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Reproduction, Fertility, and Development

Bethaney D Fehrenkamp, Kimberly A Morrissey, Robert D Miller
Marsupials, with short gestation times, have more complex and changing patterns of milk composition than eutherians. Maternal immunoglobulins (Ig) that confer immunity on offspring are among the components that change during marsupial lactation. In the present study we quantified the abundance of mammary transcripts encoding Ig heavy chains and their corresponding transporters in the laboratory opossum Monodelphis domestica. IgA transcripts were the most abundant in opossum mammary and, with IgM, increased in abundance linearly from birth to weaning...
November 12, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Hao-Ran Li, Yan Li, Yu Liu, Jiao-Jiao Yu, Fei-Xue Li
High mobility group AT-hook 1 (HMGA1) is able to regulate gene expression and function as a tumour suppressor. The spatiotemporal expression pattern of HMGA1 was investigated in this study. Immature female rats (22-23 days old) were treated with 10 IU, s.c., pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin to stimulate follicular development, followed 48 h later by injection with 5 IU, s.c., human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). Whole ovaries or granulosa cells were collected at various times after hCG administration (n = 3 per time point)...
November 12, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Santiago T Peña, Felicity Stone, Bruce Gummow, Anthony J Parker, Damien B B P Paris
Summer infertility continues to undermine pig productivity, costing the pig industry millions in annual losses. The boar's inefficient capacity to sweat, non-pendulous scrotum and the extensive use of European breeds in tropical conditions, can make the boar particularly vulnerable to the effects of heat stress; however, the link between summer heat stress and boar sperm DNA damage has not yet been demonstrated. Semen from five Large White boars was collected and evaluated during the early dry, late dry and peak wet seasons to determine the effect of seasonal heat stress on the quality and DNA integrity of boar spermatozoa...
November 12, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Mayuko Kurome, Andrea Baehr, Kilian Simmet, Eva-Maria Jemiller, Stefanie Egerer, Maik Dahlhoff, Valeri Zakhartchenko, Hiroshi Nagashima, Nikolai Klymiuk, Barbara Kessler, Eckhard Wolf
Immunosurgical isolation of the inner cell mass (ICM) from blastocysts is based on complement-mediated lysis of antibody-coated trophectoderm (TE) cells. Conventionally, anti-species antisera, containing antibodies against multiple undefined TE-cell epitopes, have been used as the antibody source. We previously generated α-1,3-galactosyltransferase deficient (GTKO) pigs to prevent hyperacute rejection of pig-to-primate xenotransplants. Since GTKO pigs lack galactosyl-α-1,3-galactose (αGal) but are exposed to this antigen (e...
November 2, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Anna Kałuża, Mirosława Ferens-Sieczkowska, Beata Olejnik, Justyna Kołodziejczyk, Mariusz Zimmer, Ewa Maria Kratz
According to a concept of fetoembryonic defence, protein-carbohydrate interaction may be involved in the regulation of maternal immunity that prevents rejection of allograft spermatozoa, embryo and fetus. In the present study we focussed on the evaluation of the expression of glycoepitopes that may be of crucial importance in this process: LewisY (LeY) and LewisX (LeX) as well as terminal sialylation. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with sodium dodecyl sulphate was used to separate seminal plasma samples of fertile (n = 10) and infertile (n = 103) men; these were then probed with lectins specific to fucose (Lotus tetragonolobus agglutinin and Ulex europaeus agglutinin) and sialic acid (Sambucus nigra agglutinin and Maackia amurensis agglutinin)...
November 1, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Camila F Sales, Flavia S Lemos, Roberto D V S Morais, Ralph G Thomé, Helio B Santos, Ana P B Pinheiro, Nilo Bazzoli, Elizete Rizzo
Fish embryos are particularly vulnerable to temperature changes, with the effects varying with developmental stage. The major aim of the present study was to analyse the relationship between apoptosis and heat shock protein (HSP) 70 during embryo development under thermal stress conditions. To this end, Prochilodus lineatus embryos at the blastopore closure stage were subjected to one of three thermal treatments for 1 h (Group 1, 25°C (control); Group 2, 20°C; Group 3, 30°C) and then examined at 0, 4 and 8 h posttreatment (h...
October 30, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Stephania Madrid Gaviria, Sergio A Morado, Albeiro López Herrera, Giovanni Restrepo Betancur, Rodrigo A Urrego Álvarez, Julián Echeverri Zuluaga, Pablo D Cética
Although vitrification is the current method of choice for oocyte and embryo cryopreservation, it may have detrimental effects on reduction-oxidation status and mitochondrial activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementing in vitro culture (IVC) media and/or vitrification solutions with the antioxidant resveratrol on active mitochondria, mitochondrial superoxide production and lipid peroxidation. Abattoir-derived oocytes were matured and fertilised in vitro using standard procedures...
