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Reproduction, Fertility, and Development

K J Copping, M D Ruiz-Diaz, C S Rutland, N P Mongan, M J Callaghan, I C McMillen, R J Rodgers, V E A Perry
Nutritional perturbation during gestation alters male reproductive development in rodents and sheep. In cattle both the developmental trajectory of the feto-placental unit and its response to dietary perturbations is dissimilar to that of these species. This study examined the effects of dietary protein perturbation during the peri-conception and first trimester periods upon reproductive development in bulls. Nulliparous heifers (n=360) were individually fed a high- or low-protein diet (HPeri and LPeri) from 60 days before conception...
November 16, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Diego A Torres, Mariella B Freitas, Reggiani V Gonçalves
Large amounts of calcium are required during pregnancy and lactation to support fetal and neonatal bone growth and calcification. An inadequate supply of calcium during these stages can lead to unsuccessful reproduction or impaired offspring fitness. During reproduction, female mammals undergo numerous physiological changes, including adaptations to allow an adequate supply of calcium. The lack of quantitative studies analysing these physiological changes from a comparative perspective limits our ability to explain and understand these adaptations...
November 15, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Goutham Shankar, Shubhashree Uppangala, Satish K Adiga, Belinda Willard, Bhadravathi K C Sagar, Ruth S K Titus, Gopal K Marathe
Female sperm storage is an intriguing adaptation exhibited by a wide array of both vertebrates and invertebrates. The mechanisms underlying female sperm storage have remained elusive. Using the Indian garden lizard Calotes versicolor as a model organism, we investigated the role of low and high molecular weight factors in this phenomenon. Previously, we demonstrated three distinct phases of the reproductive cycle in this animal with live, motile spermatozoa recovered from the uterovaginal region during the reproductive phase...
November 15, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Xiaoyun He, Qiuyue Liu, Xiaoyu Li, Xiaofei Guo, Xiangyu Wang, Wenping Hu, Ran Di, Mingxing Chu
Like most seasonal domesticated species, sheep are short-day breeders, which means that the reproduction axis is activated by short days. The annual photoperiodic cycle affects the amount of daylength information that is transmitted to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis by regulating pulsatile secretion of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus. Kisspeptin, which is encoded by Kiss1, plays a major role in reproductive seasonality. Based on results from our previous Solexa sequencing data obtained from Tan (T) and Small Tail Han (STH) sheep during anoestrus and the breeding season, full-length mRNA information for ovine Kiss1 was obtained; 894bp in T sheep and 1145bp in STH sheep...
November 15, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Y Liu, J H Bai, X L Xu, Z L Chen, L J Spicer, T Feng
Recent studies have shown that N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) and arginine (ARG) supplementation improves reproductive performance in livestock. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of NCG and ARG on GT1-7 cell gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion, gene expression and cell proliferation. GT1-7 cells were treated in vitro with different concentrations of NCG (0-1.0mM) or ARG (0-4.0mM) in serum-free medium for 12 or 24h. For GnRH secretion and cell proliferation, GT1-7 cells were more sensitive to NCG than ARG...
November 10, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Jun Liu, Qiao-Chu Wang, Xing Duan, Xiang-Shun Cui, Nam-Hyung Kim, Yu Zhang, Shao-Chen Sun
Mammalian oocytes undergo several crucial processes during meiosis maturation, including spindle formation and migration and polar body extrusion, which rely on the regulation of actin. As a small actin-binding protein, profilin 1 plays a central role in the regulation of actin assembly. However, the functions of profilin 1 in mammalian oocytes are uncertain. To investigate the function of profilin 1 in oocytes, immunofluorescent staining was first used to examine profilin 1 localisation. The results showed that profilin 1 was localised around the meiotic spindles and was colocalised with cytoplasmic actin...
