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Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30004297/contribution-of-passive-actions-to-the-lower-limb-joint-moments-and-powers-during-gait-a-comparison-of-models
#1
Xavier Gasparutto, Eric Jacquelin, Raphael Dumas
The lower limb passive actions representing the actions of all the passive periarticular structures have been shown to have a significant contribution to the power generation and absorption during gait. However, the respective magnitude of its different components was not established, although models of ligament moment were implemented in some musculoskeletal models. These ligament moments have shown to have an influence on the musculo-tendon forces and contact forces but the models used were never specifically evaluated, that is, compared to the passive and net joint moments...
July 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29999481/a-mechanical-hand-for-prosthetic-applications-multibody-model-and-contact-simulation
#2
Chiara Cosenza, Vincenzo Niola, Sergio Savino
The dynamical behavior study of a mechanical hand is a fundamental issue to verify its possible application as a prosthetic hand. Simulation approaches are widely used to predict the dynamics of mechanical components. In the context of mechanical hands, the multibody model represents a useful tool to predict the finger dynamics and therefore the phalanx rotations before the prototyping. The phalanx rotations drive the finger closure sequence and, consequently, influence the grasping ability of the whole mechanical hand...
July 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29993331/effect-of-filling-pressure-in-jetting-dispenser-on-the-performance-of-blood-glucose-test-strips-using-immersion-gold-plated-printed-circuit-board
#3
Kun-Yong Kim, Ho Chang, Yi-Cheng Lee, Win-Der Lee, Jen-Fang Lee, Fu-Chuan Lin
To ensure accurate glucose readings when dispensing glucose oxidase enzyme solution from a jetting dispenser onto glucose test strips fabricated from an immersion gold-plated printed circuit board, every drop of the enzyme solution needs to have nearly the same weight and to be dispensed on the reaction zone of the test strips. Experimental results in this study show that the filling pressure in the fluid reservoir containing the glucose enzyme solution to dispense onto the test strips significantly affect the glucose test results...
July 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29974802/radiostereometric-analysis-using-clinical-radiographic-views-validation-with-model-based-radiostereometric-analysis-for-the-knee
#4
Xunhua Yuan, Jordan S Broberg, Douglas Dr Naudie, David W Holdsworth, Matthew G Teeter
Radiostereometric analysis is a sophisticated radiographic technique with high measurement accuracy. In order to improve the accessibility of radiostereometric analysis for clinical use, a modified radiostereometric analysis procedure has been previously proposed that enables clinical radiographic views to be used for radiostereometric analysis. It has been successfully validated for its application to the hip wear study with the conventional bead-based radiostereometric analysis environment using computed radiography...
July 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29962289/effects-of-precompression-time-and-strength-on-the-physical-characteristics-of-quasi-stapled-porcine-small-intestinal-tissue
#5
Yu Zhou, Qihang Lin, Jingjing Xu, Siqian Wei, Chengcan Yang, Bing Wang, Chengli Song
Precompression is vital when performing gastrointestinal anastomosis with staplers. However, research on the internal changes in intestinal tissue under stapling is lacking, and the effects of precompression have not been clarified. In this study, a stapler was modified, and the multifrequency bioimpedance of porcine small intestinal tissue was measured from before clamping the tissue with the stapler until the release of the tissue after precompression without firing. The Cole Y model was fitted to the bioimpedance, and the changes in the tissue were analyzed using the model parameters: G0 , extracellular fluid conductance, and Δ G, intracellular fluid conductance...
June 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29956565/estimating-the-osteolysis-free-life-of-a-total-hip-prosthesis-depending-on-the-linear-wear-rate-and-head-size
#6
Reinhard Elke, Claude B Rieker
We present a model to estimate the osteolysis-free life of total hip arthroplasty, depending on linear wear rate and femoral head size. An estimate of the radiologic osteolysis threshold was calculated, which was based on volumetric wear. The osteolysis-free life of the cup was estimated from the quotient of the osteolysis threshold and volumetric wear rate, which was calculated from the linear wear rate. The impact of the direction of linear wear was determined by sensitivity analysis. From our review, we calculated a weighted mean polyethylene volume of approximately 670 mm3 as osteolysis threshold...
June 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29947579/continence-technologies-whitepaper-informing-new-engineering-science-research
#7
Pete Culmer, Ali Alazmani, Mike Bryant, Elena Mancuso, Sarah King, Vee Mapunde, Katherine Jeays-Ward, Nicola Heron, Russell Pearson, Paul F Vollebregt, Lynne Corner, Richard Day
Advances in healthcare technology for continence have historically been limited compared to other areas of medicine, reflecting the complexities of the condition and social stigma which act as a barrier to participation. This whitepaper has been developed to inspire and direct the engineering science community towards research opportunities that exist for continence technologies that address unmet needs in diagnosis, treatment and long-term management. Our aim is to pinpoint key challenges and highlight related research opportunities for novel technological advances...
