performance). For each of these two exercises, the mean power output was considered as the main performance criterion (PWIN and P1500, respectively)...
August 19, 2016: Pediatric Exercise Science
Ryan D Burns, Timothy A Brusseau, Yi Fang, You Fu, James C Hannon
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), aerobic fitness, and cardio-metabolic risk factors in Hispanic children from low-income U.S. schools. METHOD: Participants were 198 Hispanic children from low-income schools (Mean age = 10.3 ± 0.5 years; 119 girls, 79 boys). Waist circumference, height, and cardio-metabolic blood markers were collected in a fasted state. Estimated VO2 Peak scores were also collected...
August 13, 2016: Pediatric Exercise Science
Henrique Nascimento, Ana Inês Alves, Ana Filipa Medeiros, Susana Coimbra, Cristina Catarino, Elsa Bronze-da-Rocha, Elisio Costa, Petronila Rocha-Pereira, Gustavo Silva, Luísa Aires, André Seabra, Jorge Mota, Helena Ferreira Mansilha, Carla Rêgo, Alice Santos-Silva, Luis Belo
PURPOSE: There are few reliable studies assessing the effect of physical exercise (PE) on adipokines levels at young ages. Our objective was to study the effects of regular PE on plasma adipokines in pediatric overweight and obesity. METHOD: 117 overweight and obese children and adolescents (47% females; 10.2 years) participated in an 8-month longitudinal study divided in two groups: PE group (n = 80), engaged in an after-school PE program; control group (n = 37), with no PE program...
August 2016: Pediatric Exercise Science
Mónica López-Vicente, Joan Forns, Mikel Esnaola, Elisabet Suades-González, Mar Álvarez-Pedrerol, Oliver Robinson, Jordi Júlvez, Judith Garcia-Aymerich, Jordi Sunyer
PURPOSE: The evidence regarding the role of physical activity (PA) habits on cognitive development in children is still scarce. Our study aimed to assess the association between PA habits and cognitive growth patterns, including working memory (WM) and inattentiveness in a large sample of primary schoolchildren. METHOD: This study included 2,897 children between 7 and 10 years old. WM was measured using the n-back task (2- and 3-back) and inattentiveness was measured using the attentional network task (ANT) on four occasions during one year...
August 2016: Pediatric Exercise Science
Marc Daniel Bebich-Philip, Ashleigh Lorenz Thornton, Siobhan L Reid, Kemi E Wright, Bonnie J Furzer
PURPOSE: The study aim was to adapt the Resistance Training Skills Battery for use in children and assess its interrater and intrarater reliability. The RTSBc provides an assessment of resistance training (RT) skill competency and an indication of readiness to perform RT. The RTSBc includes 6 basic RT skills. Scoring for individual RT skills is based on the number of performance criteria correctly demonstrated and a gross resistance training skills quotient for children (RTSQc) is calculated by summing the individual skill scores...
August 2016: Pediatric Exercise Science
Lothar Stein, Constanze Pacht, Sibylle Junge, Tobias S Kaeding, Momme Kück, Norbert Maassen, Torge Wittke, Vladimir Shushakov
PURPOSE: Defects in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) cause CF. Absence of the CFTR may result in skeletal muscle dysfunction. Here, we tested skeletal muscle function in male adolescent patients with CF. METHODS: Ten CF and 10 control participants (age: 16.8 ± 0.6 years) performed 7 repetitive sets of maximum voluntary contractions (MVCs) and underwent an isometric fatigue test of the knee extensors. Electromyography (EMG) activity was recorded from the m...
August 2016: Pediatric Exercise Science
Hun-Young Park, Sang-Seok Nam, Hirofumi Tanaka, Dong-Jun Lee
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate hemodynamic, hematological, and immunological responses to prolonged submaximal cycle ergometer exercise at a simulated altitude of 3000 m in pubescent girls. METHODS: Ten girls, 12.8 ± 1.0 years old, exercised on a cycle ergometer for 60 min at a work rate corresponding to 50% maximal oxygen consumption measured at sea level, under two environmental conditions; sea level (normoxia) and a simulated 3000 m altitude (normobaric hypoxia)...
August 2016: Pediatric Exercise Science
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