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Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196452/an-investigation-of-force-components-in-orthogonal-cutting-of-medical-grade-cobalt-chromium-alloy-astm-f1537
#1
Szymon Baron, Eamonn Ahearne
An ageing population, increased physical activity and obesity are identified as lifestyle changes that are contributing to the ongoing growth in the use of in-vivo prosthetics for total hip and knee arthroplasty. Cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (Co-Cr-Mo) alloys, due to their mechanical properties and excellent biocompatibility, qualify as a class of materials that meet the stringent functional requirements of these devices. To cost effectively assure the required dimensional and geometric tolerances, manufacturers rely on high-precision machining...
February 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195004/physiological-modeling-for-detecting-degree-of-perception-of-a-color-deficient-person
#2
T Rajalakshmi, Shanthi Prince
Physiological modeling of retina plays a vital role in the development of high-performance image processing methods to produce better visual perception. People with normal vision have an ability to discern different colors. The situation is different in the case of people with color blindness. The aim of this work is to develop a human visual system model for detecting the level of perception of people with red, green and blue deficiency by considering properties like luminance, spatial and temporal frequencies...
February 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195001/design-and-analysis-of-a-tendon-based-computed-tomography-compatible-robot-with-remote-center-of-motion-for-lung-biopsy
#3
Yunpeng Yang, Shan Jiang, Zhiyong Yang, Wei Yuan, Huaisu Dou, Wei Wang, Daguang Zhang, Yuan Bian
Nowadays, biopsy is a decisive method of lung cancer diagnosis, whereas lung biopsy is time-consuming, complex and inaccurate. So a computed tomography-compatible robot for rapid and precise lung biopsy is developed in this article. According to the actual operation process, the robot is divided into two modules: 4-degree-of-freedom position module for location of puncture point is appropriate for patient's almost all positions and 3-degree-of-freedom tendon-based orientation module with remote center of motion is compact and computed tomography-compatible to orientate and insert needle automatically inside computed tomography bore...
February 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164748/development-of-a-residuum-socket-interface-simulator-for-lower-limb-prosthetics
#4
Michael Paul McGrath, Jianliang Gao, Jinghua Tang, Piotr Laszczak, Liudi Jiang, Dan Bader, David Moser, Saeed Zahedi
Mechanical coupling at the interface between lower limb residua and prosthetic sockets plays an important role in assessing socket fitting and tissue health. However, most research lab-based lower limb prosthetic simulators to-date have implemented a rigid socket coupling. This study describes the fabrication and implementation of a lower limb residuum/socket interface simulator, designed to reproduce the forces and moments present during the key loading phases of amputee walking. An artificial residuum made with model bones encased in silicone was used, mimicking the compliant mechanical loading of a real residuum/socket interface...
February 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164747/assessment-of-bicycle-car-accidents-under-four-different-types-of-collision
#5
Laurencas Raslavičius, Liudas Bazaras, Artūras Keršys, Vaidas Lukoševičius, Rolandas Makaras, Valdas Eidukynas
Bicycle riders are among the highest risk group in traffic. A cyclist simulation study captured kinematics and injuries to legs, pelvis, neck, and head for one human body size. We analyzed the number of parameters (forces acting on left and right tibia, head injury criterion, neck tensile force, neck shear force, and pelvic acceleration) for each of the four different cases: bicyclist ride out-residential driveway, motorist overtaking-undetected bicyclist, bicyclist left turn-same direction, and bicyclist right turn-opposite direction...
February 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116985/rotary-ultrasonic-drilling-on-bone-a-novel-technique-to-put-an-end-to-thermal-injury-to-bone
#6
Vishal Gupta, Pulak M Pandey, Ravi K Gupta, Asit R Mridha
Bone drilling is common in orthopedic procedures and the heat produced during conventional experimental drilling often exceeds critical temperature of 47 °C and induces thermal osteonecrosis. The osteonecrosis may be the reason for impaired healing, early loosening and implant failure. This study was undertaken to control the temperature rise by interrupted cutting and reduced friction effects at the interface of drill tool and the bone surface. In this work, rotary ultrasonic drilling technique with diamond abrasive particles coated on the hollow drill tool without any internal or external cooling assistance was used...
January 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116980/a-fast-method-for-solving-a-linear-model-of-one-dimensional-blood-flow-in-a-viscoelastic-arterial-tree
#7
Ivan Korade, Zdravko Virag, Severino Krizmanić
For the purpose of optimization of the whole arterial tree, a fast method for solving of one-dimensional model of blood flow is required. A semi-analytic transmission line method for solving a linearized one-dimensional model of blood flow in an arterial tree with viscoelastic walls is proposed. The transmission line method that solves the linearized model in the frequency domain and the method of characteristics that solves either linearized or non-linear one-dimensional models in the time domain are compared regarding accuracy and computational time...
