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Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778321/submandibular-gland-sparing-when-irradiating-neck-level-ib-in-the-treatment-of-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#1
William C Jackson, Peter G Hawkins, George S Arnould, John Yao, Charles Mayo, Michelle Mierzwa
Patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSqCCA) frequently require postoperative radiation (PORT), which may include contralateral level IB within the clinical target volume (CTV). The submandibular gland (SMG) is typically included within the level IB CTV; however, the SMG does not contain lymph nodes or lymphatic vessels. We hypothesized that level IB could be adequately irradiated while sparing the SMG to reduce xerostomia. Twelve patients with OSqCCA receiving PORT, which included the contralateral level IB within the planning target volume (PTV), were retrospectively reviewed and replanned using volumetric modulated arc therapy...
May 16, 2018: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778320/simultaneously-avoiding-the-hippocampus-and-hypothalamic-pituitary-axis-during-whole-brain-radiotherapy-a-planning-study
#2
Xing-Wen Fan, Juan-Qi Wang, Jun-Lan Wu, Hong-Bing Wang, Kai-Liang Wu
Whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) is the preferred treatment for multiple brain metastases, and patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer undergo prophylactic cranial irradiation after complete remission. However, neurotoxicity remains a complication. In addition to protecting the hippocampus from irradiation to preserve cognitive function, it is also critical to avoid irradiating the hypothalamic-pituitary axis to preserve endocrine and immune function. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of delivering WBRT while protecting the hippocampus and hypothalamic-pituitary axis...
May 16, 2018: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776851/treatment-planning-dose-accuracy-improvement-in-the-presence-of-dental-implants
#3
Holly M Parenica, John R Ford, Panayiotis Mavroidis, Ying Li, Nikos Papanikolaou, Sotirios Stathakis
Streaking artifacts in computed tomography (CT) scans caused by metallic dental implants (MDIs) can lead to inaccuracies in dose calculations. This study quantifies and compares the effect of MDIs on dose distributions using the collapsed cone convolution superposition (CCCS) and Monte Carlo (MC) algorithms, with and without correcting for the density of the MDIs. Ion chamber measurements were taken to test the ability of the algorithms in Pinnacle3 and Monaco to calculate dose near high-Z materials. Nine previously treated patients with head and neck cancer were included in this study...
May 15, 2018: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759487/clinical-examination-of-proton-pencil-beam-scanning-on-a-moving-anthropomorphic-lung-phantom
#4
Peng Wang, Shikui Tang, Paige A Taylor, David E Cummings, Martin Janson, Erik Traneus, Jared D Sturgeon, Andrew K Lee, Chang Chang
The objective of this study was to examine the use of proton pencil beam scanning for the treatment of moving lung tumors. A single-field uniform dose proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) plan was generated for the standard thorax phantom designed by the Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core (IROC) Houston QA Center. Robust optimization, including range and setup uncertainties as well as volumetric repainting, was used for the plan. Patient-specific quality assurance (QA) measurements were performed using both a water tank and a custom heterogeneous QA phantom...
May 11, 2018: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752157/evaluation-of-a-novel-software-application-for-magnetic-resonance-distortion-correction-in-cranial-stereotactic-radiosurgery
#5
Juan-Francisco Calvo-Ortega, José Mateos, Ángel Alberich, Sandra Moragues, Juan-José Acebes, Sol San José, Joan Casals
This study aimed to validate a novel commercially available software for correcting spatial distortion in cranial magnetic resonance (MR) images. This software has been used to assess the dosimetric impact of MR distortion in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treatments of vestibular schwannomas (VSs). Five MR datasets were intentionally distorted. Each distorted MR dataset was corrected using the Cranial Distortion software, obtaining a new corrected MR dataset (MRcorr). The accuracy of the correction was quantified by calculating the target registration error (TRE) for 6 anatomical landmarks identified in the co-registered MRcorr and planning computed tomography (pCT) images...
May 8, 2018: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699800/dosimetric-effects-of-bolus-and-lens-shielding-in-treating-ocular-lymphomas-with-low-energy-electrons
#6
Lori Young, Landon S Wootton, Alan M Kalet, Olga Gopan, Fei Yang, Samuel Day, Michael Banitt, Jay J Liao
Radiation therapy is an effective treatment for primary orbital lymphomas. Lens shielding with electrons can reduce the risk of high-grade cataracts in patients undergoing treatment for superficial tumors. This work evaluates the dosimetric effects of a suspended eye shield, placement of bolus, and varying electron energies. Film (GafChromic EBT3) dosimetry and relative output factors were measured for 6, 8, and 10 MeV electron energies. A customized 5-cm diameter circle electron orbital cutout was constructed for a 6 × 6-cm applicator with a suspended lens shield (8-mm diameter Cerrobend cylinder, 2...
