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Research in Microbiology

Luana Presta, Emanuele Bosi, Marco Fondi, Isabel Maida, Elena Perrin, Elisangela Miceli, Valentina Maggini, Patrizia Bogani, Fabio Firenzuoli, Vincenzo Di Pilato, Gian Maria Rossolini, Alessio Mengoni, Renato Fani
In recent years, there has been increasing interest in plant microbiota; however, despite medicinal plant relevance, very little is known about their highly complex endophytic communities. In this work, we report on the genomic and phenotypic characterization of the antimicrobial compound producer Rheinheimera sp. EpRS3, a bacterial strain isolated from the rhizospheric soil of the medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea. In particular, EpRS3 is able to inhibit growth of different bacterial pathogens (Bcc, Acinetobacterbaumannii, and Klebsiellapneumoniae) which might be related to the presence of gene clusters involved in the biosynthesis of different types of secondary metabolites...
November 22, 2016: Research in Microbiology
Denice C Bay, Carol A Stremick, Carmine J Slipski, Raymond J Turner
Escherichia coli possesses many secondary active multidrug resistance transporters (MDTs) that confer overlapping substrate resistance to a broad range of antimicrobials via proton and/or sodium motive force. It is uncertain whether redundant MDTs uniquely alter cell survival when cultures grow planktonically or as biofilms. In this study, the planktonic and biofilm growth and antimicrobial resistance of 13 E. coli K-12 single MDT gene deletion strains in minimal and rich media were determined. Antimicrobial tolerance to tetracycline, tobramycin and benzalkonium were also compared for each ΔMDT strain...
November 22, 2016: Research in Microbiology
Junyan Liu, Rong Zhou, Lin Li, Brian M Peters, Bing Li, Chii-Wann Lin, Tsung-Liang Chuang, Dingqiang Chen, Xihong Zhao, Zhiyong Xiong, Zhenbo Xu, Mark E Shirtliff
As major food-borne pathogens worldwide, Escherichia coli are capable of toxin production directly causing severe human disease. However, routine methods are incapable of detecting viable but non-culturable (VBNC) bacteria in food products and raw materials, leading to false-negative identification. In this study, VBNC E. coli O157 strains were acquired after cryopreservation at -20 °C, with and without freeze-thawing; morphology was observed to be of shorter rod-shape, and toxin expression remained at relatively high levels...
November 21, 2016: Research in Microbiology
Alice Checcucci, Isabel Maida, Giovanni Bacci, Cristina Ninno, Anna Rita Bilia, Sauro Biffi, Fabio Firenzuoli, Guido Flamini, Renato Fani, Alessio Mengoni
We examined whether the microbiota of two related aromatic thyme species, Thymus vulgaris and Thymus citriodorus, differs in relation to the composition of the respective essential oil (EO). A total of 576 bacterial isolates were obtained from three districts (leaves, roots and rhizospheric soil). They were taxonomically characterized and inspected for tolerance to the EO from the two thyme species. A district-related taxonomic pattern was found. In particular, high taxonomic diversity among the isolates from leaves was detected...
November 21, 2016: Research in Microbiology
Eddie Luidy Imada, Amanda Alves de Paiva Rolla Dos Santos, André Luiz Martinez de Oliveira, Mariangela Hungria, Elisete Pains Rodrigues
Like many rhizobia, Rhizobium tropici produces indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), an important signal molecule required for root hair infection in rhizobia-legume symbioses. However, the IAA biosynthesis pathway and its regulation by R. tropici are still poorly understood. In this study, IAA synthesis and the effects of mineral N in IAA production by R. tropici CIAT 899 were verified by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). Furthermore, expression of genes related to IAA biosynthesis and metabolism were evaluated by RT-qPCR...
November 11, 2016: Research in Microbiology
Magdalena Kwiatek, Sylwia Parasion, Paweł Rutyna, Lidia Mizak, Romuald Gryko, Marcin Niemcewicz, Alina Olender, Małgorzata Łobocka
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is frequently identified as a cause of diverse infections and chronic diseases. It forms biofilms and has natural resistance to several antibiotics. Strains of this pathogen resistant to new-generation beta-lactams have emerged. Due to the difficulties associated with treating chronic P. aeruginosa infections, bacteriophages are amongst the alternative therapeutic options being actively researched. Two obligatorily lytic P. aeruginosa phages, vB_PaeM_MAG1 (MAG1) and vB_PaeP_MAG4 (MAG4), have been isolated and characterized...
