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Reproduction, Fertility, and Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918728/cholesterol-metabolism-in-rabbit-blastocysts-under-maternal-diabetes
#1
S Mareike Pendzialek, Maria Schindler, Torsten Plösch, Jacqueline Gürke, Elisa Haucke, Stefanie Hecht, Bernd Fischer, Anne Navarrete Santos
In the rabbit reproductive model, maternal experimentally induced insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (expIDD) leads to accumulation of lipid droplets in blastocysts. Cholesterol metabolism is a likely candidate to explain such metabolic changes. Therefore, in the present study we analysed maternal and embryonic cholesterol concentrations and expression of related genes in vivo (diabetic model) and in vitro (embryo culture in hyperglycaemic medium). In pregnant expIDD rabbits, the serum composition of lipoprotein subfractions was changed, with a decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and an increase in very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; in uterine fluid, total cholesterol concentrations were elevated...
December 6, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918727/the-current-state-of-reproductive-biology-research-in-australia-and-new-zealand-core-themes-from-the-society-for-reproductive-biology-annual-meeting-2016
#2
L K Akison, P H Andraweera, M J Bertoldo, H M Brown, J S M Cuffe, T Fullston, O Holland, J E Schjenken
Because reproduction is essential for all life, it is central to our understanding of all aspects of biology. The Society for Reproductive Biology (SRB) 2016 conference held on the Gold Coast (Qld, Australia) displayed the current breadth of reproductive research in Australia and New Zealand, with additional insights from world leaders in the field. This conference review provides a focused summary of the key questions, emerging ideas and novel technologies that were presented in the symposia. Presented research demonstrated key advances in how stem cell biology may allow us to better understand pluripotency, as well as how environmental and lifestyle factors, such as circadian disruption, smoking, alcohol and diet, affect gametogenesis, embryo implantation, placental function and reproductive capacity...
December 6, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890045/protein-in-culture-and-endogenous-lipid-interact-with-embryonic-stages-in-vitro-to-alter-calf-birthweight-after-embryo-vitrification-and-warming
#3
E Gómez, S Carrocera, S Uzbekova, D Martín, A Murillo, M Alonso-Guervós, F Goyache, M Muñoz
Short-term protein removal in vitro improves long-term blastocyst competence to survive vitrification. We investigated the mechanisms and effects underlying protein removal. Day-6 morulae and early blastocysts were cultured individually with and without protein for 24h. Development and lipid content were analysed in expanded blastocysts derived from morulae (M-XB) and from early blastocysts (EB-XB). Expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism, stress responses and apoptosis was analysed in fresh and vitrified-warmed M-XB produced with and without protein...
November 28, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876113/rosmarinic-acid-reverses-the-effects-of-metronidazole-induced-infertility-in-male-albino-rats
#4
Zina M Al-Alami, Ziad A Shraideh, Mutasem O Taha
Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a natural antioxidant that has many biological activities. In the present study we investigated the potential of RA to reverse the negative effects of the widely used antibiotic and antiprotozoal agent metronidazole (MTZ), which is known to induce reversible male infertility. Two doses of RA (5 and 15mg kg-1) were studied in sexually mature rats with and without MTZ-induced infertility. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with 5mg kg-1 RA or 15mg kg-1 RA (in distilled water) and, 45min later, they were intraperitoneally injected with 40mg kg-1 MTZ (in distilled water)...
November 23, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851888/regulation-of-heat-inducible-hspa1a-gene-expression-during-maternal-to-embryo-transition-and-in-response-to-heat-in-in-vitro-produced-bovine-embryos
#5
Jean-Marc Lelièvre, Nathalie Peynot, Sylvie Ruffini, Ludivine Laffont, Daniel Le Bourhis, Pierre-Marie Girard, Véronique Duranthon
In in vitro-produced (IVP) bovine embryos, a burst in transcriptional activation of the embryonic genome (EGA) occurs at the 8-16-cell stage. To examine transcriptional regulation prior to EGA, notably in response to heat stress, we asked (1) whether the spontaneous expression of a luciferase transgene that is driven by the minimal mouse heat-shock protein 1b (hspa1b) gene promoter paralleled that of HSPA1A during EGA in IVP bovine embryo and (2) whether expression of the endogenous heat-inducible iHSPA group member HSPA1A gene and the hspa1b/luciferase transgene were induced by heat stress (HS) prior to EGA...
