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Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30223718/prediction-of-in-vivo-lower-cervical-spinal-loading-using-musculoskeletal-multi-body-dynamics-model-during-the-head-flexion-extension-lateral-bending-and-axial-rotation
#1
Hao Diao, Hua Xin, Zhongmin Jin
Cervical spine diseases lead to a heavy economic burden to the individuals and societies. Moreover, frequent post-operative complications mean a higher risk of neck pain and revision. At present, controversy still exists for the etiology of spinal diseases and their associated complications. Knowledge of in vivo cervical spinal loading pattern is proposed to be the key to answer these questions. However, direct acquisition of in vivo cervical spinal loading remains challenging. In this study, a previously developed cervical spine musculoskeletal multi-body dynamics model was utilized for spinal loading prediction...
September 17, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30191771/evaluation-of-setting-time-and-compressive-strength-of-a-new-bone-cement-precursor-powder-containing-mg-na-ca
#2
Mohammad Hossein Esnaashary, Hamid Reza Rezaie, Alireza Khavandi, Jafar Javadpour
Taking the advantage of a novel magnesium phosphate precursor containing Na and Ca, the cementation rate of the cement, including only Mg/Mg-Na-Ca, was studied. Besides, two effective parameters, that is, calcination temperature, 650 °C and 800 °C, and powder-to-cement liquid ratio, 1 and 1.5 g/mL, were assessed. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, ion chromatography, particle size analyser, Vicat needle and compression test were used to characterize the powders and obtained cements. The sample containing Mg-Na-Ca, calcined at 800 °C with powder-to-cement liquid ratio of 1...
September 7, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30191754/in-vitro-study-of-antimicrobial-and-cell-viability-on-newly-synthesized-bioglass-based-bone-grafts-effects-of-selenium-and-silver-additions
#3
B Aksakal, M Demirel
Selenium (Se)- and Silver (Ag)-doped Bioglass® -based biografts were synthesized using the sol-gel method. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analyses were carried out in order to examine mechanostructure of synthesized bioglass-based bioceramics. The effects of Se and Ag additions on cell viability were investigated via cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity analysis, respectively. The bacteria of Escherichia coli ( E...
September 7, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30191747/patient-specific-mobility-assessment-to-monitor-recovery-after-total-hip-arthroplasty
#4
Paolo Gargiulo, Kyle Joseph Edmunds, Magnús K Gíslason, Chase Latour, Þröstur Hermannsson, Luca Esposito, Paolo Bifulco, Mario Cesarelli, Massimiliano Fraldi, Luca Cristofolini, Halldór Jónsson
Total hip arthroplasty is a ubiquitously successful orthopedic surgical procedure, whose prevalence is rising worldwide. While many investigations focus on characterizing periprosthetic pathophysiology, the objective of our research is to develop and describe multi-metric assemblies as a first step toward creating a patient-specific mobility index that rehabilitators and orthopedic surgeons can utilize for prescribing their respective procedures. In total, 48 total hip arthroplasty patients (both cemented and uncemented) undergoing unilateral, primary surgery went through computed tomographic scans and gait analysis measurements both before and 1 year following their surgery...
September 7, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30183510/biomechanical-behavior-of-modular-acetabular-cups-made-of-poly-ether-ether-ketone-a-finite-element-study
#5
Danny Vogel, Christian Schulze, Henry Dempwolf, Daniel Kluess, Rainer Bader
After total hip arthroplasty, stress-shielding is a potential risk factor for aseptic loosening of acetabular cups made of metals. This might be avoided by the use of acetabular cups made of implant materials with lower stiffness. The purpose of this numerical study was to determine whether a modular acetabular cup with a shell made of poly-ether-ether-ketone or poly-ether-ether-ketone reinforced with carbon fibers might be an alternative to conventional metallic shells. Therefore, the press-fit implantation of modular cups with shells made of different materials (Ti6Al4V, poly-ether-ether-ketone, and poly-ether-ether-ketone reinforced with carbon fibers) and varying liner materials (ceramics and ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene) into an artificial bone cavity was simulated using finite element analysis...
September 5, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30175939/analysis-of-grip-and-pinch-strength-using-inverse-dynamics-simulation-technique
#6
Krishnakumar Sankar, Shantanu Patil, Sridhar Krishnamurthy
Grip strength is the function of musculotendinous action across the finger joints and varies while dealing objects of varying size and shape. Increasing object size requires greater effort by the fingers to grip. The main objective of this study is to analyse the variation in grip and pinch strength exerted on objects of various sizes and shapes in a short span of time. OpenSim 3.3 is open-source musculoskeletal modelling software used for performing simulations in a dynamic environment. The generic wrist model in OpenSim has movements on index finger and thumb only, for study purpose...
