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Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216793/parametric-study-of-patient-specific-femoral-locking-plates-based-on-a-combined-musculoskeletal-multibody-dynamics-and-finite-element-modeling
#1
Xunjian Fan, Zhenxian Chen, Zhongmin Jin, Qida Zhang, Xuan Zhang, Yinghu Peng
A combined musculoskeletal multibody dynamics and finite element modeling was performed to investigate the effects of design parameters on the fracture-healing efficiency and the mechanical property of a patient-specific anatomically adjusted femoral locking plate. Specifically, the screw type, the thickness and material of the locking plate, the gap between two femoral fragments (fracture gap) and the distance between bone and plate (interface gap) were evaluated during a human walking. We found that the patient-specific locking plate possessed greater mechanical strength and more efficient fracture healing than the corresponding traditional plate...
December 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199518/improvement-on-upper-limb-body-powered-prostheses-1921-2016-a-systematic-review
#2
Nur Afiqah Hashim, Nasrul Anuar Abd Razak, Noor Azuan Abu Osman, Hossein Gholizadeh
Body-powered prostheses are known for their advantages of cost, reliability, training period, maintenance, and proprioceptive feedback. This study primarily aims to analyze the work related to the improvement of upper limb body-powered prostheses prior to 2016. A systematic review conducted via the search of the Web of Science electronic database, Google Scholar, and Google Patents identified 155 papers from 1921 to 2016. Sackett's initial rules of evidence were used to determine the levels of evidence, and only papers categorized in the design and development category and patents were analyzed...
December 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191076/customized-surface-guided-knee-implant-contact-analysis-and-experimental-test
#3
Ida Khosravipour, Shabnam Pejhan, Yunhua Luo, Urs P Wyss
Contact pressure and stresses on the articulating surface of the tibial component of a total knee replacement are directly related to the joint contact forces and the contact area. These stresses can result in wear and fatigue damage of the ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene. Therefore, conducting stress analysis on a newly designed surface-guided knee implant is necessary to evaluate the design with respect to the polyethylene wear. Finite element modeling is used to analyze the design's performance in level walking, stair ascending and squatting...
November 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168434/changes-in-knee-shape-and-geometry-resulting-from-total-knee-arthroplasty
#4
Mohsen Akbari Shandiz, Paul Boulos, Stefan Karl Saevarsson, Heiko Ramm, Chun Kit Jack Fu, Stephen Miller, Stefan Zachow, Carolyn Anglin
Changes in knee shape and geometry resulting from total knee arthroplasty can affect patients in numerous important ways: pain, function, stability, range of motion, and kinematics. Quantitative data concerning these changes have not been previously available, to our knowledge, yet are essential to understand individual experiences of total knee arthroplasty and thereby improve outcomes for all patients. The limiting factor has been the challenge of accurately measuring these changes. Our study objective was to develop a conceptual framework and analysis method to investigate changes in knee shape and geometry, and prospectively apply it to a sample total knee arthroplasty population...
November 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165039/determination-of-a-tissue-level-failure-evaluation-standard-for-rat-femoral-cortical-bone-utilizing-a-hybrid-computational-experimental-method
#5
Ruoxun Fan, Jie Liu, Zhengbin Jia, Ying Deng, Jun Liu
Macro-level failure in bone structure could be diagnosed by pain or physical examination. However, diagnosing tissue-level failure in a timely manner is challenging due to the difficulty in observing the interior mechanical environment of bone tissue. Because most fractures begin with tissue-level failure in bone tissue caused by continually applied loading, people attempt to monitor the tissue-level failure of bone and provide corresponding measures to prevent fracture. Many tissue-level mechanical parameters of bone could be predicted or measured; however, the value of the parameter may vary among different specimens belonging to a kind of bone structure even at the same age and anatomical site...
November 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165032/a-new-method-for-evaluating-the-normal-rake-angle-and-inclination-angle-on-medical-needles
#6
Yingqiang Xu, Xuemei Qin, Guowei Liu, Lei Tan, Hongjian Dong, Pengpeng Wei, Qinhe Zhang, Hongcai Zhang
Hollow needles are the most frequently used medical equipment. The design of a hollow needle that best enables medical procedures requires a better understanding of needle tip geometry. Calculating the cutting angles of a needle for a complex surface topology is difficult. This article proposes a new method based on non-Euclidean geometry for the analysis of biopsy needle tip. The method can be used to calculate the cutting angles on any pipe needle. To verify the validity of this method, the normal rake angle and inclination angle on four types of needles (bias bevel needle, cylinder surface needle, curved surface needle and Cournand-type needle) were investigated...
