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Journal of Psychopharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132237/neural-circuits-of-eating-behaviour-opportunities-for-therapeutic-development
#1
Peter G Clifton
Understanding of the neural and physiological substrates of hunger and satiety has increased rapidly over the last three decades, and pharmacological targets have already been identified for the treatment of obesity that has moved from pre-clinical screening to therapies approved by regulatory authorities. Initially, this review describes the way in which physiological signals of energy availability interact with hedonic and rewarding properties of food to modulate the neural circuitry that supports eating behaviour...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132230/combination-therapy-for-obesity
#2
John Ph Wilding
Obesity is a chronic disease with serious consequences and although lifestyle modification is considered first line treatment, it is often ineffective, especially in the long term. Relatively few people with obesity will undergo the most effective currently available treatment of bariatric surgery. Pharmacotherapy can bridge the gap between lifestyle modification and surgery, but many monotherapies have only modest efficacy or require high doses with unacceptable side effects. As with many other areas of medicine, combination therapy is now becoming accepted as a way of optimising efficacy for weight management, whilst minimising adverse effects...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108464/electrocardiographic-alterations-in-patients-consuming-synthetic-cannabinoids
#3
Hayriye M Ozturk, Mehmet Erdogan, Yakup Alsancak, Mikail Yarlioglues, Mustafa Duran, M Hamid Boztas, Sani N Murat, Selcuk Ozturk
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the electrocardiographic parameters in patients consuming synthetic cannabinoids. METHODS: Thirty-five patients who were consuming synthetic cannabinoids were enrolled to the study, prospectively. The control group included 35 healthy age and sex-matched volunteers. The standard 12-lead surface electrocardiograms of the study population were recorded. P maximum (Pmax), P minimum (Pmin), P wave dispersion, interatrial duration, P wave area in D2 derivation, abnormal P terminal force in V1 derivation, heart rate, QT interval, corrected QT, QT dispersion, PR interval duration and macrovolt T-wave alternans were evaluated by two experienced cardiologists...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095071/n-n-dimethyltryptamine-and-the-pineal-gland-separating-fact-from-myth
#4
David E Nichols
The pineal gland has a romantic history, from pharaonic Egypt, where it was equated with the eye of Horus, through various religious traditions, where it was considered the seat of the soul, the third eye, etc. Recent incarnations of these notions have suggested that N,N-dimethyltryptamine is secreted by the pineal gland at birth, during dreaming, and at near death to produce out of body experiences. Scientific evidence, however, is not consistent with these ideas. The adult pineal gland weighs less than 0...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095069/effects-of-tryptophan-depletion-on-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor-remitted-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#5
Sean D Hood, Annabel Broyd, Hayley Robinson, Jessica Lee, Abdul-Rahman Hudaib, Dana A Hince
BACKGROUND: Serotonergic antidepressants are first-line medication therapies for obsessive-compulsive disorder, however it is not known if synaptic serotonin availability is important for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor efficacy. The present study tested the hypothesis that temporary reduction in central serotonin transmission, through acute tryptophan depletion, would result in an increase in anxiety in selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-remitted obsessive-compulsive disorder patients...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29086614/the-effects-of-cannabidiol-on-persecutory-ideation-and-anxiety-in-a-high-trait-paranoid-group
#6
Harneet Hundal, Rachel Lister, Nicole Evans, Angus Antley, Amir Englund, Robin M Murray, Daniel Freeman, Paul D Morrison
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that cannabidiol has anxiolytic and antipsychotic properties, raising hopes that cannabidiol will translate to the psychiatric clinic. Cannabidiol may be particularly useful for anxiety and paranoia in those at-risk of major mental illness. METHODS: Immersion in a controlled 3D virtual-reality scenario was used to assay persecutory ideation and anxiety in a sample of non-clinical volunteers ( n=32) pre-selected for high paranoid traits...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084475/the-effects-of-ampa-receptor-blockade-on-resting-magnetoencephalography-recordings
#7
Bethany C Routley, Krish D Singh, Khalid Hamandi, Suresh D Muthukumaraswamy
The ionotropic N-methyl-D-aspartate and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors of the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system are of fundamental importance to healthy brain function. Neuroimaging studies in humans have previously been conducted using various drugs that interact with N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors, but no such studies have investigated AMPA receptor signalling. The recent approval of perampanel (Fycompa) for use in humans provides a means to specifically study the role of AMPA receptors in the pharmacological basis of neuroimaging signals...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082818/studies-into-the-anxiolytic-actions-of-agomelatine-in-social-isolation-reared-rats-role-of-corticosterone-and-sex
