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Research in Microbiology

Nathan J Alves, Kendrick B Turner, Kyle A DiVito, Michael A Daniele, Scott A Walper
To facilitate the rapid purification of bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), we developed two plasmid constructs that utilize a truncated, transmembrane protein to present an exterior histidine repeat sequence. We chose OmpA, a highly abundant porin protein, as the protein scaffold and utilized the lac promoter to allow for inducible control of the epitope-presenting construct. OMVs containing mutant OmpA-His6 were purified directly from Escherichia coli culture media on an immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) Ni-NTA resin...
October 20, 2016: Research in Microbiology
Julia P Bünter, Helena M B Seth-Smith, Simon Rüegg, Annamari Heikinheimo, Nicole Borel, Sophia Johler
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections and a major public health concern worldwide. During the last decade, MRSA of CC398 have emerged as important colonizers of livestock. These strains also represent an increasing cause of human infections. A recent study reporting a new dominant spa type among MRSA from Finish fattening pigs (CC398/t2741) identified a strain lacking both the global virulence regulator gene locus agr and the adhesion gene fnbB...
October 5, 2016: Research in Microbiology
Elise Lallemand, Cédric Arvieux, Guillaume Coiffier, Jean-Louis Polard, Jean-David Albert, Pascal Guggenbuhl, Anne Jolivet-Gougeon
Advantages of MALDI-TOF MS (MS) were evaluated for diagnosis of bone and joint infections after enrichment of synovial fluid (SF) or crushed osteoarticular samples (CSs). MS was performed after enrichment of SF or crushed osteoarticular samples CS (n = 108) in both aerobic and anaerobic vials. Extraction was performed on 113 vials (SF: n = 47; CS: n = 66), using the Sepsityper(®) kit prior identification by MS. The performances of MS, score and reproducibility results on bacterial colonies from blood agar and on pellets after enrichment in vials, were compared...
September 24, 2016: Research in Microbiology
Pilar Bosch-Roig, Francesca Decorosi, Luciana Giovannetti, Giancarlo Ranalli, Carlo Viti
Research on biotechnology applications for cultural heritage restoration has shown how microorganisms can be efficient at cleaning particularly complex or ingrained substances through the process called "biocleaning". Bacteria are able to synthesize groups of specific enzymes for the degradation of complex materials present on artwork. Biocleaning has been shown to be less hazardous than some traditional mechanical or chemical techniques for the artwork, to be environmentally-friendly and safe for restorers to use...
September 14, 2016: Research in Microbiology
Teagan L Brown, Joseph Tucci, Zoe A Dyson, Peter Lock, Christopher G Adda, Steve Petrovski
Progress in next-generation sequencing technologies has facilitated investigations into microbial dynamics. An important bacterium in the dairy industry is Propionibacterium freudenreichii, which is exploited to manufacture Swiss cheeses. A healthy culture of these bacteria ensures a consistent cheese with formed 'eyes' and pleasant flavour profile, and the investigation of prophages and their interactions with these bacteria could assist in the maintenance of the standard of this food product. Two bacteriophages, termed PFR1 and PFR2, were chemically induced using mitomycin C from two different dairy strains of P...
September 14, 2016: Research in Microbiology
Ramya Krishnan, Rahul R Menon, Likhitha, Hans-Jürgen Busse, Naoto Tanaka, Srinivasan Krishnamurthi, N Rameshkumar
Pokkali rice varieties are known for their saline tolerance when specifically grown in coastal saline affected agri-fields of southern Kerala. These fields are prone to seawater intrusion. During characterization of phytobeneficial rhizobacteria from this pokkali rice, L3E4(T) was isolated. This strain showed some plant growth-promoting functions (production of indole acetic acid (IAA), acetoin, and siderophore), biofilm formation and the capacity for use of a wide range of plant-derived organic compounds. In planta assay under axenic conditions showed a positive effect of L3E4(T) on pokkali rice growth; importantly, it was able to attach and colonize pokkali rice roots in the presence of natural seawater, a key adaptation required for survival in pokkali rice fields...