November 3, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Taylor Pini, Tamara Leahy, Simon Paul de Graaf
Spermatozoa deposited vaginally must navigate the physical, chemical and immune barriers of the cervix to reach the site of fertilisation. Characteristics that favour successful cervical transit remain largely unknown beyond the obvious factors of motility and viability. Epididymal and cryopreserved ram spermatozoa demonstrate poor cervical transit, for unknown reasons. We hypothesised that seminal plasma exposure and cryopreservation alter the surface sugars of these sperm populations and, consequently, their interaction with immune cells, both potential factors for successful cervical transit...
October 25, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
M Ciechanowska, M Łapot, E Paruszewska, W Radawiec, F Przekop
This study aimed to explain how prolonged inhibition of central dopaminergic activity affects the cellular processes governing gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and LH secretion in anoestrous sheep. For this purpose, the study included two experimental approaches: first, we investigated the effect of infusion of sulpiride, a dopaminergic D2 receptor antagonist (D2R), on GnRH and GnRH receptor (GnRHR) biosynthesis in the hypothalamus and on GnRHR in the anterior pituitary using an immunoassay. This analysis was supplemented by analysis of plasma LH levels by radioimmunoassay...
October 12, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Kevin Danastas, Emily J Miller, Alison J Hey-Cunningham, Christopher R Murphy, Laura A Lindsay
Angiogenesis is a critical step in the development of ectopic lesions during endometriosis. Although total vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A is elevated in the peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis, there are contradictory reports on how levels of total endometrial VEGFA are altered in this disease. Furthermore, limited research is available on different VEGFA isoforms in women with endometriosis. Thus, the aim of the present study was to analyse levels of various VEGFA isoforms in women with and without endometriosis at different stages of the menstrual cycle...
October 11, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
C Perrini, P Esposti, F Cremonesi, A Lange Consiglio
The present study investigated the effects of conditioned medium (CM), composed of microvesicles (MVs) and soluble factors present in the supernatant (SN), of bovine endometrial and amniotic cells on embryo quality and rate of blastocyst production. Presumptive zygotes were randomly assigned on Days 1, 3 and 5 after fertilisation to synthetic oviducal fluid with amino acids (SOFaa; control) or to SOFaa supplemented with either 20% endometrial or amniotic CM, 20% SN or 100×106MVsmL-1. Embryos were evaluated on Day 7...
October 6, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
T Feng, L F Schutz, B C Morrell, M C Perego, L J Spicer
Melatonin affects granulosa cell function in several species but its function in theca cells is less clear, particularly in monotocous animals. Thus, the objectives of this study were to determine the effects of melatonin on theca cell steroidogenesis, gene expression and cell proliferation in a monotocous species, namely cattle. Ovaries were collected from a local bovine abattoir, from which theca cells were isolated from large (8-22mm) follicles and treated with various hormones in serum-free medium for 24h or 48h...
October 4, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Qiaomu Hu, Hanbing Xiao, Qilong Wang, Haifeng Tian, Yan Meng
In the present study, 21 forkhead box (Fox) genes were identified in Andrias davidianus, including 13 full-length genes and eight partial sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that most were conserved in other investigated amphibians, whereas the Foxk1 gene was found exclusively in A. davidianus. Molecular evolution analysis indicated that most Fox genes underwent purifying selection, whereas two sites of the adFoxp4 gene showed positive selection and were located on the adFoxp4 protein surface. Expression profiles of all Fox genes identified were analysed in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad axis by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
September 26, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Ai Ushiyama, Atsushi Tajima, Naoto Ishikawa, Atsushi Asano
During cryopreservation, spermatozoa are subjected to cryodamage that leads to a decline in fertilisation ability. Due to the complex nature of this process, the initial trigger for cryodamage remains unknown. Recently, we demonstrated that cryopreservation induces early apoptotic changes characterised by phosphatidylserine (PS) translocation via sterol loss from the plasma membrane of chicken spermatozoa. This led us to hypothesise that sterol incorporation into membranes minimises cryodamage, thereby improving the quality of cryopreserved chicken spermatozoa...