#8
Wilmie Regenass, Marisa Möller, Brian H Harvey
Anxiety disorders are severely disabling, while current pharmacological treatments are complicated by delayed onset, low remission rates and side-effects. Sex is also noted to contribute towards illness severity and treatment response. Agomelatine is a melatonin (MT1/MT2) agonist and serotonin (5-HT2C) antagonist purported to be anxiolytic in clinical and some pre-clinical studies. We undertook a detailed analysis of agomelatine's anxiolytic activity in a neurodevelopmental model of anxiety, the social isolation reared rat...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072522/role-of-impulsivity-and-reward-in-the-anti-obesity-actions-of-5-ht2c-receptor-agonists
#9
Guy A Higgins, Fiona D Zeeb, Paul J Fletcher
The selective 5-HT2C receptor agonist lorcaserin entered clinical obesity trials with the prevalent view that satiety was a primary mechanism of action. Subsequent Phase II and III trials demonstrated efficacy in terms of weight loss, although the overall effect size (~3% placebo-corrected change) is considered modest. Lorcaserin has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of obesity with lifestyle modification, but since its introduction in 2013 its sales are in decline, probably due to its overall modest effect...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072515/interactions-between-metabolic-reward-and-cognitive-processes-in-appetite-control-implications-for-novel-weight-management-therapies
#10
Suzanne Higgs, Maartje S Spetter, Jason M Thomas, Pia Rotshtein, Michelle Lee, Manfred Hallschmid, Colin T Dourish
Traditional models of appetite control have emphasised the role of parallel homeostatic and hedonic systems, but more recently the distinction between independent homeostatic and hedonic systems has been abandoned in favour of a framework that emphasises the cross talk between the neurochemical substrates of the two systems. In addition, evidence has emerged more recently, that higher level cognitive functions such as learning, memory and attention play an important role in everyday appetite control and that homeostatic signals also play a role in cognition...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069975/the-combination-of-escitalopram-and-aripiprazole-investigation-of-psychomotor-effects-in-rats
#11
Roger Hudson, Yan Zhou, Francesco Leri
Pre-clinical and clinical evidence suggests that the antidepressant efficacy of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram can be enhanced by the dopamine and serotonin partial agonist aripiprazole. Given the range of possible neurochemical interactions between these drugs, the current study investigated whether aripiprazole alters the hedonic and psychomotor effects of escitalopram. Male Sprague Dawley rats ( n=116) received 10 mg/kg/day escitalopram (subcutaneous), 2 mg/kg/day aripiprazole (subcutaneous), or combined aripiprazole + escitalopram, and were tested for consumption of incentive nutritional stimuli (high-fructose corn syrup and chow), stereotypy and locomotor activity...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067887/effects-of-a-cafeteria-diet-on-delay-discounting-in-adolescent-and-adult-rats-alterations-on-dopaminergic-sensitivity
#12
Stephen H Robertson, Erin B Rasmussen
Diet-induced obesity is a laboratory procedure in which nonhuman animals are chronically exposed to a high-fat, high-sugar diet (i.e. cafeteria diet), which results in weight gain, altered sensitivity to reward, and alterations in the dopamine D2 system. To date, few (if any) studies have examined age-related diet-induced obesity effects in a rat model or have used an impulsive choice task to characterize diet-induced behavioral alterations in reward processes. We exposed rats to a cafeteria-style diet for eight weeks starting at age 21 or 70 days...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043911/dutch-courage-effects-of-acute-alcohol-consumption-on-self-ratings-and-observer-ratings-of-foreign-language-skills
#13
Fritz Renner, Inge Kersbergen, Matt Field, Jessica Werthmann
AIMS: A popular belief is that alcohol improves the ability to speak in a foreign language. The effect of acute alcohol consumption on perceived foreign language performance and actual foreign language performance in foreign language learners has not been investigated. The aim of the current study was to test the effects of acute alcohol consumption on self-rated and observer-rated verbal foreign language performance in participants who have recently learned this language. METHODS: Fifty native German speakers who had recently learned Dutch were randomized to receive either a low dose of alcohol or a control beverage that contained no alcohol...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039260/medicinal-cannabis-bedrolite-substitution-therapy-in-inpatients-with-a-psychotic-disorder-and-a-comorbid-cannabis-use-disorder-a-case-series
#14
Regi Schipper, Mathilde Dekker, Lieuwe de Haan, Wim van den Brink
Cannabis use disorders are frequently comorbid in patients with a psychotic disorder and are associated with worse outcomes. To date there are no proven effective strategies to achieve cannabis abstinence in this population. An alternative for abstinence might be harm reduction, i.e. replacing the use of street cannabis with high tetrahydrocannabinol and low cannabidiol levels by medicinal cannabis variants with relatively low tetrahydrocannabinol and relatively high cannabidiol levels, thereby reducing the psychosis inducing effects of cannabis and enhancing the antipsychotic effects of cannabis...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039254/the-antidepressant-efficacy-of-subanesthetic-dose-ketamine-does-not-correlate-with-baseline-subcortical-volumes-in-a-replication-sample-with-major-depressive-disorder