October 30, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Belinda K M Lo, Agnes Archibong-Omon, Panayiota Ploutarchou, Anthony J Day, Caroline M Milner, Suzannah A Williams
Cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) expansion is essential for ovulation and fertilisation and is linked to oocyte quality. Hyaluronan (HA), the major matrix constituent, is cross-linked via inter-α-inhibitor heavy chains (HCs), pentraxin 3 (PTX3) and tumour necrosis factor-stimulated gene 6 (TSG-6). All except HCs are secreted by cumulus cells in response to oocyte-secreted factors, which signal via SMAD pathways. The double mutant (DM) mouse generates oocytes lacking complex N- and O-glycans due to oocyte-specific deletion of core 1 β1,3-galactosyltransferase (C1galt1) and N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I (Mgat1) and has modified cumulus expansion...
October 30, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Muren Herrid, Peter Nagy, Jutka Juhasz, Jane M Morrell, M Billah, Kamal Khazanehdari, Julian A Skidmore
The object of this study was to investigate if testis germ cell transplantation (TGCT) into a heterologous recipient would result in donor-origin spermatogenesis in the dromedary camel. First, we investigated a workable protocol for TGCT in camels, including donor cell isolation, enrichment by density gradient centrifugation (Percoll and Bovicoll), rete testis injection and microsatellite detection of donor and recipient genotypes. Second, the effects of three doses of Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), a glycoprotein that specifically binds to gonocytes or Type A spermatogonia, on testis germ cell depletion were investigated by direct injection into the rete testis of a male camel...
October 12, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Francisco A García-Vázquez, C Soriano-Úbeda, R Laguna-Barraza, M José Izquierdo-Rico, Felipe A Navarrete, Pablo E Visconti, A Gutiérrez-Adán, P Coy
Besides its fibrinolytic function, the plasminogen-plasmin (PLG-PLA) system is also involved in fertilisation, where plasminogen activators bind to plasminogen to produce plasmin, which modulates sperm binding to the zona pellucida. However, controversy exists, depending on the species, concerning the role of the different components of the system. This study focused its attention on the role of the PLG-PLA system on fertilisation in the mouse with special attention to tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). The presence of exogenous plasminogen reduced in vitro fertilisation (IVF) rates and this decline was attenuated by the presence of plasmin inhibitors in combination with plasminogen...
October 10, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Gláucia Pereira Alves, Fernanda Bertuccez Cordeiro, Camila Bruna de Lima, Kelly Annes, Érika Cristina Dos Santos, Jéssica Ispada, Patrícia Kubo Fontes, Marcelo Fabio Gouveia Nogueira, Marcílio Nichi, Marcella Pecora Milazzotto
Follicular fluid composition and the transcription pattern of granulosa cells were analysed to better comprehend associations between embryo development and morphokinetics. Bovine follicles were punctured and their respective follicular fluid and granulosa cells were collected. Cumulus-oocyte complexes derived from these follicles were matured and fertilised in vitro. Embryo morphology and kinetics were evaluated at 40 h after insemination, when embryos were classified as fast (FCL, four or more cells), slow (SCL, 2-3 cells) or non-cleaved (NCL)...
October 10, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Bingyue Zhang, Huiran Niu, Qingqing Cai, Mengqin Liao, Keren Chen, Yaosheng Chen, Peiqing Cong
Faithful repair of DNA double-strand breaks in mammalian oocytes is essential for meiotic maturation and embryonic development. In the present study we investigated the roles of Roscovitine and Trichostatin A (TSA) in DNA damage recovery during in vitro maturation of porcine oocytes. Etoposide was used to trigger DNA damage in oocytes. When these DNA-damaged oocytes were treated with 2 μM Roscovitine, 50 nM TSA or both for 22 h, first polar body extrusion and blastocyst formation in all treated groups were significantly improved compared with the etoposide-only group...
October 10, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Minli Yu, Dongfeng Li, Wanyan Cao, Xiaolu Chen, Wenxing Du
Ten-eleven translocation 1 (Tet1) is involved in DNA demethylation in primordial germ cells (PGCs); however, the precise regulatory mechanism remains unclear. In the present study the dynamics of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) in developing PGCs and the role of Tet1 in PGC demethylation were analysed. Results show that 5mC levels dropped significantly after embryonic Day 4 (E4) and 5hmC levels increased reaching a peak at E5-E5.5. Interestingly, TET1 protein was highly expressed during E5 to E5...