November 4, 2016: Research in Microbiology
Emilie Gauvry, Anne-Gabrielle Mathot, Ivan Leguérinel, Olivier Couvert, Florence Postollec, Véronique Broussolle, Louis Coroller
Spore-forming bacteria are able to grow under a wide range of environmental conditions, to form biofilms and to differentiate into resistant forms: spores. This resistant form allows their dissemination in the environment; consequently, they may contaminate raw materials. Sporulation can occur all along the food chain, in raw materials, but also in food processes, leading to an increase in food contamination. However, the problem of sporulation during food processing is poorly addressed and sporulation niches are difficult to identify from the farm to the fork...
November 1, 2016: Research in Microbiology
Zhiwei Song, Yancun Zhao, Guoliang Qian, Benard Omondi Odhiambo, Fengquan Liu
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola causes leaf streak disease of rice. The gene hshB is a newly identified virulence-associated gene that is co-regulated by diffusible signal factor signaling and global regulator Clp in X. oryzae pv. oryzicola. Our previous study showed that mutation of hshB remarkably impaired the virulence, extracellular protease activity, extracellular polysaccharide production and resistance to oxidative stress of X. oryzae pv. oryzicola. In this study, the regulatory role of hshB in X. oryzae pv ...
November 1, 2016: Research in Microbiology
Alexandre Bolotin, Annika Gillis, Vincent Sanchis, Christina Nielsen-LeRoux, Jacques Mahillon, Didier Lereclus, Alexei Sorokin
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis is one of the most important microorganisms used against mosquitoes. It was intensively studied following its discovery and became a model bacterium of the B. thuringiensis species. Those studies focused on toxin genes, aggregation-associated conjugation, linear genome phages, etc. Recent announcements of genomic sequences of different strains have not been explicitly related to the biological properties studied. We report data on plasmid content analysis of four strains using ultra-high-throughput sequencing...
October 31, 2016: Research in Microbiology
Annika Gillis, Suxia Guo, Alexandre Bolotin, Lionel Makart, Alexei Sorokin, Jacques Mahillon
Bacillus thuringiensis has long been recognized to carry numerous extrachromosomal molecules. Of particular interest are the strains belonging to the B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis lineage, as they can harbor at least seven extrachromosomal molecules. One of these elements seems to be a cryptic molecule that may have been disregarded in strains considered plasmid-less. Therefore, this work focused on this cryptic molecule, named pBtic235. Using different approaches that included transposition-tagging, large plasmid gel electrophoresis and Southern blotting, conjugation and phage-induction experiments, in combination with bioinformatics analyses, it was found that pBtic235 is a hybrid molecule of 235,425 bp whose genome displays potential plasmid- and phage-like modules...
October 25, 2016: Research in Microbiology
Qiang Fu, Zhixin Su, Yuqiang Cheng, Zhaofei Wang, Shiyu Li, Heng'an Wang, Jianhe Sun, Yaxian Yan
In order to investigate the diverse characteristics of clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) arrays and the distribution of virulence factor genes in avian Escherichia coli, 80 E.coli isolates obtained from chickens with avian pathogenic E.coli (APEC) or avian fecal commensal E. coli (AFEC) were identified. Using the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), five genes were subjected to phylogenetic typing and examined for CRISPR arrays to study genetic relatedness among the strains...
October 24, 2016: Research in Microbiology
Nathan J Alves, Kendrick B Turner, Kyle A DiVito, Michael A Daniele, Scott A Walper
To facilitate the rapid purification of bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), we developed two plasmid constructs that utilize a truncated, transmembrane protein to present an exterior histidine repeat sequence. We chose OmpA, a highly abundant porin protein, as the protein scaffold and utilized the lac promoter to allow for inducible control of the epitope-presenting construct. OMVs containing mutant OmpA-His6 were purified directly from Escherichia coli culture media on an immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) Ni-NTA resin...
October 20, 2016: Research in Microbiology
Julia P Bünter, Helena M B Seth-Smith, Simon Rüegg, Annamari Heikinheimo, Nicole Borel, Sophia Johler
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections and a major public health concern worldwide. During the last decade, MRSA of CC398 have emerged as important colonizers of livestock. These strains also represent an increasing cause of human infections. A recent study reporting a new dominant spa type among MRSA from Finish fattening pigs (CC398/t2741) identified a strain lacking both the global virulence regulator gene locus agr and the adhesion gene fnbB...