November 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160155/design-and-manufacturing-ofpatient-specific-orthodonticappliances-by-computer-aided-engineering-techniques
#7
Sandro Barone, Paolo Neri, Alessandro Paoli, Armando Viviano Razionale
Orthodontic treatments are usually performed using fixed brackets or removable oral appliances, which are traditionally made from alginate impressions and wax registrations. Among removable devices, eruption guidance appliances are used for early orthodontic treatments in order to intercept and prevent malocclusion problems. Commercially available eruption guidance appliances, however, are symmetric devices produced using a few standard sizes. For this reason, they are not able to meet all the specific patient's needs since the actual dental anatomies present various geometries and asymmetric conditions...
November 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153053/experimental-investigation-of-temperature-rise-in-bone-drilling-with-cooling-a-comparison-between-modes-of-without-cooling-internal-gas-cooling-and-external-liquid-cooling
#8
Ehsan Shakouri, Hossein Haghighi Hassanalideh, Seifollah Gholampour
Bone fracture occurs due to accident, aging, and disease. For the treatment of bone fractures, it is essential that the bones are kept fixed in the right place. In complex fractures, internal fixation or external methods are used to fix the fracture position. In order to immobilize the fracture position and connect the holder equipment to it, bone drilling is required. During the drilling of the bone, the required forces to chip formation could cause an increase in the temperature. If the resulting temperature increases to 47 °C, it causes thermal necrosis of the bone...
November 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148312/experimental-analysis-of-the-process-parameters-affecting-bone-burring-operations
#9
Jonathan R Kusins, O Remus Tutunea-Fatan, Louis M Ferreira
The experimental quantification of the process parameters associated with bone burring represents a desirable outcome both from the perspective of an optimized surgical procedure as well as that of a future implementation into the design of closed-loop controllers used in robot-assisted bone removal operations. Along these lines, the present study presents an experimental investigation of the effects that tool type, rotational speed of the tool, depth of cut, feed rate, cutting track overlap, and tool angle (to a total of 864 total unique combinations) have on bone temperature, tool vibration, and cutting forces associated with superficial bone removal operations...
November 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139331/kinematic-modeling-of-a-7-degree-of-freedom-spatial-hybrid-manipulator-for-medical-surgery
#10
Amanpreet Singh, Ekta Singla, Sanjeev Soni, Ashish Singla
The prime objective of this work is to deal with the kinematics of spatial hybrid manipulators. In this direction, in 1955, Denavit and Hartenberg proposed a consistent and concise method, known as D-H parameters method, to deal with kinematics of open serial chains. From literature review, it is found that D-H parameter method is widely used to model manipulators consisting of lower pairs. However, the method leads to ambiguities when applied to closed-loop, tree-like and hybrid manipulators. Furthermore, in the dearth of any direct method to model closed-loop, tree-like and hybrid manipulators, revisions of this method have been proposed from time-to-time by different researchers...
November 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125034/the-memo-slide-an-explorative-study-into-a-novel-mechanical-follow-the-leader-mechanism
#11
Paul Wj Henselmans, Stefan Gottenbos, Gerwin Smit, Paul Breedveld
Follow-the-leader propagation allows for the insertion of flexible surgical instruments along curved paths, reducing the access required for natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery. Currently, the most promising follow-the-leader instruments use the alternating memory method containing two mechanical memory-banks for controlling the motion of the flexible shaft, which reduces the number of actuators to a minimum. These instruments do, however, require concentric structures inside the shaft, limiting its miniaturization...
November 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105568/the-mechanical-response-of-a-polyetheretherketone-femoral-knee-implant-under-a-deep-squatting-loading-condition
#12
Lennert de Ruiter, Dennis Janssen, Adam Briscoe, Nico Verdonschot
The current study was designed to investigate the mechanical response of a polyetheretherketone-on-polyethylene total knee replacement device during a deep squat. Application of this high-demand loading condition can identify weaknesses of the polyetheretherketone relative to cobalt-chromium. This study investigated whether the implant is strong enough for this type of loading, whether cement stresses are considerably changed and whether a polyetheretherketone femoral component is likely to lead to reduced periprosthetic bone loss as compared to a cobalt-chromium component...
November 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105561/failure-of-an-accis-metal-on-metal-hip-resurfacing-prosthesis-a-case-report
#13
Martin C Bone, Andrew Naylor
The introduction of coatings on joint replacements was intended to reduce wear volumes, prevent corrosion and reduce metal ion release. However, retrieval analysis to confirm their in vivo performance has been limited. The aim of study was to examine the coating on a retrieved hip prosthesis to determine whether substantial damage or wear had occurred. A single advanced ceramic-coated implant systems titanium niobium nitride-coated hip resurfacing prosthesis was retrieved for examination. Wear volumes and surface roughness were measured to quantify the damage to the articulating surfaces...
