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Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039259/single-camera-visual-odometry-to-track-a-surgical-x-ray-c-arm-base
#1
Hooman Esfandiari, Derek Lichti, Carolyn Anglin
This study provides a framework for a single-camera odometry system for localizing a surgical C-arm base. An application-specific monocular visual odometry system (a downward-looking consumer-grade camera rigidly attached to the C-arm base) is proposed in this research. The cumulative dead-reckoning estimation of the base is extracted based on frame-to-frame homography estimation. Optical-flow results are utilized to feed the odometry. Online positional and orientation parameters are then reported. Positional accuracy of better than 2% (of the total traveled distance) for most of the cases and 4% for all the cases studied and angular accuracy of better than 2% (of absolute cumulative changes in orientation) were achieved with this method...
October 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990459/multi-objective-performance-investigation-of-orthopaedic-bone-drilling-using-taguchi-membership-function
#2
Gurmeet Singh, Vivek Jain, Dheeraj Gupta
Orthopaedic bone drilling attacks the surrounded bone cells and tissues in terms of thermal and mechanical in such a way that these cells can get damaged permanently. This damage to the surrounding of drill point upsurges the rehabilitation time of injury and in some cases leads to the failure of the bone screw joint. This study is based on the optimization of multiple response characteristics to minimize the damage during the bone drilling. All real-life problems, including bone drilling, require the multiple response optimization for getting a combined optimization result for all countable response characteristics...
October 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985696/a-new-prosthetic-alignment-device-to-read-and-record-prosthesis-alignment-data
#3
Gholamhossein Pirouzi, Noor Azuan Abu Osman, Sadeeq Ali, Majid Davoodi Makinejad
Prosthetic alignment is an essential process to rehabilitate patients with amputations. This study presents, for the first time, an invented device to read and record prosthesis alignment data. The digital device consists of seven main parts: the trigger, internal shaft, shell, sensor adjustment button, digital display, sliding shell, and tip. The alignment data were read and recorded by the user or a computer to replicate prosthesis adjustment for future use or examine the sequence of changes in alignment and its effect on the posture of the patient...
October 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980496/toward-high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-lesion-quantification-using-compressive-sensing-theory
#4
Hadi Ghasemifard, Hamid Behnam, Jahan Tavakkoli
Compressive sensing theory has in recent years been increasingly used in various pattern recognition applications. Compressive sensing theory makes it possible, under certain assumptions, to recover a signal or an image sampled below the Nyquist sampling limit. In this work, a new application of compressive sensing based on the threshold algorithm, in the area of controlling and monitoring of high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy, was investigated. In this work, a new method of high-intensity focused ultrasound lesion detection is presented based on a modified compressive sensing method in combination with the threshold algorithm and the wavelet transforms...
October 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980491/quantitative-wear-particle-analysis-for-osteoarthritis-assessment
#5
Meizhai Guo, Megan S Lord, Zhongxiao Peng
Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease that affects millions of people worldwide. The aims of this study were (1) to quantitatively characterise the boundary and surface features of wear particles present in the synovial fluid of patients, (2) to select key numerical parameters that describe distinctive particle features and enable osteoarthritis assessment and (3) to develop a model to assess osteoarthritis conditions using comprehensive wear debris information. Discriminant analysis was used to statistically group particles based on differences in their numerical parameters...
October 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965486/quantitative-mechanical-assessment-of-the-whole-prostate-gland-ex-vivo-using-dynamic-instrumented-palpation
#6
Steven J Hammer, Daniel W Good, Paul Scanlan, Javier Palacio-Torralba, Simon Phipps, Grant D Stewart, Will Shu, Yuhang Chen, S Alan McNeill, Robert L Reuben
An instrumented palpation sensor, designed for measuring the dynamic modulus of tissue in vivo, has been developed and trialled on ex vivo whole prostate glands. The sensor consists of a flexible membrane sensor/actuator with an embedded strain gauge and is actuated using a dynamically varying airflow at frequencies of 1 and 5 Hz. The device was calibrated using an indentation stiffness measurement rig and gelatine samples with a range of static modulus similar to that reported in the literature for prostate tissue...
September 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965477/dynamic-instrumented-palpation-a-new-method-for-soft-tissue-quality-assessment-application-to-prostate-disease-diagnosis
#7
Th Jimmy Yang, Simon Phipps, Steve Kw Leung, Robert L Reuben, Fouad K Habib, S Alan McNeill
The objective is to establish the feasibility of using dynamic instrumented palpation, a novel technique of low-frequency mechanical testing, applied here to diagnose soft tissue condition. The technique is applied, in vitro, to samples of excised prostate gland affected by benign prostate hyperplasia and/or prostate cancer. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between the histological structure of the tissue and the dynamic mechanical properties in an attempt to separate patient-specific aspects from histopathological condition (i...
