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Journal of Psychopharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767567/impact-of-ntrk2-drd2-and-ace-polymorphisms-on-prolactin-levels-in-antipsychotic-treated-patients-with-first-episode-psychosis
#1
Patricia Gassó, Sergi Mas, Miquel Bioque, Bibiana Cabrera, Antonio Lobo, Ana González-Pinto, Covadonga M Díaz-Caneja, Iluminada Corripio, Eduard Vieta, Josefina Castro-Fornieles, Salvador Sarró, Anna Mané, Julio Sanjuan, Adrián Llerena, Amalia Lafuente, Jerónimo Saiz-Ruiz, Miguel Bernardo
BACKGROUND: Hyperprolactinemia is a common side-effect of antipsychotics (APs), which may trigger serious secondary problems and compromise the adherence to treatment which is crucial for prognosis, especially in patients presenting with a first-episode of psychosis (FEP). AIMS: We evaluated, in some cases for the first time, the effect of polymorphisms in multiple candidate genes on serum prolactin (PRL) levels in an AP-treated FEP cohort recruited in the multicenter PEPs study (Phenotype - genotype and environmental interaction; Application of a predictive model in first psychotic episodes)...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764270/drunk-decisions-alcohol-shifts-choice-from-habitual-towards-goal-directed-control-in-adolescent-intermediate-risk-drinkers
#2
Elisabeth Obst, Daniel J Schad, Quentin Jm Huys, Miriam Sebold, Stephan Nebe, Christian Sommer, Michael N Smolka, Ulrich S Zimmermann
BACKGROUND: Studies in humans and animals suggest a shift from goal-directed to habitual decision-making in addiction. We therefore tested whether acute alcohol administration reduces goal-directed and promotes habitual decision-making, and whether these effects are moderated by self-reported drinking problems. METHODS: Fifty-three socially drinking males completed the two-step task in a randomised crossover design while receiving an intravenous infusion of ethanol (blood alcohol level=80 mg%), or placebo...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764266/impact-of-paliperidone-palmitate-one-month-formulation-on-relapse-prevention-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-a-one-year-open-label-study-stratified-by-medication-adherence
#3
Tianmei Si, Nan Li, Huafei Lu, Shangli Cai, Jianmin Zhuo, Christoph U Correll, Lili Zhang, Yu Feng
BACKGROUND: Limited data are available to help identify patients with schizophrenia who are most likely to benefit from long-acting injectable antipsychotics. AIM: The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of long-acting injectable antipsychotic paliperidone palmitate one-month formulation for preventing relapses, factors influencing time to first relapse, and the effect of different antipsychotic adherence levels on time to first relapse in Chinese patients with schizophrenia...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737228/are-coffee-s-alleged-health-protective-effects-real-or-artifact-the-enduring-disjunction-between-relevant-experimental-and-observational-evidence
#4
Jack E James
BACKGROUND: There is a large corpus of observational evidence claiming that coffee is health protective and a similarly large corpus of experimental psychopharmacological evidence to suggest that habitual caffeine consumption may be harmful to health. AIM: The purpose of this study was to examine the disjunction between observational and experimental findings with specific reference to the implications of coffee/caffeine consumption for elevated blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and neurodegenerative disease...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733742/are-ecstasy-induced-serotonergic-alterations-overestimated-for-the-majority-of-users
#5
Balázs Szigeti, Adam R Winstock, David Erritzoe, Larissa J Maier
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies imply that the regular use of ±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), the major constituent of ecstasy pills, alters the brain's serotonergic system in a dose-dependent manner. However, the relevance of these findings remains unclear due to limited knowledge about the ecstasy/MDMA use pattern of real-life users. AIMS: We examined the representativeness of ecstasy users enrolled in neuroimaging studies by comparing their ecstasy use habits with the use patterns of a large, international sample...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737230/the-nitric-oxide-donor-sin-1-produced-panic-like-behaviour-and-fear-induced-antinociception-are-modulated-by-nmda-receptors-in-the-anterior-hypothalamus
#6
Luiz Luciano Falconi-Sobrinho, Norberto Cysne Coimbra
BACKGROUND: An excitatory imbalance in the hypothalamus of rodents caused by local chemical stimulation elicits fear-related defensive reactions such as escape and freezing. In addition, these panic attack-like defensive reactions induced by hypothalamic neurons may cause antinociception. However, there is a shortage of studies showing the participation of the anterior hypothalamic nucleus in these adaptive defensive mechanisms. Nitric oxide (NO) donors have been shown to evoke fear-related defensive responses when microinjected into paralimbic and limbic structures, and this excitatory neuromodulation can recruit the glutamatergic system...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708042/the-epidemiology-of-5-methoxy-n-n-dimethyltryptamine-5-meo-dmt-use-benefits-consequences-patterns-of-use-subjective-effects-and-reasons-for-consumption
#7
Alan K Davis, Joseph P Barsuglia, Rafael Lancelotta, Robert M Grant, Elise Renn
