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Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913629/investigation-of-imaging-magnification-in-radiostereometric-analysis
#1
Jordan S Broberg, Xunhua Yuan, Matthew G Teeter
Radiostereometric analysis is a highly accurate imaging technique. A recent advance in radiostereometric analysis is the use of flat panel digital radiography, which provides the opportunity for quick analysis using radiostereometric analysis. However, such a setup is expensive. Using large cassettes for small joints could minimize the cost. In this article, we investigated the influence of cassette size for small joint examinations with a biplanar radiostereometric analysis setup. Our results indicated that there is no significant difference in the precision when using large cassettes over small cassettes, whether or not imaging magnification is applied...
December 1, 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913628/kinect-system-in-home-based-cardiovascular-rehabilitation
#2
Ágata Vieira, Joaquim Gabriel, Cristina Melo, Jorge Machado
Cardiovascular diseases lead to a high consumption of financial resources. An important part of the recovery process is the cardiovascular rehabilitation. This study aimed to present a new cardiovascular rehabilitation system to 11 outpatients with coronary artery disease from a Hospital in Porto, Portugal, later collecting their opinions. This system is based on a virtual reality game system, using the Kinect sensor while performing an exercise protocol which is integrated in a home-based cardiovascular rehabilitation programme, with a duration of 6 months and at the maintenance phase...
December 1, 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881806/how-do-gloves-affect-cutaneous-sensibility-in-medical-practice-two-new-applied-tests
#3
Peter Mylon, Matt J Carré, Nicolas Martin, Roger Lewis
In order to quantify the effect of medical gloves on tactile performance, two new Simulated Medical Examination Tactile Tests (SMETT) have been developed to replicate the tactile and haptic ability required in medical examinations: the 'Bumps' test and the 'Princess and the Pea' (P&P) test. A pilot study was carried out using 30-40 subjects for each test in order to investigate the suitability of the tests for medical glove evaluation. Tests were performed with latex and nitrile examination gloves and without gloves...
November 23, 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881805/corrosion-resistance-and-biological-activity-of-tio2-implant-coatings-produced-in-oxygen-rich-environments
#4
Rui Zhang, Yi Wan, Xing Ai, Zhanqiang Liu, Dong Zhang
The physical and chemical properties of bio-titanium alloy implant surfaces play an important role in their corrosion resistance and biological activity. New turning and turning-rolling processes are presented, employing an oxygen-rich environment in order to obtain titanium dioxide layers that can both protect implants from corrosion and also promote cell adhesion. The surface topographies, surface roughnesses and chemical compositions of the sample surfaces were obtained using scanning electron microscopy, a white light interferometer, and the Auger electron spectroscopy, respectively...
November 23, 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856790/virtual-wall-based-haptic-guided-teleoperated-surgical-robotic-system-for-single-port-brain-tumor-removal-surgery
#5
Sungmin Seung, Hongseok Choi, Jongseong Jang, Young Soo Kim, Jong-Oh Park, Sukho Park, Seong Young Ko
This article presents a haptic-guided teleoperation for a tumor removal surgical robotic system, so-called a SIROMAN system. The system was developed in our previous work to make it possible to access tumor tissue, even those that seat deeply inside the brain, and to remove the tissue with full maneuverability. For a safe and accurate operation to remove only tumor tissue completely while minimizing damage to the normal tissue, a virtual wall-based haptic guidance together with a medical image-guided control is proposed and developed...
November 16, 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821615/features-for-muscle-fatigue-computed-from-electromyogram-and-mechanomyogram-a-new-one
#6
Şükrü Okkesim, Kezban Coşkun
Muscle fatigue produces negative effects in the performance and it may lead to a muscle failure. This problem makes the quantitative grading of muscle fatigue a necessity in ergonomic and physiological research. Moreover, the quantitative grading of muscle fatigue is needed to increase work and sport productivity and prevent several accidents that result from muscle fatigue. Even though there are many studies for this aim, there is no quantitative criterion for the evaluation of muscle fatigue. The main reason is that muscle fatigue is a complex physiological situation that is dependent on several parameters...
November 7, 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789875/biomechanical-analysis-of-the-cephalomedullary-nail-versus-the-trochanteric-stabilizing-plate-for-unstable-intertrochanteric-femur-fractures
#7
David Walmsley, Bruce Nicayenzi, Paul Rt Kuzyk, Alan Machin, Habiba Bougherara, Emil H Schemitsch, Radovan Zdero
Unstable intertrochanteric fractures are commonly treated with a cephalomedullary nail due to high failure rates with a sliding hip screw. The Omega3 Trochanteric Stabilizing Plate is a relatively new device that functions like a modified sliding hip screw with a proximal extension; however, its mechanical properties have not been evaluated. This study biomechanically compared a cephalomedullary nail, that is, Gamma3 Nail against the Omega3 plate. Unstable intertrochanteric fractures were created in 24 artificial femurs...
