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Journal of Psychopharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237331/autism-spectrum-disorder-consensus-guidelines-on-assessment-treatment-and-research-from-the-british-association-for-psychopharmacology
#1
Oliver D Howes, Maria Rogdaki, James L Findon, Robert H Wichers, Tony Charman, Bryan H King, Eva Loth, Gráinne M McAlonan, James T McCracken, Jeremy R Parr, Carol Povey, Paramala Santosh, Simon Wallace, Emily Simonoff, Declan G Murphy
An expert review of the aetiology, assessment, and treatment of autism spectrum disorder, and recommendations for diagnosis, management and service provision was coordinated by the British Association for Psychopharmacology, and evidence graded. The aetiology of autism spectrum disorder involves genetic and environmental contributions, and implicates a number of brain systems, in particular the gamma-aminobutyric acid, serotonergic and glutamatergic systems. The presentation of autism spectrum disorder varies widely and co-occurring health problems (in particular epilepsy, sleep disorders, anxiety, depression, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and irritability) are common...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228889/acute-and-chronic-changes-in-brain-activity-with-deep-brain-stimulation-for-refractory-depression
#2
Silke Conen, Julian C Matthews, Nikunj K Patel, José Anton-Rodriguez, Peter S Talbot
Deep brain stimulation is a potential option for patients with treatment-refractory depression. Deep brain stimulation benefits have been reported when targeting either the subgenual cingulate or ventral anterior capsule/nucleus accumbens. However, not all patients respond and optimum stimulation-site is uncertain. We compared deep brain stimulation of the subgenual cingulate and ventral anterior capsule/nucleus accumbens separately and combined in the same seven treatment-refractory depression patients, and investigated regional cerebral blood flow changes associated with acute and chronic deep brain stimulation...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215943/in-vivo-and-ex-vivo-analyses-of-amyloid-toxicity-in-the-tc1-mouse-model-of-down-syndrome
#3
Gaëlle Naert, Valentine Ferré, Emeline Keller, Amy Slender, Dorota Gibbins, Elizabeth Mc Fisher, Victor Lj Tybulewicz, Tangui Maurice
RATIONALE: The prevalence of Alzheimer's disease is increased in people with Down syndrome. The pathology appears much earlier than in the general population, suggesting a predisposition to develop Alzheimer's disease. Down syndrome results from trisomy of human chromosome 21, leading to overexpression of possible Alzheimer's disease candidate genes, such as amyloid precursor protein gene. To better understand how the Down syndrome context results in increased vulnerability to Alzheimer's disease, we analysed amyloid-β [25-35] peptide toxicity in the Tc1 mouse model of Down syndrome, in which ~75% of protein coding genes are functionally trisomic but, importantly, not amyloid precursor protein...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215319/examining-the-potential-preventative-effects-of-minocycline-prescribed-for-acne-on-the-incidence-of-severe-mental-illnesses-a-historical-cohort-study
#4
Maria Herrero-Zazo, Ruth Brauer, Fiona Gaughran, Louise M Howard, David Taylor, David J Barlow
BACKGROUND: Animal studies suggest that the antibiotic and microglial activation inhibitor, minocycline, is likely to have a protective effect against the emergence of psychosis but evidence from human studies is lacking. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of exposure to minocycline during adolescence on the later incidence of severe mental illness (SMI). METHODS: A historical cohort study using electronic primary care data was conducted to assess the association between exposure to minocycline during adolescence and incidence of SMI...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215318/therapeutic-potential-of-silymarin-in-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-induced-depressive-like-behavior-in-mice
#5
Vishnu N Thakare, Rajesh R Patil, Rajesh J Oswal, Valmik D Dhakane, Manoj K Aswar, Bhoomika M Patel
Silymarin, a plant-derived polyphenolic flavonoid of Silybum marianum, elicited significant antidepressant-like activity in an acute restraint stress model of depression. It improved monoamines, mainly 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels in the cortex, dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) in the cerebellum in mice. The present study was undertaken to explore the antidepressant potential of silymarin in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) induced depressive-like behavior in mice, and to find out its probable mechanism(s) of action, mainly neurogenesis, neuroinflammation, and/or oxidative stress...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215304/weight-gain-changes-in-patients-with-aripiprazole-monotherapy-compared-with-aripiprazole-antidepressant-polypharmacy-in-an-outpatient-sample
