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Reproduction, Fertility, and Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076749/epigenetic-changes-of-hepatic-glucocorticoid-receptor-in-sheep-male-offspring-undernourished-in-utero
#1
Stella Chadio, Basiliki Kotsampasi, Stylliani Taka, Emmanouil Liandris, Nikolaos Papadopoulos, Elias Plakokefalos
The aim of this study was to characterise the effects of maternal undernutrition during gestation on hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme gene expression and to determine whether such effects are mediated through epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Pregnant ewes were fed a 50% nutrient-restricted diet from Day 0 to 30 (R1) or from Day 31 to 100 of gestation (R2) or a 100% diet throughout gestation (Control). After parturition lambs were fed to appetite. At 10 months of age offspring were euthanised and livers were removed...
January 12, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063465/maternal-obesity-in-the-rat-impairs-male-offspring-aging-of-the-testicular-antioxidant-defence-system
#2
Claudia J Bautista, Guadalupe L Rodríguez-González, Angélica Morales, Consuelo Lomas-Soria, Fabiola Cruz-Pérez, Luis A Reyes-Castro, Elena Zambrano
A high-fat diet during intrauterine development predisposes offspring (F1) to phenotypic alterations, such as lipid synthesis imbalance and increased oxidative stress, causing changes in male fertility. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of maternal obesity during pregnancy and lactation on antioxidant enzymes in the F1 testes. Female Wistar rats (F0) were fed either a control (C, 5% fat) or an obesogenic (MO, maternal obesity, 25% fat) diet from weaning and throughout subsequent pregnancy and lactation...
January 9, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063464/mitochondrial-ferritin-deficiency-reduces-male-fertility-in-mice
#3
Federica Maccarinelli, Maria Regoni, Fernando Carmona, Maura Poli, Esther G Meyron-Holtz, Paolo Arosio
Mitochondrial ferritin (FtMt) is a functional ferritin targeted to mitochondria that is highly expressed in the testis. To investigate the role of FtMt in the testis we set up a series of controlled matings between FtMt gene-deletion mice (FtMt-/-) with FtMt+/+ mice. We found that the number of newborns per litter and the fertility rate were strongly reduced for the FtMt-/- males, but not for the females, indicating that FtMt has an important role for male fertility. The morphology of the testis and of the spermatozoa of FtMt-/- mice was normal and we did not detect alterations in sperm parameters or in oxidative stress indices...
January 9, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997335/intrafollicular-oestradiol-production-expression-of-the-lh-receptor-lhr-gene-and-its-isoforms-and-early-follicular-deviation-in-bos-indicus
#4
S Wohlres-Viana, E K N Arashiro, M A Machado, L S A Camargo, L G B Siqueira, M P Palhao, J H M Viana
The aim of the present study was to characterise the roles of intrafollicular oestradiol production and granulosa cell (GC) expression of the LH receptor (LHR) gene and its isoforms during follicular deviation in Bos indicus. Follicular wave emergence was synchronised in heifers from a Bos taurus dairy (Holstein; n=10) and a B. indicus dairy breed (Gir; n=10). Follicles were aspirated individually at sizes corresponding to the periods of predeviation, deviation and postdeviation. Intrafollicular oestradiol (IF-E2) and progesterone (IF-P4) concentrations were determined in the follicular fluid (FF) by radioimmunoassay, and relative expression of P450 aromatase (CYP19A1) and LHR forms was evaluated in GC using real-time quantitative-polymerase chain reaction...
December 21, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997334/ontogeny-of-clock-and-kiss-1-metastasis-suppressor-kiss1-gene-expression-in-the-prepubertal-mouse-hypothalamus
#5
Cassandra C Yap, Peter J Mark, Brendan J Waddell, Jeremy T Smith
Kisspeptin is crucial for the generation of the circadian-gated preovulatory gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-LH surge in female rodents, with expression in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) peaking in the late afternoon of pro-oestrus. Given kisspeptin expression is established before puberty, the aim of the present study was to investigate kisspeptin and clock gene rhythms during the neonatal period. Anterior and posterior hypothalami were collected from C57BL/6J mice on Postnatal Days (P) 5, 15 and 25, at six time points across 24h, for analysis of gene expression by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
December 21, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977389/gel-coated-tubes-extend-above-freezing-storage-of-honey-bee-apis-mellifera-semen-to-439-days-with-production-of-fertilised-offspring
#6
Brandon K Hopkins, Susan W Cobey, Charles Herr, Walter S Sheppard
Honey bees are an important agricultural species; however, relatively little work has been done to improve artificial reproductive technologies for this animal. The collection and distribution of germplasm for breeding and conservation is critical for improving managed honey bee populations and conserving threatened subspecies. The most efficient method of controlling breeding in honey bees is by artificial insemination. The collection of semen for insemination requires the use of antibiotics, which is especially critical if semen is to be stored for any length of time...
