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Research in Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526528/gluten-degrading-bacteria-are-present-in-the-human-small-intestine-of-healthy-volunteers-and-celiac-patients
#1
Alexandra R Herrán, Jénifer Pérez-Andrés, Alberto Caminero, Esther Nistal, Santiago Vivas, José María Ruiz de Morales, Javier Casqueiro
Gluten is the only known environmental factor that triggers celiac disease. Several studies have described an imbalance between the intestinal microbiota of different individuals based on diagnoses. Moreover, recent studies have suggested that human bacteria may play an important role in gluten hydrolysis. However, there has been no research focusing on the small intestine. This study aimed to characterize the adult small intestine microbiota possibly implicated in gluten hydrolysis. Duodenal biopsies from different diagnosed individuals were cultured in a gluten-containing medium, and the grown microbiota was analyzed by culture dependent/independent methods...
May 16, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506837/the-roles-of-actin-cytoskeleton-and-actin-associated-protein-crn1p-in-trap-formation-of-arthrobotrys-oligospora
#2
Donghua Zhang, Xin Zhu, Fan Sun, Keqin Zhang, Shanzhuang Niu, Xiaowei Huang
Nematode-trapping fungi include a variety of species capable of generating specific trapping devices to capture nematodes and the production of devices is also an indicator of a switch from saprophytic to predacious lifestyles. Traps are developed from vegetative mycelia, but they are quite different from hyphae in both morphological and physiological characteristics. Therefore, the molecular mechanisms underlying their formation have attracted much attention. In this investigation, Arthrobotrys oligospora, a nematode-trapping fungus, has three-dimensional networks and genomics and proteomics were recently performed, so as to reveal the relationship between actin cytoskeleton and trap formation...
May 12, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502874/aerobic-vaginitis-no-longer-a-stranger
#3
Gilbert G G Donders, Gert Bellen, Svitrigaile Grinceviciene, Kateryna Ruban, Pedro Vieira-Baptista
Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is the name given in 2002 to a vaginal infectious entity which was not recognized as such before. It is characterized by abnormal (dysbiotic) vaginal microflora containing aerobic, enteric bacteria, variable levels of vaginal inflammation and deficient epithelial maturation. Although AV and bacterial vaginosis (BV) share some characteristics, such as a diminished number or absence of lactobacilli, increased discharge (fishy smelling in BV, while in severe forms of AV, a foul, rather rotten smell may be present) and increased pH (often more pronounced in AV), there are also striking differences between the two...
May 11, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499955/transcriptomic-analysis-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-upon-honokiol-treatment
#4
Xiaolong Zhu, Shenshen Zou, Youbin Li, Yongheng Liang
Honokiol (HNK), one of the main medicinal components in Magnolia officinalis, possesses antimicrobial activity against a variety of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. However, little is known of the molecular mechanisms underpinning the antimicrobial activity. To explore the molecular mechanism of its antifungal activity, we determined the effects of HNK on the mRNA expression profile of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a DNA microarray approach. HNK markedly induced the expression of genes related to iron uptake and homeostasis...
May 10, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499956/group-x-hybrid-histidine-kinase-chk1-is-dispensable-for-stress-adaptation-host-pathogen-interactions-and-virulence-in-the-opportunistic-yeast-candida-guilliermondii
#5
María J Navarro-Arias, Karine Dementhon, Tatiana A Defosse, Emilien Foureau, Vincent Courdavault, Marc Clastre, Solène Le Gal, Gilles Nevez, Yohann Le Govic, Jean-Philippe Bouchara, Nathalie Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Thierry Noël, Hector M Mora-Montes, Nicolas Papon
Hybrid histidine kinases (HHKs) progressively emerge as prominent sensing proteins in the fungal kingdom and as ideal targets for future therapeutics. The group X HHK is of major interest, since it was demonstrated to play an important role in stress adaptation, host-pathogen interactions and virulence in some yeast and mold models, and particularly Chk1, that corresponds to the sole group X HHK in Candida albicans. In the present work, we investigated the role of Chk1 in the low-virulence species Candida guilliermondii, in order to gain insight into putative conservation of the role of group X HHK in opportunistic yeasts...
May 9, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483441/the-cytidine-repressor-participates-in-the-regulatory-pathway-of-indole-in-pantoea-agglomerans
#6
Mengqi Jia, Xuemei Yu, Jing Jiang, Zihua Li, Yongjun Feng
Indole, an important signal molecule in both intraspecies and interspecies, regulates a variety of bacterial behaviors, but its regulatory mechanism is still unknown. Pantoea agglomerans YS19, a preponderant endophytic bacterium isolated from rice, does not produce indole, yet it senses exogenous indole. In this study, a mutant of YS19-Rp(r) whose target gene expression was downregulated by indole was selected through mTn5 transposon mutagenesis. Using the TAIL-PCR technique, the mutation gene was identified as a cytR homologue, which encodes a cytidine repressor (CytR) protein, a bacterial transcription factor involved in a complex regulation scheme...