January 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116977/feasibility-of-detecting-orthopaedic-screw-overtightening-using-acoustic-emission
#8
Rhys Pullin, Bryan J Wright, Richard Kapur, John P McCrory, Matthew Pearson, Sam L Evans, Davide Crivelli
A preliminary study of acoustic emission during orthopaedic screw fixation was performed using polyurethane foam as the bone-simulating material. Three sets of screws, a dynamic hip screw, a small fragment screw and a large fragment screw, were investigated, monitoring acoustic-emission activity during the screw tightening. In some specimens, screws were deliberately overtightened in order to investigate the feasibility of detecting the stripping torque in advance. One set of data was supported by load cell measurements to directly measure the axial load through the screw...
January 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112048/the-influence-of-change-in-slice-thickness-on-the-accuracy-of-reconstruction-of-cranium-geometry
#9
Grzegorz Budzik, Paweł Turek, Julian Traciak
The article presents a comparative study of change in slice thickness on the accuracy of reconstruction of cranium geometry. Research was performed on 10 different patients. Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine data were obtained on the Siemens Somatom Sensation Open 40 scanner. At the stage of reconstruction, the same parameters were utilized, while only slice thickness was changed. Modeling with voxel dimensions of 0.4 mm × 0.4 mm × 2.4 mm was chosen as the gold standard over the modeling approach comprising voxel dimensions of 0...
January 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095745/toward-the-definition-of-a-new-worst-case-paradigm-for-the-preclinical-evaluation-of-posterior-spine-stabilization-devices
#10
Luigi La Barbera, Tomaso Villa
Mechanical reliability tests on posterior spine stabilization devices are based on standard F1717 by the American Society for Testing and Materials, which describes how to assemble the implant with vertebrae-like test blocks in a corpectomy model. A recent study proposed to revise the standard to describe the anatomical worst-case scenario, instead of the average one currently implemented, and introduce the unsupported screw length as a mechanical parameter. This article investigates the implications of such revisions on the endurance properties of an implant already on the market...
January 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095741/pullout-performance-comparison-of-novel-expandable-pedicle-screw-with-expandable-poly-ether-ether-ketone-shells-and-cement-augmented-pedicle-screws
#11
Mehmet Fatih Aycan, Tolga Tolunay, Teyfik Demir, Mesut Emre Yaman, Yusuf Usta
Aim of this study is to assess the pullout performance of various pedicle screws in different test materials. Polyurethane foams (Grade 10 and Grade 40) produced in laboratory and bovine vertebrae were instrumented with normal, cannulated (cemented), novel expandable and normal (cemented) pedicle screws. Test samples were prepared according to the ASTM F543 standard testing protocols and surgical guidelines. To examine the screw placement and cement distribution, anteriosuperior and oblique radiographs were taken from each sample after insertion process was completed...
January 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068880/low-intensity-vibrations-normalize-adipogenesis-induced-morphological-and-molecular-changes-of-adult-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#12
Oznur Baskan, Gulistan Mese, Engin Ozcivici
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells that are committed to adipogenesis were exposed daily to high-frequency low-intensity mechanical vibrations to understand molecular, morphological and ultrastructural adaptations to mechanical signals during adipogenesis. D1-ORL-UVA mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were cultured with either growth or adipogenic medium for 1 week. Low-intensity vibration signals (15 min/day, 90 Hz, 0.1 g) were applied to one group of adipogenic cells, while the other adipogenic group served as a sham control...
January 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056711/optimization-of-custom-cementless-stem-using-finite-element-analysis-and-elastic-modulus-distribution-for-reducing-stress-shielding-effect
#13
Gurunathan Saravana Kumar, Subin Philip George
This work proposes a methodology involving stiffness optimization for subject-specific cementless hip implant design based on finite element analysis for reducing stress-shielding effect. To assess the change in the stress-strain state of the femur and the resulting stress-shielding effect due to insertion of the implant, a finite element analysis of the resected femur with implant assembly is carried out for a clinically relevant loading condition. Selecting the von Mises stress as the criterion for discriminating regions for elastic modulus difference, a stiffness minimization method was employed by varying the elastic modulus distribution in custom implant stem...
January 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056713/three-dimensional-printed-bone-scaffolds-the-role-of-nano-micro-hydroxyapatite-particles-on-the-adhesion-and-differentiation-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#14
Marco Domingos, Antonio Gloria, Jorge Coelho, Paulo Bartolo, Joaquim Ciurana
Bone tissue engineering is strongly dependent on the use of three-dimensional scaffolds that can act as templates to accommodate cells and support tissue ingrowth. Despite its wide application in tissue engineering research, polycaprolactone presents a very limited ability to induce adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic cell differentiation. To overcome some of these limitations, different calcium phosphates, such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate, have been employed with relative success. This work investigates the influence of nano-hydroxyapatite and micro-hydroxyapatite (nHA and mHA, respectively) particles on the in vitro biomechanical performance of polycaprolactone/hydroxyapatite scaffolds...
