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Reproduction, Fertility, and Development

Caroline S Martinez, Franck M Peçanha, Daniela S Brum, Francielli W Santos, Jeferson L Franco, Ana Paula P Zemolin, Janete A Anselmo-Franci, Fernando B Junior, María J Alonso, Mercedes Salaices, Dalton V Vassallo, Fábio G Leivas, Giulia A Wiggers
Mercury is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and mercury contamination and toxicity are serious hazards to human health. Some studies have shown that mercury impairs male reproductive function, but less is known about its effects following exposure at low doses and the possible mechanisms underlying its toxicity. Herein we show that exposure of rats to mercury chloride for 30 days (first dose 4.6µgkg-1, subsequent doses 0.07µgkg-1day-1) resulted in mean (±s.e.m.) blood mercury concentrations of 6.8±0...
October 19, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Franziska Ertmer, Harriëtte Oldenhof, Saskia Schütze, Karl Rohn, Willem F Wolkers, Harald Sieme
If the physiological balance between production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is shifted towards production of ROS this may result in accumulation of cell damage over time. In this study stallion spermatozoa were incubated with xanthine and xanthine oxidase (X-XO) to artificially generate defined levels of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide resulting in sub-lethal oxidative damage. The effects of X-XO treatment on various sperm characteristics were studied. Special emphasis was placed on sperm osmotic tolerance pre-freeze and its correlation with cryosurvival, given that cryopreservation exposes cells to osmotic stress...
October 19, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Juneo F Silva, Natália M Ocarino, Rogéria Serakides
The gene and/or protein expression of proteases and immunological, angiogenic, hormonal and apoptotic mediators was evaluated in rat placenta before and during intrauterine trophoblast migration. The depth of interstitial and endovascular intrauterine trophoblast invasion and the immunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fetal liver kinase 1 (Flk1), interferon (IFN)-γ, migration inhibitory factor (MIF), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS; also known as nitric oxide synthase (NOS) 2) were evaluated...
October 14, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Marianna Zanatelli, Ana M G Custodio, Manoel F Biancardi, Fernanda C A Santos, Rejane M Góes, Luiz R Falleiros-Jr, Patricia S L Vilamaior, Sebastião R Taboga
The female prostate is a reproductive gland that typically presents a morphology similar to that of the male gland and is highly developed in female Mongolian gerbils. Two main cell populations compose the epithelium gland: basal and secretory luminal cells. However, during postnatal development, diverse secretory cell phenotypes are distributed among the typical ones. Prostate homeostasis is under the control of sexual hormones, such as oestrogen and progesterone. After hormonal deprivation the female gland undergoes several morphophysiological changes...
October 14, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Waleed F A Marei, D Claire Wathes, Kabir A Raheem, Omnia Mohey-Elsaeed, Fataneh Ghafari, Ali A Fouladi-Nashta
An increasing number of reports suggests a role of hyaluronan (HA) in female reproduction and interest in its application in assisted reproduction is rising. However, there are contrasting data about the effectiveness of adding HA to the embryo-transfer medium on improving pregnancy rates. Using sheep as an experimental model, the studies reported here analysed the impact of HA infusion into the uterus on embryo attachment to uterine luminal epithelium (LE) and expression of selected markers of uterine receptivity...
October 11, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Sally Elizabeth Hall, Brett Nixon, R John Aitken
Feral horses are a significant pest species in many parts of the world, contributing to land erosion, weed dispersal and the loss of native flora and fauna. There is an urgent need to modify feral horse management strategies to achieve public acceptance and long-term population control. One way to achieve this is by using non-surgical methods of sterilisation, which are suitable in the context of this mobile and long-lived species. In this review we consider the benefits of implementing novel mechanisms designed to elicit a state of permanent sterility (including redox cycling to generate oxidative stress in the gonad, random peptide phage display to target non-renewable germ cells and the generation of autoantibodies against proteins essential for conception via covalent modification) compared with that of traditional immunocontraceptive approaches...
