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Reproduction, Fertility, and Development

J J de la Mata, R Núñez-Olivera, F Cuadro, D Bosolasco, V de Brun, A Meikle, G A Bó, A Menchaca
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a strategy for extending pro-oestrus (the interval between luteolysis and ovulation) in an oestrus synchronisation protocol (named J-Synch) in beef heifers on follicular growth, sexual steroid concentrations, the oestrogen receptor ERα and progesterone receptors (PR) in the uterus, insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 and pregnancy rates. In Experiment 1, heifers treated with the new J-Synch protocol had a longer pro-oestrus period than those treated with the conventional protocol (mean (±s...
May 21, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Tessa Pahl, Hanna J McLennan, Yun Wang, Anang S Achmadi, Kevin C Rowe, Ken Aplin, William G Breed
It is widely accepted that in mammals a causal relationship exists between postcopulatory sexual selection and relative testes mass of the species concerned, but how much it determines sperm size and shape is debatable. Here we detailed for the largest murine rodent tribe, the Rattini, the interspecific differences in relative testes mass and sperm form. We found that residual testes mass correlates with sperm head apical hook length as well as its angle, together with tail length, and that within several lineages a few species have evolved highly divergent sperm morphology with a reduced or absent apical hook and shorter tail...
May 18, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
A Lyons, F Narciandi, E Donnellan, J Romero-Aguirregomezcorta, C O' Farrelly, P Lonergan, K G Meade, S Fair
Primate β-defensin 126 regulates the ability of spermatozoa to bind to oviductal epithelial cells invitro. Bovine β-defensin 126 (BBD126) exhibits preferential expression in the cauda epididymis of the bull, but there have been few studies on its functional role in cattle. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of BBD126 in bull sperm binding to bovine oviductal epithelial cell (BOEC) explants. BBD126 has been shown to be highly resistant to the standard methods of dissociation used in other species and, as a result, corpus epididymal spermatozoa, which have not been exposed to the protein, were used to study the functional role of BBD126...
May 18, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Min Yang, Iuri Perisse, Zhiqiang Fan, Misha Regouski, Mirella Meyer-Ficca, Irina A Polejaeva
Serial cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a critical tool for the expansion of precious transgenic lines or resetting the lifespan of primary transgenic cells for multiple genetic modifications. We successfully produced second-generation cloned goats using donor neonatal fibroblasts from first-generation clones. However, our attempts to produce any third-generation clones failed. SCNT efficiency decreased progressively with the clonal generations. The rate of pregnancy loss was significantly greater in recloning groups (P<0...
May 17, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Abdul Haseeb, Hong Chen, Yufei Huang, Ping Yang, Xuejing Sun, Adeela Iqbal, Nisar Ahmed, Taozhi Wang, Noor Samad Gandahi, Xuebing Bai, Qiusheng Chen
Mitochondria are vital cellular organelles that have the ability to change their shape under different conditions, such as in response to stress, disease, changes in metabolic rate, energy requirements and apoptosis. In the present study, we observed remodelling of mitochondria during spermiogenesis and its relationship with mitochondria-associated granules (MAG). At the beginning of spermiogenesis, mitochondria are characterised by their round shape. As spermiogenesis progresses, the round-shaped mitochondria change into elongated and then swollen mitochondria, subsequently forming a crescent-like shape and finally developing into onion-like shaped mitochondria...
May 15, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Alyce M Swinbourne, Clive J C Phillips, Tina Janssen, Allan Lisle, Tamara Keeley, Stephen D Johnston
The poor captive breeding success of southern hairy-nosed wombats (SHNWs; Lasiorhinus latifrons) has been attributed to the difficulty in accurately characterising oestrous behaviour and their relationship to circulating reproductive hormones. Over two wombat breeding seasons, the use of infrared cameras for 24-h remote behavioural monitoring and the analysis of urine samples collected from seven captive females, were investigated to determine the relationship between behaviour and changes in urinary progesterone metabolites (P4M)...
May 10, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Alyce M Swinbourne, Stephen D Johnston, Tina Janssen, Alan Lisle, Tamara Keeley
Southern hairy-nosed wombats (SHNWs: Lasiorhinus latifrons) do not breed well in captivity. To better understand their reproduction, daily urine samples were collected from nine captive females and analysed for volume (mL), specific gravity and a qualitative index of the number of epithelial cells, then stored at -20°C until samples could be analysed for progesterone metabolites (P4M). The mean oestrous cycle length was 35.1±2.4 days; however, individual cycle length ranged from 23 to 47 days. The mean luteal phase length was 20...
