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Respiratory Medicine

Jesper Kiehn Sørensen, Frederik Buchvald, Anna Korsgaard Berg, Paul D Robinson, Kim Gjerum Nielsen
AIM: Ex-premature school children show mild-to-moderate airway obstruction and decreased CO diffusing capacity. Multiple breath nitrogen washout (N2MBW) and NO diffusing capacity (DLNO) measurements may provide new insight into long-term pulmonary and vascular impairment in bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). METHODS: We examined a randomly selected group of 70 ex-premature children (gestational age <28 weeks or birth weight <1500 g; 42 with and 28 without BPD) and 38 term-born healthy controls of 8-13 years of age...
July 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Wassim W Labaki, Meng Xia, Susan Murray, Jeffrey L Curtis, R Graham Barr, Surya P Bhatt, Eugene R Bleecker, Nadia N Hansel, Christopher B Cooper, Mark T Dransfield, J Michael Wells, Eric A Hoffman, Richard E Kanner, Robert Paine, Victor E Ortega, Stephen P Peters, Jerry A Krishnan, Russell P Bowler, David J Couper, Prescott G Woodruff, Fernando J Martinez, Carlos H Martinez, MeiLan K Han
BACKGROUND: High N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) during COPD exacerbations is associated with worse clinical outcomes. The prognostic value of NT-proBNP measured during clinical stability has not been well characterized. METHODS: We studied SPIROMICS participants 40-80 years of age with COPD GOLD spirometric stages 1-4. The association between baseline NT-proBNP and incident COPD exacerbations within one year of follow-up was tested using zero-inflated Poisson regression models adjusted for age, gender, race, body mass index, current smoking status, smoking history, FEV1 percent predicted, COPD Assessment Test score, exacerbation history, total lung capacity on chest CT and cardiovascular disease (any of coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction or congestive heart failure)...
July 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Amy Chen, Behdin Nowrouzi-Kia, Koyo Usuba
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common medical condition that impacts the lives of many Canadians; yet the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in persons with asthma relative to the general population (GP) is poorly studied. In this study, data from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) 2013 was used to quantify and compare the HRQoL of the asthmatic population (AP) and the GP. METHODS: A representative survey sample of Canadians was taken from the CCHS to compare the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3) scores, a generic HRQoL measure, between the AP (n = 572) and the GP (n = 6518)...
July 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Zhaojun Zhu, Benedikt Hofauer, Markus Wirth, Katrin Hasselbacher, Helmut Frohnhofen, Clemens Heiser, Armin Steffen
OBJECTIVE: Selective stimulation of the hypoglossal nerve has proven to be an effective therapy for patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The aim of the study is to investigate the efficacy of selective upper airway stimulation (sUAS) in older adults. METHODS: All consecutive patients older than 64 years and who received an implant for sUAS were enrolled. As a control group, an equal number of patients younger than 65 years with matched apnea hypopnea index (AHI) and body-mass-index (BMI) were selected...
July 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Joseph Cooley, Rick Balestra, Alejandro A Aragaki-Nakahodo, Danielle N Caudell Stamper, Thitiwat Sriprasart, Zulma Swank, Robert P Baughman, Sadia Benzaquen
INTRODUCTION: Transbronchial lung cryobiopsy (TBLC) has become a popular option for tissue diagnosis of interstitial lung disease (ILD), however reports vary regarding the safety of this procedure. Herein, we evaluate the safety of transbronchial cryobiopsy in hospitalized patients, comparing adverse events to outpatient procedures. METHODS AND MEASUREMENTS: This is a single center, retrospective chart review of all TBLC performed for suspected ILD between November 2013 and March 2017...
July 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Emily S Wan, Ana Kantorowski, Diana Homsy, Reema Kadri, Caroline R Richardson, DeAnna Mori, Marilyn L Moy
BACKGROUND: Low physical activity (PA) is associated with adverse health outcomes independent of airflow limitation in COPD. Self-reported assessments are often limited to global estimates of PA and may not be directly translatable to patients' goals and motivations. We developed a task-oriented PA checklist and examined its performance relative to pedometer-assessed daily step count in two COPD cohorts. METHODS: Task-oriented daily physical activity (DPA) was assessed in two COPD cohorts using either interviewer-administered recall questionnaire (DPA-R, Cohort 1, n = 109) or a self-administered diary-format daily checklist (DPA-C, Cohort 2, n = 175)...
