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Reproduction, Fertility, and Development

Jolanta Polkowska, Anna Wójcik-Gładysz, Natalia Chmielewska, Marta Wańkowska
Kisspeptin (kp) is considered to be one of the major regulators of the induction of pubertal events via the activation of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone-LH system. The aim of the present study was to analyse expression of immunoreactive (ir) kp in the hypothalamic neurons of female lambs from the neonatal to the peripubertal period (5 days to 32 weeks) in relation to the plasma LH pattern using immunohistochemistry and image analysis. Hypothalami were collected from female lambs (n=33) from the infantile, juvenile, prepubertal and peripubertal periods...
September 18, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Anusha Singh, Puran Bora, Amitabh Krishna
The present study examined the efficacy of adiponectin for regulating the reproductive, metabolic and fertility status of mice with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS was induced in prepubertal (21- to 22-day-old) mice using dehydroepiandrosterone (6mg 100g-1day-1 for 25days), after which mice were administered either a low or high dose of adiponectin (5 or 15µgmL-1, s.c., respectively). PCOS mice exhibited typical features, including the presence of numerous cystic follicles, increased circulating androgens, increased body mass, altered steroidogenesis, decreased insulin receptor expression and increased serum triglycerides, serum glucose, Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 (a marker of inflammation) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF; a marker of angiogenesis)...
September 15, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Alexandra Usuga, Benjamín A Rojano, Giovanni Restrepo
Contribution of seminal plasma proteins to semen freezability has been reported in several species, suggesting these proteins as genetic markers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between cysteine-rich secretory protein-3 (CRISP-3) and some of its single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with post-thawing semen quality in stallions. DNA was obtained from 100 stallions, regions of interest were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. Evaluated SNPs within the equine CRISP-3 gene were CRISP3c...
August 31, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Crystalyn B Legg-St Pierre, Martina Mackova, Ewa I Miskiewicz, Denise G Hemmings, Suraj Unniappan, Daniel J MacPhee
The placenta is the physiological bridge between mother and fetus and has life-sustaining functions during pregnancy, including metabolic regulation, fetal protection and hormone secretion. Nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2) is a calcium- and DNA-binding protein and precursor of nesfatin-1, a signalling peptide with multiple functions, including regulation of energy homeostasis and glucose transport. These are also key functions of the placenta, yet NUCB2/nesfatin-1 expression has never been comprehensively studied in this organ...
August 31, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
S Barua, A Macedo, D S Kolb, K E Wynne-Edwards, C Klein
Milk-fat globule epidermal growth factor (EGF) 8 protein (MFGE8), also known as lactadherin, promotes cell adhesion in an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-dependent modus via integrins. In the present study, the expression of MFGE8 was examined in equine endometrium during oestrus and at Days 12 and 16 after ovulation in pregnant and non-pregnant mares and in mares during the 5th month of gestation. Results demonstrated that MFGE8 is expressed at the embryo- and fetal-maternal interface in equine pregnancy. In non-pregnant endometrium its expression was upregulated by oestrogen, a finding that was confirmed using endometrial explant culture...
August 30, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Xiling Yang, Xiangyou Leng, Wenling Tu, Yunqiang Liu, Jinyan Xu, Xue Pei, Yongyi Ma, Dong Yang, Yuan Yang
Testis-specific protein, Y-encoded, 1 (TSPY1) is involved in the regulation of spermatogenic efficiency via highly variable copy dosage, with dosage deficiency of the multicopy gene conferring an increased risk of spermatogenic failure. TSPY-like 1 (TSPYL1) and TSPY-like 5 (TSPYL5), two autosomal homologous genes originating from TSPY1, share a core sequence that encodes a functional nucleosome assembly protein (NAP) domain with TSPY1. To explore the potential effects of TSPYL1 and TSPYL5 on the TSPY1-related spermatogenic phenotype, we investigated the expression of these genes in 15 healthy and nonpathological human tissues (brain, kidney, liver, pancreas, thymus, prostate, spleen, muscle, leucocytes, placenta, intestine, ovary, lung, colon and testis) and explored associations between their variations and spermatogenic failure in 1558 Han Chinese men with different spermatogenic conditions, including 304 men with TSPY1 dosage deficiency...