November 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095119/killing-the-goose
#14
Nick Donaldson
The regulatory framework for implanted medical devices is preventing severely impaired people from benefitting from rehabilitation research. Consequently, research effort is wasted and we are unable to use implants to reduce the costs of healthcare. The framework should be altered so that it is economically possible to get new devices for small patient groups into widespread use.
November 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095101/load-transfer-in-the-proximal-femur-and-primary-stability-of-a-cemented-and-uncemented-femoral-stem-an-experimental-study-on-cadaver-femurs
#15
Cathrine H Enoksen, Tina S Wik, Jomar Klaksvik, Astvaldur J Arthursson, Otto S Husby, Nils R Gjerdet
There are principally two fixation methods in total hip arthroplasty, cemented and uncemented. Both methods have in general good long-time survival. Studies comparing cemented and uncemented femoral stems indicate that the cemented stems perform somewhat better, at least in the elderly population. The aim of this study was to compare load transfer and the initial micromotion pattern for an uncemented and a cemented stem. A total of 12 human cadavers were tested in a hip simulator during single leg and stair climbing...
November 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076764/computer-based-automated-analysis-of-x-ray-and-thermal-imaging-of-knee-region-in-evaluation-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#16
U Snekhalatha, T Rajalakshmi, M Gopikrishnan, Nilkantha Gupta
The aim and objectives of the study are as follows: (1) to perform automated segmentation of knee X-ray images using fast greedy snake algorithm and feature extraction using gray level co-occurrence matrix method, (2) to implement automated segmentation of knee thermal image using RGB segmentation method and (3) to compare the features extracted from the segmented knee region of X-ray and thermal images in rheumatoid arthritis patients using a biochemical method as standard. In all, 30 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were included in the study...
October 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059005/a-hand-held-robotic-device-for-peripheral-intravenous-catheterization
#17
Zhuoqi Cheng, Brian L Davies, Darwin G Caldwell, Giacinto Barresi, Qinqi Xu, Leonardo S Mattos
Intravenous catheterization is frequently required for numerous medical treatments. However, this process is characterized by a high failure rate, especially when performed on difficult patients such as newborns and infants. Very young patients have small veins, and that increases the chances of accidentally puncturing the catheterization needle directly through them. In this article, we present the design, development and experimental evaluation of a novel hand-held robotic device for improving the process of peripheral intravenous catheterization by facilitating the needle insertion procedure...
October 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039259/single-camera-visual-odometry-to-track-a-surgical-x-ray-c-arm-base
#18
Hooman Esfandiari, Derek Lichti, Carolyn Anglin
This study provides a framework for a single-camera odometry system for localizing a surgical C-arm base. An application-specific monocular visual odometry system (a downward-looking consumer-grade camera rigidly attached to the C-arm base) is proposed in this research. The cumulative dead-reckoning estimation of the base is extracted based on frame-to-frame homography estimation. Optical-flow results are utilized to feed the odometry. Online positional and orientation parameters are then reported. Positional accuracy of better than 2% (of the total traveled distance) for most of the cases and 4% for all the cases studied and angular accuracy of better than 2% (of absolute cumulative changes in orientation) were achieved with this method...
October 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990459/multi-objective-performance-investigation-of-orthopaedic-bone-drilling-using-taguchi-membership-function
#19
Gurmeet Singh, Vivek Jain, Dheeraj Gupta
Orthopaedic bone drilling attacks the surrounded bone cells and tissues in terms of thermal and mechanical in such a way that these cells can get damaged permanently. This damage to the surrounding of drill point upsurges the rehabilitation time of injury and in some cases leads to the failure of the bone screw joint. This study is based on the optimization of multiple response characteristics to minimize the damage during the bone drilling. All real-life problems, including bone drilling, require the multiple response optimization for getting a combined optimization result for all countable response characteristics...
October 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985696/a-new-prosthetic-alignment-device-to-read-and-record-prosthesis-alignment-data
#20
Gholamhossein Pirouzi, Noor Azuan Abu Osman, Sadeeq Ali, Majid Davoodi Makinejad
Prosthetic alignment is an essential process to rehabilitate patients with amputations. This study presents, for the first time, an invented device to read and record prosthesis alignment data. The digital device consists of seven main parts: the trigger, internal shaft, shell, sensor adjustment button, digital display, sliding shell, and tip. The alignment data were read and recorded by the user or a computer to replicate prosthesis adjustment for future use or examine the sequence of changes in alignment and its effect on the posture of the patient...
October 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
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