BACKGROUND/AIM: 5-Methoxy- N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) is a psychoactive compound found in several plants and in high concentrations in Bufo alvarius toad venom. Synthetic, toad, and plant-sourced 5-MeO-DMT are used for spiritual and recreational purposes and may have psychotherapeutic effects. However, the use of 5-MeO-DMT is not well understood. Therefore, we examined patterns of use, motivations for consumption, subjective effects, and potential benefits and consequences associated with 5-MeO-DMT use...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692206/pilot-investigation-of-the-effect-of-carvedilol-on-stress-precipitated-smoking-lapse-behavior
#8
Terril L Verplaetse, Andrea H Weinberger, Rebecca L Ashare, Brian P Pittman, Julia M Shi, Jeanette M Tetrault, Meaghan Lavery, Sherry A McKee
INTRODUCTION: Separate α1- and β-adrenergic antagonists have shown efficacy in reducing nicotine-motivated behaviors in rodents and humans, supporting a role for the noradrenergic system in mediating the reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse. However, the effect of the combined α1- and β-adrenergic antagonist, carvedilol, on stress-related smoking is unknown. METHODS: Using a well-established human laboratory model of stress-precipitated smoking-lapse behavior, we examined whether carvedilol (0 or 50 mg/day; between subject, n=17 per group), administered to steady-state, would attenuate the ability to resist smoking following stress imagery (vs...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620439/coffee-with-co-workers-role-of-caffeine-on-evaluations-of-the-self-and-others-in-group-settings
#9
Vasu Unnava, Amit Surendra Singh, H Rao Unnava
This research explores the effect of consuming a moderate amount of commercially available caffeinated coffee on an individual's self-evaluated participation in a group activity and subsequent evaluations of the experience. Across two studies, results show that consuming a moderate amount of caffeinated coffee prior to indulging in a group activity enhances an individual's task-relevant participation in the group activity. In addition, subjective evaluations of the participation of other group members and oneself are also positively influenced...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620428/dietary-dopamine-depletion-blunts-reward-network-sensitivity-to-face-trustworthiness
#10
Leslie A Zebrowitz, Jasmine Boshyan, Noreen Ward, Luke Hanlin, Jutta M Wolf, Nouchine Hadjikhani
Research demonstrating responsiveness of the neural reward network to face trustworthiness has not assessed whether the effects are mediated by dopaminergic function. We filled this gap in the literature by investigating whether dietary dopamine depletion would blunt the sensitivity of neural activation to faces varying in trustworthiness across reward regions as well as the sensitivity of behavioral responses to those faces. As prolactin release is negatively regulated by dopamine, peripheral prolactin levels confirmed the efficacy of our manipulation...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29591635/are-cannabis-using-and-non-using-patients-different-groups-towards-understanding-the-neurobiology-of-cannabis-use-in-psychotic-disorders
#11
Musa Basseer Sami, Sagnik Bhattacharyya
A substantial body of credible evidence has accumulated that suggest that cannabis use is an important potentially preventable risk factor for the development of psychotic illness and its worse prognosis following the onset of psychosis. Here we summarize the relevant evidence to argue that the time has come to investigate the neurobiological effects of cannabis in patients with psychotic disorders. In the first section we summarize evidence from longitudinal studies that controlled for a range of potential confounders of the association of cannabis use with increased risk of developing psychotic disorders, increased risk of hospitalization, frequent and longer hospital stays, and failure of treatment with medications for psychosis in those with established illness...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587564/mirtazapine-attenuates-nicotine-seeking-behavior-in-rats
#12
Susana Barbosa-Méndez, Alberto Salazar-Juárez
BACKGROUND: Nicotine is the major psychoactive component of tobacco. A number of pharmacological therapies have been evaluated, with poor results. Given the lack of success of these therapies, several authors have proposed alternative therapeutic strategies. One of these is the use of antidepressant drugs that may have a specific effect on the neural pathways or receptors underlying nicotine addiction. Mirtazapine is an antagonist of α2 NE receptors (noradrenergic receptor), 5-HT2A/C and 5-HT3 receptors and has demonstrated efficacy in reducing behavioral effects induced by drugs of abuse in human and animal models...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580130/repeated-intermittent-oral-amphetamine-administration-results-in-locomotor-tolerance-not-sensitization
#13
Amy C Turner, Agata Stramek, Igor Kraev, Michael G Stewart, Paul G Overton, Eleanor J Dommett
BACKGROUND: The phenomenon of locomotor sensitization to injected amphetamine is well-characterised. The increased locomotor activity found acutely is enhanced with repeated intermittent treatment. This effect arises due to hypersensitization of the dopaminergic system and is linked to drug addiction. A clinical population exposed to chronic repeated intermittent amphetamine treatment, such as is found for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), may be expected to be more at risk of addiction following this treatment...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580129/bidirectional-influence-of-amygdala-%C3%AE-1-adrenoceptors-blockade-on-cannabinoid-signaling-in-contextual-and-auditory-fear-memory
#14
