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Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625101/a-versatile-method-for-bladder-segmentation-in-computed-tomography-two-dimensional-images-under-adverse-conditions
#1
João Ribeiro Pinto, João Manuel Rs Tavares
This article presents the design and evaluation of an algorithm for urinary bladder segmentation in medical images, from contrastless computed tomography studies of patients suffering from bladder wall tumours. These situations require versatile methods of segmentation, able to adapt to the structural changes the tumours provoke in the bladder wall, reflected as irregularities on the images obtained, creating adversities to the segmentation process. This semi-automatic method uses fuzzy c-means clustering, a Gaussian-curve-based intensity transformation, and active contour models, requiring only the physician's input of a single seed point for each anatomical view, in order to segment the bladder volume in all frames that include it...
June 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599593/a-combined-experimental-and-finite-element-approach-to-analyse-the-fretting-mechanism-of-the-head-stem-taper-junction-in-total-hip-replacement
#2
Thom Bitter, Imran Khan, Tim Marriott, Elaine Lovelady, Nico Verdonschot, Dennis Janssen
Fretting corrosion at the taper interface of modular hip implants has been implicated as a possible cause of implant failure. This study was set up to gain more insight in the taper mechanics that lead to fretting corrosion. The objectives of this study therefore were (1) to select experimental loading conditions to reproduce clinically relevant fretting corrosion features observed in retrieved components, (2) to develop a finite element model consistent with the fretting experiments and (3) to apply more complicated loading conditions of activities of daily living to the finite element model to study the taper mechanics...
June 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558514/in-vivo-analysis-of-ankle-joint-movement-for-patient-specific-kinematic-characterization
#3
Carlo Ferraresi, Carlo De Benedictis, Walter Franco, Daniela Maffiodo, Alberto Leardini
In this article, a method for the experimental in-vivo characterization of the ankle kinematics is proposed. The method is meant to improve personalization of various ankle joint treatments, such as surgical decision-making or design and application of an orthosis, possibly to increase their effectiveness. This characterization in fact would make the treatments more compatible with the specific patient's joint physiological conditions. This article describes the experimental procedure and the analytical method adopted, based on the instantaneous and mean helical axis theories...
May 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554262/fatigue-limits-of-titanium-bar-joints-made-with-the-laser-and-the-electric-resistance-welding-techniques-microstructural-characterization-and-hardness-properties
#4
Marco Degidi, Diego Nardi, Alessandro Morri, Gianluca Sighinolfi, Florian Tebbel, Claudio Marchetti
Fatigue behavior of the titanium bars is of utmost importance for the safe and reliable operation of dental implants and prosthetic constructions based on these implants. To date, however, only few data are available on the fatigue strength of dental prostheses made with electric resistance welding and laser welding techniques. This in-vitro study highlighted that although the joints made with the laser welding approach are credited of a superior tensile strength, joints made with electric resistance welding exhibited double the minimum fatigue strength with respect to the joints made with laser welding (120 vs 60 N)...
May 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554245/a-device-for-testing-the-dynamic-performance-of-in-situ-force-plates
#5
Rebecca H East, Jonathan J Noble, Richard A Arscott, Adam P Shortland
Force plates are often incorporated into motion capture systems for the calculation of joint kinetic variables and other data. This project aimed to create a system that could be used to check the dynamic performance of force plate in situ. The proposed solution involved the design and development of an eccentrically loaded wheel mounted on a weighted frame. The frame was designed to hold a wheel mounted in two orthogonal positions. The wheel was placed on the force plate and spun. A VICON™ motion analysis system captured the positional data of the markers placed around the rim of the wheel which was used to create a simulated force profile, and the force profile was dependent on spin speed...
May 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535722/anisotropic-polyethersulfone-foam-for-bicycle-helmet-liners-to-reduce-rotational-acceleration-during-oblique-impact
#6
Kelly Vanden Bosche, Yasmine Mosleh, Bart Depreitere, Jos Vander Sloten, Ignaas Verpoest, Jan Ivens
Although current standard bicycle helmets protect cyclists against linear acceleration, they still lack sufficient protection against rotational acceleration during oblique impact events. Rotational acceleration is correlated with serious traumatic brain injuries such as acute subdural haematoma and thus should be minimized. This study proposes using highly anisotropic polyethersulfone foam for bicycle helmet liners in order to limit the rotational acceleration. Helmet prototypes, made of polyethersulfone foam with cell anisotropy direction perpendicular to the head, have been produced and compared to a standard commercial helmet...
May 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490249/novel-single-marker-approach-to-estimation-of-lower-extremity-movement
#7
Fateme Navvab Motlagh, Ahmad Reza Arshi
Sacrum motion is used extensively in studying the biomechanical characteristics of walking. This study aimed at investigating the potential of sacrum motion to provide an estimation of important gait events in conjunction with predicting the motion of lower extremity segments. Three-dimensional trajectories of 37 reflective markers placed on anatomical landmarks of 14 healthy subjects were recorded while walking at self-selected normal walking speed on treadmill. Elevation angles of lower extremity segments in sagittal plane were estimated using the lower extremity markers...