December 16, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938627/modulation-of-adiponectin-system-expression-in-the-porcine-uterus-during-early-pregnancy-by-prostaglandin-e2-and-f2
#7
Kamil Dobrzyn, Nina Smolinska, Karol Szeszko, Marta Kiezun, Anna Maleszka, Tadeusz Kaminski
Studies have demonstrated that adiponectin could be a link between reproductive functions and energy metabolism in animals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of prostaglandin (PG) E2 and PGF2α (10, 50, 100, 250 and 500ngmL-1) on the expression and secretion of adiponectin and its receptor genes and proteins by cultured in vitro porcine endometrial and myometrial tissues on Days 10-28 of pregnancy and Days 10-11 of the oestrous cycle. The gene expression was analysed using the real-time PCR method...
December 12, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938626/prepartum-maternal-diets-supplemented-with-oilseeds-alter-the-fatty-acid-profile-in-bovine-neonatal-plasma-possibly-through-reduced-placental-expression-of-fatty-acid-transporter-protein-4-and-fatty-acid-translocase
#8
Reza Salehi, Divakar J Ambrose
In the present study, we determined the effects of maternal dietary fat and the type of fat on plasma fatty acids and the expression of placental fatty acid transporter genes. In Experiment 1, Holstein cows in the last 35 days of gestation received diets containing sunflower seed (n=8; high in linoleic acid (LA)), canola seed (n=7; high in oleic acid (OLA)) or no oilseed (n=7; control). Fatty acids were quantified in dam and neonate plasma at calving. In Experiment 2, placental cotyledons were collected (LA: n=4; OLA: n=4; control: n=5) to quantify gene expression...
December 12, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938625/presence-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-during-the-first-half-of-ivm-improves-the-meiotic-and-developmental-competence-of-porcine-oocytes-from-small-follicles
#9
Tra M T Bui, Khánh X Nguyễn, Asako Karata, Pilar Ferré, Minh T Trần, Takuya Wakai, Hiroaki Funahashi
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on the meiotic and developmental competence of porcine oocytes from small follicles (SF; 0.5-3mm diameter). When cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) from medium-sized follicles (MF; 3-6mm diameter) and SF were cultured for IVM, the maturation rates were significantly higher for oocytes from MF than SF. Concentrations of VEGF in the medium were significantly higher for COCs cultured from MF than SF. When COCs from SF were exposed to 200ngmL-1 VEGF during the first 20h of IVM, the maturation rate improved significantly and was similar to that of oocytes derived from MF...
December 12, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918728/cholesterol-metabolism-in-rabbit-blastocysts-under-maternal-diabetes
#10
S Mareike Pendzialek, Maria Schindler, Torsten Plösch, Jacqueline Gürke, Elisa Haucke, Stefanie Hecht, Bernd Fischer, Anne Navarrete Santos
In the rabbit reproductive model, maternal experimentally induced insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (expIDD) leads to accumulation of lipid droplets in blastocysts. Cholesterol metabolism is a likely candidate to explain such metabolic changes. Therefore, in the present study we analysed maternal and embryonic cholesterol concentrations and expression of related genes in vivo (diabetic model) and in vitro (embryo culture in hyperglycaemic medium). In pregnant expIDD rabbits, the serum composition of lipoprotein subfractions was changed, with a decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and an increase in very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; in uterine fluid, total cholesterol concentrations were elevated...
