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Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749802/the-estimation-method-of-friction-in-unconfined-compression-tests-of-liver-tissue
#1
Jing Yang, Lingtao Yu, Lan Wang, Wenjie Wang, Jianwei Cui
In traditional unconfined compression tests, the friction between platform and specimen is often considered negligible or minimized by lubrication or other means. However, friction can affect the estimation of material parameters. The percentage difference in radial deformation was investigated in this study. A novel friction estimation method was established and verified using a finite element method. The proposed method was based on the radial deformation during the compression process. Three different hyperelastic material parameters of liver tissue were applied in the simulations...
May 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749792/using-three-dimensional-rapid-prototyping-in-the-design-and-development-of-orthopaedic-screws-in-standardised-pull-out-tests
#2
Laura Jane Leslie, Ashley Connolly, John G Swadener, Sarah Junaid, Kanthan Theivendran, Subodh C Deshmukh
The majority of orthopaedic screws are designed, tested and manufactured by existing orthopaedics companies and are predominantly developed with healthy bone in mind. The timescales and costs involved in the development of a new screw design, for example, for osteoporotic bone, are high. In this study, standard wood screws were used to analyse the concept of using three-dimensional printing, or rapid prototyping, as a viable stage of development in the design of a new bone screw. Six wood screws were reverse engineered and printed in polymeric material using stereolithography...
May 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687748/magnetic-resonance-conditional-paramagnetic-choke-for-suppression-of-imaging-artifacts-during-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#3
Kevin J Wu, T Stan Gregory, Brian L Boland, Wujun Zhao, Rui Cheng, Leidong Mao, Zion Tsz Ho Tse
Higher risk patient populations require continuous physiological monitoring and, in some cases, connected life-support systems, during magnetic resonance imaging examinations. While recently there has been a shift toward wireless technology, some of the magnetic resonance imaging devices are still connected to the outside using cabling that could interfere with the magnetic resonance imaging's radio frequency during scanning, resulting in excessive heating. We developed a passive method for radio frequency suppression on cabling that may assist in making some of these devices magnetic resonance imaging compatible...
April 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683374/finite-element-analysis-of-the-effect-of-high-tibial-osteotomy-correction-angle-on-articular-cartilage-loading
#4
Zahra Trad, Abdelwahed Barkaoui, Moez Chafra, João Manuel Rs Tavares
Osteoarthritis is a globally common disease that imposes a considerable ongoing health and economic burden on the socioeconomic system. As more and more biomechanical factors have been explored, malalignment of the lower limb has been found to influence the load distribution across the articular surface of the knee joint substantially. In this work, a three-dimensional finite element analysis was carried out to investigate the effect of varying the high tibial osteotomy correction angle on the stress distribution in both compartments of the human knee joint...
April 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683373/gesture-segmentation-and-classification-using-affine-speed-and-energy
#5
Jenny Cifuentes, Minh Tu Pham, Pierre Boulanger, Richard Moreau, Flavio Prieto
The characterization and analysis of hand gestures are challenging tasks with an important number of applications in human-computer interaction, machine vision and control, and medical gesture recognition. Specifically, several researchers have tried to develop objective evaluation methods of surgical skills for medical training. As a result, the adequate selection and extraction of similarities and differences between experts and novices have become an important challenge in this area. In particular, some of these works have shown that human movements performed during surgery can be described as a sequence of constant affine-speed trajectories...
April 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658386/finite-element-evaluation-of-the-newest-iso-testing-standard-for-polyethylene-total-knee-replacement-liners
#6
Steven P Mell, Spencer Fullam, Markus A Wimmer, Hannah J Lundberg
Current treatment for end-stage osteoarthritis is total knee replacement. Given that the number of total knee replacement surgeries is expected to approach 3.48 million by 2030, understanding long-term failure is important. One of the preclinical tests for total knee replacements is carried out using mechanical wear testing under generic walking conditions. Used for this purpose is the International Standards Organization's generic walking profile. Recently this standard was updated by reversing the direction of anterior/posterior translation and internal/external rotation...
April 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29637803/musculoskeletal-multibody-dynamics-simulation-of-the-contact-mechanics-and-kinematics-of-a-natural-knee-joint-during-a-walking-cycle
#7
Jiayu Hu, Zhenxian Chen, Hua Xin, Qida Zhang, Zhongmin Jin
Detailed knowledge of the in vivo loading and kinematics in the knee joint is essential to understand its normal functions and the aetiology of osteoarthritis. Computer models provide a viable non-invasive solution for estimating joint loading and kinematics during different physiological activities. However, the joint loading and kinematics of the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints during a gait cycle were not typically investigated concurrently in previous computational simulations. In this study, a natural knee architecture was incorporated into a lower extremity musculoskeletal multibody dynamics model based on a force-dependent kinematics approach to investigate the contact mechanics and kinematics of a natural knee joint during a walking cycle...