August 29, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Amy Winship, Amanda Ton, Michelle Van Sinderen, Ellen Menkhorst, Katarzyna Rainczuk, Meaghan Griffiths, Carly Cuman, Evdokia Dimitriadis
Human blastocysts that fail to implant following IVF secrete elevated levels of miR-661, which is taken up by primary human endometrial epithelial cells (HEECs) and impairs their adhesive capability. MicroRNA miR-661 downregulates mouse double minute homologue 2 (MDM2) and MDM4 in other epithelial cell types to activate p53; however, this has not been examined in the endometrium. In this study MDM2 protein was detected in the luminal epithelium of the endometrium, the site of blastocyst attachment, during the mid secretory receptive phase of the menstrual cycle...
August 29, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Debra K Berg, Peter L Pfeffer
We profiled 98 mature microRNAs (miRNAs) using a stem-loop reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay array based on human miRNAs. We demonstrated that one, but not two, base-pair changes in the miRNA recognition sequence at the 3' end only marginally affected copy number estimates. Absolute levels of miRNAs were measured in matured cattle oocytes, eight-cell embryos and normal and parthenogenetic blastocysts and Day-14 trophoblast. Most miRNA concentrations were below the expected functional threshold required for effective repression of moderately to highly abundant target RNA...
August 29, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Jie Zhu, Wei Cui, Yan-Feng Dai
The aim of the present study was to determine whether the use of oocytes from juvenile female mice would improve the efficiency of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In the present study, 15 adult and 14 juvenile C57BL6/J female mice were superovulated, with 17.8 oocytes per mouse harvested from adults, significantly lower than the 40.2 harvested from juveniles (P<0.01). Sixty and 233 oocytes were harvested from C57BL/6J adult and juvenile mice respectively, activated in 10mM SrCl2+5μgmL-1 cytochalasin B for 5-6h and cultured in potassium simplex optimisation medium (KSOM) for 3...
August 25, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Christina D Marth, Simon M Firestone, Dave Hanlon, Lisa Y Glenton, Glenn F Browning, Neil D Young, Natali Krekeler
Persistent mating-induced endometritis (PMIE) severely decreases fertility in horses. The aim of the present study was to evaluate differences between horses susceptible to PMIE and a control group in terms of the expression of selected immune response and effector genes, and the effects of oestrous cycle stage on this expression. Endometrial biopsies from 18 uterine samples of mares in the control group (eight in dioestrus, 10 in oestrus) and 16 PMIE-susceptible mares (four in dioestrus, 12 in oestrus) were analysed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction...
August 24, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Marcela Felix Fortis, Lucas Rosa Fraga, Juliano André Boquett, Thayne Woycinck Kowalski, Caroline Gross Dutra, Rozana Oliveira Gonçalves, Fernanda Sales Luiz Vianna, Lavinia Schüler-Faccini, Maria Teresa Vieira Sanseverino
Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) affects ~3-5% of couples attempting to conceive and in around 50% of cases the aetiology remains unknown. Adequate vascularisation and placental circulation are indispensable for the development of a normal pregnancy. Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the nitric oxide (NO) systems play important roles in reproductive physiology, participating in several steps including implantation and apoptosis of trophoblast cells. In this study we evaluated genetic polymorphisms in the inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2), PTGS2 and VEGFA genes as susceptibility factors for RPL...
August 22, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
G Gamarra, C Ponsart, S Lacaze, F Nuttinck, A Cordova, P Mermillod, B Marquant-Le Guienne, D Monniaux, P Humblot, A A Ponter
Dietary supplementation with propylene glycol (PG) increases in vitro production of high-quality embryos in feed-restricted heifers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of PG in feed-restricted heifers on follicular fluid insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 concentrations, expression of IGF system genes in oocytes and cumulus cells and the expression of selected genes in blastocysts. Feed-restricted (R) heifers were drenched with water or PG during induced oestrous cycles (400mL of PG or water/drench, daily drenching at 1600 hours for the first 9 days of the oestrous cycle)...
August 21, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Khairy M El-Bayomi, Ayman A Saleh, Ashraf Awad, Mahmoud S El-Tarabany, Hadeel S El-Qaliouby, Mohamed Afifi, Shymaa El-Komy, Walaa M Essawi, Essam A Almadaly, Mohammed A El-Magd
Cytochrome P450 aromatase (encoded by the CYP19A1 gene) regulates oestrogen biosynthesis and so plays an essential role in female fertility. We investigated the genetic association of CYP19A1 with the risk of anoestrus in Egyptian water buffaloes. A total of 651 animals (326 anoestrous and 325 cycling) were used in this case-control study. Using single-strand conformation polymorphisms and sequencing, four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected; c.-135T>C SNP in the 5'UTR and three non-synonymous SNPs: c...