May 5, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478075/the-phosphotransferase-system-gene-ptsi-in-bacillus-cereus-regulates-expression-of-soda2-and-contributes-to-colonization-of-wheat-roots
#7
Tantan Gao, Yan Li, Mingzheng Ding, Yunrong Chai, Qi Wang
Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria effectively enhance plant growth and root colonization by the bacteria is a prerequisite during the process. Bacillus cereus 905, a rhizosphere bacterium originally isolated from wheat roots, colonizes the wheat rhizosphere with a large population size. We previously showed that a manganese-containing superoxide dismutase (MnSOD2), encoded by the sodA2 gene, plays an important role in colonization of the wheat rhizosphere by B. cereus 905. In this study, we identified a gene, ptsI, which positively regulates transcription of sodA2...
May 4, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435138/proteomic-analysis-of-a-mosquito-host-cell-response-to-persistent-wolbachia-infection
#8
Gerald Baldridge, Lee Ann Higgins, Bruce Witthuhn, Todd Markowski, Abigail Baldridge, Anibal Armien, Ann Fallon
Wolbachia pipientis, an obligate intracellular bacterium associated with arthropods and filarial worms, is a target for filarial disease treatment and provides a gene drive agent for insect vector population suppression/replacement. We compared proteomes of Aedes albopictus mosquito C/wStr1 cells persistently infected with Wolbachia strain wStr, relative to uninfected C7-10 control cells. Among approximately 2500 proteins, iTRAQ data identified 815 differentially abundant proteins. As functional classes, energy and central intermediary metabolism proteins were elevated in infected cells, while suppressed proteins with roles in host DNA replication, transcription and translation suggested that Wolbachia suppresses pathways that support host cell growth and proliferation...
April 21, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435139/the-role-of-lactic-acid-production-by-probiotic-lactobacillus-species-in-vaginal-health
#9
Gilda Tachedjian, Muriel Aldunate, Catronia S Bradshaw, Richard A Cone
Vaginal eubiosis is characterised by beneficial lactobacillus-dominated microbiota. In contrast, vaginal dysbiosis (e.g. bacterial vaginosis, BV), characterised by an overgrowth of multiple anaerobes, is associated with an increased risk of adverse urogenital and reproductive health outcomes. A major distinguishing feature between the vaginal environment in states of eubiosis and dysbiosis is a high concentration of lactic acid, produced by lactobacilli, that acidifies the vagina in eubiosis versus a sharp drop in lactic acid and an increase in pH in dysbiosis...
April 20, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435137/group-b-streptococcus-and-perinatal-mortality
#10
Piet Cools, Pierrette Melin
The World Health Organization estimates that every year, one million neonatal deaths occur because of neonatal infection. Furthermore, an equal number of stillbirths are thought to be caused by infections. Here we discuss the role of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) in neonatal disease and stillbirth.
April 20, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427910/stochasticity-of-gene-expression-as-a-motor-of-epigenetics-in-bacteria-from-individual-to-collective-behavior
#11
REVIEW
Stéphanie Bury-Moné, Bianca Sclavi
Measuring gene expression at the single cell and single molecule level has recently made possible the quantitative measurement of stochasticity of gene expression. This enables identification of the probable sources and roles of noise. Stochastic gene expression can result in bacterial population heterogeneity, offering specific advantages for fitness and survival in various environments. This trait is therefore selected during the evolution of the species, and is consequently regulated by specific genetic network architecture...
April 18, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412534/isolation-and-identification-of-culturable-bacteria-capable-of-heterotrophic-growth-from-rapid-sand-filters-of-drinking-water-treatment-plants
#12
Johanna Vandermaesen, Bart Lievens, Dirk Springael
The microbial community in sand filters (SFs) of drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) likely contributes to SF functionalities, such as organic carbon removal through heterotrophic metabolism. However, the dynamics and functionality of the SF microbiome and microbial communities in oligotrophic freshwater environments in general, are poorly understood. Therefore, the availability of bacterial strains from these oligotrophic environments is of great interest, but such organisms are currently underrepresented in culture collections...
April 12, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373145/characterization-of-biocontrol-bacterial-strains-isolated-from-a-suppressiveness-induced-soil-after-amendment-with-composted-almond-shells
#13
Carmen Vida, Francisco M Cazorla, Antonio de Vicente
The improvement in soil quality of avocado crops through organic amendments with composted almond shells has a positive effect on crop yield and plant health, and enhances soil suppressiveness against the phytopathogenic fungus Rosellinia necatrix. In previous studies, induced soil suppressiveness against this pathogen was related to stimulation of Gammaproteobacteria, especially some members of Pseudomonas spp. with biocontrol-related activities. In this work, we isolated bacteria from this suppressiveness-induced amended soil using a selective medium for Pseudomonas-like microorganisms...
April 1, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366838/trichomonas-vaginalis-infection-in-symbiosis-with-trichomonasvirus-and-mycoplasma
#14
Raina Fichorova, Jorge Fraga, Paola Rappelli, Pier Luigi Fiori
Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan with an extracellular obligatory parasitic lifestyle exclusively adapted to the human urogenital tract and responsible for nearly a quarter billion sexually transmitted infections worldwide each year. This review focuses on symbiotic Trichomonasvirus and mycoplasma carried by the protozoan, their molecular features and their role in altering the human vaginal microbiome and the immunopathogenicity of the parasite. Improved diagnostics and larger clinical interventional studies are needed to confirm the causative role of protozoan symbionts in the variable clinical presentation of trichomoniasis and its morbid sequelae, including adverse reproductive outcome, susceptibility to viral infections and cancer...
