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Journal of Psychopharmacology

Mark J Millan, Jean-Michel Rivet, Alain Gobert
The highly-interconnected and neurochemically-rich frontal cortex plays a crucial role in the regulation of mood and cognition, domains disrupted in depression and other central nervous system disorders, and it is an important site of action for their therapeutic control. For improving our understanding of the function and dysfunction of the frontal cortex, and for identifying improved treatments, quantification of extracellular pools of neuromodulators by microdialysis in freely-moving rodents has proven indispensable...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Hee Kyong Oh, Se Jin Jeon, Sunhee Lee, Hyung Eun Lee, Eunji Kim, Se Jin Park, Ha Neul Kim, Won Yong Jung, Jae Hoon Cheong, Dae Sik Jang, Jong Hoon Ryu
Swertisin, a plant-derived C-glucosylflavone, is known to have antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. In the present study, we investigated in mice the effects of swertisin on glutamatergic dysfunction induced by dizocilpine (MK-801), a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist. In the Acoustic Startle Response test, their MK-801-induced (given 0.2 mg/kg i.p.) pre-pulse inhibition deficit was significantly attenuated by the administration of swertisin (30 mg/kg p.o.). In the Novel Object Recognition Test, the recognition memory impairments that were induced by MK-801 (0...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Małgorzata H Lehner, Ewa Taracha, Ewelina Kaniuga, Aleksandra Wisłowska-Stanek, Marek Gryz, Alicja Sobolewska, Danuta Turzyńska, Anna Skórzewska, Adam Płaźnik
This study utilised the two injection protocol of sensitisation (TIPS) and the conditioned place preference test to validate and extend previous findings on the effects of amphetamine on positive reinforcement-related 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalisation (USV) in rats. We also examined changes in the expression of c-Fos and the NMDA receptor 2B (GluN2B) subunit, markers of neuronal activity and plasticity, in brain regions of rats in response to TIPS. We used low anxiety-responsive (LR) and high anxiety-responsive (HR) rats, which are known to exhibit different fear-conditioned response strengths, different susceptibilities to amphetamine in the TIPS procedure and different amphetamine-dependent 50 kHz USV responses...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
John McGonigle, Anna Murphy, Louise M Paterson, Laurence J Reed, Liam Nestor, Jonathan Nash, Rebecca Elliott, Karen D Ersche, Remy Sa Flechais, Rexford Newbould, Csaba Orban, Dana G Smith, Eleanor M Taylor, Adam D Waldman, Trevor W Robbins, Jf William Deakin, David J Nutt, Anne R Lingford-Hughes, John Suckling
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to set up a robust multi-centre clinical fMRI and neuropsychological platform to investigate the neuropharmacology of brain processes relevant to addiction - reward, impulsivity and emotional reactivity. Here we provide an overview of the fMRI battery, carried out across three centres, characterizing neuronal response to the tasks, along with exploring inter-centre differences in healthy participants. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Three fMRI tasks were used: monetary incentive delay to probe reward sensitivity, go/no-go to probe impulsivity and an evocative images task to probe emotional reactivity...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Amy C Bilderbeck, Lauren Z Atkinson, John R Geddes, Guy M Goodwin, Catherine J Harmer
OBJECTIVES: Emotional processing abnormalities have been implicated in bipolar disorder (BD) but studies are typically small and uncontrolled. Here, facial expression recognition was explored in a large and naturalistically recruited cohort of BD patients. METHODS: 271 patients with BD completed the facial expression recognition task. The effects of current medication together with the influence of current mood state and diagnostic subtype were assessed whilst controlling for the effects of demographic variables...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
T W Robbins
The significance of investigating effects of deprivation of social experience in rodents is reviewed in the context of the review by Robbins et al. (1996) in the Journal of Psychopharmacology (10: 39-47). The early development of the paradigm by which rats were reared post-weaning in social isolation is described and compared with other early experience manipulations. The specification of the neural and behavioural phenotype of the isolate is brought up-to-date, focusing on changes in motivation and cognitive function, as well as on contrasting changes in the dopamine and serotonin systems, and in cortical (including hippocampal) structure and function...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Pirathiv Kugathasan, Jessica Waller, Ligia Westrich, Aicha Abdourahman, Joseph A Tamm, Alan L Pehrson, Elena Dale, Maria Gulinello, Connie Sanchez, Yan Li