December 6, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918727/the-current-state-of-reproductive-biology-research-in-australia-and-new-zealand-core-themes-from-the-society-for-reproductive-biology-annual-meeting-2016
#11
L K Akison, P H Andraweera, M J Bertoldo, H M Brown, J S M Cuffe, T Fullston, O Holland, J E Schjenken
Because reproduction is essential for all life, it is central to our understanding of all aspects of biology. The Society for Reproductive Biology (SRB) 2016 conference held on the Gold Coast (Qld, Australia) displayed the current breadth of reproductive research in Australia and New Zealand, with additional insights from world leaders in the field. This conference review provides a focused summary of the key questions, emerging ideas and novel technologies that were presented in the symposia. Presented research demonstrated key advances in how stem cell biology may allow us to better understand pluripotency, as well as how environmental and lifestyle factors, such as circadian disruption, smoking, alcohol and diet, affect gametogenesis, embryo implantation, placental function and reproductive capacity...
December 6, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890045/protein-in-culture-and-endogenous-lipid-interact-with-embryonic-stages-in-vitro-to-alter-calf-birthweight-after-embryo-vitrification-and-warming
#12
E Gómez, S Carrocera, S Uzbekova, D Martín, A Murillo, M Alonso-Guervós, F Goyache, M Muñoz
Short-term protein removal in vitro improves long-term blastocyst competence to survive vitrification. We investigated the mechanisms and effects underlying protein removal. Day-6 morulae and early blastocysts were cultured individually with and without protein for 24h. Development and lipid content were analysed in expanded blastocysts derived from morulae (M-XB) and from early blastocysts (EB-XB). Expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism, stress responses and apoptosis was analysed in fresh and vitrified-warmed M-XB produced with and without protein...
November 28, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876113/rosmarinic-acid-reverses-the-effects-of-metronidazole-induced-infertility-in-male-albino-rats
#13
Zina M Al-Alami, Ziad A Shraideh, Mutasem O Taha
Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a natural antioxidant that has many biological activities. In the present study we investigated the potential of RA to reverse the negative effects of the widely used antibiotic and antiprotozoal agent metronidazole (MTZ), which is known to induce reversible male infertility. Two doses of RA (5 and 15mg kg-1) were studied in sexually mature rats with and without MTZ-induced infertility. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with 5mg kg-1 RA or 15mg kg-1 RA (in distilled water) and, 45min later, they were intraperitoneally injected with 40mg kg-1 MTZ (in distilled water)...
November 23, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851888/regulation-of-heat-inducible-hspa1a-gene-expression-during-maternal-to-embryo-transition-and-in-response-to-heat-in-in-vitro-produced-bovine-embryos
#14
Jean-Marc Lelièvre, Nathalie Peynot, Sylvie Ruffini, Ludivine Laffont, Daniel Le Bourhis, Pierre-Marie Girard, Véronique Duranthon
In in vitro-produced (IVP) bovine embryos, a burst in transcriptional activation of the embryonic genome (EGA) occurs at the 8-16-cell stage. To examine transcriptional regulation prior to EGA, notably in response to heat stress, we asked (1) whether the spontaneous expression of a luciferase transgene that is driven by the minimal mouse heat-shock protein 1b (hspa1b) gene promoter paralleled that of HSPA1A during EGA in IVP bovine embryo and (2) whether expression of the endogenous heat-inducible iHSPA group member HSPA1A gene and the hspa1b/luciferase transgene were induced by heat stress (HS) prior to EGA...
November 17, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832581/effect-of-nutritionally-induced-hyperlipidaemia-on-in-vitro-bovine-embryo-quality-depends-on-the-type-of-major-fatty-acid-in-the-diet
#15
Waleed F A Marei, Maria Arias Alvarez, Veerle Van Hoeck, Alfonso Gutierrez-Adan, Peter E J Bols, Jo L M R Leroy
The present study examined whether the effects of dietary-induced hyperlipidaemia on preimplantation embryo development depend on the predominant fatty acid (FA) type in the diet. In a combined in vivo-in vitro bovine model, two groups of cows (n=3 in each group) were fed with three diets consecutively (4 weeks feeding for each): (1) a maintenance control diet (CONT); (2) a high-starch diet rich in saturated fat (SAT); and (3) a high-starch diet rich in omega-3 unsaturated fat (UNSAT). Two feeding sequences were used to test for carry-over effects: Group A was fed CONT, SAT1 and then UNSAT2, whereas Group B was fed CONT, UNSAT1 and then SAT2...