October 5, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
A Dance, J Kastelic, J Thundathil
Beef and dairy bull calves fed a low-nutrition diet during early life had decreased concentrations of circulating insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), delayed increases in testosterone, smaller testes and delayed puberty compared with those fed high-nutrition diets. Although IGF-1 has important roles in Sertoli cell function in rats and mice, this has not been well documented in bulls. The objectives of this study were to: (1) isolate Sertoli cells from bull calves at 8 weeks of age, (2) culture them in vitro and (3) determine the effects of IGF-I, FSH and a combination of both hormones on cell proliferation...
October 5, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Gisele A Montano, Todd R Robeck, Karen J Steinman, Justine K O'Brien
The present study aimed to describe serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) patterns of ex situ male and female beluga to examine the influence of age (divided into 5-year categories) or sexual maturation and reproductive season. In males aged 5-9 years, AMH concentrations were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those in all age categories exceeding 15 years and were not influenced by season (P=0.57). AMH concentrations in females peaked in the 5-9-year age category during the breeding season and decreased (P<0...
October 5, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
S Morrow, J Gosálvez, C López-Fernández, F Arroyo, W V Holt, M J Guille
There is growing concern over the effect of sperm cryopreservation on DNA integrity and the subsequent development of offspring generated from this cryopreserved material. In the present study, membrane integrity and DNA stability of Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis spermatozoa were evaluated in response to cryopreservation with or without activation, a process that happens upon exposure to water to spermatozoa of some aquatic species. A dye exclusion assay revealed that sperm plasma membrane integrity in both species decreased after freezing, more so for X...
October 3, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Yingying Han, Jinqi Zhan, Ying Xu, Fengwei Zhang, Zhengrong Yuan, Qiang Weng
The aim of the present study was to elucidate the regulatory role of cell proliferation and apoptosis in testicular development of wild Daurian ground squirrels during the breeding season (April), the non-breeding season (June) and before hibernation (September). Gross mass and hormonal analysis showed that the testis:body mass ratio and plasma testosterone concentration fluctuated seasonally, with a peak in April and lowest values in June. Similarly, spermatogenesis was fully developed in April but suppressed in June and September...
September 28, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
M Arias-Álvarez, R M García-García, J López-Tello, P G Rebollar, A Gutiérrez-Adán, P L Lorenzo
In vivo-matured cumulus-oocyte complexes are valuable models in which to assess potential biomarkers of rabbit oocyte quality that contribute to enhanced IVM systems. In the present study we compared some gene markers of oocytes and cumulus cells (CCs) from immature, in vivo-matured and IVM oocytes. Moreover, apoptosis in CCs, nuclear maturation, mitochondrial reallocation and the developmental potential of oocytes after IVF were assessed. In relation to cumulus expansion, gene expression of gap junction protein, alpha 1, 43 kDa (Gja1) and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (Ptgs2) was significantly lower in CCs after in vivo maturation than IVM...
September 28, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Mashidur Rana, Sudhir C Roy, Bannur C Divyashree
The status of antioxidant defences of both spermatozoa and their associated fluids during epididymal transit from the caput to cauda have not been studied so far in any species. Herein we report for the first time that sperm antioxidant defences, namely Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) and catalase activity, decrease significantly (P<0.05) from the caput to cauda during epididymal transit in parallel with increases in Cu,Zn-SOD, total SOD and total glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the luminal fluid of the respective segments...
September 28, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
P A Auler, G H F A Moreira, C O Hogg, C J Ashworth, F P Bortolozzo, H Chiarini-Garcia, F R C L Almeida
The present study investigated the effect of birthweight on testicular development and spermatogenesis in boars. Twenty-four pairs of littermate boars were selected: one piglet with the highest birthweight (HW) and the other with the lowest birthweight (LW) within the litter. Two subsets of 12 pairs of male littermates from each birthweight group were obtained after selection: one subset was orchiectomised at 8 days and the other at 8 months of age. HW boars had higher body and testicular weights at both ages (P<0...
September 28, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Naglaa F Khedr
Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder and has a profound impact on women's reproductive health. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of a mixture of fish oil (FO) and wheat-germ oil (WGO) on ovarian dysfunction in diabetic rats. Female Albino rats were divided into control, diabetic and FO-WGO-diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 65mgkg-1 streptozotocin (STZ). Three weeks later, rats were given oral supplement of 0.4gkg-1 oil mix (1000mg FO+100mg WGO) daily for 3 weeks...