August 17, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Rafaela P Erthal, Gláucia E M L Siervo, Lívia T R Silveira, Wellerson R Scarano, Glaura S A Fernandes
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is considered one of the most toxic dioxins. The effects of TCDD are exerted via binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of resveratrol, an AhR antagonist, against testicular damage caused by TCDD exposure during pregnancy. Pregnant female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: a control group; a group treated with 1µgkg-1, p.o., TCDD on Gestational Day (GD) 15; a group treated with 20µgkg-1, p...
August 8, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Érica C G Praxedes, Gabriela L Lima, Luana G P Bezerra, Fernanda A Santos, Marcelo B Bezerra, Denise D Guerreiro, Ana P R Rodrigues, Sheyla F S Domingues, Alexandre R Silva
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the development of fresh and vitrified agouti ovarian tissue after xenografting to C57Bl/6 severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) female mice. Ovaries were obtained from five female agoutis and divided into 16 fragments. Five fragments were transplanted immediately to ovariectomised SCID mice and the others were vitrified, stored for 2 weeks and transplanted only after rewarming. Tissue fragments were transplanted under the kidney capsule in recipients. The return of ovarian activity in recipients was monitored by the observation of external signs of oestrus and vaginal cytology over a period of 40 days after transplantation, after which the grafts were removed and evaluated for morphology, cell proliferation and the occurrence of DNA fragmentation...
August 8, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Vivek Saroha, Neele S Dellschaft, Duane H Keisler, David S Gardner, Helen Budge, Sylvain P Sebert, Michael E Symonds
Intrauterine growth restriction in late pregnancy can contribute to adverse long-term metabolic health in the offspring. In the present study we used an animal (sheep) model of maternal dietary manipulation in late pregnancy, combined with exposure of the offspring to a low-activity, obesogenic environment after weaning, to characterise the effects on glucose homeostasis. Dizygotic twin-pregnant sheep were either fed to 60% of requirements (nutrient restriction (R)) or fed ad libitum (~140% of requirements (A)) from 110 days gestation until term (~147 days)...
August 3, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Barbara L Gocinski, Katrina K Knott, Beth M Roberts, Janine L Brown, Carrie K Vance, Andrew J Kouba
Giant pandas have been described as mono-oestrus spring breeders, yet males exposed to aseasonal oestrous females in the autumn or winter exhibit breeding behaviours and interest in mating. In the present study, urinary androgens and sperm parameters were quantified for males exposed to females expressing oestrus during spring, autumn or winter to examine plasticity of reproductive seasonality in giant pandas. Monthly average androgen concentrations for two males exposed to females in either seasonal or aseasonal oestrus were greater (P<0...
August 3, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Érica S S Leal, Luis A Vieira, Naíza A R Sá, Gerlane M Silva, Franciele O Lunardi, Anna C A Ferreira, Cláudio C Campello, Benner G Alves, Francielli W S Cibin, Johan Smitz, José R Figueiredo, Ana P R Rodrigues
The aim of this study was to evaluate the viability, antrum formation and in vitro development of isolated secondary follicles from vitrified caprine ovarian cortex in a medium previously established for fresh isolated secondary follicles, in the absence (α-minimum essential medium (α-MEM+) alone) or presence of FSH and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF; α-MEM++FSH+VEGF). Ovarian fragments were distributed among five treatments (T1 to T5): fresh follicles were fixed immediately (T1), follicles from fresh tissue were cultured in vitro in α-MEM+ (T2) or α-MEM++FSH+VEGF (T3) and follicles from vitrified tissue were cultured in vitro in α-MEM+ (T4) or α-MEM++FSH+VEGF (T5)...
August 3, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Tomasz Lech, Józefa Styrna, Katarzyna Kotarska
Apoptosis of excessive or defective germ cells is a natural process occurring in mammalian testes. Tumour suppressor protein p53 is involved in this process both in developing and adult male gonads. Its contribution to testicular physiology is known to be modified by genetic background. The aim of this study was to evaluate the combined influence of the p53 and Y chromosome long arm genes on male germ cell apoptosis. Knockout of the transformation related protein 53 (Trp53) gene was introduced into congenic strains: B10...
August 2, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
S Divyashree, H N Yajurvedi
The durational effects of chronic stress on the Fallopian tubes and uterus were studied by exposing rats to stressors in the form of restraint (1h) and forced swimming (15min) daily for 4, 8 or 12 weeks. One group of stressed rats from each time period was then maintained without exposure to stressors for a further 4 weeks to assess their ability to recover from stress. All time periods of stress exposure resulted in decreased weight of the body and Fallopian tubes; however, the relative weight of the uterus and serum concentrations of oestradiol and insulin increased significantly...
July 26, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
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