June 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29939101/odors-and-incontinence-what-does-the-nose-know
#8
Pamela Dalton, Christopher Maute
The fear of producing malodors that can be detected by others is a daily cause of anxiety for millions of people with incontinence. For many, the risk-whether real or imagined-that leaked waste products will be detectable by odor is sufficiently concerning to result in limitations on many types of activities. However, worry about personal odors can sensitize our olfactory system and cause us to be more aware of odors that may otherwise not be perceptible. In addition, heightened olfactory attention can often lead to odor misattributions, such as when we erroneously identify our body as the source of an odor that may simply be present in the environment...
June 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923451/do-we-need-a-transforaminal-lumbar-interbody-fusion-cage-to-increase-the-stability-of-functional-spinal-unit-when-comparing-unilateral-and-bilateral-fixation
#9
Murat Ulutaş, Mustafa Özkaya, Onur Yaman, Teyfik Demir
Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion was an alternative to posterior lumbar interbody fusion for decompression surgeries. This study investigates the biomechanical responses of the unilateral and bilateral pedicle screw fixations with/without transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion cages under axial compression, flexion, and torsional loads. Ovine vertebrae were used in this study. Cadavers, randomly divided into five, were intact control group, bilateral pedicle screw fixation group, bilateral pedicle screw fixation group with transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion cage, unilateral pedicle screw fixation group, and unilateral pedicle screw fixation group with transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion cage...
June 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916767/development-of-an-ear-cap-in-chronic-suppurative-otitis-media-using-additive-manufacturing-and-triz
#10
Mahesh B Mawale, Abhaykumar Kuthe, Anupama M Mawale, Sandeep W Dahake
The prevalence rate of chronic suppurative otitis media is high and its treatment continues to be a challenge for the otorhinolaryngologists. Due to middle ear infection, there may be pain, hearing loss and spontaneous rupture of the eardrum which results in perforation. Infections can cause a hole in the eardrum as a side effect of otitis media. The patients suffering from ear perforation or having a hole in eardrum require preventing entry of water in the ear. This article describes the development of ear cap using additive manufacturing and TRIZ (a collaborative tool) to prevent the entry of water in the ear during chronic otitis media...
June 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895223/an-investigation-on-fatality-of-drivers-in-vehicle-fixed-object-accidents-on-expressways-in-china-using-multinomial-logistic-regression-model
#11
Yong Peng, Shuangling Peng, Xinghua Wang, Shiyang Tan
This study aims to identify the effects of characteristics of vehicle, roadway, driver, and environment on fatality of drivers in vehicle-fixed object accidents on expressways in Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan district of Hunan province in China by developing multinomial logistic regression models. For this purpose, 121 vehicle-fixed object accidents from 2011-2017 are included in the modeling process. First, descriptive statistical analysis is made to understand the main characteristics of the vehicle-fixed object crashes...
June 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893165/adaptive-neuro-fuzzy-inference-system-based-path-planning-of-5-degrees-of-freedom-spatial-manipulator-for-medical-applications
#12
Jyotindra Narayan, Ekta Singla, Sanjeev Soni, Ashish Singla
Over the last few decades, medical-assisted robots have been considered by many researchers, within the research domain of robotics. In this article, a 5-degrees-of-freedom spatial medical manipulator is analyzed for path planning, based on inverse kinematic solutions. Analytical methods have generally employed for finding the inverse kinematic solutions in earlier studies. However, this method is only appreciable in case of closed-form solutions. The unusual joint configurations of considered manipulator result in more complexity to attain the closed-form solutions, analytically...
June 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888654/biomechanical-simulation-of-eye-airbag-impacts-during-vehicle-accidents
#13
Hooman Shirzadi, Hassan Zohoor, Sadegh Naserkhaki
Airbags are safety devices in vehicles effectively suppressing passengers' injuries during accidents. Although there are still many cases of eye injuries reported due to eye-airbag impacts in recent years. Biomechanical approaches are now feasible and can considerably help experts to investigate the issue without ethical concerns. The eye-airbag impact-induced stresses/strains in various components of the eye were found to investigate the risk of injury in different conditions (impact velocity and airbag pressure)...