March 31, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366839/anti-salmonella-activity-and-probiotic-trends-of-kluyveromyces-marxianus-s-2-05-and-kluyveromyces-lactis-s-3-05-isolated-from-a-french-cheese-tomme-d-orchies
#15
Alexandre Ceugniez, Françoise Coucheney, Philippe Jacques, Georges Daube, Véronique Delcenserie, Djamel Drider
Kluyveromyces marxianus S-2-05 and Kluyveromyces lactis S-3-05 were recently isolated from a traditional French cheese, Tomme d'Orchies, and characterized here for their advantages using a different application perspective. First, we established their anti-Salmonella activity and downregulation of the virulence sopD gene of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium, mainly in the presence of K. marxianus S-2-05. In addition to their antagonism, these non-Saccharomyces yeasts were able to survive under conditions mimicking the gastrointestinal environment and to form biofilms on an abiotic device such as polystyrene...
March 30, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366837/slpe-is-a-calcium-dependent-cytotoxic-metalloprotease-associated-with-clinical-isolates-of-serratia-marcescens
#16
Nicholas A Stella, Jake D Callaghan, Liang Zhang, Kimberly M Brothers, Regis P Kowalski, Jean J Huang, Patrick H Thibodeau, Robert M Q Shanks
Serralysin-like proteases are found in a wide variety of bacteria. These metalloproteases are frequently implicated in virulence and are members of the widely conserved RTX-toxin family. We identified a serralysin-like protease in the genome of a clinical isolate of Serratia marcescens that is highly similar to the canonical serralysin protein, PrtS. This gene was named serralysin-like protease E, SlpE, and was found in the majority (67%) of tested clinical isolates, but was absent from most tested non-clinical isolates including the insect pathogen and reference S...
March 30, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365379/phosphotransferase-systems-in-enterococcus-faecalis-og1rf-enhance-anti-stress-capacity-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#17
Zhen Peng, Matthias A Ehrmann, Anna Waldhuber, Christine Niemeyer, Thomas Miethke, Julia-Stefanie Frick, Tao Xiong, Rudi F Vogel
Phosphotransferase systems are common and essential in bacteria, which are in charge of sugar transportation and phosphorylation. However, phosphotransferase systems were found in recent years to be associated with environmental stress factors. This study investigated the role of the mannose/fructose/sorbose phosphotransferase systems in Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF in adaption to harsh environments by construction of pts mutants. More than one mannose/fructose/sorbose phosphotransferase system was found in E...
March 29, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344104/antimicrobial-medium-and-long-chain-free-fatty-acids-prevent-prfa-dependent-activation-of-virulence-genes-in-listeria-monocytogenes
#18
Eva Maria Sternkopf Lillebæk, Stine Lambert Nielsen, Rikke Scheel Thomasen, Nils J Færgeman, Birgitte H Kallipolitis
The foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of the invasive disease listeriosis. Infection by L. monocytogenes involves bacterial crossing of the intestinal barrier and intracellular replication in a variety of host cells. The PrfA protein is the master regulator of virulence factors required for bacterial entry, intracellular replication and cell-to-cell spread. PrfA-dependent activation of virulence genes occurs primarily in the blood and during intracellular infection. In contrast, PrfA does not play a significant role in regulation of virulence gene expression in the intestinal environment...
March 23, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342836/membrane-fatty-acid-composition-as-a-determinant-of-listeria-monocytogenes-sensitivity-to-trans-cinnamaldehyde
#19
Gil Rogiers, Biniam T Kebede, Ann Van Loey, Chris W Michiels
Trans-cinnamaldehyde, the major compound of cinnamon essential oil, is a potentially interesting natural antimicrobial food preservative. Although a number of studies have addressed its mode of action, the factors that determine bacterial sensitivity or tolerance to trans-cinnamaldehyde are poorly understood. We report the detailed characterization of a Listeria monocytogenes Scott A trans-cinnamaldehyde hypersensitive mutant defective in IlvE, which catalyzes the reversible transamination of branched-chain amino acids to the corresponding short-chain α-ketoacids...
March 23, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341009/gardnerella-vaginalis-diversity-and-ecology-in-relation-to-vaginal-symptoms
#20
John J Schellenberg, Mo H Patterson, Janet E Hill
Gardnerella vaginalis was first described in 1953, and subsequently identified as the causative agent of a cluster of vaginal symptoms currently known as vaginosis. Research has so far failed to confirm whether and by which mechanism G. vaginalis initiates vaginosis, with, consequently, poor diagnostics and treatment outcomes. Recent molecular analyses of protein-coding genes demonstrate that the taxon G. vaginalis consists of at least four distinct species. This development may represent a critical turning point in clarifying ecological interactions and virulence factors contributing to symptoms and/or sequelae of vaginosis...
March 22, 2017: Research in Microbiology
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