October 5, 2016: Research in Microbiology
Elise Lallemand, Cédric Arvieux, Guillaume Coiffier, Jean-Louis Polard, Jean-David Albert, Pascal Guggenbuhl, Anne Jolivet-Gougeon
Advantages of MALDI-TOF MS (MS) were evaluated for diagnosis of bone and joint infections after enrichment of synovial fluid (SF) or crushed osteoarticular samples (CSs). MS was performed after enrichment of SF or crushed osteoarticular samples CS (n = 108) in both aerobic and anaerobic vials. Extraction was performed on 113 vials (SF: n = 47; CS: n = 66), using the Sepsityper(®) kit prior identification by MS. The performances of MS, score and reproducibility results on bacterial colonies from blood agar and on pellets after enrichment in vials, were compared...
September 24, 2016: Research in Microbiology
Teagan L Brown, Joseph Tucci, Zoe A Dyson, Peter Lock, Christopher G Adda, Steve Petrovski
Progress in next-generation sequencing technologies has facilitated investigations into microbial dynamics. An important bacterium in the dairy industry is Propionibacterium freudenreichii, which is exploited to manufacture Swiss cheeses. A healthy culture of these bacteria ensures a consistent cheese with formed 'eyes' and pleasant flavour profile, and the investigation of prophages and their interactions with these bacteria could assist in the maintenance of the standard of this food product. Two bacteriophages, termed PFR1 and PFR2, were chemically induced using mitomycin C from two different dairy strains of P...
September 14, 2016: Research in Microbiology
Ramya Krishnan, Rahul R Menon, Likhitha, Hans-Jürgen Busse, Naoto Tanaka, Srinivasan Krishnamurthi, N Rameshkumar
Pokkali rice varieties are known for their saline tolerance when specifically grown in coastal saline affected agri-fields of southern Kerala. These fields are prone to seawater intrusion. During characterization of phytobeneficial rhizobacteria from this pokkali rice, L3E4(T) was isolated. This strain showed some plant growth-promoting functions (production of indole acetic acid (IAA), acetoin, and siderophore), biofilm formation and the capacity for use of a wide range of plant-derived organic compounds. In planta assay under axenic conditions showed a positive effect of L3E4(T) on pokkali rice growth; importantly, it was able to attach and colonize pokkali rice roots in the presence of natural seawater, a key adaptation required for survival in pokkali rice fields...
September 14, 2016: Research in Microbiology
Pilar Bosch-Roig, Francesca Decorosi, Luciana Giovannetti, Giancarlo Ranalli, Carlo Viti
Research on biotechnology applications for cultural heritage restoration has shown how microorganisms can be efficient at cleaning particularly complex or ingrained substances through the process called "biocleaning". Bacteria are able to synthesize groups of specific enzymes for the degradation of complex materials present on artwork. Biocleaning has been shown to be less hazardous than some traditional mechanical or chemical techniques for the artwork, to be environmentally-friendly and safe for restorers to use...
November 2016: Research in Microbiology
Matteo Cerboneschi, Francesca Decorosi, Carola Biancalani, Maria Vittoria Ortenzi, Sofia Macconi, Luciana Giovannetti, Carlo Viti, Beatrice Campanella, Massimo Onor, Emilia Bramanti, Stefania Tegli
The plant pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas savastanoi, the causal agent of olive and oleander knot disease, uses the so-called "indole-3-acetamide pathway" to convert tryptophan to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) via a two-step pathway catalyzed by enzymes encoded by the genes in the iaaM/iaaH operon. Moreover, pathovar nerii of P. savastanoi is able to conjugate IAA to lysine to generate the less biologically active compound IAA-Lys via the enzyme IAA-lysine synthase encoded by the iaaL gene. Interestingly, iaaL is now known to be widespread in many Pseudomonas syringae pathovars, even in the absence of the iaaM and iaaH genes for IAA biosynthesis...
November 2016: Research in Microbiology
Carlo Viti, Enrico Tatti, Luciana Giovannetti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Research in Microbiology
Xinzi Wang, Xiaohui Zhao, Hanbing Li, Jianli Jia, Yueqiao Liu, Odafe Ejenavi, Aizhong Ding, Yujiao Sun, Dayi Zhang
Uncultivable microorganisms account for over 99% of all species on the planet, but their functions are yet not well characterized. Though many cultivable degraders for n-alkanes have been intensively investigated, the roles of functional n-alkane degraders remain hidden in the natural environment. This study introduces the novel magnetic nanoparticle-mediated isolation (MMI) technology in Nigerian soils and successfully separates functional microbes belonging to the families Oxalobacteraceae and Moraxellaceae, which are dominant and responsible for alkane metabolism in situ...
November 2016: Research in Microbiology
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