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Research in Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974446/assessment-of-cpa-scl1-and-scl2-in-clinical-group-a-streptococcus-isolates-and-patients-from-north-india-an-evaluation-of-the-host-pathogen-interaction
#1
Priyanka Chaudhary, Rajesh Kumar, Vivek Sagar, Subendu Sarkar, Rupneet Singh, Sujata Ghosh, Surjit Singh, Anuradha Chakraborti
Group A streptococcus (GAS) infection remains a major concern due to multiple diseases including pharyngitis, impetigo, acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD). It uses different adhesins and virulence factors like Cpa (collagen binding protein) and Scl (collagen-like protein) in its pathogenicity. Scl having similarities with human collagen may contribute to inducing autoimmunity in the host. Here we assessed gene expression, antibody titer of Cpa, Scl1 and Scl2 in both clinical GAS isolates (n=45) and blood (n=45) obtained from pharyngisis, ARF (acute rheumatic fever) and RHD respectively...
September 30, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974445/cinnamaldehyde-induces-changes-in-the-protein-profile-of-salmonella-typhimurium-biofilm
#2
Alex Fiori Silva, Adriele Rodrigues Dos Santos, Daliah Alves Coelho Trevisan, Alessandra Braga Ribeiro, Paula Aline Zanetti Sá-Campanerut, Caroline Kukolj, Emanuel Maltempi de Souza, Rosilene Fressatti Cardoso, Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski, Benicio Alves de Abreu Filho, Miguel Machinski Junior, Jane Martha Graton Mikcha
The effect of cinnamaldehyde against biofilm cells of Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 was evaluated. We also assessed differential protein patterns that were expressed by biofilms compared with planktonic cells and protein expression by cinnamaldehyde-treated biofilms cells. This compound decreased biofilm biomass and metabolic activity of biofilms at both concentrations tested. Cinnamaldehyde treatment reduced the number of attached cells in polypropylene, reflected by colony count and scanning electron microscopy...
September 30, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962921/clamping-down-on-drugs-the-escherichia-coli-multidrug-efflux-protein-mdtm
#3
Christopher J Law, Kamela O Alegre
Multidrug resistance is principally a consequence of the active transport of drugs out of the cell by proteins that are integral membrane transporters. In the following review, we present a synthesis of current understanding of the Escherichia coli multidrug resistance transporter, MdtM, a 410 amino acid residue protein that belongs to the large and ubiquitous major facilitator superfamily (MFS).
September 27, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951231/the-fascinating-but-mysterious-mechanistic-aspects-of-multidrug-transport-by-mdfa-from-escherichia-coli
#4
Eliane H Yardeni, Elia Zomot, Eitan Bibi
MdfA is an interesting member of a large group of secondary multidrug (Mdr) transporters. Through genetic, biochemical and biophysical studies of MdfA, many challenging aspects of the multidrug transport phenomenon have been addressed. This includes its ability to interact with chemically unrelated drugs and how it utilizes energy to drive efflux of compounds that are not only structurally, but also electrically, different. Admittedly, however, despite all efforts and a recent pioneering structural contribution, several important mechanistic issues of the promiscuous capabilities of MdfA still seek better molecular and dynamic understanding...
September 23, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951230/biosensor-for-screening-bacterial-mercury-methylation-example-within-the-desulfobulbaceae
#5
Yannick Colin, Jérôme Gury, Mathilde Monperrus, Sophie Gentes, Paola Ayala, Marisol Goni-Urriza, Rémy Guyoneaud
Mercury methylation and demethylation processes govern the fate of methylmercury in aquatic ecosystems. Under anoxic conditions, methylation activity is mainly of biological origin and is often the result of sulfate-reducing bacteria. In this study, use of a luminescent biosensor for screening methylmercury production was validated by exposing the reporter strain to methylating or non-methylating Desulfovibrio strains. The sensitivity of the biosensor to methylmercury was shown to depend on sulfate-reducing bacterial growth conditions...
September 23, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951208/lactobacillus-iners-the-unusual-suspect
#6
Mario Vaneechoutte
Lactobacillus iners is an unusual Lactobacillus species which does not grow on de Man Rogosa Sharpe agar, does not produce d-lactic acid, and only limited amounts of hydrogen peroxide. Its production of inerolysin, a cytotoxin, is also unusual for a lactobacillus. Epidemiological studies point to an ambiguous role for this species, which is quite often recovered in high numbers from vaginal dysbiosis and offers limited protection against vaginal dysbiosis and, subsequently, against sexually transmitted infections and adverse pregnancy outcome...
September 22, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919044/susceptibility-of-colistin-resistant-pathogens-to-predatory-bacteria
#7
Sonal Dharani, Dong Hyun Kim, Robert M Q Shanks, Yohei Doi, Daniel E Kadouri
The increase in multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections has forced the reintroduction of antibiotics such as colistin. However, the spread of the plasmid-borne mcr-1 colistin resistance gene have moved us closer to an era of untreatable Gram-negative infections. To evaluate whether predatory bacteria could be used as a potential therapeutic to treat this upcoming threat, the ability of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus and Micavibrio aeruginosavorus to prey on several clinically relevant mcr-1-positive, colistin-resistant isolates was evaluated...