September 3, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30156126/an-investigation-of-laboratory-test-methods-for-predicting-the-in-use-leakage-performance-of-urine-absorbing-aids-in-nursing-homes
#7
Alan Cottenden, Margaret Macaulay
The absorption before leakage method for measuring the absorption capacity of urine-absorbing aids was investigated. Along with the existing international standard (ISO 11948-1:1996, the Rothwell method), it was run on 12 experimental products whose in-use leakage performance was established by 55 incontinent nursing home residents. Methods were evaluated by considering their simplicity, their repeatability within - and their reproducibility between - six laboratories, and their correlation with in-use product performance...
August 29, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30139324/methyl-methacrylate-in-external-fixation-of-supracondylar-humerus-fractures-an-experimental-study
#8
Ali Güleç, Mehmet Ali Acar, Bahattin Kerem Aydin, Teyfik Demir, Mustafa Özkaya
Supracondylar humerus fractures are common fractures around the elbow. Open fractures, comminuted metaphyseal fractures and also fractures with bone loss may need to be treated with external fixators. The aim of this study is to compare two different external fixators, tubular external fixators and polymethyl methacrylate with K wires external fixators, with regard to stiffness and stability for metaphyseal-diaphyseal osteotomies of distal humerus close to the joint. Six matched pairs (24 specimens) of second-generation sawbone humerus were prepared in a standard fashion to create a metaphyseal fracture, 5 cm proximal to the distal joint line of humerus and were randomly divided into two groups of 12 specimens each...
August 24, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30136626/the-influence-of-contact-stress-on-the-wear-of-cross-linked-polyethylene
#9
Göksu Kandemir, Simon Smith, Thomas J Joyce
Generation of wear debris and wear particle-induced osteolysis are the main limitations of metal-on-polyethylene artificial joints. Cross-linked polyethylene has been recently used, particularly in hip replacements, as an alternative material to conventional ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene due to its superior wear resistance. This study focused on the wear behaviour of cross-linked polyethylene under different contact stresses in order to make interpretations of its long-term in-vivo performance. A 50-station SuperCTPOD (pin-on-disc) machine was used to investigate the influence of contact stress on the wear of cross-linked polyethylene pins which were articulated against cobalt chromium discs...
August 23, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30134771/photoelastic-analysis-of-stress-distributions-in-the-root-bone-interface-when-applying-various-orthodontic-methods-to-subside-lower-anterior-crowding
#10
Pao-Chang Chiang, Shu-Li Lin, Ming-Jung Liu, Kan-Hsin Fan, Wei-Jen Chang, Sheng-Yang Lee, Haw-Ming Huang
Dental crowding is a prevalent problem in modern society. Various factors, including different bracket systems and geometry of wire, influence the outcome using superelastic wire in the alignment stage of treatment. Currently, the use of light round wire instead of large-sized rectangular wire is emphasized to avoid powerful torsional stiffness. However, these guidelines lack scientific evidence for support. They have been written predominantly based on clinical experience. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate how factors such as bracket systems and wire geometry affect the stress distribution at the root-bone interface...
August 23, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30132717/development-of-an-end-effector-device-for-loose-body-removal-in-hip-arthroscopy
#11
Chulmin Park, Shinsuk Park, Hanpyo Hong, In-Ho Jeon, Keri Kim
This article describes a novel hand-operated end-effector device developed for loose body removal in hip arthroscopy. This sterilizable and reusable device incorporates a wire-ball joint mechanism that provides motion with 5 degrees of freedom. The design accounted for the following: (1) the diameter of the femoral head, (2) range of motion of the wrist joint of the operator, (3) ease of assembly of modular parts, and (4) material stiffness and durability. The developed device is composed of three parts: a pistol-shaped hand-held unit, forceps module, and end-effector module, all of which were constructed using polyamide-imide...
August 22, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30131022/review-of-urinary-continence-care-products-using-sensor-technology-to-improve-effectiveness
#12
Gyeonghui Jeong, Sangsoo Park
There have been many treatment and management modalities for urinary incontinence including absorbent products and urine collecting devices, but these modalities are manual in nature, requiring significant time and effort from caregivers. Recently, the application of sensor technology for urine detection in absorbent products and urine collection devices has helped to create new modalities for urinary incontinence and to automate some of the incontinence care processes. In this article, we review the new products and devices for incontinence care which make use of urine detection sensors...
August 22, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30112958/parametric-effect-of-vibrational-drilling-on-osteonecrosis-and-comparative-histopathology-study-with-conventional-drilling-of-cortical-bone
#13
Gurmeet Singh, Vivek Jain, Dheeraj Gupta, Abhimanyu Sharma
Drilling to the bones is required to re-fix them at their appropriate location using the implants. During drilling some thermal and mechanical losses may be faced by the bone and surrounding tissues which may lead to the serious issue in terms of osteonecrosis. Osteonecrosis is one of the reasons for impaired healing process for the fractured bone and causes further complications like low pullout strength of cortical screws and bone crush. In order to maintain the low temperature during bone drilling, this study focused the thermal damages observed by the bone and its surrounding during bone drilling and compared the results of conventional and vibrational drilling techniques...
