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Journal of Psychopharmacology

Yusuke Nakata, Nobuhisa Kanahara, Masaomi Iyo
Dopamine supersensitivity psychosis (DSP) is observed in patients with schizophrenia under antipsychotic treatment, and it is characterized by rebound psychosis, an uncontrollable psychotic episode following a stable state and tardive dyskinesia. DSP, first described in patients taking typical antipsychotics in the late 1970s, sometimes appears even in patients who are treated with current atypical antipsychotics. It was recently demonstrated that DSP can have a negative impact on the long-term prognosis of schizophrenia patients and that DSP could be involved in the etiology of some cases of treatment-resistant schizophrenia...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
L Hetherington, E J Dommett, A C Turner, T B Riley, J X Haensel, P G Overton
The mechanism of action of psychostimulant drugs in the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is still largely unknown, although recent evidence suggests one possibility is that the drugs affect the superior colliculus (SC). We have previously demonstrated that systemically administered d-amphetamine attenuates/abolishes visual responses to wholefield light flashes in the superficial layers of the SC in anaesthetised rats, and the present study sought to extend this work to methylphenidate (MPH)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Mhj Schulte, A E Goudriaan, A M Kaag, D P Kooi, W van den Brink, R W Wiers, L Schmaal
Using data form a 14-day double-blind trial with 48 smokers randomized to either N-acetylcysteine (2400 mg) or placebo, we tested the effect of N-acetylcysteine on glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid concentrations in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and on smoking cessation. Smoking related behaviors and neurotransmitter concentrations in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex were assessed before and after treatment. Forty-seven non-smoking males served as baseline controls. Smokers showed higher baseline glutamate but similar gamma-aminobutyric acid concentrations than non-smokers...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Cameron Castle, Andrew Gray, Shona Neehoff, Paul Glue
Patients receiving ketamine for refractory depression and anxiety report dissociative symptoms in the first 60 min post-dose. The most commonly used instrument to assess this is the Clinician-Administered Dissociative States Scale (CADSS), developed based on the assessment of patients with dissociative symptoms. Its psychometric properties for ketamine-induced dissociation have not been reported. We evaluated these from a study using 0.25-1 mg/kg ketamine and midazolam (as an active control) in 18 patients with treatment-resistant anxiety...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Jeffrey D Wardell, Bernard Le Foll, Christian S Hendershot
Impaired control over alcohol is central to alcohol use disorder, but most research on impaired control is limited to self-report methods. This study applied intravenous alcohol self-administration to conduct a preliminary investigation of a novel human laboratory model of impaired control. Heavy episodic drinkers (ages 19-22 years) completed a two-hour intravenous alcohol self-administration session that involved an incentive to maintain breath alcohol concentration below 80 mg%. Impaired control was operationalized based on whether participants exceeded (impaired control positive; IC+) or adhered to (impaired control negative; IC-) the breath alcohol concentration limit, as well as the discrepancy between intended and actual peak breath alcohol concentration...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Eric Stice, Heather Shaw
Understanding factors that contribute to eating disorders, which affect 13% of females, is critical to developing effective prevention and treatment programs. In this paper, we summarize results from prospective studies that identified factors predicting onset and persistence of eating disorders and core symptom dimensions. Next, implications for intervention targets for prevention, and treatment interventions from the risk- and maintenance-factor findings are discussed. Third, given that evidence suggests eating disorders are highly heritable, implying biological risk and maintenance factors for eating disorders, we offer working hypotheses about biological factors that might contribute to eating disorders, based on extant risk factor findings, theory, and cross-sectional studies...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Simon S Evers, Gretha J Boersma, Kellie Lk Tamashiro, Anton Jw Scheurink, Gertjan van Dijk
Olanzapine, an antipsychotic agent mainly used for treating schizophrenia, is frequently associated with body weight gain and diabetes mellitus. Nonetheless, studies have shown that not every individual is equally susceptible to olanzapine's weight-gaining effect. Therefore, Roman high and low avoidance rat strains were examined on their responsiveness to olanzapine treatment. The Roman high avoidance rat shares many behavioral and physiological characteristics with human schizophrenia, such as increased central dopaminergic sensitivity, whereas the Roman low avoidance rat has been shown to be prone to diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Gavin P Reynolds, Olga O McGowan
The increase in cardiovascular disease and reduced life expectancy in schizophrenia likely relate to an increased prevalence of metabolic disturbances. Such metabolic risk factors in schizophrenia may result from both symptom-related effects and aetiological factors. However, a major contributory factor is that of treatment with antipsychotic drugs. These drugs differ in effects on body weight; the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood and may vary between drugs, but may include actions at receptors associated with the hypothalamic control of food intake...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Anna Brancato, Angela Cavallaro, Gianluca Lavanco, Fulvio Plescia, Carla Cannizzaro
While a lot is known about the mechanisms promoting aversive learning, the impact of rewarding factors on memory has received comparatively less attention. This research investigates reward-related explicit memory in male rats, by taking advantage of the emotional-object recognition test. This is based on the prior association, during conditioned learning, between a rewarding experience (the encounter with a receptive female rat) and an object; afterwards rat discrimination and recognition of the 'emotional object' is recorded in the presence of a novel object, as a measure of positive limbic memory formation...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Júlia Frozi, Hudson W de Carvalho, Gustavo L Ottoni, Rodrigo A Cunha, Diogo R Lara
Caffeine acts by antagonizing the effect of the endogenous homeostatic sleep factor adenosine. In the current study we aimed to evaluate the pattern of caffeine-induced insomnia and its relation to age and sex in a general population sample derived from a web survey. The sample included 75,534 participants (28.1% men) from 18 to 75 years who answered self-report questionnaires by accessing a website in Brazilian Portuguese (BRAINSTEP project). In our sample, 3620 (17.0%) men and 9920 (18.3%) women reported insomnia due to caffeine intake...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Bao N Nguyen, Sui-Ann Hew, John Ly, Hee-Young Shin, Jessica C Wong, Emily Yeung, Allison M McKendrick
