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Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446695/weight-shift-ability-significantly-correlates-with-walking-velocity-in-post-acute-stroke-patients
#1
Arinori Kamono, Naomichi Ogihara
The ability to shift weight toward the paretic leg has been considered an essential ability to restore independent walking for post-acute stroke patients. However, few data are available regarding the relationship between the weight-shift ability and gait performance. No clear mechanism has been provided as to why and how the weight-shift ability improves walking performance in stroke patients. We therefore investigated changes in the weight-shift ability and kinematic and kinetic parameters of walking gait in post-stroke patients during rehabilitation...
February 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446694/experimental-measurement-of-forces-during-percutaneous-dilatational-tracheostomy
#2
Silvia Pancani, Antonio Virga, Rosario Spina, Adriano Peris, Andrea Corvi
The measurement of mechanical effects associated with the dilatation phase of a percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy is of primary importance to identify the causes of major complications associated with this procedure, such as tracheal cartilage subluxation or fracture and bleeding. Such information can be very useful also for the design of better instruments and procedures. The aim of this study was to present a methodology to evaluate mechanical effects of the dilatation phase of a percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy on the tracheal rings and adjacent anatomical structures...
February 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441814/analysis-of-gastric-myoelectrical-activity-from-the-electrogastrogram-signals-based-on-wavelet-transform-and-line-length-feature
#3
Abdullah Al Kafee, Aydin Akan
Electrogastrogram is used for the abdominal surface measurement of the gastric electrical activity of the human stomach. The electrogastrogram technique has significant value as a clinical tool because careful electrogastrogram signal recordings and analyses play a major role in determining the propagation and coordination of gastric myoelectric abnormalities. The aim of this article is to evaluate electrogastrogram features calculated by line length features based on the discrete wavelet transform method to differentiate healthy control subjects from patients with functional dyspepsia and diabetic gastroparesis...
February 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417869/a-biomechanical-model-of-the-human-defecatory-system-to-investigate-mechanisms-of-continence
#4
William E Stokes, David G Jayne, Ali Alazmani, Peter R Culmer
This article presents a method to fabricate, measure and control a physical simulation of the human defecatory system to investigate individual and combined effects of anorectal angle and sphincter pressure on continence. To illustrate the capabilities and clinical relevance of the work, the influence of a passive-assistive artificial anal sphincter (FENIXTM) is evaluated. A model rectum and associated soft tissues, based on geometry from an anonymised computed tomography dataset, was fabricated from silicone and showed behavioural realism to the biological system and ex vivo tissue...
February 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409401/a-review-motor-rehabilitation-after-stroke-with-control-based-on-human-intent
#5
Min Li, Guanghua Xu, Jun Xie, Chaoyang Chen
Strokes are a leading cause of acquired disability worldwide, and there is a significant need for novel interventions and further research to facilitate functional motor recovery in stroke patients. This article reviews motor rehabilitation methods for stroke survivors with a focus on rehabilitation controlled by human motor intent. The review begins with the neurodevelopmental principles of motor rehabilitation that provide the neuroscientific basis for intuitively controlled rehabilitation, followed by a review of methods allowing human motor intent detection, biofeedback approaches, and quantitative motor rehabilitation assessment...
February 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393011/investigation-of-toggling-effect-on-pullout-performance-of-pedicle-screws
#6
Mehmet Fatih Aycan, Mesut Emre Yaman, Yusuf Usta, Teyfik Demir, Tolga Tolunay
Objective of this study is to assess the pullout performance of various pedicle screws in different test materials after toggling tests comparatively. Solid core, cannulated (cemented), novel expandable and solid-core (cemented) pedicle screws were instrumented to the polyurethane foams (Grade 10 and Grade 40) produced in laboratory and bovine vertebra. ASTM F543 standard was used for preparation process of samples. Toggling tests were carried out. After toggling test procedures, pullout tests were performed...
February 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393010/comparison-of-rigid-and-semi-rigid-instrumentation-under-acute-load-on-vertebrae-treated-with-posterior-lumbar-interbody-fusion-transforaminal-lumbar-interbody-fusion-procedures-an-experimental-study
#7
Mehmet Reşid Önen, Cemile Başgül, İlhan Yılmaz, Mustafa Özkaya, Teyfik Demir, Sait Naderi
Rigid and semi-rigid fixations are investigated several times in order to compare their biomechanical stability. Interbody fusion techniques are also preferable for maintaining the sagittal balance by protecting the disk height. In this study, the biomechanical comparison of semi-rigid and rigid fixations with posterior lumbar interbody fusion or transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion procedures is conducted under trauma. There were four different test groups to analyze the effect of acute load on treated ovine vertebrae...