September 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927347/impact-of-spinal-rod-stiffness-on-porcine-lumbar-biomechanics-finite-element-model-validation-and-parametric-study
#8
Martin Brummund, Vladimir Brailovski, Yvan Petit, Yann Facchinello, Jean-Marc Mac-Thiong
A three-dimensional finite element model of the porcine lumbar spine (L1-L6) was used to assess the effect of spinal rod stiffness on lumbar biomechanics. The model was validated through a comparison with in vitro measurements performed on six porcine spine specimens. The validation metrics employed included intervertebral rotations and the nucleus pressure in the first instrumented intervertebral disc. The numerical results obtained suggest that rod stiffness values as low as 0.1 GPa are required to reduce the mobility gradient between the adjacent and instrumented segments and the nucleus pressures across the porcine lumbar spine significantly...
September 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925817/using-multiple-classifiers-for-predicting-the-risk-of-endovascular-aortic-aneurysm-repair-re-intervention-through-hybrid-feature-selection
#9
Omneya Attallah, Alan Karthikesalingam, Peter Je Holt, Matthew M Thompson, Rob Sayers, Matthew J Bown, Eddie C Choke, Xianghong Ma
Feature selection is essential in medical area; however, its process becomes complicated with the presence of censoring which is the unique character of survival analysis. Most survival feature selection methods are based on Cox's proportional hazard model, though machine learning classifiers are preferred. They are less employed in survival analysis due to censoring which prevents them from directly being used to survival data. Among the few work that employed machine learning classifiers, partial logistic artificial neural network with auto-relevance determination is a well-known method that deals with censoring and perform feature selection for survival data...
September 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893148/comparative-analyses-of-bicyclists-and-motorcyclists-in-vehicle-collisions-focusing-on-head-impact-responses
#10
Xinghua Wang, Yong Peng, Shengen Yi
To investigate the differences of the head impact responses between bicyclists and motorcyclists in vehicle collisions. A series of vehicle-bicycle and vehicle-motorcycle lateral impact simulations on four vehicle types at seven vehicle speeds (30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 km/h) and three two-wheeler moving speeds (5, 7.5 and 10 km/h for bicycle, 10, 12.5 and 15 km/h for motorcycle) were established based on PC-Crash software. To further comprehensively explore the differences, additional impact scenes with other initial conditions, such as impact angle (0, π/3, 2π/3 and π) and impact position (left, middle and right part of vehicle front-end), also were supplemented...
September 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830284/generation-of-synthetic-surface-electromyography-signals-under-fatigue-conditions-for-varying-force-inputs-using-feedback-control-algorithm
#11
G Venugopal, P Deepak, Diptasree M Ghosh, S Ramakrishnan
Surface electromyography is a non-invasive technique used for recording the electrical activity of neuromuscular systems. These signals are random, complex and multi-component. There are several techniques to extract information about the force exerted by muscles during any activity. This work attempts to generate surface electromyography signals for various magnitudes of force under isometric non-fatigue and fatigue conditions using a feedback model. The model is based on existing current distribution, volume conductor relations, the feedback control algorithm for rate coding and generation of firing pattern...
August 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825358/investigating-bone-chip-formation-in-craniotomy
#12
He Huiyu, Wang Chengyong, Zhang Yue, Zheng Yanbin, Xu Linlin, Xie Guoneng, Zhao Danna, Chen Bin, Chen Haoan
In a craniotomy, the milling cutter is one of the most important cutting tools. The operating performance, tool durability and cutting damage to patients are influenced by the tool's sharpness, intensity and structure, whereas the cutting characteristics rely on interactions between the tool and the skull. In this study, an orthogonal cutting experiment during a craniotomy of fresh pig skulls was performed to investigate chip formation on the side cutting and face cutting of the skull using a high-speed camera...
August 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820012/effect-of-rotational-prosthetic-alignment-variation-on-tibiofemoral-contact-pressure-distribution-and-joint-kinematics-in-total-knee-replacement
#13
Xin Xie, Roy Rusly, John D DesJardins, Frank Voss, Kim Chillag, Martine LaBerge
In total knee replacement surgery, implant alignment is one of the most important criteria for successful long-term clinical outcome. During total knee replacement implantation, femoral and tibial alignment are determined through appropriate bone resections, which could vary based on patient anatomy, implant design and surgical technique and further influence loading conditions and clinical outcomes. The current research focused on three critical alignment parameters for total knee replacement insertion: femoral component internal/external (I/E) rotation, varus-valgus tibiofemoral angulation and posterior tibial slope...