April 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609522/quantifying-effects-of-cyclic-stretch-on-cell-collagen-substrate-adhesiveness-of-vascular-endothelial-cells
#8
Ramin Omidvar, Mohammad Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Farbod Mahmoodi-Nobar, Shohreh Azadi, Mohammad-Mehdi Khani
Vascular endothelium is continuously subjected to mechanical stimulation in the form of shear forces due to blood flow as well as tensile forces as a consequence of blood pressure. Such stimuli influence endothelial behavior and regulate cell-tissue interaction for an optimized functionality. This study aimed to quantify influence of cyclic stretch on the adhesive property and stiffness of endothelial cells. The 10% cyclic stretch with frequency of 1 Hz was applied to a layer of endothelial cells cultured on a polydimethylsiloxane substrate...
April 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589802/the-dependence-of-broadband-ultrasound-attenuation-on-phase-interference-in-thin-plates-of-variable-thickness-and-curvature-a-comparison-of-experimental-measurement-and-computer-simulation
#9
Ali Hamed Alomari, Marie-Luise Wille, Christian M Langton
The measurement of broadband ultrasound attenuation describes the linear increase in ultrasound attenuation with frequency (dB/MHz); this is generally performed at the calcaneus, consisting of a high proportion of metabolically active cancellous bone. Although broadband ultrasound attenuation is not routinely implemented within clinical management since it cannot provide a reliable estimation of bone mineral density and hence clinical definition of osteopenia and osteoporosis, it offers a reliable means to predict osteoporotic fracture risk...
March 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543121/designing-safer-composite-helmets-to-reduce-rotational-accelerations-during-oblique-impacts
#10
Yasmine Mosleh, Martin Cajka, Bart Depreitere, Jos Vander Sloten, Jan Ivens
Oblique impact is the most common accident situation that occupants in traffic accidents or athletes in professional sports experience. During oblique impact, the human head is subjected to a combination of linear and rotational accelerations. Rotational movement is known to be responsible for traumatic brain injuries. In this article, composite foam with a column/matrix composite configuration is proposed for head protection applications to replace single-layer uniform foam, to better attenuate rotational movement of the head during oblique impacts...
March 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543120/on-the-development-of-a-new-flexible-drill-for-orthopedic-surgery-and-the-forces-experienced-on-drilling-bovine-bone
#11
Ahmad Nazmi Bin Ahmad Fuad, Kamal Deep, Wei Yao, Philip Rowe
This article presents the construction of a flexible drill which is designed to cut a curved canal in the bone or remove bone materials, to improve the outcome of orthopedic surgery and to facilitate minimally invasive. This article reports the design of the flexible drill and uses it in an experimental rig to evaluate the drilling force generated when cutting bovine bone. The experiments facilitate the measurement of action forces between the mill bits when moving the tip toward or across a bone sample in various configurations caused by bending the flexible drill sheath to enable cutting of a curved path of variable radius in the bone...
March 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529933/fretting-corrosion-at-the-modular-tapers-interface-inspection-of-standard-astm-f1875-98
#12
Rachel Bingley, Alan Martin, Olivia Manfredi, Mahdiyar Nejadhamzeeigilani, Abimbola Oladokun, Andrew Robert Beadling, Sohail Siddiqui, James Anderson, Jonathan Thompson, Anne Neville, Michael Bryant
Interest in the degradation mechanisms at the modular tapers interfaces has been renewed due to increased reported cases of adverse reactions to metal debris and the appearance of wear and corrosion at the modular tapers interfaces at revision. Over the past two decades, a lot of research has been expended to understand the degradation mechanisms, with two primary implant loading procedures and orientations used consistently across the literature. ASTM F1875-98 is often used as a guide to understand and benchmark the tribocorrosion processes occurring within the modular tapers interface...
March 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608134/hip-stem-fatigue-the-implications-of-increasing-patient-mass
#13
Ashley P Westerman, Andrew R Moor, Martin H Stone, Todd D Stewart
General trends of increasing body mass index have been observed in many western countries along with an increasing demand for joint replacement. Standards have been developed for testing the fatigue properties of femoral stems; however, the loads that these apply are based on a historic patient weight and may not be valid in the current patient population. Several fatigue tests were conducted using distally fixed titanium alloy stems positioned according to the ISO standard but with a cyclic load based on a current 75th percentile patient sample...