September 26, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Katheryn L Cerny, Rosanne A C Ribeiro, Qing Li, James C Matthews, Phillip J Bridges
Infection with Gram-negative bacteria is a major cause of aberrant inflammation in the oviduct; consequences can include tubal-based infertility and/or ectopic pregnancy. Understanding the inflammatory response is necessary for the development of novel treatment options that counter inflammation-induced infertility. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of Escherichia coli-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the acute expression of inflammatory mRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs) in the oviduct...
September 26, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Sally E Hall, Rose M O Upton, Eileen A McLaughlin, Jessie M Sutherland
The mare ovary is unique in its anatomical structure; however, the signalling pathways responsible for physiological processes, such as follicular activation, remain uncharacterised. This provided us with the impetus to explore whether signalling molecules from important folliculogenesis pathways, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) and Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT), are conserved in the mare ovary. Messenger RNA expression of six genes important in follicle development was measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and protein localisation of key pathway members (PI3K, AKT1, phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN), JAK1, STAT3 and suppressor of cytokine signalling 4 (SOCS4)) was compared in tissue from fetal and adult mare ovaries...
September 26, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Hitomi Nakamura, Takayoshi Hosono, Keiichi Kumasawa, Tadashi Kimura
In current infertility treatments it is necessary to evaluate uterine receptivity in each menstrual cycle. During the implantation period, the uterus goes through many complex orchestrated changes, including changes to the glycocalyx. The changes to the glycocalyx are due to sialylation, sulfation and fucosylation. Can the measurement of in-vivo uterine pH and/or oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) determine the alterations of uterine endometrium for implantation and evaluate prospective uterine receptivity? In the present study we assessed in vivo uterine pH and ORP during the early stages of pregnancy in naïve mice, as well as in a murine model of implantation failure created by local and transient suppression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3...
September 25, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Jolanta Polkowska, Anna Wójcik-Gładysz, Natalia Chmielewska, Marta Wańkowska
Kisspeptin (kp) is considered to be one of the major regulators of the induction of pubertal events via the activation of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone-LH system. The aim of the present study was to analyse expression of immunoreactive (ir) kp in the hypothalamic neurons of female lambs from the neonatal to the peripubertal period (5 days to 32 weeks) in relation to the plasma LH pattern using immunohistochemistry and image analysis. Hypothalami were collected from female lambs (n=33) from the infantile, juvenile, prepubertal and peripubertal periods...
September 18, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Anusha Singh, Puran Bora, Amitabh Krishna
The present study examined the efficacy of adiponectin for regulating the reproductive, metabolic and fertility status of mice with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS was induced in prepubertal (21- to 22-day-old) mice using dehydroepiandrosterone (6mg 100g-1day-1 for 25days), after which mice were administered either a low or high dose of adiponectin (5 or 15µgmL-1, s.c., respectively). PCOS mice exhibited typical features, including the presence of numerous cystic follicles, increased circulating androgens, increased body mass, altered steroidogenesis, decreased insulin receptor expression and increased serum triglycerides, serum glucose, Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 (a marker of inflammation) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF; a marker of angiogenesis)...
September 15, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Alexandra Usuga, Benjamín A Rojano, Giovanni Restrepo
Contribution of seminal plasma proteins to semen freezability has been reported in several species, suggesting these proteins as genetic markers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between cysteine-rich secretory protein-3 (CRISP-3) and some of its single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with post-thawing semen quality in stallions. DNA was obtained from 100 stallions, regions of interest were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. Evaluated SNPs within the equine CRISP-3 gene were CRISP3c...
August 31, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Crystalyn B Legg-St Pierre, Martina Mackova, Ewa I Miskiewicz, Denise G Hemmings, Suraj Unniappan, Daniel J MacPhee
The placenta is the physiological bridge between mother and fetus and has life-sustaining functions during pregnancy, including metabolic regulation, fetal protection and hormone secretion. Nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2) is a calcium- and DNA-binding protein and precursor of nesfatin-1, a signalling peptide with multiple functions, including regulation of energy homeostasis and glucose transport. These are also key functions of the placenta, yet NUCB2/nesfatin-1 expression has never been comprehensively studied in this organ...
August 31, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
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