July 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Wei-Sheng Chung, Cheng-Li Lin
BACKGROUND: The clinical phenotypes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are related to various outcomes. We investigated the risk of acute respiratory events in patients with bronchiectasis-COPD overlap syndrome (BCOS) in Taiwan. METHODS: We included 3955 patients who received diagnoses of COPD and bronchiectasis from 2000 to 2007 from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database in the BCOS cohort. In the comparison cohort, we included patients with COPD but without bronchiectasis at a ratio of 4:1, frequency matched by age, sex, and index year with each patient with BCOS...
July 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Daniel Pilsgaard Henriksen, Jesper Rømhild Davidsen, Christian B Laursen
BACKGROUND: Theophylline, a dimethylxanthine, has been used the last 100 years to treat airway disease. Although it is one of the most widely prescribed medicines to treat asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) throughout the years, the utilisation patterns are not well-described. METHODS: Using the Danish Register of Medicinal Products Statistics, we identified adults above 18 years redeeming one or more prescriptions of theophylline between 1997 up to 2017, with a 2-year run-in period from 1995 to 1997...
July 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Nadia Nicholine Poulsen, Asger Bjerregaard, Siew-Kim Khoo, Ingrid A Laing, Peter Le Souëf, Vibeke Backer, Laura Rapley, Suzanne E Cohen, Lucy Barrett, Philip Thompson, Svetlana Baltic, Celeste Porsbjerg
BACKGROUND: Several animal studies, and one inoculation study in adult asthmatics have shown that interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a major contributor to type-2 inflammation in acute asthma. However, the link between IL-33 and type-2 inflammation has not been shown in naturally occurring asthma exacerbations. OBJECTIVES: To determine if airway IL-33 is associated with type-2 inflammation measured by type-2 cytokines, FeNO and sputum eosinophils in patients presenting to the Emergency Department with an asthma exacerbations...
July 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Hong Ping Zhang, Lei Wang, Zhen Wang, Xian Rong Xu, Xian Mei Zhou, Gang Liu, Lv Yuan He, Jun Wang, Alan Hsu, Wei Min Li, Gang Wang
BACKGROUND: Despite advances in asthma management, exacerbations constitute a significant health economic burden. OBJECTIVE: To observe the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine formula entitled PingchuanYiqi (PCYQ) granule, on acute asthma and to explore its possible mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This proof-of-concept study consisted of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in patients with acute asthma (n = 300)...
July 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Andrew Wilcock, Sim Koon, Cathann Manderson, Vicky Taylor, Matthew Maddocks
BACKGROUND: Breathlessness is common in patients with thoracic cancer but difficult to manage. The Incremental Shuttle Walking Test (ISWT) can help assess new treatments, but its repeatability has not been described in this group. AIM: To examine within and between day repeatability of the ISWT in this setting. METHODS: Patients with incurable thoracic cancer were recruited from outpatient clinics at a University Hospital. Two ISWTs were completed one hour apart on two consecutive days, with the first test for familiarization purposes only...
July 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Sun-Young Shim, Won-Jeong Chae, Hyeon-Chang Kim, Eun-Cheol Park, Sung-In Jang
BACKGROUND: This study examined the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and pulmonary function, among Korean adults, from 2010 to 2014. METHODS: The data were obtained from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES 5), and the first and second year (2013-2014) of KNHANES 6. The study population comprised 14,378 individuals. The variable of interest was serum 25(OH)D, and the dependent variable, pulmonary function...
July 2018: Respiratory Medicine
In Young Jung, Su Jin Jeong, Kang-Mu Lee, Jin Young Ahn, Nam Su Ku, Sang Hoon Han, Jun Yong Choi, Dongeun Yong, Sang Sun Yoon, Young Goo Song, Seok Hoon Jeong, June Myung Kim, Kyungwon Lee
OBJECTIVES: Pseudomonas aeruginosa frequently colonizes the lungs of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Mucoid conversion is a hallmark of chronic P. aeruginosa infection, which is mediated by mucA gene mutations. The aim of this study is to identify predictive factors for mortality and the influence of mucA gene mutation in COPD patients with P. aeruginosa pneumonia. METHODS: This study assessed 75 COPD patients with P. aeruginosa pneumonia at two university hospitals...