April 23, 2018: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681424/contralateral-tissue-sparing-in-lymph-node-positive-breast-cancer-radiotherapy-with-vmat-technique
#7
Maija Rossi, Eeva Boman, Mika Kapanen
The objective of this study was to modify volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) design for breast irradiation with axillary lymph node involvement to enhance normal tissue sparing while maintaining good planning target volume (PTV) coverage. Four VMAT plans were generated retrospectively for 10 patients with breast cancer for comparison. First, 2 partial arcs with an avoidance sector (Pavoid) for the lung and the heart were created. Second, a split-arc design with 2 partial arcs was used, changing the collimator angle by splitting the arcs in the middle, resulting in 4 partial arcs (Psplit)...
April 19, 2018: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678482/verification-of-eye-lens-dose-in-imrt-by-mosfet-measurement
#8
Xuetao Wang, Guangjun Li, Jianling Zhao, Ying Song, Jianghong Xiao, Sen Bai
The eye lens is recognized as one of the most radiosensitive structures in the human body. The widespread use of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) complicates dose verification and necessitates high standards of dose computation. The purpose of this work was to assess the computed dose accuracy of eye lens through measurements using a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimetry system. Sixteen clinical IMRT plans of head and neck patients were copied to an anthropomorphic head phantom...
April 17, 2018: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656889/3-d-treatment-planning-system-leksell-gamma-knife-treatment-planning-system
#9
REVIEW
Fanqing Guo
Leksell Gamma Plan (LGP), the treatment planning system for the Leksell Gamma Knife (LGK) stereotactic radiosurgery, has evolved from the primitive KULA system to the present-day powerful version of image-guided stereotactic radiosurgery. Through many years of development, LGP has improved on its dose calculation accuracy, speed, and user interface. This allows more accurate irradiation of the target while sparing the nearby normal tissues and critical structures better.
April 12, 2018: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655582/comparison-of-3-image-guided-adaptive-strategies-for-bladder-locoregional-radiotherapy
#10
Vickie C Kong, Amy Taylor, Peter Chung, Tim Craig, Tara Rosewall
The objective of this study was to compare the dosimetric differences of a population-based planning target volume (PTV) approach and 3 proposed adaptive strategies: plan of the day (POD), patient-specific PTV (PS-PTV), and daily reoptimization (ReOpt). Bladder patients (n = 10) were planned and treated to 46 Gy in 23 fractions with a full bladder in supine position by the standard strategy using a population-based PTV. For each patient, the adaptive strategy was executed retrospectively as follows: (1) POD-multiple distributions of various PTV sizes were generated, and the appropriate distribution based on the bladder of the day was selected for each fraction; (2) PS-PTV-population-based PTV was used for the first 5 fractions and a new PTV derived using information from these fractions was used to deliver the remaining 18 fractions; and (3) ReOpt-distribution was reoptimized for each fraction based on the bladder of the day...
April 11, 2018: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650302/raystation-external-beam-treatment-planning-system
#11
Dayna Bodensteiner
RaySearch Laboratories is a world leader in the field of advanced software and creator of the RayStation treatment planning system for radiation therapy. The aim with RayStation is to deliver an unmatched user experience and leading functionality. Unique features described here include multiatlas based autosegmentation for contouring, deformable registration with 2 different algorithms, multicriteria optimization, Plan Explorer, fallback planning, ultrafast computation speed, and 4-dimensional (4D) adaptive radiation therapy...
April 9, 2018: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609845/evolution-of-brachytherapy-treatment-planning-to-deterministic-radiation-transport-for-calculation-of-cardiac-dose
#12
REVIEW
Peter A Sandwall, Yuntao Feng, Michael Platt, Michael Lamba, Sudha Mahalingam
Brachytherapy was among the first methods of radiotherapy and has steadily continued to evolve. Here we present a brief review of the progression of dose calculation methods in brachytherapy to the current state-of-the art computerized methods for heterogeneity correction. We further review the origin and development of the BrachyVision (Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, CA) treatment planning system and evaluate dosimetric results from 12 patients implanted with the strut-assisted volumetric implant (SAVI) applicator (Cianna Medical, Aliso Viejo, CA) for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI)...
March 30, 2018: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605528/cyberknife-stereotactic-radiosurgery-and-radiation-therapy-treatment-planning-system
#13
REVIEW
Chuxiong Ding, Cheng B Saw, Robert D Timmerman
CyberKnife is an image-guided stereotactical dose delivery system designed for both focal irradiation and radiation therapy (SRT). Focal irradiation refers the use of many small beams to deliver highly focus dose to a small target region in a few fractions. The system consists of a 6-MV linac mounted to a robotic arm, coupled with a digital x-ray imaging system. The radiation dose is delivered using many beams oriented at a number of defined or nodal positions around the patients. The CyberKnife can be used for both intracranial and extracranial treaments unlike the Gamma Knife which is limited to intracranial cases...