Neuroplasticity is fundamental for brain functions, abnormal changes of which are associated with mood disorders and cognitive impairment. Neuroplasticity can be affected by neuroactive medications and by aging. Vortioxetine, a multimodal antidepressant, has shown positive effects on cognitive functions in both pre-clinical and clinical studies. In rodent studies, vortioxetine increases glutamate neurotransmission, promotes dendritic branching and spine maturation, and elevates hippocampal expression of the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc/Arg3...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Helen Tibboel, Jan De Houwer, Nicolas Dirix, Adriaan Spruyt
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Influential dual-system models of addiction suggest that an automatic system that is associative and habitual promotes drug use, whereas a controlled system that is propositional and rational inhibits drug use. It is assumed that effects on the Implicit Association Test (IAT) reflect the automatic processes that guide drug seeking. However, results have been inconsistent, challenging: (1) the validity of addiction IATs; and (2) the assumption that the automatic system contains only simple associative information...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Micha Mm Wilhelmus, Justin L Hay, Rob Gja Zuiker, Pieter Okkerse, Christelle Perdrieu, Julien Sauser, Maurice Beaumont, Jeroen Schmitt, Joop Ma van Gerven, Beata Y Silber
Caffeine induces positive effects on sustained attention, although studies assessing the acute effects of low caffeine dose (<75 mg) on sustained attention are limited and use short-term tests. Therefore, we investigated the acute effects of a 60 mg dose of caffeine on sustained attention in tests lasting up to 45 minutes using 82 low or non-caffeine-consuming healthy male (n=41) and female (n=41) adults aged between 40 and 60 years. Vigilance was measured using Mackworth Clock test, Rapid Visual Information Processing Test, adaptive tracking test, saccadic eye movement and attention switch test...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Christian Bellebaum, Lars Kuchinke, Patrik Roser
Modafinil is becoming increasingly popular as a cognitive enhancer. Research on the effects of modafinil on cognitive function have yielded mixed results, with negative findings for simple memory and attention tasks and enhancing effects for more complex tasks. In the present study we examined whether modafinil, due to its known effect on the dopamine level in the striatum, alters feedback-related choice behaviour. We applied a task that separately tests the choice of previously rewarded behaviours (approach) and avoidance of previously punished behaviours...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Annelieke C Kruithof, Shikiko Watanabe, Pierre Am Peeters, Marieke L de Kam, Rob Gja Zuiker, Jasper Stevens, Joop Ma van Gerven, Armel Stockis
This double-blind, randomized, three-way crossover study explored the potential pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between ethanol and brivaracetam in 18 healthy males, as required for the development of CNS-active drugs. Subjects received (A) ethanol+brivaracetam, (B) ethanol placebo+brivaracetam and (C) ethanol+brivaracetam placebo. Ethanol was infused as a 5.5-hour intravenous clamp with the first 0.5-hour as loading phase to a target level of 0.6 g/L, and brivaracetam was orally administered as a single 200 mg dose...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Amanda Bischoff-Grethe, Colm G Connolly, Stephan J Jordan, Gregory G Brown, Martin P Paulus, Susan F Tapert, Robert K Heaton, Steven P Woods, Igor Grant
BACKGROUND: Chronic methamphetamine use may lead to changes in reward-related function of the ventral striatum and caudate nucleus. Whether methamphetamine-dependent individuals show heightened reactivity to positively valenced stimuli (i.e. positive reinforcement mechanisms), or an exaggerated response to negatively valenced stimuli (i.e. driven by negative reinforcement mechanisms) remains unclear. This study investigated neural functioning of expectancy and receipt for gains and losses in adults with (METH+) and without (METH-) histories of methamphetamine dependence...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Emily Urry, Alexander Jetter, Sebastian C Holst, Wolfgang Berger, Giatgen A Spinas, Wolfgang Langhans, Hans-Peter Landolt
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the possible links between type 2 diabetes, daytime sleepiness, sleep quality and caffeine consumption. METHODS: In this case-control field study, comparing type 2 diabetic (n=134) and non-type 2 diabetic (n=230) participants, subjects completed detailed and validated questionnaires to assess demographic status, health, daytime sleepiness, sleep quality and timing, diurnal preference, mistimed circadian rhythms and habitual caffeine intake...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Christopher J Fitzpatrick, Jonathan D Morrow
The attribution of incentive-motivational value to reward-related cues contributes to cue-induced craving and relapse in addicted patients. Recently, it was demonstrated that subanesthetic ketamine increases motivation to quit and decreases cue-induced craving in cocaine-dependent individuals. Although the underlying mechanism of this effect is currently unknown, one possibility is that subanesthetic ketamine decreases the incentive-motivational value of reward-related cues. In the present study, we used a Pavlovian conditioned approach procedure to identify sign-trackers, rats that attribute incentive-motivational value to reward-related cues, and goal-trackers, rats that assign only predictive value to reward-related cues...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Hanan El Marroun, Tonya J White, Guillen Fernandez, Vincent Wv Jaddoe, Frank C Verhulst, Bruno H Stricker, Henning Tiemeier