September 14, 2016: Research in Microbiology
Matteo Cerboneschi, Francesca Decorosi, Carola Biancalani, Maria Vittoria Ortenzi, Sofia Macconi, Luciana Giovannetti, Carlo Viti, Beatrice Campanella, Massimo Onor, Emilia Bramanti, Stefania Tegli
The plant pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas savastanoi, the causal agent of olive and oleander knot disease, uses the so-called "indole-3-acetamide pathway" to convert tryptophan to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) via a two-step pathway catalyzed by enzymes encoded by the genes in the iaaM/iaaH operon. Moreover, pathovar nerii of P. savastanoi is able to conjugate IAA to lysine to generate the less biologically active compound IAA-Lys via the enzyme IAA-lysine synthase encoded by the iaaL gene. Interestingly, iaaL is now known to be widespread in many Pseudomonas syringae pathovars, even in the absence of the iaaM and iaaH genes for IAA biosynthesis...
September 13, 2016: Research in Microbiology
Filipa Godoy-Vitorino, Arnold Rodriguez-Hilario, Ana Luísa Alves, Filipa Gonçalves, Beatriz Cabrera-Colon, Cristina Sousa Mesquita, Pedro Soares-Castro, Marisa Ferreira, Ana Marçalo, José Vingada, Catarina Eira, Pedro Miguel Santos
Infectious diseases with epizootic consequences have not been fully studied in marine mammals. Presently, the unprecedented depth of sequencing, made available by high-throughput approaches, allows detailed comparisons of the microbiome in health and disease. This is the first report of the striped dolphin microbiome in different body sites. Samples from one striped female edematous dolphin were acquired from a variety of body niches, including the blowhole, oral cavity, oral mucosa, tongue, stomach, intestines and genital mucosa...
September 9, 2016: Research in Microbiology
Lilach Iasur-Kruh, Vered Naor, Tirtza Zahavi, Matthew J Ballinger, Rakefet Sharon, Wyatt E Robinson, Steve J Perlman, Einat Zchori-Fein
The planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus (Hemiptera: Cixiidae) is an important vector of phytoplasma diseases in grapevine. In the current study, the bacterial community compositions of symbionts of this insect were examined. Two dominant bacterial lineages were identified by mass sequencing: the obligate symbiont Candidatus Sulcia, and a facultative symbiont that is closely related to Pectobacterium sp. and to BEV, a cultivable symbiont of another phytoplasma vector, the leafhopper Euscelidius variegatus. In addition, one bacterium was successfully isolated in this study - a member of the family Xanthomonadaceae that is most closely related to the genus Dyella...
September 4, 2016: Research in Microbiology
Carlo Viti, Enrico Tatti, Luciana Giovannetti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 4, 2016: Research in Microbiology
Dongdong Wang, Chunbo Lu, Feifei Sun, Mingxu Cui, Haibo Mu, Jinyou Duan, Huiling Geng
Infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus are prevalent. The dramatically reduced discovery of new antibiotics, as well as the persistent emergence of resistant bacteria, represents a major health problem in both hospital and community settings. Using antibiotic enhancers to rescue existing classes of antibiotics is an attractive strategy. In this study, 16-aldehyde tanshinone I (ALT) was synthesized and bacteriostatic activity was explored. In addition, synergistic or additive activity between ALT and aminoglycoside antibiotics or β-lactam antibiotics in vitro was identified...
August 18, 2016: Research in Microbiology
Agapi I Doulgeraki, Pierluigi Di Ciccio, Adriana Ianieri, George-John E Nychas
There is increasing concern about the public health impact of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Food and animal are vectors of transmission, but the contribution of a contaminated environment is not well characterized. With regard to this, staphylococcal biofilms serve as a virulence factor, allowing MRSA strains to adhere to surfaces and other materials used in the food industry. Methicillin resistance and biofilm-forming capacity may contribute to the success of S. aureus as a human pathogen in both health care and community settings and the food production chain...
August 17, 2016: Research in Microbiology
Khaled F A Abdelrhman, Giovanni Bacci, Barbara Marras, Annamaria Nistri, Marco Schintu, Alberto Ugolini, Alessio Mengoni
Talitrid amphipods (sandhoppers and beach fleas) are typical of the supralittoral zone. They are known to thrive on stranded materials, including detrital marine angiosperms and macroalgae, as well as occasional dead animals. In this work, the gut microbiota of five species of talitrid amphipods (Talitrus saltator, Talorchestia ugolinii, Sardorchestia pelecaniformis, Orchestia montagui and Orchestia stephenseni) collected in Sardinia (Italy) has been investigated through: i) metabarcoding analysis of the amplified 16SrRNA V4 region; and ii) quantification of family 48 glycosyl hydrolase genes (GHF48), involved in cellulose degradation...