February 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393009/use-of-in-vitro-and-haptic-assessments-in-the-characterisation-of-surface-lubricity
#8
Nicola J Irwin, Colin P McCoy, Amanda R McCullough, Dan J Corbett
Lubricity is a key property of hydrophilic-coated urinary catheter surfaces. In vitro tests are commonly employed for evaluation of surface properties in the development of novel catheter coating technologies; however, their value in predicting the more subjective feeling of lubricity requires validation. We herein perform a range of in vitro assessments and human organoleptic studies to characterise surface properties of developmental hydrophilic coating formulations, including water wettability, coefficient of friction, dry-out kinetics and lubricity...
February 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383959/investigation-into-factors-affecting-the-mechanical-behaviours-of-a-patient-specific-vertebral-body-replacement
#9
Ling Wang, Jianfeng Kang, Lei Shi, Jun Fu, Dichen Li, Zheng Guo, Chaozong Liu, Shuangpeng Dong, Xi Jiang
Most vertebral body implants that are currently designed and produced in batches have difficulty meeting the patient-specific demands. Moreover, several complications, including a low fusion rate, subsidence occurrence, and rod displacement, are associated with these implants. This study aims to investigate the effects of patient-specific geometric and clinical parameters on the biomechanics of a vertebral body replacement. A three-dimensional patient-specific vertebral body replacement model was established as the basic model for parametric studies, including the anatomic design of the endplates, tilting angle, thickness, and dislocation of the vertebral body implant...
January 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375001/simple-geometry-tribological-study-of-osteochondral-graft-implantation-in-the-knee
#10
Philippa Bowland, Eileen Ingham, John Fisher, Louise M Jennings
Robust preclinical test methods involving tribological simulations are required to investigate and understand the tribological function of osteochondral repair interventions in natural knee tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of osteochondral allograft implantation on the local tribology (friction, surface damage, wear and deformation) of the tissues in the natural knee joint using a simple geometry, reciprocating pin-on-plate friction simulator. In addition, the study aimed to assess the ability of osteochondral grafts to restore a low surface damage, deformation and wear articulation when compared to the native state...
January 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366373/corrigendum
#11
(no author information available yet)
McElroy M and Keshmiri A, Impact of using conventional inlet/outlet boundary conditions on haemodynamic metrics in a subject-specific rabbit aorta, Proc IMechE, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, first published on March 25, 2017, DOI: 10.1177/0954411917699237 Following OnlineFirst publication of the article, the authors informed SAGE of an error in the transient velocity inlet profile which had been defined inaccurately due to a human error in the interpretation of clinical data in the literature...
January 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350089/a-comparative-analysis-of-internal-bone-remodelling-concepts-in-a-novel-implant-for-direct-skeletal-attachment-of-limb-prosthesis-evaluation-a-finite-element-analysis
#12
Piotr Prochor, Eugeniusz Sajewicz
Nowadays, numerous internal bone remodelling concepts are under development, in order to estimate long-term functionality of implants by evaluating the intensity of stress-shielding effect. This effect is also analysed for the implants for direct skeletal attachment, considered as a better exoprosthesis fixation method than prosthetic sockets. Most of bone remodelling approaches are based on basic concepts, differing with certain assumptions, which may affect the accuracy of the results. This article compares commonly used internal bone remodelling concepts and evaluates the functionality of the proposed Limb Prosthesis Osseointegrated Fixation System for direct skeletal attachment of limb prosthesis in comparison with two currently available implants: the Intraosseous Transcutaneous Amputation Prosthesis and the Osseointegrated Prostheses for the Rehabilitation of Amputees...
January 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350088/the-use-of-synthetic-ligaments-in-the-design-of-an-enhanced-stability-total-knee-joint-replacement
#13
Michael D Stokes, Brendan C Greene, Luke W Pietrykowski, Taylor M Gambon, Caroline E Bales, John D DesJardins
Current total knee replacement designs work to address clinically desired knee stability and range of motion through a balance of retained anatomy and added implant geometry. However, simplified implant geometries such as bearing surfaces, posts, and cams are often used to replace complex ligamentous constraints that are sacrificed during most total knee replacement procedures. This article evaluates a novel total knee replacement design that incorporates synthetic ligaments to enhance the stability of the total knee replacement system...