September 28, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Glenn Regnier, Elke Bocksteins, Waleed F Marei, Isabel Pintelon, Jean-Pierre Timmermans, Jo L M R Leroy, Dirk J Snyders
Electrically silent voltage-gated potassium (KvS) channel subunits (i.e. Kv5-Kv6 and Kv8-Kv9) do not form functional homotetrameric Kv channels, but co-assemble with Kv2 subunits, generating functional heterotetrameric Kv2--KvS channel complexes in which the KvS subunits modulate the Kv2 channel properties. Several KvS subunits are expressed in testis tissue but knowledge about their contribution to testis physiology is lacking. Here, we report that the targeted deletion of Kv6.4 in a transgenic mouse model (Kcng4-/-) causes male sterility as offspring from homozygous females were only obtained after mating with wild-type (WT) or heterozygous males...
September 28, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Heidy Kaune, Sairah Sheikh, Suzannah A Williams
Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) occurs in 1% of women under 40 years of age and is predominantly idiopathic. In a transgenic mouse model of follicular POI, the Double Mutant (DM), female mice are fertile at 6 weeks of age, become infertile by 9 weeks and exhibit POI by 3 months. DM female mice generate oocytes lacking mucin O-glycans and complex N-glycans due to deletion of core 1 synthase, glycoprotein-N-acetylgalactosamine 3-β-galactosyltransferase 1 (C1galt1) and mannoside acetylglucosaminyltransferase 1 (Mgat1) respectively (DM, C1galt1F/FMgat1F/F:ZP3Cre; Control, C1galt1F/FMgat1F/F)...
September 22, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
A M O'Doherty, L C O'Shea, O Sandra, P Lonergan, T Fair, N Forde
The endometrium plays a key role in providing an optimal environment for attachment of the preimplantation embryo during the early stages of pregnancy. Investigations over the past 2 decades have demonstrated that vital epigenetic processes occur in the embryo during the preimplantation stages of development. However, few studies have investigated the potential role of imprinted genes and their associated modulators, the DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), in the bovine endometrium during the pre- and peri-implantation period...
September 21, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Jun-Chao Wang, Hong Lv, Ke-Liang Wu, Yun-Shan Zhang, Hai-Ning Luo, Zi-Jiang Chen
Mouse oocyte meiotic division requires the establishment of asymmetries in the oocyte before division, indicating the presence of polarity-establishing molecules. During mouse oocyte maturation proper orientation and positioning of the meiotic spindle at the oocyte cortex, as well as polarity in the oocyte cytoplasm and its oolemma, are necessary for the formation of functional haploid oocytes. Discs large homologue 1 (Dlg1) protein is a conserved protein that regulates cell polarity. In the present study, we found that Dlg1 was expressed at different stages of oocyte development...
September 21, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
R Pasquariello, B Fernandez-Fuertes, F Strozzi, F Pizzi, R Mazza, P Lonergan, F Gandolfi, J L Williams
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to control several reproductive functions, including oocyte maturation, implantation and early embryonic development. Recent advances in deep sequencing have allowed the analysis of all miRNAs of a sample. However, when working with embryos, due to the low RNA content, miRNA profiling is challenging because of the relatively large amount of total RNA required for library preparation protocols. In the present study we compared three different procedures for RNA extraction and prepared libraries using pools of 30 bovine blastocysts...
September 13, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Rafaela S Lima, Pedro H B Risolia, Jéssica Ispada, Mayra E O A Assumpção, José A Visintin, Cássia Orlandi, Fabíola F Paula-Lopes
Germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes are susceptible to heat stress. However, neither the cellular mechanisms triggered by elevated temperature nor the thermoprotective effects of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) on GV oocytes are completely understood. Therefore, a series of experiments was conducted to determine the direct effects of IGF1 (0, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100ng mL-1) on heat-treated GV oocytes. Butyrolactone-arrested GV oocytes were cultured at 38.5°C (control) or 41°C (heat shock; HS) for 14h in the presence of different concentrations of IGF1...
September 13, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
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