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are frequently used during pregnancy. Evidence about the long-term consequences of prenatal SSRI exposure on child neurodevelopment is controversial. We prospectively investigated whether prenatal SSRI exposure was associated with childhood non-verbal cognition in a population-based study, and contrasted it to exposure to depressive symptoms (without SSRIs). We included 71 children prenatally exposed to SSRIs, 385 children prenatally exposed to maternal depressive symptoms and 5427 unexposed children...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Danielle Impey, Sara de la Salle, Ashley Baddeley, Verner Knott
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive form of brain stimulation which uses a weak constant current to alter cortical excitability and activity temporarily. tDCS-induced increases in neuronal excitability and performance improvements have been observed following anodal stimulation of brain regions associated with visual and motor functions, but relatively little research has been conducted with respect to auditory processing. Recently, pilot study results indicate that anodal tDCS can increase auditory deviance detection, whereas cathodal tDCS decreases auditory processing, as measured by a brain-based event-related potential (ERP), mismatch negativity (MMN)...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Hila Z Gvirts, Naama Mayseless, Aviv Segev, D Yael Lewis, Kfir Feffer, Yael Barnea, Yuval Bloch, Simon G Shamay-Tsoory
In recent years the use of psychostimulants for cognitive enhancement in healthy individuals with no psychiatric disorders has been on the rise. However, it is still unclear whether psychostimulants improve certain cognitive functions at the cost of others, and how these psychostimulants interact with individual personality differences. In the current study, we investigated whether the effect of one common stimulant, methylphenidate (MPH), on creativity is associated with novelty seeking. Thirty-six healthy adults, without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomology, were assigned randomly in a double-blind fashion to receive MPH or placebo...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Johanna I Kim, Jae-Won Kim, Jong-Eun Park, Subin Park, Soon-Beom Hong, Doug Hyun Han, Jae Hoon Cheong, Jae-Won Choi, Sumin Lee, Bung-Nyun Kim
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the possible association between two NMDA subunit gene polymorphisms (GRIN2B rs2284411 and GRIN2A rs2229193) and treatment response to methylphenidate (MPH) in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: A total of 75 ADHD patients aged 6-17 years underwent 6 months of MPH administration. Treatment response was defined by changes in scores of the ADHD-IV Rating Scale (ADHD-RS), clinician-rated Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I), and Continuous Performance Test (CPT)...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Martin H Zack, Daniela S Lobo, Candice Biback, Tim Fang, Kelly Smart, Daniel Tatone, Aditi Kalia, Daniel Digiacomo, James L Kennedy
This study investigated the role of dopamine, and specifically the D1 receptor (D1R), in the reinforcing effects of a slot-machine game in healthy volunteers (n=30). To compare gambling and drug effects, subjects received the prototypic psychostimulant drug d-amphetamine (AMPH; 20 mg) in a multi-session, placebo-controlled design. To isolate D1R, half the subjects were pretreated with the preferential D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol (HAL; 3 mg), and the other half with the mixed D1-D2 antagonist fluphenazine (FLU; 3 mg) before the game (Phase I) and AMPH (Phase II)...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Geke Ah van den Elsen, Lieke Tobben, Amir Ia Ahmed, Robbert Jan Verkes, Cornelis Kramers, Radboud M Marijnissen, Marcel Gm Olde Rikkert, Marjolein A van der Marck
Oral tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is currently studied for its possible efficacy on dementia-related neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS), but might lead to increased risk of falling. This was a randomised, double-blind, crossover study to evaluate the effects of THC on mobility in dementia patients. Eighteen community-dwelling patients (Mage=77 years) received 1.5 mg of oral THC twice daily and placebo, in random order, for three days, separated by a four-day washout. Balance and gait were assessed using SwayStar(TM) and GAITRite(TM) within two hours after administration, in two consecutive intervention periods, under the following conditions: standing with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC), preferred speed walking with and without a cognitive dual task...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
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