May 10, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Leigh Nicholson, Laura Lindsay, Christopher R Murphy
The epithelium of the uterine lumen is the first point of contact with the blastocyst before implantation. To facilitate pregnancy, these uterine epithelial cells (UECs) undergo morphological changes specific to the receptive uterus. These changes include basal, lateral and apical alterations in the plasma membrane of UECs. This study looked at the cytoskeletal and focal adhesion-associated proteins, lasp-1 and palladin, in the uterus during early pregnancy in the rat. Two palladin isoforms, 140 kDa and 90 kDa, were analysed, with the migration-associated 140-kDa isoform increasing significantly at the time of implantation when compared with the time of fertilisation...
May 9, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Kazuya Kusama, Kazuhiro Tamura, Hanako Bai, Toshihiro Sakurai, Hirotaka Nishi, Keiichi Isaka, Kazuhiko Imakawa, Mikihiro Yoshie
Protein kinase A (PKA) signalling accompanies elevated intracellular cAMP levels during endometrial stromal cell (ESC) decidualisation. Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (EPAC), an alternate mediator of cAMP signalling, promotes PKA analogue-induced decidualisation; however, the precise mechanism by which EPAC and PKA co-operatively stimulate decidualisation has not been characterised. To examine the role of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) in EPAC- and PKA-mediated decidualisation of primary human ESCs, a reporter plasmid containing the 332bp region upstream from the transcription initiation site of the decidual prolactin (dPRL) gene was generated and the promoter activity was evaluated using a luciferase assay...
May 8, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Carles Soler, José Á Picazo-Bueno, Vicente Micó, Anthony Valverde, Daznia Bompart, Francisco J Blasco, Juan G Álvarez, Almudena García-Molina
Sperm motility is one of the most significant parameters in the prediction of male fertility. Until now, both motility analysis using an optical microscope and computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA-Mot) entailed the use of counting chambers with a depth to 20µm. Chamber depth significantly affects the intrinsic sperm movement, leading to an artificial motility pattern. For the first time, laser microscopy offers the possibility of avoiding this interference with sperm movement. The aims of the present study were to determine the different motility patterns observed in chambers with depths of 10, 20 and 100µm using a new holographic approach and to compare the results obtained in the 20-µm chamber with those of the laser and optical CASA-Mot systems...
May 4, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Claire Stenhouse, Peter Tennant, W Colin Duncan, Cheryl J Ashworth
Doppler ultrasound was performed under moderate sedation (ketamine and azaperone) for 30min to monitor umbilical arterial (UA) blood flow in one uterine horn of Large White×Landrace gilts (n=23) at Gestational Days (GD) 30, 45, 60 and 90. Gilts were scanned before they were killed to examine relationships between litter size, sex ratio and five UA parameters (peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV), A/B (PSV to EDV) ratio, fetal heart rate (FHR) and resistance index (RI)). In gilts in which scans were obtained from all fetuses in the scanned horn, relationships between UA parameters, and fetal weight and sex were examined...
May 4, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Chommanart Thongkittidilok, Ram Pratap Singh, Pierre Comizzoli, David Wildt, Nucharin Songsasen
The aims of the present study were to determine the effects of insulin, invitro, on: (1) the viability and growth of domestic cat ovarian follicles; (2) mRNA expression of genes regulating steroidogenesis (cytochrome P450 family 17 subfamily, A polypeptide 1 (Cyp17a1), cytochrome P450 family 19 subfamily, A polypeptide 1 (Cyp19a1) and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (Star)) and water transport (aquaporins (AQPs) Aqp1, Aqp3, Aqp7, Aqp9); and (3) steroid production (17β-oestradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), androstenedione (A4))...
May 3, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Julia Rodríguez-Castelán, Maribel Méndez-Tepepa, Jorge Rodríguez-Antolín, Francisco Castelán, Estela Cuevas-Romero
Dyslipidaemia and hyperglycaemia are associated with ovarian failure and both have been related to hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism promotes anovulation and ovarian cysts in women and reduces the size of follicles and the expression of aromatase in the ovary of rabbits. Considering that ovarian steroidogenesis and ovulation depend on lipid metabolism and signalling, the aim of the present study was to analyse the effect of hypothyroidism on the lipid content and expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) δ in the ovary...