November 17, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832581/effect-of-nutritionally-induced-hyperlipidaemia-on-in-vitro-bovine-embryo-quality-depends-on-the-type-of-major-fatty-acid-in-the-diet
#6
Waleed F A Marei, Maria Arias Alvarez, Veerle Van Hoeck, Alfonso Gutierrez-Adan, Peter E J Bols, Jo L M R Leroy
The present study examined whether the effects of dietary-induced hyperlipidaemia on preimplantation embryo development depend on the predominant fatty acid (FA) type in the diet. In a combined in vivo-in vitro bovine model, two groups of cows (n=3 in each group) were fed with three diets consecutively (4 weeks feeding for each): (1) a maintenance control diet (CONT); (2) a high-starch diet rich in saturated fat (SAT); and (3) a high-starch diet rich in omega-3 unsaturated fat (UNSAT). Two feeding sequences were used to test for carry-over effects: Group A was fed CONT, SAT1 and then UNSAT2, whereas Group B was fed CONT, UNSAT1 and then SAT2...
November 11, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802411/gene-expression-profile-in-heat-shocked-holstein-and-nelore-oocytes-and-cumulus-cells
#7
J S Ticianelli, I P Emanuelli, R A Satrapa, A C S Castilho, B Loureiro, M J Sudano, P K Fontes, R F P Pinto, E M Razza, R S Surjus, R Sartori, M E O A Assumpção, J A Visintin, C M Barros, F F Paula-Lopes
The present study determined the transcriptome profile in Nelore and Holstein oocytes subjected to heat shock during IVM and the mRNA abundance of selected candidate genes in Nelore and Holstein heat-shocked oocytes and cumulus cells (CC). Holstein and Nelore cows were subjected to in vivo follicle aspiration. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were assigned to control (38.5°C, 22h) or heat shock (41°C for 12h, followed by 38.5°C for 10h) treatment during IVM. Denuded oocytes were subjected to bovine microarray analysis...
November 2, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780518/sleep-restriction-in-wistar-rats-impairs-epididymal-postnatal-development-and-sperm-motility-in-association-with-oxidative-stress
#8
Gláucia E M L Siervo, Fernanda M Ogo, Aline D Valério, Thamara N X Silva, Larissa Staurengo-Ferrari, Tathiana A Alvarenga, Rubens Cecchini, Waldiceu A Verri, Flávia A Guarnier, Monica L Andersen, Glaura S A Fernandes
Good sleep quality has a direct effect on the activity of the neuroendocrine-reproductive control axis and oxidative stress. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether sleep restriction (SR) during the peripubertal period impaired the postnatal development of the epididymis in Wistar rats. After 21 days SR (18h per day), epididymides were collected on Postnatal Day (PND) 62 for evaluation of oxidative stress markers, inflammatory profile, sperm count and histopathological and stereological analyses; in addition, the motility of spermatozoa from the vas deferens was examined...
October 26, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780517/effect-and-possible-mechanisms-of-melatonin-treatment-on-the-quality-and-developmental-potential-of-aged-bovine-oocytes
#9
Shuang Liang, Jing Guo, Jeong-Woo Choi, Nam-Hyung Kim, Xiang-Shun Cui
After reaching the metaphase II (MII) stage, unfertilised oocytes undergo a time-dependent process of quality deterioration referred to as oocyte aging. The associated morphological and cellular changes lead to decreased oocyte developmental potential. This study investigated the effect of exogenous melatonin supplementation on in vitro aged bovine oocytes and explored its underlying mechanisms. The levels of cytoplasmic reactive oxygen species and DNA damage response in bovine oocytes increased during in vitro aging...
