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Reproduction, Fertility, and Development

Yara Suliman, Frank Becker, Klaus Wimmers
Poor fertility of breeding stallions is a recognised problem in the equine industry. The aim of the present study was to detect molecular pathways using two groups of stallions that differed in pregnancy rates as well as in the proportion of normal and motile spermatozoa. RNA was isolated from spermatozoa of each stallion and microarray data were analysed to obtain a list of genes for which transcript abundance differed between the groups (P ≤0.05, fold change ≥1.2). In all, there were 437 differentially expressed (DE) genes between the two groups (P ≤ 0...
March 14, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Marc Yeste, Sergi Bonet, Joan E Rodríguez-Gil, Maria M Rivera Del Álamo
Computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) is now routinely used in IVF clinics, animal breeding centres and research laboratories. Although CASA provides a more objective way to evaluate sperm parameters, a significant number of factors can affect these measurements. This paper classifies these factors into four categories: (1) sample and slide (e.g. preincubation time, type of specimen and type of chamber slide); (2) microscope (e.g. light source and microscope stage); (3) hardware and software, including the settings of each system; and (4) user-related factors...
March 14, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Sarah A Marshall, Jonathan T McGuane, Yu May Soh, Helen M Gehring, Emma Simpson, Laura J Parry
Relaxin regulates cervical extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling during pregnancy by modifying collagen and other ECM molecules by unknown mechanisms. We hypothesised that abnormal collagen remodelling in the cervix of pregnant relaxin-deficient (Rln1-/-) mice is due to excessive collagen (Col1a1 and Col3a1) and decreased matrix metalloproteinases (Mmp2, Mmp9, Mmp13 and Mmp7) and oestrogen receptors (Esr1 and Esr2). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction, gelatinase zymography, MMP activity assays and histological staining evaluated changes in ECM in pregnant wildtype (Rln1+/+) and Rln1-/- mice...
March 14, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Onalenna Kereilwe, Kiran Pandey, Vitaliano Borromeo, Hiroya Kadokawa
Preantral and small antral follicles may secret anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) to control gonadotrophin secretion from ruminant gonadotrophs. The present study investigated whether the main receptor for AMH, AMH receptor type 2 (AMHR2), is expressed in gonadotrophs of postpubertal heifers to control gonadotrophin secretion. Expression of AMHR2 mRNA was detected in anterior pituitaries (APs) of postpubertal heifers using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. An anti-AMHR2 chicken antibody was developed against the extracellular region near the N-terminus of bovine AMHR2...
March 14, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Anne-Laure Nivet, Isabelle Dufort, Isabelle Gilbert, Marc-André Sirard
In reproduction, FSH is one of the most important hormones, especially in females, because it controls the number of follicles and the rate of follicular growth. Although several studies have examined the follicular response at the transcriptome level, it is difficult to obtain a clear and complete picture of the genes responding to an increase in FSH in an in vivo context because follicles undergo rapid morphological and physical changes during their growth. To help define the transcriptome downstream response to FSH, an in vitro model was used in the present study to observe the short-term (4h) cellular response...
March 13, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
V Gallego, J F Asturiano
Although a relatively high number of sperm quality biomarkers have been reported over the years in several fish species, sperm motility is nowadays considered the best biomarker for fish spermatozoa. The first scientific reports focusing on fish sperm motility date from a century ago, but the objective assessment allowed by computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA-Mot) systems was not applied to fish species until the mid-1980s. Since then, a high number of sperm kinetic parameters from more than 170 fish species have been reported in more than 700 scientific articles, covering a wide range of topics, such as sperm physiology, sperm storage, broodstock management, the phenomenon of sperm competition, ecotoxicology and understanding the life cycle of the species...
March 9, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
William V Holt, Nana Satake
Attempting to extract useful and reliable information about semen quality and its fertility potential remains a difficult exercise, partly because the sperm heterogeneity within samples often renders simple statistical analyses rather meaningless. In fact, a mean and standard deviation may reflect neither the very fast swimming activities of the most active cells nor the slow and sluggish activities of others. Herein we propose that the information value within semen samples can be maximised if current knowledge about sperm activation mechanisms is exploited before undertaking the measurements...