Mohammad Nasehi, Saman Shahbazzadeh, Mohaddeseh Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is a major target and modulator of stress and has a critical role in the neural circuitry presenting learned fear behaviors. On the other hand, both the endocannabinoid and noradrenergic systems may be involved in regulating the stress responses, fear, and anxiety. Considering the aforementioned, we have investigated the involvement of the BLA β1 -adrenoceptors in conditioned fear responses induced by ACPA, a CB1 receptor (CB1R) agonist. In adult male NMRI mice, freezing responses to context and cue were measured using a Pavlovian fear conditioning apparatus...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561204/safety-and-efficacy-of-maintenance-ketamine-treatment-in-patients-with-treatment-refractory-generalised-anxiety-and-social-anxiety-disorders
#15
Paul Glue, Shona M Neehoff, Natalie J Medlicott, Andrew Gray, Guy Kibby, Neil McNaughton
OBJECTIVE: In this maintenance treatment study, we sought to evaluate the effect on anxiety ratings, safety and tolerability of 3 months of weekly ketamine in 20 patients with treatment-refractory DSM IV generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) and/or social anxiety disorder (SAD), and subsequent assessment of remission post-treatment. METHODS: This was an uncontrolled open-label study in 20 patients who had been responders in an ascending dose ketamine study. The study was undertaken in a university clinic...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552947/a-probe-in-the-connection-between-inflammation-cognition-and-suicide
#16
Ricardo Cáceda, W Sue T Griffin, Pedro L Delgado
BACKGROUND: Increased inflammation is linked to suicide risk. However, it is unclear whether increased inflammation drives suicidal crises or is a trait associated with lifetime suicidal behavior. Limited data exist on the sources of increased inflammation observed in suicidal patients and on its downstream effects. AIMS: To examine factors associated with inflammation and with suicidal ideation severity in acutely suicidal depressed patients. METHODS: Fifty-two adult depressed patients of both sexes hospitalized for severe suicidal ideation were characterized for suicidality, depression, anxiety, medical comorbidity, psychological and physical pain, impulsivity, verbal fluency, C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin (IL) 6...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542371/repeated-intranasal-ketamine-for-treatment-resistant-depression-the-way-to-go-results-from-a-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial
#17
Verònica Gálvez, Adrienne Li, Christina Huggins, Paul Glue, Donel Martin, Andrew A Somogyi, Angelo Alonzo, Anthony Rodgers, Philip B Mitchell, Colleen K Loo
BACKGROUND: Ketamine research in depression has mostly used intravenous, weight-based approaches, which are difficult to translate clinically. Intranasal (IN) ketamine is a promising alternative but no controlled data has been published on the feasibility, safety and potential efficacy of repeated IN ketamine treatments. METHODS: This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study compared a 4-week course of eight treatments of 100 mg ketamine or 4.5 mg midazolam...
April 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692222/long-term-follow-up-of-clozapine-prescribing
#18
Siobhan H Gee, Sukhwinder S Shergill, David M Taylor
OBJECTIVE: Clozapine is uniquely effective for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, and so treatment continuation is essential. We aimed to identify factors associated with an increased likelihood of clozapine discontinuation in a cohort of patients in South East London. METHODS: We gathered demographic and treatment information such as duration of illness and antipsychotic treatment history. t-tests, chi-square tests and binary logistic regression were used to compare patients who continued and discontinued clozapine during the study and to identify predictor variables for discontinuation...
May 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536820/single-dose-hydrocortisone-administration-does-not-enhance-motor-sequence-learning-or-reward-learning-in-humans
#19
Jan Günthner, Jacqueline Scholl, Falk Kiefer, Andrea Reinecke
Despite its physiological and clinical relevance, the influence of hydrocortisone on specific kinds of learning remains relatively unexplored. We measured the effect of hydrocortisone on motor sequence and reward learning under non-stress conditions. For the study, 54 healthy young volunteers were randomly assigned to a dose of 20 mg hydrocortisone versus placebo. Participants performed two well-defined learning tasks. Hydrocortisone did not affect motor sequence or reward learning.
May 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493378/liraglutide-prevents-metabolic-side-effects-and-improves-recognition-and-working-memory-during-antipsychotic-treatment-in-rats
#20
Ilijana Babic, Ashleigh Gorak, Martin Engel, Dominic Sellers, Paul Else, Ashleigh L Osborne, Nagesh Pai, Xu-Feng Huang, Jessica Nealon, Katrina Weston-Green
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic drugs (APDs), olanzapine and clozapine, do not effectively address the cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia and can cause serious metabolic side-effects. Liraglutide is a synthetic glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist with anti-obesity and neuroprotective properties. The aim of this study was to examine whether liraglutide prevents weight gain/hyperglycaemia side-effects and cognitive deficits when co-administered from the commencement of olanzapine and clozapine treatment...
May 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
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