January 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350087/segmentation-of-tongue-shapes-during-vowel-production-in-magnetic-resonance-images-based-on-statistical-modelling
#14
Jessica C Delmoral, Sandra M Rua Ventura, João Manuel Rs Tavares
Quantification of the anatomic and functional aspects of the tongue is pertinent to analyse the mechanisms involved in speech production. Speech requires dynamic and complex articulation of the vocal tract organs, and the tongue is one of the main articulators during speech production. Magnetic resonance imaging has been widely used in speech-related studies. Moreover, the segmentation of such images of speech organs is required to extract reliable statistical data. However, standard solutions to analyse a large set of articulatory images have not yet been established...
January 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343194/a-brain-impact-stress-analysis-using-advanced-discretization-meshless-techniques
#15
Marco Marques, Jorge Belinha, Lúcia Maria Js Dinis, Renato Natal Jorge
This work has the objective to compare the mechanical behaviour of a brain impact using an alternative numerical meshless technique. Thus, a discrete geometrical model of a brain was constructed using medical images. This technique allows to achieve a discretization with realistic geometry, allowing to define locally the mechanical properties according to the medical images colour scale. After defining the discrete geometrical model of the brain, the essential and natural boundary conditions were imposed to reproduce a sudden impact force...
January 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332500/microstructure-and-mechanical-properties-of-porous-titanium-structures-fabricated-by-electron-beam-melting-for-cranial-implants
#16
Khaja Moiduddin
The traditional methods of metallic bone implants are often dense and suffer from adverse reactions, biomechanical mismatch and lack of adequate space for new bone tissue to grow into the implant. The objective of this study is to evaluate the customized porous cranial implant with mechanical properties closer to that of bone and to improve the aesthetic outcome in cranial surgery with precision fitting for a better quality of life. Two custom cranial implants (bulk and porous) are digitally designed based on the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine files and fabricated using additive manufacturing...
January 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332499/examination-of-an-in-vitro-methodology-to-evaluate-the-biomechanical-performance-of-nucleus-augmentation-in-axial-compression
#17
Sebastien Nf Sikora, Danielle E Miles, Sami Tarsuslugil, Marlène Mengoni, Ruth K Wilcox
Intervertebral disc degeneration is one of the leading causes of back pain, but treatment options remain limited. Recently, there have been advances in the development of biomaterials for nucleus augmentation; however, the testing of such materials preclinically has proved challenging. The aim of this study was to develop methods for fabricating and testing bone-disc-bone specimens in vitro for examining the performance of nucleus augmentation procedures. Control, nucleotomy and treated intervertebral disc specimens were fabricated and tested under static load...
January 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320924/a-model-to-evaluate-pauwels-type-iii-femoral-neck-fractures
#18
Kevin M Magone, Jonas K Owen, Bernard P Kemker, Oliver Bloom, Sidney Martin, Patrick Atkinson
While many femoral neck fractures can be reliably treated with surgical intervention, Pauwels III femoral neck fractures in the young adult population continue to be a challenging injury, and there is no consensus on optimal treatment. As such, there are past and ongoing biomechanical studies to evaluate the fixation provided by different constructs for this inherently unstable fracture. While many investigations rely on cadavers to evaluate the biomechanical performance of a construct, significant inter-subject variability can confound the analysis...
January 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320923/the-effect-of-seated-pelvic-tilt-on-posterior-edge-loading-in-total-hip-arthroplasty-a-finite-element-investigation
#19
Jim Pierrepont, Long Yang, Jevan Arulampalam, Catherine Stambouzou, Brad Miles, Qing Li
Edge-loading of a ceramic-on-ceramic total hip replacement can lead to reproducible squeaking and revision. A patient's functional acetabular cup orientation, driven by their pelvic tilt, has been shown to be a significant factor in squeaking during hip flexion. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of seated pelvic tilt on the contact mechanics at the ceramic bearing surface. A finite element model of a ceramic-on-ceramic total hip replacement was created. The cup was orientated at 40° inclination and 15° anteversion relative to the anterior pelvic plane...
January 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316849/adaptive-mesh-refinement-for-elastic-modulus-reconstruction-in-elastography
#20
Wenxia Wang, Wei Zou, Danfeng Hu, Jiajun Wang
Meshes play a crucial role in determining the accuracy of the elastic modulus reconstruction in the elastography when the finite element method is employed. In this article, we propose an adaptive mesh refinement strategy which can ensure the coincidence of the meshes with the shape of the inclusions in the observed tissue. This strategy is based on the intensity distribution of the strain image where the variance of the strain distribution in each element of the meshes is used to measure the homogeneity of the element, that is, the larger the strain variance is the more inhomogeneous the element will be and hence more detailed information will be included in this element...
January 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
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