#15
Mark J Niciu, Nicolas D Iadarola, Dipavo Banerjee, David A Luckenbaugh, Minkyung Park, Marc Lener, Lawrence Park, Dawn F Ionescu, Elizabeth D Ballard, Nancy E Brutsche, Nirmala Akula, Francis J McMahon, Rodrigo Machado-Vieira, Allison C Nugent, Carlos A Zarate
BACKGROUND: This study sought to reproduce, in a larger sample, previous findings of a correlation between smaller raw 3-Tesla (3T) hippocampal volumes and improved antidepressant efficacy of ketamine in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). A secondary analysis stratified subjects according to functional BDNF rs6265 (val66met) genotype. METHODS: Unmedicated subjects with treatment-resistant MDD ( n=55) underwent baseline structural 3T MRI. Data processing was conducted with FSL/FIRST and Freesurfer software...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039241/aripiprazole-long-acting-injection-a-mirror-image-study-of-its-effects-on-hospitalisation-at-one-year
#16
David M Taylor, Anna Sparshatt, Fahima Amin, Ian Osborne, Olubanke Dzahini, Gwenllian Hughes, Catrin Fischetti
Second generation antipsychotic long-acting injections have a greater cost than older depots. Their cost-effectiveness has yet to be established. We conducted a non-interventional, observational, follow-up of patients prescribed aripiprazole long-acting injection in two centres using a mirror image method. Data were available for 160 patients consecutively prescribed aripiprazole long-acting injection, of whom 30 were not included in the analysis (21 forensic patients, five incomplete data and four lost to follow-up)...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039233/the-relationships-of-classic-psychedelic-use-with-criminal-behavior-in-the-united-states-adult-population
#17
Peter S Hendricks, Michael Scott Crawford, Karen L Cropsey, Heith Copes, N Wiles Sweat, Zach Walsh, Gregory Pavela
Criminal behavior exacts a large toll on society and is resistant to intervention. Some evidence suggests classic psychedelics may inhibit criminal behavior, but the extent of these effects has not been comprehensively explored. In this study, we tested the relationships of classic psychedelic use and psilocybin use per se with criminal behavior among over 480,000 United States adult respondents pooled from the last 13 available years of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2002 through 2014) while controlling for numerous covariates...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020861/psilocybin-occasioned-mystical-type-experience-in-combination-with-meditation-and-other-spiritual-practices-produces-enduring-positive-changes-in-psychological-functioning-and-in-trait-measures-of-prosocial-attitudes-and-behaviors
#18
Roland R Griffiths, Matthew W Johnson, William A Richards, Brian D Richards, Robert Jesse, Katherine A MacLean, Frederick S Barrett, Mary P Cosimano, Maggie A Klinedinst
Psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences with participant-attributed increases in well-being. However, little research has examined enduring changes in traits. This study administered psilocybin to participants who undertook a program of meditation/spiritual practices. Healthy participants were randomized to three groups (25 each): (1) very low-dose (1 mg/70 kg on sessions 1 and 2) with moderate-level ("standard") support for spiritual-practice (LD-SS); (2) high-dose (20 and 30 mg/70 kg on sessions 1 and 2, respectively) with standard support (HD-SS); and (3) high-dose (20 and 30 mg/70kg on sessions 1 and 2, respectively) with high support for spiritual practice (HD-HS)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946787/methylphenidate-enhances-implicit-learning-in-healthy-adults
#19
Corinna Klinge, Claire Shuttleworth, Pierandrea Muglia, Anna C Nobre, Catherine J Harmer, Susannah E Murphy
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: One limiting factor in the development of pharmacological interventions to enhance cognition is the absence of biomarkers that can be used in healthy volunteers to screen novel compounds. Drug discovery has tended to rely heavily on explicit measures of cognition, but these are typically insensitive to cognition-enhancing effects in healthy volunteers. This study investigated whether a novel battery of implicit cognition measures is sensitive to the effects of methylphenidate (Ritalin) in healthy volunteers...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946784/associations-of-fatty-acids-with-cognition-psychopathology-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-levels-in-patients-with-first-episode-schizophrenia-and-related-disorders-treated-with-paliperidone-extended-release
#20
Young-Chul Chung, Yin Cui, Tomiki Sumiyoshi, Min-Gul Kim, Keon-Hak Lee
This study assessed fatty acid and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in patients with first-episode schizophrenia and related disorders. The levels of erythrocyte fatty acids and plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor were measured at baseline and week 8 after treatment with paliperidone extended release. Cognitive function was evaluated using the Cognitive Assessment Interview and the cognition subscale of the Neuroleptic-Induced Deficit Syndrome Scale. There were significant decreases in stearic acid and nervonic acid levels and a significant increase in eicosapentaenoic acid levels after eight weeks...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
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