May 3, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
L Bittner, S Wyck, C Herrera, M Siuda, C Wrenzycki, B van Loon, H Bollwein
Oxidative stress in spermatozoa has effects on subsequent embryo development. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether sperm oxidative stress results in increased DNA damage in the embryo. To this end, bovine spermatozoa were incubated for 1h at 37°C without or with 100µM H2O2, resulting in non-oxidised (NOX-S) and oxidised (OX-S) spermatozoa respectively. Non-incubated spermatozoa served as the control group (CON-S). After IVF, developmental rates 30, 46 and 60h and 7 days after IVF were assessed...
May 1, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
María E Ayala, Ayari Gonzáles, Rodrigo M Olivarez, Andrés Aragón-Martínez
Fluoxetine (Flx) is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor that alters the male reproductive system when administered at the adult stage or after maternal exposure. In the present study we evaluated the effects of Flx administration on reproductive parameters during juvenile-peripubertal development when treated male rats reached adulthood. Groups of rats were treated daily with Flx (5mgkg-1, i.p.) or saline (0.9% NaCl), or were left untreated. Rats were treated between 30 and 53 days of age and were killed at 65 days of age...
April 30, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Aimee J Silla, Michael McFadden, Phillip G Byrne
Fundamental knowledge of the optimal hormone concentrations required to stimulate amplexus and spawning in breeding pairs of amphibians is currently lacking, hindering our understanding of the proximate mechanisms underpinning mating behaviour. The present study investigated the effects of: (1) the dose of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRH-a) administered; (2) male-female hormone administration interval; and (3) topical application of GnRH-a, on spawning success in the northern corroboree frog...
April 26, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Zhao-Bo Luo, Long Jin, Qing Guo, Jun-Xia Wang, Xiao-Xu Xing, Mei-Fu Xuan, Qi-Rong Luo, Guang-Lei Zhang, Xi-Jun Yin, Jin-Dan Kang
Accumulating evidence suggests that aberrant epigenetic reprogramming and low pluripotency of donor nuclei lead to abnormal development of cloned embryos and underlie the inefficiency of mammalian somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The present study demonstrates that treatment with the small molecule RepSox alone upregulates the expression of pluripotency-related genes in porcine SCNT embryos. Treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitor LBH589 significantly increased the blastocyst formation rate, whereas treatment with RepSox did not...
April 24, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Eduardo M Razza, Mateus J Sudano, Patricia K Fontes, Fernanda F Franchi, Katia Roberta A Belaz, Priscila H Santos, Anthony C S Castilho, Daniele F O Rocha, Marcos N Eberlin, Mariana F Machado, Marcelo F G Nogueira
Mammalian oocytes resume meiosis spontaneously after removal from the ovarian follicle. We tested the effects of a 2-h prematuration treatment (Pre-IVM) with forskolin (FSK) and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) in bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) on the lipid content of oocytes and blastocysts, on the membrane lipid composition of blastocysts and on the transcriptional profiling of cumulus cells and blastocysts in a high-throughput platform. Embryonic development rates to the morula (mean 56.1%) or blastocyst (mean 26...
April 23, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
M Ramón, F Martínez-Pastor
Computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) produces a wealth of data that is frequently ignored. The use of multiparametric statistical methods can help explore these datasets, unveiling the subpopulation structure of sperm samples. In this review we analyse the significance of the internal heterogeneity of sperm samples and its relevance. We also provide a brief description of the statistical tools used for extracting sperm subpopulations from the datasets, namely unsupervised clustering (with non-hierarchical, hierarchical and two-step methods) and the most advanced supervised methods, based on machine learning...
April 23, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Marta Skelin, Danijel Bursać, Viviana Kozina, Tristan Winters, Marija Macan, Marija Ćurlin
Cervical mucus modulates fertility by cyclical changes of its biophysical and functional properties. Based on an analogy with bronchial goblet cells we set out to investigate the possible role of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signalling pathway in the mediation of oestrogen-induced mucus secretion from endocervical secretory cells. The aim of the study was to examine the existence of GABAA receptor (GABAAR), glutamic acid decarboxylase 65/67 (GAD65/67) and vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) in human and mouse cervical tissue...
April 18, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
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