October 26, 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789874/a-web-based-knowledge-management-system-integrating-western-and-traditional-chinese-medicine-for-relational-medical-diagnosis
#8
Maria C Herrera-Hernandez, Susana K Lai-Yuen, Les A Piegl, Xiao Zhang
This article presents the design of a web-based knowledge management system as a training and research tool for the exploration of key relationships between Western and Traditional Chinese Medicine, in order to facilitate relational medical diagnosis integrating these mainstream healing modalities. The main goal of this system is to facilitate decision-making processes, while developing skills and creating new medical knowledge. Traditional Chinese Medicine can be considered as an ancient relational knowledge-based approach, focusing on balancing interrelated human functions to reach a healthy state...
October 26, 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780870/virtual-flow-diverter-treatment-planning-the-effect-of-device-placement-on-bifurcation-aneurysm-haemodynamics
#9
Thomas Peach, Katerina Spranger, Yiannis Ventikos
Bifurcation aneurysms account for a large fraction of cerebral aneurysms and often present morphologies that render traditional endovascular treatments, such as coiling, challenging and problematic. Flow-diverter stents offer a potentially elegant treatment option for such aneurysms, but clinical use of these devices remains controversial. Specifically, the deployment of a flow-diverter device in a bifurcation entails jailing one or more potentially vital vessels with a low-porosity mesh designed to restrict the flow...
October 25, 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694402/the-effect-of-ankle-posture-on-the-load-pathway-through-the-hindfoot
#10
Chris Smolen, Cheryl E Quenneville
The foot-ankle complex is frequently injured in a wide array of debilitating events such as car crashes. Numerical models and experimental tests have been used to assess injury risk, but most do not account for the variations in ankle posture that frequently occur during these events. In this study, the positions of the bones of the foot-ankle complex (particularly, the hindfoot) were quantified over a range of postures. Computed tomography scans were taken of a male cadaveric leg under axial loading with the ankle in five postures in which fractures are commonly reported...
September 30, 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658427/applications-of-3d-printing-in-the-management-of-severe-spinal-conditions
#11
Elena Provaggi, Julian J H Leong, Deepak M Kalaskar
The latest and fastest-growing innovation in the medical field has been the advent of three-dimensional printing technologies, which have recently seen applications in the production of low-cost, patient-specific medical implants. While a wide range of three-dimensional printing systems has been explored in manufacturing anatomical models and devices for the medical setting, their applications are cutting-edge in the field of spinal surgery. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview and classification of the current applications of three-dimensional printing technologies in spine care...
September 22, 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658426/biomechanical-effects-of-angular-stable-locking-in-intramedullary-nails-for-the-fixation-of-distal-tibia-fractures
#12
Peter Augat, Florian Hoegel, Daniel Stephan, Stephanie Hoffmann, Volker Buehren
Treatment of distal tibia shaft fractures using intramedullary nailing requires stable fixation of the distal fragment to prevent malunion. Angular stable locking for intramedullary nails pledge to provide increased mechanical stability. This study tested the hypothesis that intramedullary nails with angular stable interlocking screws would have increased construct stiffness, reduced fracture gap movement and enhanced fatigue failure compared to nails with conventional locking having the same diameter. Biomechanical experiments were performed on 24 human cadaveric tibiae which obtained a distal fracture and were fixed by three different techniques: conventional locking with 8- and 10-mm-diameter nails and angular stable locking with 8-mm nails...
September 22, 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637723/peek-optima%C3%A2-as-an-alternative-to-cobalt-chrome-in-the-femoral-component-of-total-knee-replacement-a-preliminary-study
#13
Raelene M Cowie, Adam Briscoe, John Fisher, Louise M Jennings
PEEK-OPTIMA(™) (Invibio Ltd, UK) has been considered as an alternative joint arthroplasty bearing material due to its favourable mechanical properties and the biocompatibility of its wear debris. In this study, the potential to use injection moulded PEEK-OPTIMA(™) as an alternative to cobalt chrome in the femoral component of a total knee replacement was investigated in terms of its wear performance. Experimental wear simulation of three cobalt chrome and three PEEK-OPTIMA(™) femoral components articulating against all-polyethylene tibial components was carried out under two kinematic conditions: 3 million cycles under intermediate kinematics (maximum anterior-posterior displacement of 5 mm) followed by 3 million cycles under high kinematic conditions (anterior-posterior displacement 10 mm)...