August 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814154/a-low-cost-three-dimensional-laser-surface-scanning-approach-for-defining-body-segment-parameters
#14
Petros Pandis, Anthony Mj Bull
Body segment parameters are used in many different applications in ergonomics as well as in dynamic modelling of the musculoskeletal system. Body segment parameters can be defined using different methods, including techniques that involve time-consuming manual measurements of the human body, used in conjunction with models or equations. In this study, a scanning technique for measuring subject-specific body segment parameters in an easy, fast, accurate and low-cost way was developed and validated. The scanner can obtain the body segment parameters in a single scanning operation, which takes between 8 and 10 s...
August 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803514/investigation-sensitivity-analysis-and-multi-objective-optimization-of-effective-parameters-on-temperature-and-force-in-robotic-drilling-cortical-bone
#15
Vahid Tahmasbi, Majid Ghoreishi, Mojtaba Zolfaghari
The bone drilling process is very prominent in orthopedic surgeries and in the repair of bone fractures. It is also very common in dentistry and bone sampling operations. Due to the complexity of bone and the sensitivity of the process, bone drilling is one of the most important and sensitive processes in biomedical engineering. Orthopedic surgeries can be improved using robotic systems and mechatronic tools. The most crucial problem during drilling is an unwanted increase in process temperature (higher than 47 °C), which causes thermal osteonecrosis or cell death and local burning of the bone tissue...
August 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689470/analysis-and-comparison-of-wrist-splint-designs-using-the-finite-element-method-multi-material-three-dimensional-printing-compared-to-typical-existing-practice-with-thermoplastics
#16
Aitor Cazon, Sarah Kelly, Abby M Paterson, Richard J Bibb, R Ian Campbell
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic disease affecting the joints. Treatment can include immobilisation of the affected joint with a custom-fitting splint, which is typically fabricated by hand from low temperature thermoplastic, but the approach poses several limitations. This study focused on the evaluation, by finite element analysis, of additive manufacturing techniques for wrist splints in order to improve upon the typical splinting approach. An additive manufactured/3D printed splint, specifically designed to be built using Objet Connex multi-material technology and a virtual model of a typical splint, digitised from a real patient-specific splint using three-dimensional scanning, were modelled in computer-aided design software...
September 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660796/increased-stress-and-strain-on-the-spinal-cord-due-to-ossification-of-the-posterior-longitudinal-ligament-in-the-cervical-spine-under-flexion-after-laminectomy
#17
Batbayar Khuyagbaatar, Kyungsoo Kim, Won Man Park, SuKyoung Lee, Yoon Hyuk Kim
Myelopathy in the cervical spine due to cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament could be induced by static compression and/or dynamic factors. It has been suggested that dynamic factors need to be considered when planning and performing the decompression surgery on patients with the ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. A finite element model of the C2-C7 cervical spine in the neutral position was developed and used to generate flexion and extension of the cervical spine...
September 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625101/a-versatile-method-for-bladder-segmentation-in-computed-tomography-two-dimensional-images-under-adverse-conditions
#18
João Ribeiro Pinto, João Manuel Rs Tavares
This article presents the design and evaluation of an algorithm for urinary bladder segmentation in medical images, from contrastless computed tomography studies of patients suffering from bladder wall tumours. These situations require versatile methods of segmentation, able to adapt to the structural changes the tumours provoke in the bladder wall, reflected as irregularities on the images obtained, creating adversities to the segmentation process. This semi-automatic method uses fuzzy c-means clustering, a Gaussian-curve-based intensity transformation, and active contour models, requiring only the physician's input of a single seed point for each anatomical view, in order to segment the bladder volume in all frames that include it...
September 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599593/a-combined-experimental-and-finite-element-approach-to-analyse-the-fretting-mechanism-of-the-head-stem-taper-junction-in-total-hip-replacement
#19
Thom Bitter, Imran Khan, Tim Marriott, Elaine Lovelady, Nico Verdonschot, Dennis Janssen
Fretting corrosion at the taper interface of modular hip implants has been implicated as a possible cause of implant failure. This study was set up to gain more insight in the taper mechanics that lead to fretting corrosion. The objectives of this study therefore were (1) to select experimental loading conditions to reproduce clinically relevant fretting corrosion features observed in retrieved components, (2) to develop a finite element model consistent with the fretting experiments and (3) to apply more complicated loading conditions of activities of daily living to the finite element model to study the taper mechanics...
September 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558514/in-vivo-analysis-of-ankle-joint-movement-for-patient-specific-kinematic-characterization
#20
Carlo Ferraresi, Carlo De Benedictis, Walter Franco, Daniela Maffiodo, Alberto Leardini
In this article, a method for the experimental in-vivo characterization of the ankle kinematics is proposed. The method is meant to improve personalization of various ankle joint treatments, such as surgical decision-making or design and application of an orthosis, possibly to increase their effectiveness. This characterization in fact would make the treatments more compatible with the specific patient's joint physiological conditions. This article describes the experimental procedure and the analytical method adopted, based on the instantaneous and mean helical axis theories...
September 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
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