May 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486874/performance-of-radiofrequency-ablation-used-for-metastatic-spinal-tumor-numerical-approach
#8
Lukas Capek, Petr Henys, Pavel Barsa, Vaclav Dvorak
Surgical treatment of spine metastases follows only local anatomical and biomechanical objectives. Few cases of actual solitary metastases are rather exceptional, while removal of these metastases and the primary tumor may help to eradicate the process. The aim of our subsequent numerical simulations was to find out the temperature distribution and the volume lesion in a spinal tumor. For this purpose, the parametric three-dimensional numerical model was developed. It was shown that by finite element modeling approach not only the temperature distribution but even the resulted cavity may be estimated...
May 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486859/state-of-the-art-review-on-design-and-manufacture-of-hybrid-biomedical-materials-hip-and-knee-prostheses
#9
Marjan Bahraminasab, Farzam Farahmand
The trend in biomaterials development has now headed for tailoring the properties and making hybrid materials to achieve the optimal performance metrics in a product. Modern manufacturing processes along with advanced computational techniques enable systematical fabrication of new biomaterials by design strategy. Functionally graded materials as a recent group of hybrid materials have found numerous applications in biomedical area, particularly for making orthopedic prostheses. This article, therefore, seeks to address the following research questions: (RQ1) What is the desired structure of orthopedic hybrid materials? (RQ2) What is the contribution of the literature in the development of hybrid materials in the field of orthopedic research? (RQ3) Which type of manufacturing approaches is prevalently used to build these materials for knee and hip implants? (RQ4) Is there any inadequacy in the methods applied?...
May 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478734/development-and-validation-of-a-subject-specific-finite-element-model-of-the-functional-spinal-unit-to-predict-vertebral-strength
#10
Chu-Hee Lee, Priyan R Landham, Richard Eastell, Michael A Adams, Patricia Dolan, Lang Yang
Finite element models of an isolated vertebral body cannot accurately predict compressive strength of the spinal column because, in life, compressive load is variably distributed across the vertebral body and neural arch. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a patient-specific finite element model of a functional spinal unit, and then use the model to predict vertebral strength from medical images. A total of 16 cadaveric functional spinal units were scanned and then tested mechanically in bending and compression to generate a vertebral wedge fracture...
May 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466759/knee-ankle-foot-orthosis-with-powered-knee-for-support-in-the-elderly
#11
Peter Paul Pott, Sebastian Immanuel Wolf, Julia Block, Stefan van Drongelen, Markus Grün, Daniel Ww Heitzmann, Jürgen Hielscher, Andreas Horn, Roman Müller, Oliver Rettig, Ulrich Konigorski, Roland Werthschützky, Helmut Friedrich Schlaak, Thorsten Meiß
A prototype of a powered knee orthotic device was developed to determine whether fractional external torque and power support to the knee relieves the biomechanical loads and reduces the muscular demand for a subject performing sit-to-stand movements. With this demonstrator, consisting of the subsystems actuation, kinematics, sensors, and control, all relevant sensor data can be acquired and full control is maintained over actuator parameters. A series-elastic actuator based on a direct current motor provides up to 30 Nm torque to the knee via a hinge joint with an additional sliding degree of freedom...
May 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466757/applicability-of-an-entry-flow-model-of-the-brachial-artery-for-flow-models-of-the-hemodialysis-fistula
#12
Sulav Bastola, William D Paulson, Steven A Jones
The native arteriovenous fistula creates a shunt that provides the high blood flow that is needed for dialysis. Lumped parameter hemodynamic models of the arteriovenous fistula can be used to predict shear stresses and pressure losses and can be applied to help understand unsolved problems such as the high rate of arteriovenous fistula maturation failure. These models combine together flow components, such as arteries, stenosis, anastomoses, arterial compliance, and blood inertia, and each component must be modeled with an appropriate pressure-flow relationship...
May 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452254/the-effect-of-tio2-coating-on-biological-niti-alloys-after-micro-arc-oxidation-treatment-for-corrosion-resistance
#13
Ebru Emine Sukuroglu, Suleyman Sukuroglu, Kubra Akar, Yasar Totik, Ihsan Efeoglu, Ersin Arslan
NiTi alloys exhibit good properties, such as shape memory behavior, high corrosion resistant, having the closest elasticity modulus of a human bone and superior biocompatibility properties. However, the surface problems that arise during the use of this alloy limit the usage in the industry and health sector. In recent years, micro-arc oxidation method is used to improve the surface properties and increase the usage of these alloys. In this study, the TiO2 coatings were deposited on the NiTi substrates. The surface topography, morphology, crystallographic structure, and thickness of the coatings were determined using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction...