September 16, 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587536/biomechanical-analysis-of-a-novel-hemipelvic-endoprosthesis-during-ascending-and-descending-stairs
#14
Dongxu Liu, Zikai Hua, Xinyi Yan, Zhongmin Jin
In this study, the biomechanical characteristic of a newly developed adjustable hemipelvic prosthesis under dynamic loading conditions was investigated using explicit finite element method. Both intact and reconstructed pelvis models, including pelvis, femur and soft tissues, were established referring to human anatomic data using a solid geometry of a human pelvic bone. Hip contact forces during ascending stairs and descending stairs were imposed on pelvic models. Results showed that maximum von Mises stresses in reconstructed pelvis were 421...
October 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574038/design-and-virtual-evaluation-of-a-customized-surface-guided-knee-implant
#15
Shabnam Pejhan, Eric Bohm, Jan-Mels Brandt, Urs Wyss
Although total knee arthroplasty is generally a successful operation, many studies have shown that it results in significant alterations in the kinematics of the joint, which cause limitations in performing the activities of daily living. This study aimed to define the design features for a customized surface-guided total knee replacement and to evaluate the kinematic outcomes. Magnetic resonance imaging data of the knee joint are used to generate the design features as they relate to the functionality of the implant...
October 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521350/a-motion-compensation-method-for-bi-plane-robot-assisted-internal-fixation-surgery-of-a-femur-neck-fracture
#16
Jian Song, Hui Ding, Wei Han, Junqiang Wang, Guangzhi Wang
Bi-plane robots have been widely applied in clinical use to place cannulated screws for internal fixation surgery of femur neck fractures, which is performed precisely and automatically using two online fluoroscopic images. However, the setup procedure of the bi-plane robot is empirical, and physicians usually have to re-run the setup procedure, exposing the patient to high doses of radiation in clinical applications. In this article, a motion compensation method is proposed by a novel use of the binocular vision principle to improve the bi-plane robot setup using two doses of radiation within 2 min...
October 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27511914/a-computer-aided-system-for-automatic-extraction-of-femur-neck-trabecular-bone-architecture-using-isotropic-volume-construction-from-clinical-hip-computed-tomography-images
#17
Sapthagirivasan Vivekanandhan, Janarthanam Subramaniam, Anburajan Mariamichael
Hip fractures due to osteoporosis are increasing progressively across the globe. It is also difficult for those fractured patients to undergo dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans due to its complicated protocol and its associated cost. The utilisation of computed tomography for the fracture treatment has become common in the clinical practice. It would be helpful for orthopaedic clinicians, if they could get some additional information related to bone strength for better treatment planning. The aim of our study was to develop an automated system to segment the femoral neck region, extract the cortical and trabecular bone parameters, and assess the bone strength using an isotropic volume construction from clinical computed tomography images...
October 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475907/the-effects-of-musculoskeletal-loading-regimes-on-numerical-evaluations-of-acetabular-component
#18
Kaushik Mukherjee, Sanjay Gupta
The importance of clinical studies notwithstanding, the failure assessment of implant-bone structure has alternatively been carried out using finite element analysis. However, the accuracy of the finite element predicted results is dependent on the applied loading and boundary conditions. Nevertheless, most finite element-based evaluations on acetabular component used a few selective load cases instead of the eight load cases representing the entire gait cycle. These in silico evaluations often suffer from limitations regarding the use of simplified musculoskeletal loading regimes...
October 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27459501/effects-of-a-drill-diameter-on-the-temperature-rise-in-a-bone-during-implant-site-preparation-under-clinical-conditions
#19
Valerija Bogovič, Andrej Svete, Ivan Bajsić
Heat, generated during the drilling of a dental implant site preparation, leads to a temperature rise and consequently to a thermal injury of the bone tissue surrounding the implant site, which can cause the subsequent implant failure. In this article, we present new findings related to the temperature rise during implant site drilling under real conditions on a bovine rib bone specimen. The experiments were designed with the help of a full-factorial design in randomized complete blocks, where the main effects of the drill diameter in combination with the drilling force and the drilling speed, and their interactions, on the temperature rise were determined...
October 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27459500/muscle-tendon-unit-scaling-methods-of-hill-type-musculoskeletal-models-an-overview
#20
REVIEW
Frederik Heinen, Morten E Lund, John Rasmussen, Mark de Zee
This article gives an overview of the state of the art in scaling methods of generic Hill-type muscle model parameters in view of different applications and implementation of experimental data. This article establishes the requirements used to alter a generic model toward subject-specific musculoskeletal models. This article aims to improve model transparency by a structured description of scaling methods and the associated limitations in musculoskeletal models and highlight the importance of selecting a scaling method supporting the purpose of the model...
October 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
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