November 11, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802411/gene-expression-profile-in-heat-shocked-holstein-and-nelore-oocytes-and-cumulus-cells
#16
J S Ticianelli, I P Emanuelli, R A Satrapa, A C S Castilho, B Loureiro, M J Sudano, P K Fontes, R F P Pinto, E M Razza, R S Surjus, R Sartori, M E O A Assumpção, J A Visintin, C M Barros, F F Paula-Lopes
The present study determined the transcriptome profile in Nelore and Holstein oocytes subjected to heat shock during IVM and the mRNA abundance of selected candidate genes in Nelore and Holstein heat-shocked oocytes and cumulus cells (CC). Holstein and Nelore cows were subjected to in vivo follicle aspiration. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were assigned to control (38.5°C, 22h) or heat shock (41°C for 12h, followed by 38.5°C for 10h) treatment during IVM. Denuded oocytes were subjected to bovine microarray analysis...
November 2, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780518/sleep-restriction-in-wistar-rats-impairs-epididymal-postnatal-development-and-sperm-motility-in-association-with-oxidative-stress
#17
Gláucia E M L Siervo, Fernanda M Ogo, Aline D Valério, Thamara N X Silva, Larissa Staurengo-Ferrari, Tathiana A Alvarenga, Rubens Cecchini, Waldiceu A Verri, Flávia A Guarnier, Monica L Andersen, Glaura S A Fernandes
Good sleep quality has a direct effect on the activity of the neuroendocrine-reproductive control axis and oxidative stress. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether sleep restriction (SR) during the peripubertal period impaired the postnatal development of the epididymis in Wistar rats. After 21 days SR (18h per day), epididymides were collected on Postnatal Day (PND) 62 for evaluation of oxidative stress markers, inflammatory profile, sperm count and histopathological and stereological analyses; in addition, the motility of spermatozoa from the vas deferens was examined...
October 26, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780517/effect-and-possible-mechanisms-of-melatonin-treatment-on-the-quality-and-developmental-potential-of-aged-bovine-oocytes
#18
Shuang Liang, Jing Guo, Jeong-Woo Choi, Nam-Hyung Kim, Xiang-Shun Cui
After reaching the metaphase II (MII) stage, unfertilised oocytes undergo a time-dependent process of quality deterioration referred to as oocyte aging. The associated morphological and cellular changes lead to decreased oocyte developmental potential. This study investigated the effect of exogenous melatonin supplementation on in vitro aged bovine oocytes and explored its underlying mechanisms. The levels of cytoplasmic reactive oxygen species and DNA damage response in bovine oocytes increased during in vitro aging...
October 26, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755963/reproductive-dysfunction-after-mercury-exposure-at-low-levels-evidence-for-a-role-of-glutathione-peroxidase-gpx-1-and-gpx4-in-male-rats
#19
Caroline S Martinez, Franck M Peçanha, Daniela S Brum, Francielli W Santos, Jeferson L Franco, Ana Paula P Zemolin, Janete A Anselmo-Franci, Fernando B Junior, María J Alonso, Mercedes Salaices, Dalton V Vassallo, Fábio G Leivas, Giulia A Wiggers
Mercury is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and mercury contamination and toxicity are serious hazards to human health. Some studies have shown that mercury impairs male reproductive function, but less is known about its effects following exposure at low doses and the possible mechanisms underlying its toxicity. Herein we show that exposure of rats to mercury chloride for 30 days (first dose 4.6µgkg-1, subsequent doses 0.07µgkg-1day-1) resulted in mean (±s.e.m.) blood mercury concentrations of 6.8±0...
October 19, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755962/induced-sub-lethal-oxidative-damage-affects-osmotic-tolerance-and-cryosurvival-of-spermatozoa
#20
Franziska Ertmer, Harriëtte Oldenhof, Saskia Schütze, Karl Rohn, Willem F Wolkers, Harald Sieme
If the physiological balance between production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is shifted towards production of ROS this may result in accumulation of cell damage over time. In this study stallion spermatozoa were incubated with xanthine and xanthine oxidase (X-XO) to artificially generate defined levels of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide resulting in sub-lethal oxidative damage. The effects of X-XO treatment on various sperm characteristics were studied. Special emphasis was placed on sperm osmotic tolerance pre-freeze and its correlation with cryosurvival, given that cryopreservation exposes cells to osmotic stress...
October 19, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
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