March 8, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
J L Yániz, M A Silvestre, P Santolaria, C Soler
Sperm motility is one of the most widely used parameters of sperm quality. Computer-aided sperm motility analysis (CASA-Mot) systems were developed to reduce the subjectivity of sperm motility assessment, and have had broad scientific and practical acceptance. In this review, the sources of variation and current applications of this technology and its relationships with other sperm quality tests are described in detail. Despite remarkable advances in the technique, there is still great need for standardisation in many species, and the numerous factors that affect the results make it difficult to provide universally accepted criteria for classifying semen samples based on sperm motility characteristics...
March 8, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
I David, P Kohnke, J Fehrenbach, A R Lopes Simoes, E Debreuve, X Descombes, F Plouraboue, P Degond, X Druart
In sheep, wave motion in semen is currently used by AI centres to select ejaculates for insemination. Despite its low cost, convenience and established ability to predict fertility, the subjectivity of this assessment is a limiting factor for its applicability. The aims of the present study were to establish an objective method for the analysis of wave motion and to assess the associations of objective parameters with fertility after cervical insemination. Collective sperm motion in undiluted semen was observed by phase contrast microscopy at low magnification in a 100-µm deep glass chamber...
March 8, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Mônica S Campos, Naiara C S Ribeiro, Rodrigo F de Lima, Mariana B Santos, Patrícia S L Vilamaior, Luis O Regasini, Manoel F Biancardi, Sebastião R Taboga, Fernanda C A Santos
Chrysin is a bioflavonoid found in fruits, flowers, tea, honey and wine, which has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic and anticarcinogenic properties. This flavone has also been considered as beneficial for reproduction due its testosterone-boosting potential. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chrysin on the prostate and gonads of male and female adult gerbils. In addition, a comparative analysis of the effects of testosterone on these same organs was conducted. Ninety-day-old male and female gerbils were treated with chrysin (50mgkg-1day-1) or testosterone cypionate (1mgkg-1week-1) for 21 days...
March 7, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Yong Sheng Zhang, Ying Chun Du, Li Rong Sun, Xu Hai Wang, Shuai Bing Liu, Ji Feng Xi, Chao Cheng Li, Rui Wen Ying, Song Jiang, Xiang Zu Wang, Hong Shen, Bin Jia
The mammalian Y chromosome plays a critical role in spermatogenesis. However, the exact functions of each gene on the Y chromosome have not been completely elucidated, due, in part, to difficulties in gene targeting analysis of the Y chromosome. The zinc finger protein, Y-linked (ZFY) gene was first proposed to be a sex determination factor, although its function in spermatogenesis has recently been elucidated. Nevertheless, ZFY gene targeting analysis has not been performed to date. In the present study, RNA interference (RNAi) was used to generate ZFY-interrupted Hu sheep by injecting short hairpin RNA (shRNA) into round spermatids...
March 6, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Anna Aryani Amir, Jennifer M Kelly, David O Kleemann, Zoey Durmic, Dominique Blache, Graeme B Martin
Phyto-oestrogens such as isoflavones are natural compounds that can profoundly affect reproductive function. In the present study, we tested whether including isoflavone compounds (genistein, biochanin A, formononetin) in the maturation medium would affect the outcomes for ovine oocytes in vitro. Each isoflavone compound was evaluated at five concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 25µgmL-1) and the entire protocol was repeated four times. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were randomly allocated to the treatments, then fertilised and cultured in vitro...
February 16, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
A V Sirotkin, A Benčo, A Tandlmajerová, M Lauková, D Vašíček, J Laurinčik, J Kornhauser, S Alwasel, A H Harrath
The aim of the present study was to examine the role of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and its phosphorylation in the regulation of ovarian cell proliferation and apoptosis, and of the response of proliferation and apoptosis to the upstream hormonal stimulators FSH and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1. In the first series of experiments, porcine ovarian granulosa cells, transfected or not with a gene construct encoding wild-type CREB1 (CREB1WT), were cultured with and without FSH (0, 1, 10 or 100ngmL-1)...