April 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431487/design-and-fuzzy-logic-control-of-an-active-wrist-orthosis
#14
Ergin Kilic, Erdi Dogan
People who perform excessive wrist movements throughout the day because of their professions have a higher risk of developing lateral and medial epicondylitis. If proper precautions are not taken against these diseases, serious consequences such as job loss and early retirement can occur. In this study, the design and control of an active wrist orthosis that is mobile, powerful and lightweight is presented as a means to avoid the occurrence and/or for the treatment of repetitive strain injuries in an effective manner...
April 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429637/analysis-of-rotation-angles-and-motions-of-the-flexible-mechanisms-in-bifurcated-blood-vessels
#15
Bin He, Shoulin Xu, An Ding, Yanmin Zhou
This article investigates the relationship of rotation angle of two ends of elastic guidewires, and motion method of guidewires and catheters in bifurcated blood vessels. The relationship of rotation angles of the two ends of the guidewire has first been studied by mathematical reasoning, indicating that the rotation angle of the front end of guidewire can be precisely described by that of the rear end. In order to satisfy the requirements of different vascular interventional surgeries, we further investigated a general model of bifurcated human blood vessels...
April 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410566/biomechanical-effect-of-interspinous-process-distraction-height-after-lumbar-fixation-surgery-an-in-vitro-model
#16
Lin Fu, Jianxiong Ma, Bin Lu, Haobo Jia, Jie Zhao, Mingjie Kuang, Rui Feng, Liyan Xu, Haohao Bai, Lei Sun, Ying Wang, Xinlong Ma
Pedicle screw fixation may induce abnormal activity at adjacent segment and accelerate the degeneration of lumbar vertebrae. Dynamic stabilizers could provide an intermediate solution between conservative treatment and fusion surgery. Lumbar vertebral segment cephalad to instrumented fixation was the most common localization of adjacent segment degeneration. The aim of this study is to explore the use of interspinous process devices in the lumbar vertebral segment cephalad to fixation segment in changing the mechanical distribution and limiting abnormal activity of the spine...
April 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410565/intensity-of-singular-stress-fields-of-wedge-shaped-defect-in-human-tooth-due-to-occlusal-force-before-and-after-restoration-with-composite-resins
#17
Ker-Kong Chen, Nao-Aki Noda, Kiyoshi Tajima, Yoshikazu Sano, Yasushi Takase
Wedge-shaped defects are frequently observed on the cervical region of the human tooth. Previously, most studies explained that improper tooth-brushing causes such defects. However, recent clinical observation suggested that the repeated stress due to occlusal force may induce the formation of these wedge-shaped defects. In this study, therefore, two-dimensional human tooth models are considered with and without a wedge-shaped defect by applying the finite element method. To evaluate large stress concentrations accurately, a method of analysis is discussed in terms of the intensity of singular stress fields appearing at the tip of the sharp wedge-shaped defect...
April 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403750/improvement-of-the-classification-quality-in-detection-of-hashimoto-s-disease-with-a-combined-classifier-approach
#18
Zbigniew Omiotek
The purpose of the study was to construct an efficient classifier that, along with a given reduced set of discriminant features, could be used as a part of the computer system in automatic identification and classification of ultrasound images of the thyroid gland, which is aimed to detect cases affected by Hashimoto's thyroiditis. A total of 10 supervised learning techniques and a majority vote for the combined classifier were used. Two models were proposed as a result of the classifier's construction. The first one is based on the K-nearest neighbours method (for K = 7)...
April 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395636/ttk-chitra-tilting-disc-heart-valve-model-tc2-an-assessment-of-fatigue-life-and-durability
#19
N N Subhash, Adathala Rajeev, Sreedharan Sujesh, C V Muraleedharan
Average age group of heart valve replacement in India and most of the Third World countries is below 30 years. Hence, the valve for such patients need to be designed to have a service life of 50 years or more which corresponds to 2000 million cycles of operation. The purpose of this study was to assess the structural performance of the TTK Chitra tilting disc heart valve model TC2 and thereby address its durability. The TC2 model tilting disc heart valves were assessed to evaluate the risks connected with potential structural failure modes...
April 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393608/comparative-study-of-material-loss-at-the-taper-interface-in-retrieved-metal-on-polyethylene-and-metal-on-metal-femoral-components-from-a-single-manufacturer
#20
Paul Bills, Radu Racasan, Saugatta Bhattacharya, Liam Blunt, Graham Isaac
There have been a number of reports on the occurrence of taper corrosion and/or fretting and some have speculated on a link to the occurrence of adverse local tissue reaction specifically in relation to total hip replacement which have a metal-on-metal bearing. As such a study was carried out to compare the magnitude of material loss at the taper in a series of retrieved femoral heads used in metal-on-polyethylene bearings with that in a series of retrieved heads used in metal-on-metal bearings. A total of 36 metal-on-polyethylene and 21 metal-on-metal femoral components were included in the study all of which were received from a customer complaint database...
April 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
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