#6
Charles Nguyen, Andrei Novac, Jessica Hazen, Pamela Howard, Ryan Tieu, Robert G Bota
OBJECTIVE: This study seeks to evaluate the weight gain effect within a community-based population of patients with diagnoses of depression, mood disorder, and schizophrenia receiving aripiprazole over a period of at least 6 months. METHOD: The four million members of Kaiser Permanente of Southern California (KPSC) were queried for a four-year period between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2013. The initial cohort comprised 25,682 KPSC members who received at least one dispense of aripiprazole...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207922/effect-of-steady-state-methadone-on-high-fructose-corn-syrup-consumption-in-rats
#7
Stephen Daniels, Mick Pratt, Yan Zhou, Francesco Leri
Patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment self-report enhanced preferences for, and excessive consumption of, foods rich in sugar. However, it is unclear whether these are direct pharmacological effects of methadone or the consequences of metabolic dysfunctions induced by addiction to illicit opiates. Hence, the current study in drug-naïve male Sprague-Dawley rats explored the effects of steady-state methadone delivered by osmotic mini-pumps (13 days; 0, 10, 30 mg/kg/day) on consumption of rat chow and a palatable, sweet, liquid high fructose corn syrup solution...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207901/repeated-treatment-with-the-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-agonist-uk-14304-improves-cognitive-performance-in-middle-age-rats-role-of-hippocampal-fas-associated-death-domain
#8
Elena Hernández-Hernández, Antonio Miralles, Susana Esteban, M Julia García-Fuster
The cell fate regulator Fas-associated death domain (FADD) balances cell death with non-apoptotic actions via its phosphorylated form. A recent study associated loss of cortical FADD with cognitive decline and increased risk of clinical dementia. Since the activation of cortical α2A-adrenoceptors improved memory deficits in various animal models of working memory loss, the present study evaluated whether UK-14304, an α2-adrenoceptor agonist known to acutely regulate brain FADD forms, would improve cognitive function in middle-aged rats...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108464/electrocardiographic-alterations-in-patients-consuming-synthetic-cannabinoids
#9
Hayriye M Ozturk, Mehmet Erdogan, Yakup Alsancak, Mikail Yarlioglues, Mustafa Duran, M Hamid Boztas, Sani N Murat, Selcuk Ozturk
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the electrocardiographic parameters in patients consuming synthetic cannabinoids. METHODS: Thirty-five patients who were consuming synthetic cannabinoids were enrolled to the study, prospectively. The control group included 35 healthy age and sex-matched volunteers. The standard 12-lead surface electrocardiograms of the study population were recorded. P maximum (Pmax), P minimum (Pmin), P wave dispersion, interatrial duration, P wave area in D2 derivation, abnormal P terminal force in V1 derivation, heart rate, QT interval, corrected QT, QT dispersion, PR interval duration and macrovolt T-wave alternans were evaluated by two experienced cardiologists...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332554/evaluating-the-dose-dependent-mechanism-of-action-of-trazodone-by-estimation-of-occupancies-for-different-brain-neurotransmitter-targets
#10
Luca Settimo, David Taylor
Trazodone is a drug that was introduced in the clinic almost 40 years ago. It is licensed to treat depression, but it is also commonly used off-label to treat insomnia. A recent study shows that it could be promising in preventing neurodegeneration in mice, and clinical trials to assess its possible beneficial effects on dementia and Alzheimer's disease are expected to start soon in humans. In this study, we describe the dose-dependent pharmacology of trazodone by carrying out pharmacokinetic simulations aiming to predict the brain concentrations of trazodone for different drug-dosing regimens and calculating occupancy for 28 different targets for which published trazodone-binding data are available...
January 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182076/no-evidence-for-an-acute-placebo-effect-on-emotional-processing-in-healthy-volunteers
#11
Nathan Tm Huneke, Annabel El Walsh, Randi Brown, Michael Browning, Catherine J Harmer
Placebo-controlled trials are the gold standard measure of efficacy in the development of new treatments for depression. However, the large placebo effects associated with standard measures of subjective symptoms reduce the sensitivity of such trials to detect antidepressant effects. There is a need to develop novel efficacy markers that are resistant to placebo effects. Measures of emotional processing, known to be sensitive to antidepressant treatment, may be such a marker, although the effect of an acute placebo treatment on these measures remains unclear...