February 16, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
E Beltrán-Frutos, V Seco-Rovira, J Martínez-Hernández, C Ferrer, L M Pastor
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the changes that occur in hamster Leydig cells during regression. Animals were divided into control, mild regression (MR), strong regression (SR) and total regression (TR) groups. Leydig cells were characterised by light and electron microscopy. Terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end-labelling (TUNEL) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) antibodies were used to detect apoptosis and proliferation respectively. Three types of Leydig cells (A, B and C) could be differentiated...
February 12, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Yu Gu, Wenbin Xu, Bole Zhuang, Wei Fu
Irregular expression of cytochrome P450 family 19 subfamily A member 1 (CYP19A1) is involved in the development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Activation of the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA)/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) pathway plays a crucial role in FSH regulation of CYP19A1 in human ovarian granulosa cells. A-Kinase anchor protein 95 (AKAP95) is known to confine PKA to the nucleus. However, it is unclear whether anchoring PKA to the nucleus is essential for the induction of CYP19A1 by FSH in human ovarian granulosa cells...
February 5, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
M J Bertoldo, P H Andraweera, E G Bromfield, F L Cousins, L A Lindsay, P Paiva, S L Regan, R D Rose, L K Akison
Research in reproductive science is essential to promote new developments in reproductive health and medicine, agriculture and conservation. The Society for Reproductive Biology (SRB) 2017 conference held in Perth (WA, Australia) provided a valuable update on current research programs in Australia and New Zealand. This conference review delivers a dedicated summary of significant questions, emerging concepts and innovative technologies presented in the symposia. This research demonstrates significant advances in the identification of precursors for a healthy pregnancy, birth and child, and discusses how these factors can influence disease risk...
January 31, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Heng Yang, Shan Lin, Xiaoping Lei, Cong Yuan, Yaosheng Yu, Zongsheng Zhao, Jingbo Chen
Recent studies on the seasonal regulation of the oestrous cycle in sheep have focussed mainly on the responses to photoperiod. However, the brain systems that control reproductive activity also respond to nutritional inputs, although the molecular mechanisms involved are not completely understood. One possibility is that small, non-coding RNAs, such as micro-RNAs (miRNAs), have significant influence. In the present study, the amounts and characteristics of miRNAs in hypothalamus from oestrous and anestrous ewes, fed low- or high-nutrient diets, were compared using Illumina HiSeq sequencing technology...
January 25, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Roser Morató, Noelia Prieto-Martínez, Rodrigo Muiño, Carlos O Hidalgo, Joan E Rodríguez-Gil, Sergi Bonet, Marc Yeste
Aquaporins (AQPs) are channel proteins involved in the transport of water and solutes across biological membranes. In the present study we identified and localised aquaporin 11 (AQP11) in bull spermatozoa and investigated the relationship between the relative AQP11 content, sperm cryotolerance and the fertilising ability of frozen-thawed semen. Bull ejaculates were classified into two groups of good and poor freezability and assessed through immunofluorescence and immunoblotting analyses before and after cryopreservation...
January 25, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Jason A Koroghli, Elizabeth Floyd, Misha Regouski, Kerry Rood, Kirsten Gash, Kip Panter, Rusty Stott, Christopher J Davies, Irina A Polejaeva, Heloisa M Rutigliano
The hypothesis of this study was that the leukocyte populations and expression levels of genes related to immune response, growth factors and apoptosis would be altered at the fetal-maternal interface in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)-generated sheep pregnancies. Placental and endometrial samples from sheep pregnancies established by SCNT and natural breeding (control) were collected at 45 days and at term. Expression of genes related to growth factors, apoptosis and immune response was examined using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction...
January 15, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
N J Donfack, K A Alves, B G Alves, R M P Rocha, J B Bruno, L F Lima, C H Lobo, R R Santos, S F S Domingues, M Bertolini, J Smitz, A P R Rodrigues
The aim of the present study was to compare fresh and vitrified goat ovarian tissue after autotransplantation and in vitro culture. Adult goats were completely ovariectomised and each ovarian pair was sliced and distributed among six different treatment groups: fresh control, fresh transplant, fresh culture, vitrified control, vitrified transplant and vitrified culture. Follicular morphology, development, growth, density, revascularisation and hormone production were evaluated in all groups. Three antral follicles (two in the fresh transplant and one in the vitrified transplant groups) were observed on the surface of the graft 90 days after transplantation...
January 15, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
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