March 28, 2018: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602598/development-of-a-novel-methodology-for-qa-of-respiratory-gated-and-vmat-beam-delivery-using-octavius-4d-phantom
#14
Bin Yang, Hui Geng, Ying Ding, Chi Wah Kong, Chi Wai Cheung, Tin Lok Chiu, Wai Wang Lam, Kin Yin Cheung, Siu Ki Yu
The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a series of quality assurance (QA) techniques based on Octavius 4D phantom for testing of respiratory-gated treatment delivery, integrity of dose rate vs gantry speed in volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) commissioning, and multileaf collimator (MLC) positioning accuracy of a linear accelerator. An Octavius 4D phantom capable of rotating with the gantry and recording the detector signal with a sampling rate of 10 Hz was isocentrally set up and an inclinometer was also installed to measure the gantry angle simultaneously...
March 27, 2018: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29598924/oncentra-brachytherapy-planning-system
#15
REVIEW
Jack Yang
In modern cancer management, treatment planning has progressed as a contemporary tool with all the advances in computing power in recent years. One of the advanced planning tools uses 3-dimensional (3D) data sets for accurate dose distributions in patient prescription. Among these planning processes, brachytherapy has been a very important part of a successful cancer management program, offering clinical benefits with specific or combined treatments with external beam therapy. In this chapter, we mainly discussed the Elekta Oncentra planning system, which is the main treatment planning tool for high-dose rate (HDR) modality in our facility and in many other facilities in the United States...
March 27, 2018: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29598926/effects-of-heterogeneities-in-dose-distributions-under-nonreference-conditions-monte-carlo-simulation-vs-dose-calculation-algorithms
#16
Cristiano Queiroz Melo Reis, Patricia Nicolucci, Saulo S Fortes, Leonardo P Silva
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of dose calculation algorithms used in radiotherapy treatment planning systems (TPSs) in comparison with Monte Carlo (MC) simulations in nonelectronic equilibrium conditions. MC simulations with PENELOPE package were performed for comparison of doses calculated by pencil beam convolution (PBC), analytical anisotropy algorithm (AAA), and Acuros XB TPS algorithms. Relative depth dose curves were calculated in heterogeneous water phantoms with layers of bone (1...
March 26, 2018: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29598925/thermoplastic-wrapped-lead-sheet-to-reduce-cardiac-device-cumulative-dose
#17
Alexandra Bourgouin, Nicolas Varfalvy, Louis Archambault
The objective of this project is to evaluate the percentage dose reduction in cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) using a thermoplastic wrapped lead sheet. The dose to CIED is evaluated in various situations with and without a lead shield. The efficiency of this type of shielding is supported by measurements made with a commercial plastic scintillation detector (PSD). Percentage depth dose (PDD) curve and lateral dose measurements (LDMs) were made with and without shielding for photon and electron beams...
March 26, 2018: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580934/3d-treatment-planning-on-helical-tomotherapy-delivery-system
#18
REVIEW
Cheng B Saw, Leah Katz, Carol Gillette, Lawrence Koutcher
The helical tomotherapy is a technologically advanced radiation dose delivery system designed to perform intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). It is mechanistically unique, based on a small 6-MV linear accelerator mounted on a ring gantry that rotates around the patient while the patient moves through a bore, ultimately yielding a helical path of radiation dose delivery. The helical pattern of dose delivery differentiated tomotherapy from other contemporary radiation therapy systems at the time of its inception...
March 23, 2018: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580933/3d-treatment-planning-system-pinnacle-system
#19
REVIEW
Ping Xia, Eric Murray
The treatment planning system is key for the success of external beam radiotherapy, directly impacting the quality of treatment plans and accuracy of dose calculation in the plans. In this article, we provided an overview of the Pinnacle treatment planning system for external beam planning, including 3-dimensional (3D) conformal plans, step-shoot intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans, and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans. We discussed dose calculation algorithm and other utilities, including image fusion, plan documentation, and adaptive planning...
March 23, 2018: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580932/postradiation-hypothyroidism-in-head-and-neck-cancers-a-department-of-veterans-affairs-single-institution-case-control-dosimetry-study
#20
Alexander J Lin, Juying Zhang, Jennie Cho-Lim, Warren Inouye, Steve P Lee
We performed a case-control study to characterize the dose-volume relationship and other variables leading to hypothyroidism after head and neck (H&N) cancer radiation therapy (RT) in a homogenous Veterans Affairs (VA) population. All records of patients receiving RT for various H&N cancers at a single VA medical center between 2007 and 2013 (n = 143) were screened for post-RT thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels (n = 77). The thyroid gland was contoured on each slice of the planning computed tomography scan when available (hypothyroid: n = 18; euthyroid > 2 years: n = 16), and dose-volume histograms based on physical dose and biologically equivalent dose (BED) were compared systematically to find the significant dose-volume thresholds that distinguish the patients who developed clinical hypothyroidism...
March 23, 2018: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
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