December 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182075/tricyclic-and-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor-antidepressants-compared-with-placebo-in-randomized-trials-for-acute-major-depression
#12
Juan Undurraga, Ross J Baldessarini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095069/effects-of-tryptophan-depletion-on-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor-remitted-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#13
Sean D Hood, Annabel Broyd, Hayley Robinson, Jessica Lee, Abdul-Rahman Hudaib, Dana A Hince
BACKGROUND: Serotonergic antidepressants are first-line medication therapies for obsessive-compulsive disorder, however it is not known if synaptic serotonin availability is important for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor efficacy. The present study tested the hypothesis that temporary reduction in central serotonin transmission, through acute tryptophan depletion, would result in an increase in anxiety in selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-remitted obsessive-compulsive disorder patients...
December 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084475/the-effects-of-ampa-receptor-blockade-on-resting-magnetoencephalography-recordings
#14
Bethany C Routley, Krish D Singh, Khalid Hamandi, Suresh D Muthukumaraswamy
The ionotropic N-methyl-D-aspartate and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors of the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system are of fundamental importance to healthy brain function. Neuroimaging studies in humans have previously been conducted using various drugs that interact with N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors, but no such studies have investigated AMPA receptor signalling. The recent approval of perampanel (Fycompa) for use in humans provides a means to specifically study the role of AMPA receptors in the pharmacological basis of neuroimaging signals...
December 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157103/multidisciplinary-approaches-to-the-study-of-eating-disorders-and-obesity-recent-progress-in-research-and-development-and-future-prospects
#15
Colin T Dourish, Peter G Clifton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132237/neural-circuits-of-eating-behaviour-opportunities-for-therapeutic-development
#16
Peter G Clifton
Understanding of the neural and physiological substrates of hunger and satiety has increased rapidly over the last three decades, and pharmacological targets have already been identified for the treatment of obesity that has moved from pre-clinical screening to therapies approved by regulatory authorities. Initially, this review describes the way in which physiological signals of energy availability interact with hedonic and rewarding properties of food to modulate the neural circuitry that supports eating behaviour...
November 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132230/combination-therapy-for-obesity
#17
John Ph Wilding
Obesity is a chronic disease with serious consequences and although lifestyle modification is considered first line treatment, it is often ineffective, especially in the long term. Relatively few people with obesity will undergo the most effective currently available treatment of bariatric surgery. Pharmacotherapy can bridge the gap between lifestyle modification and surgery, but many monotherapies have only modest efficacy or require high doses with unacceptable side effects. As with many other areas of medicine, combination therapy is now becoming accepted as a way of optimising efficacy for weight management, whilst minimising adverse effects...
November 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892420/eating-disorders-insights-from-imaging-and-behavioral-approaches-to-treatment
#18
Eric Stice, Heather Shaw
Understanding factors that contribute to eating disorders, which affect 13% of females, is critical to developing effective prevention and treatment programs. In this paper, we summarize results from prospective studies that identified factors predicting onset and persistence of eating disorders and core symptom dimensions. Next, implications for intervention targets for prevention, and treatment interventions from the risk- and maintenance-factor findings are discussed. Third, given that evidence suggests eating disorders are highly heritable, implying biological risk and maintenance factors for eating disorders, we offer working hypotheses about biological factors that might contribute to eating disorders, based on extant risk factor findings, theory, and cross-sectional studies...
November 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095071/n-n-dimethyltryptamine-and-the-pineal-gland-separating-fact-from-myth
#19
David E Nichols
The pineal gland has a romantic history, from pharaonic Egypt, where it was equated with the eye of Horus, through various religious traditions, where it was considered the seat of the soul, the third eye, etc. Recent incarnations of these notions have suggested that N,N-dimethyltryptamine is secreted by the pineal gland at birth, during dreaming, and at near death to produce out of body experiences. Scientific evidence, however, is not consistent with these ideas. The adult pineal gland weighs less than 0...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29086614/the-effects-of-cannabidiol-on-persecutory-ideation-and-anxiety-in-a-high-trait-paranoid-group
#20
Harneet Hundal, Rachel Lister, Nicole Evans, Angus Antley, Amir Englund, Robin M Murray, Daniel Freeman, Paul D Morrison
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that cannabidiol has anxiolytic and antipsychotic properties, raising hopes that cannabidiol will translate to the psychiatric clinic. Cannabidiol may be particularly useful for anxiety and paranoia in those at-risk of major mental illness. METHODS: Immersion in a controlled 3D virtual-reality scenario was used to assay persecutory ideation and anxiety in a sample of non-clinical volunteers ( n=32) pre-selected for high paranoid traits...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
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