October 26, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755963/reproductive-dysfunction-after-mercury-exposure-at-low-levels-evidence-for-a-role-of-glutathione-peroxidase-gpx-1-and-gpx4-in-male-rats
#10
Caroline S Martinez, Franck M Peçanha, Daniela S Brum, Francielli W Santos, Jeferson L Franco, Ana Paula P Zemolin, Janete A Anselmo-Franci, Fernando B Junior, María J Alonso, Mercedes Salaices, Dalton V Vassallo, Fábio G Leivas, Giulia A Wiggers
Mercury is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and mercury contamination and toxicity are serious hazards to human health. Some studies have shown that mercury impairs male reproductive function, but less is known about its effects following exposure at low doses and the possible mechanisms underlying its toxicity. Herein we show that exposure of rats to mercury chloride for 30 days (first dose 4.6µgkg-1, subsequent doses 0.07µgkg-1day-1) resulted in mean (±s.e.m.) blood mercury concentrations of 6.8±0...
October 19, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755962/induced-sub-lethal-oxidative-damage-affects-osmotic-tolerance-and-cryosurvival-of-spermatozoa
#11
Franziska Ertmer, Harriëtte Oldenhof, Saskia Schütze, Karl Rohn, Willem F Wolkers, Harald Sieme
If the physiological balance between production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is shifted towards production of ROS this may result in accumulation of cell damage over time. In this study stallion spermatozoa were incubated with xanthine and xanthine oxidase (X-XO) to artificially generate defined levels of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide resulting in sub-lethal oxidative damage. The effects of X-XO treatment on various sperm characteristics were studied. Special emphasis was placed on sperm osmotic tolerance pre-freeze and its correlation with cryosurvival, given that cryopreservation exposes cells to osmotic stress...
October 19, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737730/spatiotemporal-expression-profile-of-proteases-and-immunological-angiogenic-hormonal-and-apoptotic-mediators-in-rat-placenta-before-and-during-intrauterine-trophoblast-migration
#12
Juneo F Silva, Natália M Ocarino, Rogéria Serakides
The gene and/or protein expression of proteases and immunological, angiogenic, hormonal and apoptotic mediators was evaluated in rat placenta before and during intrauterine trophoblast migration. The depth of interstitial and endovascular intrauterine trophoblast invasion and the immunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fetal liver kinase 1 (Flk1), interferon (IFN)-γ, migration inhibitory factor (MIF), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS; also known as nitric oxide synthase (NOS) 2) were evaluated...
October 14, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737729/ovariectomy-increases-the-phenotypic-plasticity-of-the-female-prostate-epithelium-in-the-mongolian-gerbil-meriones-unguiculatus
#13
Marianna Zanatelli, Ana M G Custodio, Manoel F Biancardi, Fernanda C A Santos, Rejane M Góes, Luiz R Falleiros-Jr, Patricia S L Vilamaior, Sebastião R Taboga
The female prostate is a reproductive gland that typically presents a morphology similar to that of the male gland and is highly developed in female Mongolian gerbils. Two main cell populations compose the epithelium gland: basal and secretory luminal cells. However, during postnatal development, diverse secretory cell phenotypes are distributed among the typical ones. Prostate homeostasis is under the control of sexual hormones, such as oestrogen and progesterone. After hormonal deprivation the female gland undergoes several morphophysiological changes...
October 14, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725075/influence-of-hyaluronan-on-endometrial-receptivity-and-embryo-attachment-in-sheep
#14
Waleed F A Marei, D Claire Wathes, Kabir A Raheem, Omnia Mohey-Elsaeed, Fataneh Ghafari, Ali A Fouladi-Nashta
An increasing number of reports suggests a role of hyaluronan (HA) in female reproduction and interest in its application in assisted reproduction is rising. However, there are contrasting data about the effectiveness of adding HA to the embryo-transfer medium on improving pregnancy rates. Using sheep as an experimental model, the studies reported here analysed the impact of HA infusion into the uterus on embryo attachment to uterine luminal epithelium (LE) and expression of selected markers of uterine receptivity...