August 16, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30052115/investigation-of-cutting-quality-and-surface-roughness-in-abrasive-water-jet-machining-of-bone
#14
Ehsan Shakouri, Mohammad Abbasi
The abrasive water jet machining is known as a cold cutting process and can be effective for developing cut in the bone in orthopedic surgery to prevent thermal necrosis. This research examined surface roughness and cutting quality of bovine femur bone using abrasive water jet machining. Furthermore, the effect of three parameters was studied including water pressure, traverse speed, and the type of abrasive particles. The feed rate of the abrasive particles was considered 100 g/min, and the levels obtained from pure water jet cutting, bone powder abrasive water jet machining, and sugar abrasive water jet machining were compared with each other...
July 27, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30044175/an-engineering-approach-towards-a-more-discrete-and-efficient-urinary-drainage-system
#15
Alberto Marzo, Alessandro Melis, Jaan Unger, Robert Sablotni, Mauro Pistis, Avril D McCarthy
Modern urinary catheter-to-leg-bag systems suffer from a number of shortcomings. Drainage tubing of current urinary leg bags is perceived as unnecessarily bulky compared to the indwelling catheters to which it is connected, and catheter designs are prone to the formation of biofilms, leading ultimately to encrustation and blocking. We used analytical and experimental engineering methodologies, aligned with current international (International Standards Organisation) and European standards, to optimise drainage tube size and flow efficiency and characterise tube kinking behaviour...
July 25, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30238862/multi-objective-integrated-planning-and-scheduling-model-for-operating-rooms-under-uncertainty
#16
Javad Ansarifar, Reza Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, Faezeh Akhavizadegan, Saman Hassanzadeh Amin
This article formulates the operating rooms considering several constraints of the real world, such as decision-making styles, multiple stages for surgeries, time windows for resources, and specialty and complexity of surgery. Based on planning, surgeries are assigned to the working days. Then, the scheduling part determines the sequence of surgeries per day. Moreover, an integrated fuzzy possibilistic-stochastic mathematical programming approach is applied to consider some sources of uncertainty, simultaneously...
September 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30238861/effect-of-the-support-systems-compliance-on-total-hip-modular-taper-seating-stability
#17
Laura Scholl, David Pierre, Raga Rajaravivarma, Reginald Lee, Ahmad Faizan, Viswanathan Swaminathan, Kevor TenHuisen, Jeremy L Gilbert, Jim Nevelos
Assembly of a femoral head onto the stem remains non-standardized. The literature shows altering mechanical conditions during seating affects taper strength and lower assembly load may increase fretting corrosion during cyclic tests. This suggests overall performance may be affected by head assembly method. The purpose of this test was to perform bench-top studies to determine influence of peak force magnitude, load rate, and compliance of the system's support structure on initial stability of the taper. Custom manufactured CoCrMo femoral heads and Ti-6Al-4V taper analog samples were assembled with varying peak force magnitudes (2-10...
September 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30175943/characterization-of-chronic-liver-disease-based-on-ultrasound-images-using-the-variants-of-grey-level-difference-matrix
#18
Puja Bharti, Deepti Mittal, Rupa Ananthasivan
Chronic liver diseases are fifth leading cause of fatality in developing countries. Early diagnosis is important for timely treatment and to salvage life. Ultrasound imaging is frequently used to examine abnormalities of liver. However, ambiguity lies in visual interpretation of liver stages on ultrasound images. This difficult visualization problem can be solved by analysing extracted textural features from images. Grey-level difference matrix, a texture feature extraction method, can provide information about roughness of liver surface, sharpness of liver borders and echotexture of liver parenchyma...
September 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30160611/analytical-and-experimental-study-of-effective-parameters-on-process-temperature-during-cortical-bone-drilling
#19
Hamed Heydari, Navid Cheraghi Kazerooni, Mojtaba Zolfaghari, Majid Ghoreishi, Vahid Tahmasbi
Bone drilling process is a prominent step of internal fixation in orthopedic surgeries. Process forces, leading to chip production, produce heat in the vicinity of the drilled bore and increase the probability of necrosis phenomenon. In this article, an analytical model to predict process temperature is presented based on Sui and Sugita model. This heat transfer model is the combination of a heat equilibrium equation for tool-chip system and a heat distribution equation for the bone itself where heat generation in tool's tip is due to cutting frictional forces...
September 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30122103/on-the-assessment-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-rupture-risk-in-the-asian-population-based-on-geometric-attributes
#20
Tejas Canchi, Eddie Yk Ng, Sriram Narayanan, Ender A Finol
This study aims to review retrospectively the records of Asian patients diagnosed with abdominal aortic aneurysm to investigate the potential correlations between clinical and morphological parameters within the context of whether the aneurysms were ruptured or unruptured. A machine-learning-based approach is proposed to predict the rupture status of Asian abdominal aortic aneurysm by comparing four different classifiers trained with clinical and geometrical parameters obtained from computed tomography images...
September 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
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