September 15, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893659/a-halotolerant-enterobacter-sp-displaying-acc-deaminase-activity-promotes-rice-seedling-growth-under-salt-stress
#8
Anumita Sarkar, Pallab Kumar Ghosh, Krishnendu Pramanik, Soumik Mitra, Tithi Soren, Sanjeev Pandey, Monohar Hossain Mondal, Tushar Kanti Maiti
Agricultural productivity is proven to be hampered by the synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and production of stress-induced ethylene under salinity stress. One-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) is the direct precursor of ethylene synthesized by plants. Bacteria possessing ACC deaminase activity can use ACC as a nitrogen source preventing ethylene production. Several salt-tolerant bacterial strains displaying ACC deaminase activity were isolated from rice fields, and their plant growth-promoting (PGP) properties were determined...
September 9, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870757/global-effect-of-csra-on-gene-expression-in-enterohemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-o157-h7
#9
Shaomeng Wang, Fan Yang, Bin Yang
The post-transcriptional regulator CsrA regulates multiple unrelated processes such as central carbon metabolism, motility, biofilm formation and bacterial virulence in different bacteria. However, regulation by CsrA in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is still largely unknown. In this study, we performed a detailed analysis of gene expression differences between the EHEC O157:H7 wild-type strain and a corresponding csrA::kan mutant using RNA-seq technology. Genes whose expression was affected by CsrA were identified and grouped into different clusters of orthologous group categories...
September 9, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888938/occurrence-of-vibrio-cholerae-in-water-reservoirs-of-burkina-faso
#10
Saidou Kaboré, Philippe Cecchi, Thomas Mosser, Mylène Toubiana, Oumar Traoré, Aboubakar S Ouattara, Alfred S Traoré, Nicolas Barro, Rita R Colwell, Patrick Monfort
Africa is currently an important region in which cholera epidemics occur. Little is known about the presence of Vibriocholerae in freshwater bodies in Africa. There are ca. 1700 lakes and reservoirs in Burkina Faso, most of which have been built within recent decades to secure water resources. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of V. cholerae in the water of reservoirs, using the most-probable-number polymerase chain reaction. Results showed that V. cholerae could be detected in water samples collected from 14 of 39 sampled reservoirs...
September 6, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851671/phylogenetic-diversity-and-antagonistic-traits-of-root-and-rhizosphere-pseudomonads-of-bean-from-iran-for-controlling-rhizoctonia-solani
#11
Vahid Keshavarz-Tohid, Parissa Taheri, Daniel Muller, Claire Prigent-Combaret, Jordan Vacheron, Seyed Mohsen Taghavi, Saeed Tarighi, Yvan Moënne-Loccoz
Fluorescent pseudomonads from bean root and rhizosphere in Iran were investigated for biocontrol of the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoD sequences for 33 Pseudomonas isolates showed that 15 belonged to four clusters within the 'P. fluorescens' group, i.e. one corresponding to P. thivervalensis, two others including P. moraviensis or P. baetica, and the last one without closely-related established species. The 18 other isolates belonged to five clusters within the 'P...
August 26, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851670/the-human-vaginal-microbial-community
#12
Mario Vaneechoutte
Monopolization of the vaginal econiche by a limited number of Lactobacillus species, resulting in low pH of 3.5-4.5, has been shown to protect women against vaginal dysbiosis, sexually transmitted infections and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Still, controversy exists as to which characteristics of lactobacilli are most important with regard to colonization resistance and to providing protection. This review addresses the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory roles of lactic acid (and low pH) and hydrogen peroxide (and oxidative stress) as means of lactobacilli to dominate the vaginal econiche...
August 26, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774774/saccharomyces-cerevisiae-ktr4-ktr5-and-ktr7-encode-mannosyltransferases-differentially-involved-in-the-n-and-o-linked-glycosylation-pathways
#13
Nahúm V Hernández, Luz A López-Ramírez, Diana F Díaz-Jiménez, Erika Mellado-Mojica, Iván Martínez-Duncker, Mercedes G López, Héctor M Mora-Montes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a model to understand basic aspects of protein glycosylation pathways. Although these metabolic routes have been thoroughly studied, there are still knowledge gaps; among them, the role of the MNT1/KRE2 gene family. This family is composed of nine members, with only six functionally characterized. The enzymes Ktr1, Ktr3, and Mnt1/Kre2 have overlapping activities in both O-linked and N-linked glycan synthesis; while Ktr2 and Yur1 participate exclusively in the elongation of the N-linked glycan outer chain...