October 4, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Kelly Annes, Diego B Müller, Jorge A P Vilela, Roniele S Valente, Diana P Caetano, Francielli W S Cibin, Marcella P Milazzotto, Fernando S Mesquita, Katia R A Belaz, Marcos N Eberlin, Mateus J Sudano
This study assessed the lipid composition of oocytes from different follicle sizes and compared the expression of lipid-related genes and follicular fluid (FF) molecules between groups. We also investigated the functional consequences of differences on embryo development and blastocyst lipid deposits. Oocytes and FF were recovered from different follicle sizes. Oocytes from small (≤5 mm) and large (≥6mm) bovine follicles were used to produce Day 7 expanded blastocysts (Day7Ex) and blastocysts that only became expanded at Day 8 (Day8Ex) after insemination...
October 4, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Iside Scaravaggi, Nicole Borel, Rebekka Romer, Isabel Imboden, Susanne E Ulbrich, Shuqin Zeng, Heinrich Bollwein, Stefan Bauersachs
Previous endometrial gene expression studies during the time of conceptus migration did not provide final conclusions on the mechanisms of maternal recognition of pregnancy (MRP) in the mare. This called for a cell type-specific endometrial gene expression analysis in response to embryo signals to improve the understanding of gene expression regulation in the context of MRP. Laser capture microdissection was used to collect luminal epithelium (LE), glandular epithelium and stroma from endometrial biopsies from Day 12 of pregnancy and Day 12 of the oestrous cycle...
September 26, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Shimeng Guo, Shichao Liu, Gerelchimeg Bou, Jia Guo, Liyuan Jiang, Zhuang Chai, Mingming Cai, Yanshuang Mu, Zhonghua Liu
Fetal bovine serum (FBS) supplementation has beneficial effects on in vitro porcine embryonic development, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In the present study we found that the addition of FBS to PZM-3 increased the number of cells in porcine blastocysts and hatching rate in vitro primarily by promoting proliferation of the inner cell mass and further differentiation. Moreover, based on the following results, we surmise that FBS benefits blastocyst development by activating Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) signalling: (1) the ROCK signalling inhibitor Y-27632 decreased the blastocyst rate and the number of cells in blastocysts, whereas FBS rescued the developmental failure induced by Y-27632; (2) the mRNA levels of two ROCK isoforms, ROCK1 and ROCK2, were significantly increased in blastocysts derived from medium containing FBS; and (3) FBS increased RhoA/Rho-kinase expression in the nucleus of embryonic cells...
September 26, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Fiona D' Souza, Gitanjali Asampille, Shubhashree Uppangala, Guruprasad Kalthur, Hanudatta S Atreya, Satish Kumar Adiga
Paternal genetic alterations may affect embryo viability and reproductive outcomes. Currently it is unknown whether embryo metabolism is affected by sperm-mediated abnormalities. Hence, using a mouse model, this study investigated the response to paternally transmitted DNA lesions on genetic integrity and metabolism in preimplantation embryos. Spent embryo culture media were analysed for metabolites by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and embryonic genetic integrity was determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) assay on embryonic Day 4...
September 18, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Silvia Gimeno-Martos, Adriana Casao, Marc Yeste, José A Cebrián-Pérez, Teresa Muiño-Blanco, Rosaura Pérez-Pé
The presence of melatonin receptors on the surface of ram spermatozoa has led to speculation about melatonin having a role in sperm functionality. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism through which melatonin regulates ram sperm capacitation induced by a cocktail containing cAMP-elevating agents. Cocktail samples capacitated in the presence of 1 µM melatonin showed lower percentages of capacitated spermatozoa (chlortetracycline staining; P < 0.001) together with a decrease in protein tyrosine phosphorylation (P < 0...
September 13, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Hiroyuki Imai, Wataru Fujii, Ken Takeshi Kusakabe, Yasuo Kiso, Kiyoshi Kano
Tetraploid embryos normally develop into blastocysts and embryonic stem cells can be established from tetraploid blastocysts in mice. Thus, polyploidisation does not seem to be so harmful during preimplantation development. However, the mechanisms by which early mammalian development accepts polyploidisation are poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the effect of polyploidisation on early mammalian development and to further comprehend its tolerance using hyperpolyploid embryos produced by repetitive whole genome duplication...
September 13, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Hui Cao, Jun Li, Wenlong Su, Junjie Li, Zhigang Wang, Shuchun Sun, Shujun Tian, Lu Li, Hanyang Wang, Jiexin Li, Xiaohuan Fang, Qiaoli Wei, Chuang Liu
Aberrant DNA methylation reduces the developmental competence of mammalian somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. Thus, hypomethylation-associated drugs are beneficial for improving reprogramming efficiency. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the effect of zebularine, a relatively novel DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, on the developmental potential of ovine SCNT embryos. First, reduced overall DNA methylation patterns and gene-specific DNA methylation levels at the promoter regions of pluripotency genes (octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4), SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (Sox2) and Nanog) were found in zebularine-treated cumulus cells...
September 10, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
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