June 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879869/improving-finite-element-results-in-modeling-heart-valve-mechanics
#14
Emily Earl, Hadi Mohammadi
Finite element analysis is a well-established computational tool which can be used for the analysis of soft tissue mechanics. Due to the structural complexity of the leaflet tissue of the heart valve, the currently available finite element models do not adequately represent the leaflet tissue. A method of addressing this issue is to implement computationally expensive finite element models, characterized by precise constitutive models including high-order and high-density mesh techniques. In this study, we introduce a novel numerical technique that enhances the results obtained from coarse mesh finite element models to provide accuracy comparable to that of fine mesh finite element models while maintaining a relatively low computational cost...
June 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29807465/emerging-medical-and-engineering-strategies-for-the-prevention-of-long-term-indwelling-catheter-blockage
#15
Scarlet Milo, Jonathan Nzakizwanayo, Hollie J Hathaway, Brian V Jones, A Toby A Jenkins
Urinary catheters have been used on an intermittent or indwelling basis for centuries, in order to relieve urinary retention and incontinence. Nevertheless, the use of urinary catheters in the clinical setting is fraught with complication, the most common of which is the development of nosocomial urinary tract infections, known as catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Infections of this nature are not only significant owing to their high incidence rate and subsequent economic burden but also to the severe medical consecutions that result...
May 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792114/innovating-urinary-catheter-design-an-introduction-to-the-engineering-challenge
#16
Cathy Murphy
Every day, people around the world rely on intermittent and indwelling urinary catheters to manage bladder dysfunction, but the potential or actual harm caused by these devices is well-recognised. Current catheter designs can cause urinary tract infection and septicaemia, bladder and urethral trauma and indwelling devices frequently become blocked. Furthermore, the devices can severely disrupt users' lives, limiting their daily activities and can be costly to manage for healthcare providers. Despite this, little significant design innovation has taken place in the last 80 years...
May 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29962327/additively-manufactured-implant-components-for-imaging-validation-studies
#17
Madeleine L Van de Kleut, Xunhua Yuan, George S Athwal, Matthew G Teeter
Radiographic imaging is the current standard for evaluating postoperative joint replacements. Prior to application, such imaging methods need to be validated to determine the lower limits of performance under ideal conditions, using either a phantom or cadaver setup. Conventionally manufactured orthopedic implants for use in such studies are not always accessible and may be cost-prohibitive to purchase. We propose the use of additively manufactured implants as a cheaper, more accessible alternative for use in radiographic imaging validation studies...
July 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29962326/comparison-of-the-volumetric-composition-of-lamellar-bone-and-the-woven-bone-of-calluses
#18
Javier Martínez-Reina, Javier García-Rodríguez, Juan Mora-Macías, Jaime Domínguez, Esther Reina-Romo
Woven tissue is mainly present in the bone callus, formed very rapidly either after a fracture or in distraction processes. This high formation speed is probably responsible for its disorganized microstructure and this, in turn, for its low stiffness. Nonetheless, the singular volumetric composition of this tissue may also play a key role in its mechanical properties. The volumetric composition of woven tissue extracted from the bone transport callus of sheep was investigated and compared with that of the lamellar tissue extracted from the cortical shell of the same bone...
July 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29962325/are-re-injured-ligaments-equivalent-mechanically-to-injured-ligaments-the-role-of-re-injury-severity
#19
Johnathan L Sevick, Bryan J Heard, Ian Ky Lo, John A Randle, Cyril B Frank, Nigel G Shrive, Gail M Thornton
The consequences of ligament re-injury have received limited attention. Although the mechanical properties of injured ligaments improve over time, these properties are never fully recaptured, rendering these injured ligaments susceptible to re-injury. Previous injury is a significant risk factor for recurrent injury, and this re-injury can result in longer absence from activity than the initial injury. A rabbit medial collateral ligament model was used to compare mechanically re-injured right medial collateral ligaments to injured left medial collateral ligaments...
July 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29962324/optimization-of-taylor-spatial-frame-half-pins-diameter-for-bone-deformity-correction-application-to-femur
#20
Pooria Chavoshnejad, Moosa Ayati, Aziz Abbasspour, Morad Karimpur, Daniel George, Yves Rémond, Alireza Heidary Rouchi, Majid Baniassadi
Using external fixtures for bone deformity correction takes advantages of less soft tissue injury, better bone alignment and enhances strain development for bone formation on cutting section, which cause shorter healing time. Among these fixtures, Taylor spatial frame is widely used and includes two rings and six adjustable struts developing 6 degrees of freedom, making them very flexible for this type of application. The current study describes a method to optimize Taylor spatial frame pin-sizes currently chosen from the surgeon's experiences...
July 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
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