May 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521169/re-design-of-a-uniplanar-monolateral-external-fixator
#14
Massimiliano De Agostinis
This work deals with the structural analysis of screw clamps for external fixator devices. Screw clamps are widely used in external fixators as a means to connect the half-pins to the fixator body. The analysis is carried out by both numerical and experimental techniques, based on the case study of a clamp produced by Citieffe (Bologna, Italy). As a preliminary activity, the tribological parameters involved in the screw-clamp interaction have been characterized by means of a mixed finite element analysis and experimental procedure...
May 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521168/influence-of-ankle-joint-plantarflexion-and-dorsiflexion-on-lateral-ankle-sprain-a-computational-study
#15
Tserenchimed Purevsuren, Kyungsoo Kim, Myagmarbayar Batbaatar, SuKyoung Lee, Yoon Hyuk Kim
Understanding the mechanism of injury involved in lateral ankle sprain is essential to prevent injury, to establish surgical repair and reconstruction, and to plan reliable rehabilitation protocols. Most studies for lateral ankle sprain posit that ankle inversion, internal rotation, and plantarflexion are involved in the mechanism of injury. However, recent studies indicated that ankle dorsiflexion also plays an important role in the lateral ankle sprain mechanism. In this study, the contributions of ankle plantarflexion and dorsiflexion on the ankle joint were evaluated under complex combinations of internal and inversion moments...
May 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516777/the-effects-of-shape-memory-alloys-tension-compression-asymmetryon-niti-endodontic-files-fatigue-life
#16
M R Karamooz-Ravari, R Dehghani
Nowadays, NiTi rotary endodontic files are of great importance due to their flexibility which enables the device to cover all the portions of curved canal of tooth. Although this class of files are flexible, intracanal separation might happen during canal preparation due to bending or torsional loadings of the file. Since fabrication and characterization of such devices is challenging, time-consuming, and expensive, it is preferable to predict this failure before fabrication using numerical models. It is demonstrated that NiTi shape memory alloy shows asymmetric material response in tension and compression which can significantly affect the lifetime of the files fabricated from...
May 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506427/skin-mechanical-properties-and-modeling-a-review
#17
Hamed Joodaki, Matthew B Panzer
The mechanical properties of the skin are important for various applications. Numerous tests have been conducted to characterize the mechanical behavior of this tissue, and this article presents a review on different experimental methods used. A discussion on the general mechanical behavior of the skin, including nonlinearity, viscoelasticity, anisotropy, loading history dependency, failure properties, and aging effects, is presented. Finally, commonly used constitutive models for simulating the mechanical response of skin are discussed in the context of representing the empirically observed behavior...
April 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504432/corrigendum
#18
(no author information available yet)
Hani Haider, Joel N Weisenburger, Kevin L Garvin. Simultaneous measurement of friction and wear in hip simulators. Proc IMechE, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine; 230(5): 373-388. DOI: 10.1177/0954411916644476 On page 379 of this article, there is an error in the equation "[Formula: see text]". The corrected equation is as follows: [Formula: see text] The online version of the article has been updated.
April 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475414/stiffness-of-meniscus-tissue-depends-on-tibio-femoral-load-and-structural-integrity-of-the-meniscus-root
#19
Christian Stärke, Christoph Hubertus Lohmann, Sebastian Kopf
Development of meniscus replacements requires in-depth knowledge of the material properties and biomechanical behavior of the native meniscus. The compressive properties are of particular interest in this context, which are often assessed with indentation tests. However, those tests are usually done on isolated tissue specimens ex situ, which could have a significant impact on the results. It was, therefore, the goal of the study to assess the stiffness of the meniscus tissue in situ in porcine specimens and to compare it to that of artificial substitutes...
April 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475413/biomechanical-comparison-of-transdiscal-fixation-and-posterior-fixation-with-and-without-transforaminal-lumbar-interbody-fusion-in-the-treatment-of-l5-s1-lumbosacral-joint
#20
Hakan Özalp, Mustafa Özkaya, Onur Yaman, Teyfik Demir
Transdiscal screw fixation is generally performed in the treatment of high-grade L5-S1 spondylolisthesis. The main thought of the study is that the biomechanical performances of the transdiscal pedicle screw fixation can be identical to standard posterior pedicle screw fixations with or without transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion cage insertion. Lumbosacral portions and pelvises of 45 healthy lambs' vertebrae were dissected. Animal cadavers were randomly and equally divided into three groups for instrumentation...
April 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
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