July 31, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435138/proteomic-analysis-of-a-mosquito-host-cell-response-to-persistent-wolbachia-infection
#14
Gerald Baldridge, LeeAnn Higgins, Bruce Witthuhn, Todd Markowski, Abigail Baldridge, Anibal Armien, Ann Fallon
Wolbachia pipientis, an obligate intracellular bacterium associated with arthropods and filarial worms, is a target for filarial disease treatment and provides a gene drive agent for insect vector population suppression/replacement. We compared proteomes of Aedes albopictus mosquito C/wStr1 cells persistently infected with Wolbachia strain wStr, relative to uninfected C7-10 control cells. Among approximately 2500 proteins, iTRAQ data identified 815 differentially abundant proteins. As functional classes, energy and central intermediary metabolism proteins were elevated in infected cells, while suppressed proteins with roles in host DNA replication, transcription and translation suggested that Wolbachia suppresses pathways that support host cell growth and proliferation...
September 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728853/eve-s-garden-myths-legends-and-secrets-unmasked
#15
Tania Crucitti
This special issue of Research in Microbiology aims to provide some insights in one of women's most fascinating interacting microbial communities: the vaginal microbiome. Even in the 21st century, with many advanced methods at hand, the definition of the healthy vaginal microbiome remains under debate. The interest in studying the dysbiosis of the vaginal microbiome is increasing and goes well beyond the study of bacterial vaginosis. The selection of contributions in this issue summarizes what is currently known in terms of inter- and intra-microorganisms interaction as well as the virulence factors that some of them may deploy...
July 17, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728852/in%C3%A2-vitro-characteristics-of-an-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-hind-gut-microbial-community-in-relation-to-different-dietary-treatments
#16
Kamarul Zaman Zarkasi, Richard S Taylor, Brett D Glencross, Guy C J Abell, Mark L Tamplin, John P Bowman
In this study, microbial community dynamics were assessed within a simple in vitro model system in order to understand those changes influenced by diet. The abundance and diversity of bacteria were monitored within different treatment slurries inoculated with salmon faecal samples in order to mimic the effects of dietary variables. A total of five complete diets and two ingredients (plant meal) were tested. The total viable counts (TVCs) and sequencing data revealed that there was very clear separation between the complete diets and the plant meal treatments, suggesting a dynamic response by the allochthonous bacteria to the treatments...
July 17, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716397/polymicrobial-infections-and-biofilms-in-women-s-health-gahro-expert-group-meeting-report-2017
#17
EDITORIAL
Nuno Cerca, Mario Vaneechoutte, Alexander Guschin, Alexander Swidsinski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 14, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709697/effects-of-p-limitation-and-molecules-from-peanut-root-exudates-on-pqqe-gene-expression-and-pqq-promoter-activity-in-the-phosphate-solubilizing-strain-serratia-sp-s119
#18
Liliana M Ludueña, Maria S Anzuay, Cynthia Magallanes-Noguera, Maria L Tonelli, Fernando J Ibañez, Jorge G Angelini, Adriana Fabra, Matthew McIntosh, Tania Taurian
The mineral phosphate-solubilizing phenotype in bacteria is attributed predominantly to secretion of gluconic acid produced by oxidation of glucose by the glucose dehydrogenase enzyme and its cofactor, pyrroloquinoline quinone. This study analyzes pqqE gene expression and pqq promoter activity in the native phosphate-solubilizing bacterium Serratia sp S119 growing under P-limitation, and in the presence of root exudates obtained from peanut plants, also growing under P-limitation. Results indicated that Serratia sp...
July 11, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684253/sub-inhibitory-concentrations-of-gentamicin-triggers-the-expression-of-aac-6-ie-aph-2%C3%A2-ia-chaperons-and-biofilm-related-genes-in-lactobacillus-plantarum-mcc-3011
#19
Jaimee George, Prakash Motiram Halami
The study aimed to analyze the effects of sub-inhibitory concentrations of gentamicin on the expressions of high level aminoglycoside resistant (HLAR) bifunctional aac(6')Ie-aph(2″)Ia, biofilm and chaperone genes in Lactobacillus plantarum. The analysis of the biofilm formation in five isolates obtained from chicken sausages indicated their role in exhibiting phenotypic resistance based on the varied MIC values despite carrying the bifunctional gene. The biofilm formation significantly increased when L. plantarum MCC 3011 was grown in sub-inhibitory concentrations of gentamicin (4 μg/ml), kanamycin (8 μg/ml) and streptomycin (2 μg/ml)...
July 4, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366837/slpe-is-a-calcium-dependent-cytotoxic-metalloprotease-associated-with-clinical-isolates-of-serratia-marcescens
#20
Nicholas A Stella, Jake D Callaghan, Liang Zhang, Kimberly M Brothers, Regis P Kowalski, Jean J Huang, Patrick H Thibodeau, Robert M Q Shanks
Serralysin-like proteases are found in a wide variety of bacteria. These metalloproteases are frequently implicated in virulence and are members of the widely conserved RTX-toxin family. We identified a serralysin-like protease in the genome of a clinical isolate of Serratia marcescens that is highly similar to the canonical serralysin protein, PrtS. This gene was named serralysin-like protease E, SlpE, and was found in the majority (67%) of tested clinical isolates, but was absent from most tested non-clinical isolates including the insect pathogen and reference S...
July 2017: Research in Microbiology
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