July 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Leili Behrooz, Diana S Balekian, Mohammad Kamal Faridi, Janice A Espinola, Liam P Townley, Carlos A Camargo
BACKGROUND: Maternal prenatal smoking has adverse effects on the growing fetus including those of respiratory nature. Although postnatal smoke exposure is a risk factor for respiratory infections, the effects of prenatal smoking independent of postnatal smoke exposure are less established. We hypothesized that both maternal prenatal smoking, and postnatal smoke exposure are risk factors for severe bronchiolitis during infancy. METHODS: We performed a case-control study of 1353 children born between 1996 and 2011 at a single teaching hospital...
July 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Nikolaos Siafakas, Nikoleta Bizymi, Alexander Mathioudakis, Alexandru Corlateanu
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is very a common, with great morbidity and mortality, disease. Since the beginning of the disease cannot be detected with precision and by using only FEV1 to monitor the evolution of the disease, the Natural History of COPD is rather obscure and sometimes controversial. Therefore, the terms EARLY COPD and MILD COPD have been used indistinguishably in the medical literature. In this review we discuss the two terms trying to clarify some of the definition issues, starting with a synopsis of the Naturel History of the disease...
July 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Brittany B Dennis, Giulia Rinaldi, Georgie Housley, Anand Shah, Owais A Shah, Michael R Loebinger
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend a Drug Reaction Assessment (DRA) before beginning inhaled therapies to assess for bronchoconstriction and tolerability. There is limited evidence to support this recommendation. METHODS: In this study we aimed to establish the predictors of successful DRAs in different patient groups using a cohort of all DRAs performed in adults between 2011 and 2016 at the Royal Brompton Hospital. Spirometry, age, gender, height, and underlying lung disease were recorded...
July 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Forest W Arnold, Gustavo Lopardo, Timothy L Wiemken, Robert Kelley, Paula Peyrani, William A Mattingly, Charles Feldman, Martin Gnoni, Rosemeri Maurici, Julio A Ramirez
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has a potential complication of bacteremia. The objective of this study was to define the clinical outcomes of patients with CAP and bacteremia treated with and without a macrolide. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Secondary analysis of the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Organization database of hospitalized patients with CAP. Patients with a positive blood culture were categorized based on the presence or absence of a macrolide in their initial antimicrobial regimen, and severity of their CAP...
July 2018: Respiratory Medicine
E Seidl, J Carlens, S Reu, M Wetzke, J Ley-Zaporozhan, F Brasch, T Wesselak, A Schams, D Rauch, L Schuch, M Kappler, P Schelstraete, M Wolf, F Stehling, E Haarmann, D Borensztajn, M van de Loo, S Rubak, C Lex, B Hinrichs, K Reiter, N Schwerk, M Griese
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis (PIG) is a rare paediatric interstitial lung disease of unknown cause. The diagnosis can only be made by lung biopsy. Less than 100 cases have been reported. Clinical features, treatment and outcomes have rarely been assessed systematically in decent cohorts of patients. METHODS: In this retrospective multicentre study, the clinical presentation, radiologic findings, pattern of lung biopsy, extrapulmonary comorbidities, treatment and outcome of eleven children with PIG were collected systematically...
July 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Purnema Madahar, Daniel A Duprez, Anna J Podolanczuk, Elana J Bernstein, Steven M Kawut, Ganesh Raghu, R Graham Barr, Myron D Gross, David R Jacobs, David J Lederer
BACKGROUND: Lung fibrosis is attributed to derangements in extracellular matrix remodeling, a process driven by collagen turnover. We examined the association of two collagen biomarkers, carboxy-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (ICTP) and amino-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP), with subclinical interstitial lung disease (ILD) in adults. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 3244 participants age 45-84 years in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis...
July 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Charlotte Hyldgaard, Elisabeth Bendstrup, Alma Becic Pedersen, Sinna Pilgaard Ulrichsen, Anders Løkke, Ole Hilberg, Torkell Ellingsen
OBJECTIVES: Only few studies have addressed the prognostic impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), although both diseases are frequent and smoking is a shared risk factor. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the burden of COPD among RA patients and the subsequent mortality. METHODS: We included patients who had a first-time diagnosis of RA in the Danish National Patient Registry between 2004 and 2016...
July 2018: Respiratory Medicine
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