Caffeine is a widely used psychostimulant that is associated with increased acetylcholine levels in mammalian brain and acetycholinesterase antagonism. Acetylcholine, a neuromodulator, plays an important role in the processing of visual information. One key example in human vision, thought to at least partly involve cholinergic neuromodulation, is perceptual surround suppression of contrast, whereby the perceived contrast of a pattern is altered by the presence of a neighbouring pattern. Perceptual surround suppression is weaker with pharmacological administration of donepezil (a centrally-acting acetylcholine enzyme inhibitor) in healthy human observers...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Jack H Wilson, Amy H Criss, Sean A Spangler, Katherine Walukevich, Sandra Hewett
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs work by non-selectively inhibiting cyclooxygenase enzymes. Evidence indicates that metabolites of the cyclooxygenase pathway play a critical role in the process of learning and memory. We evaluated whether acute naproxen treatment impairs short-term working memory, episodic memory, or semantic memory in a young, healthy adult population. Participants received a single dose of placebo or naproxen (750 mg) in random order separated by 7-10 days. Two hours following administration, participants completed five memory tasks...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Sema Akgün, Tülay Köken, Ahmet Kahraman
INTRODUCTION: An increased risk for metabolic syndrome (MS) has been described for people with psychotic and mood disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of valproic acid (VPA) treatment on adiponectin, leptin levels and oxidative stress in bipolar disorder (BD). METHODS: Forty patients with BD receiving VPA monotherapy and 20 healthy control subjects were included in this study. BD patients were divided into two groups with and without MS as group 1 and group 2, respectively...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Muhammad I Husain, Rebecca Strawbridge, Paul Ra Stokes, Allan H Young
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that anti-inflammatory medication may play a role in the treatment of mood disorders. AIMS: The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of anti-inflammatory drugs in patients with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. METHOD: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, EMBASE, PsychINFO and were searched from inception until 15 April 2017 for completed and on-going randomized controlled trials of anti-inflammatory agents for major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
R L Carhart-Harris, D J Nutt
Previous attempts to identify a unified theory of brain serotonin function have largely failed to achieve consensus. In this present synthesis, we integrate previous perspectives with new and older data to create a novel bipartite model centred on the view that serotonin neurotransmission enhances two distinct adaptive responses to adversity, mediated in large part by its two most prevalent and researched brain receptors: the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors. We propose that passive coping (i.e. tolerating a source of stress) is mediated by postsynaptic 5-HT1AR signalling and characterised by stress moderation...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Cynthia Richards, Dan V Iosifescu, Rajnish Mago, Elias Sarkis, James Reynolds, Brooke Geibel, Matthew Dauphin
BACKGROUND: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated dose-response relationships of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate when used as augmentation for major depressive disorder in individuals exhibiting inadequate responses to antidepressant monotherapy. METHODS: Eligible adults (18-65 years) were assigned to antidepressant monotherapy (escitalopram or venlafaxine extended-release) plus lisdexamfetamine dimesylate-matching placebo during an eight-week single-blind lead-in phase...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Muhammad I Husain, Imran B Chaudhry, Nusrat Husain, Ameer B Khoso, Raza R Rahman, Munir M Hamirani, John Hodsoll, Inti Qurashi, John Fw Deakin, Allan H Young
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that anti-inflammatory medication may be effective in the treatment of depressive symptoms. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether minocycline added to treatment as usual (TAU) for 3 months in patients with treatment-resistant depression will lead to an improvement in depressive symptoms. METHODS: Multi-site, 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot trial of minocycline added to TAU for patients suffering from DSM-5 major depressive disorder, whose current episode has failed to respond to at least two antidepressants...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Suzan G Rosa, Ana P Pesarico, Carolina F Tagliapietra, Sônia C A da Luz, Cristina W Nogueira
Animal and clinical researches indicate that the opioid system exerts a crucial role in the etiology of mood disorders and is a target for intervention in depression treatment. This study investigated the contribution of the opioid system to the antidepressant-like action of acute or repeated m-trifluoromethyl-diphenyl diselenide administration to Swiss mice. m-Trifluoromethyl-diphenyl diselenide (50 mg/kg, intragastric) produced an antidepressant-like action in the forced swimming test from 30 min to 24 h after treatment...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Anjali Sankar, Tracey M Adams, Sergi G Costafreda, Lauren B Marangell, Cynthia Hy Fu
Impairments in verbal working memory are evident in major depression. Verbal working memory is comprised of the components of encoding, maintenance and retrieval. Whether the neural impairments are expressed in specific components, and how pharmacological therapy could modify the neural correlates are not well understood. We investigated the neural correlates of verbal working memory components in depression using the Sternberg task in a longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study. Serial scans were acquired in 23 patients (mean age 39...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Zeljka Brkic, Ester Francija, Zorica Petrovic, Dusanka Franic, Iva Lukic, Milos Mitic, Miroslav Adzic
Inflammation plays a critical role in pathogenesis of depression and can affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Accordingly, in this study we investigated the role of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor in mediating the effects of inflammation on behaviour of female and male Wistar rats. We studied the effects of lipopolysaccharide on the levels of glucocorticoid receptors and its co-chaperones FK506 binding protein 52 and FK506 binding protein 51, the levels of glucocorticoid receptor phospho-isoforms, pGR-232 and pGR-246, and glucocorticoid receptor up-stream kinases...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
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