December 1, 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056712/neonatal-head-and-torso-vibration-exposure-during-inter-hospital-transfer
#15
Laurence Blaxter, Mildrid Yeo, Donal McNally, John Crowe, Caroline Henry, Sarah Hill, Neil Mansfield, Andrew Leslie, Don Sharkey
Inter-hospital transport of premature infants is increasingly common, given the centralisation of neonatal intensive care. However, it is known to be associated with anomalously increased morbidity, most notably brain injury, and with increased mortality from multifactorial causes. Surprisingly, there have been relatively few previous studies investigating the levels of mechanical shock and vibration hazard present during this vehicular transport pathway. Using a custom inertial datalogger, and analysis software, we quantify vibration and linear head acceleration...
December 1, 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056710/three-dimensional-printing-of-porous-load-bearing-bioceramic-scaffolds
#16
Elena Mancuso, Naif Alharbi, Oana A Bretcanu, Martyn Marshall, Mark A Birch, Andrew W McCaskie, Kenneth W Dalgarno
This article reports on the use of the binder jetting three-dimensional printing process combined with sintering to process bioceramic materials to form micro- and macroporous three-dimensional structures. Three different glass-ceramic formulations, apatite-wollastonite and two silicate-based glasses, have been processed using this route to create porous structures which have Young's modulus equivalent to cortical bone and average bending strengths in the range 24-36 MPa. It is demonstrated that a range of macroporous geometries can be created with accuracies of ±0...
December 1, 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056709/deviation-analysis-for-c1-2-pedicle-screw-placement-using-a-three-dimensional-printed-drilling-guide
#17
Xinghuo Wu, Rong Liu, Jie Yu, Lin Lu, Cao Yang, Zengwu Shao, Zhewei Ye
Cervical transarticular fixation is a technically demanding procedure. This study aimed to develop a safer and more accurate method for C1/2 pedicle screw placement using a three-dimensional printed drilling guide. A total of 20 patients with C1/2 fractures and dislocations were recruited, and their computed tomography scans were evaluated. Under the assistance of the three-dimensional printed drilling guide, bilateral C1/2 pedicle screws were successfully placed in the three-dimensional C1/2 models. Then, sagittal and axial computed tomography scans were obtained, and the accuracy and safety of screw placement were evaluated based on X-Y-Z axis setup...
December 1, 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056627/needle-like-instruments-for-steering-through-solid-organs-a-review-of-the-scientific-and-patent-literature
#18
Marta Scali, Tim P Pusch, Paul Breedveld, Dimitra Dodou
High accuracy and precision in reaching target locations inside the human body is necessary for the success of percutaneous procedures, such as tissue sample removal (biopsy), brachytherapy, and localized drug delivery. Flexible steerable needles may allow the surgeon to reach targets deep inside solid organs while avoiding sensitive structures (e.g. blood vessels). This article provides a systematic classification of possible mechanical solutions for three-dimensional steering through solid organs. A scientific and patent literature search of steerable instrument designs was conducted using Scopus and Web of Science Derwent Innovations Index patent database, respectively...
December 1, 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019241/a-regenerative-approach-towards-recovering-the-mechanical-properties-of-degenerated-intervertebral-discs-genipin-and-platelet-rich-plasma-therapies
#19
Mohammad Nikkhoo, Jaw-Lin Wang, Masoud Abdollahi, Yu-Chun Hsu, Mohamad Parnianpour, Kinda Khalaf
Degenerative disc disease, associated with discrete structural changes in the peripheral annulus and vertebral endplate, is one of the most common pathological triggers of acute and chronic low back pain, significantly depreciating an individual's quality of life and instigating huge socioeconomic costs. Novel emerging therapeutic techniques are hence of great interest to both research and clinical communities alike. Exogenous crosslinking, such as Genipin, and platelet-rich plasma therapies have been recently demonstrated encouraging results for the repair and regeneration of degenerated discs, but there remains a knowledge gap regarding the quantitative degree of effectiveness and particular influence on the mechanical properties of the disc...
December 1, 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019190/evolution-of-design-considerations-in-complex-craniofacial-reconstruction-using-patient-specific-implants
#20
Sean Peel, Satyajeet Bhatia, Dominic Eggbeer, Daniel S Morris, Caroline Hayhurst
Previously published evidence has established major clinical benefits from using computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, and additive manufacturing to produce patient-specific devices. These include cutting guides, drilling guides, positioning guides, and implants. However, custom devices produced using these methods are still not in routine use, particularly by the UK National Health Service. Oft-cited reasons for this slow uptake include the following: a higher up-front cost than conventionally fabricated devices, material-choice uncertainty, and a lack of long-term follow-up due to their relatively recent introduction...
December 1, 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
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