August 12, 2016: Research in Microbiology
María Antonia Molina-Henares, María Isabel Ramos-González, Abdelali Daddaoua, Ana María Fernández-Escamilla, Manuel Espinosa-Urgel
The intracellular signal molecule cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is an important element in regulation of biofilm formation by bacteria. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, FleQ functions as a c-di-GMP-dependent transcriptional regulator of expression of flagellar genes and the exopolysaccharide (EPS) Pel, a component of the biofilm extracellular matrix. In the plant-beneficial bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440, a mutation in fleQ reduces biofilm formation and colonization of plant surfaces. Using isothermal titration calorimetry and electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we show in this work that FleQ of P...
August 5, 2016: Research in Microbiology
Galina V Smirnova, Aleksey V Tyulenev, Nadezda G Muzyka, Mikhail A Peters, Oleg N Oktyabrsky
An in-depth understanding of the physiological response of bacteria to antibiotic-induced stress is needed for development of new approaches to combatting microbial infections. Fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin causes phase alterations in Escherichia coli respiration and membrane potential that strongly depend on its concentration. Concentrations lower than the optimal bactericidal concentration (OBC) do not inhibit respiration during the first phase. A dose higher than the OBC provokes immediate SOS-independent inhibition of respiration and growth that can contribute to a decreased SOS response and lowered susceptibility to high concentrations of ciprofloxacin...
August 4, 2016: Research in Microbiology
Julio C Ayala, Anisia J Silva, Jorge A Benitez
Vibrio cholerae has become a model organism for studies connecting virulence, pathogen evolution and infectious disease ecology. The coordinate expression of motility, virulence and biofilm enhances its pathogenicity, environmental fitness and fecal-oral transmission. The histone-like nucleoid structuring protein negatively regulates gene expression at multiple phases of the V. cholerae life cycle. Here we discuss: (i) the regulatory and structural implications of H-NS chromatin-binding in the two-chromosome cholera bacterium; (ii) the factors that counteract H-NS repression; and (iii) a model for the regulation of the V...
August 1, 2016: Research in Microbiology
Marta Laranjo, Ana Alexandre, Solange Oliveira
Soil salinity affects rhizobia both as free-living bacteria and in symbiosis with the host. The aim of this study was to examine the transcriptional response of the Lotus microsymbiont Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 to salt shock. Changes in the transcriptome of bacterial cells subjected to a salt shock of 10% NaCl for 30 min were analyzed. From a total of 7,231 protein-coding genes, 385 were found to be differentially expressed upon salt shock, among which 272 were overexpressed. Although a large number of overexpressed genes encode hypothetical proteins, the two most frequently represented COG categories are "defense mechanisms" and "nucleotide transport and metabolism"...
July 29, 2016: Research in Microbiology
Ajit Kumar Passari, Preeti Chandra, Zothanpuia, Vineet Kumar Mishra, Vincent Vineeth Leo, Vijai Kumar Gupta, Brijesh Kumar, Bhim Pratap Singh
In the present study, fifteen endophytic actinobacterial isolates recovered from Solanum lycopersicum were studied for their antagonistic potential and plant-growth-promoting (PGP) traits. Among them, eight isolates showed significant antagonistic and PGP traits, identified by amplification of the 16S rRNA gene. Isolate number DBT204, identified as Streptomyces sp., showed multiple PGP traits tested in planta and improved a range of growth parameters in seedlings of chili (Capsicum annuum L.) and tomato (S...
October 2016: Research in Microbiology
Juraj Bugala, Viera Cimová, Peter Grones, Jozef Grones
Although chromosomal replication is an essential feature of the bacterial life cycle, the replication mechanism and involved molecular players have never been properly characterized in the Acetobacter genera. Thanks to whole-genome sequencing, the unknown replication proteins from Acetobacter pasteurianus and Acetobacter orleanensis, DnaA-like and DnaB-like, could be identified. Despite the low nucleotide or amino acid similarity to the respective orthologs from Escherichia coli, their involvement during replication regulation was corroborated by artificial microRNA...
October 2016: Research in Microbiology
Orla M Keane
Escherichia coli is a common cause of bovine mastitis, particularly around parturition and early lactation when the host is immunosuppressed. Isolates (n = 37) recovered from cases of clinical mastitis in Ireland were characterised with respect to genotypic diversity, phylogenetic group, virulence gene profile and antimicrobial susceptibility. The isolates were genotypically diverse, belonging to 19 different sequence types. However, the majority (86%) belonged to phylogenetic groups A or B1, groups commonly associated with commensal E...
October 2016: Research in Microbiology
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