October 11, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27700983/non-surgical-sterilisation-methods-may-offer-a-sustainable-solution-to-feral-horse-equus-caballus-overpopulation
#15
Sally Elizabeth Hall, Brett Nixon, R John Aitken
Feral horses are a significant pest species in many parts of the world, contributing to land erosion, weed dispersal and the loss of native flora and fauna. There is an urgent need to modify feral horse management strategies to achieve public acceptance and long-term population control. One way to achieve this is by using non-surgical methods of sterilisation, which are suitable in the context of this mobile and long-lived species. In this review we consider the benefits of implementing novel mechanisms designed to elicit a state of permanent sterility (including redox cycling to generate oxidative stress in the gonad, random peptide phage display to target non-renewable germ cells and the generation of autoantibodies against proteins essential for conception via covalent modification) compared with that of traditional immunocontraceptive approaches...
October 5, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27700982/a-combination-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-i-igf-i-and-fsh-promotes-proliferation-of-prepubertal-bovine-sertoli-cells-isolated-and-cultured-in-vitro
#16
A Dance, J Kastelic, J Thundathil
Beef and dairy bull calves fed a low-nutrition diet during early life had decreased concentrations of circulating insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), delayed increases in testosterone, smaller testes and delayed puberty compared with those fed high-nutrition diets. Although IGF-1 has important roles in Sertoli cell function in rats and mice, this has not been well documented in bulls. The objectives of this study were to: (1) isolate Sertoli cells from bull calves at 8 weeks of age, (2) culture them in vitro and (3) determine the effects of IGF-I, FSH and a combination of both hormones on cell proliferation...
October 5, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27700981/circulating-anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-concentrations-in-relation-to-age-and-season-in-male-and-female-beluga-delphinapterus-leucas
#17
Gisele A Montano, Todd R Robeck, Karen J Steinman, Justine K O'Brien
The present study aimed to describe serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) patterns of ex situ male and female beluga to examine the influence of age (divided into 5-year categories) or sexual maturation and reproductive season. In males aged 5-9 years, AMH concentrations were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those in all age categories exceeding 15 years and were not influenced by season (P=0.57). AMH concentrations in females peaked in the 5-9-year age category during the breeding season and decreased (P<0...
October 5, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692061/effects-of-freezing-and-activation-on-membrane-quality-and-dna-damage-in-xenopus-tropicalis-and-xenopus-laevis-spermatozoa
#18
S Morrow, J Gosálvez, C López-Fernández, F Arroyo, W V Holt, M J Guille
There is growing concern over the effect of sperm cryopreservation on DNA integrity and the subsequent development of offspring generated from this cryopreserved material. In the present study, membrane integrity and DNA stability of Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis spermatozoa were evaluated in response to cryopreservation with or without activation, a process that happens upon exposure to water to spermatozoa of some aquatic species. A dye exclusion assay revealed that sperm plasma membrane integrity in both species decreased after freezing, more so for X...
October 3, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679415/proliferation-and-apoptosis-processes-in-the-seasonal-testicular-development-of-the-wild-daurian-ground-squirrel-citellus-dauricus-brandt-1844
#19
Yingying Han, Jinqi Zhan, Ying Xu, Fengwei Zhang, Zhengrong Yuan, Qiang Weng
The aim of the present study was to elucidate the regulatory role of cell proliferation and apoptosis in testicular development of wild Daurian ground squirrels during the breeding season (April), the non-breeding season (June) and before hibernation (September). Gross mass and hormonal analysis showed that the testis:body mass ratio and plasma testosterone concentration fluctuated seasonally, with a peak in April and lowest values in June. Similarly, spermatogenesis was fully developed in April but suppressed in June and September...
September 28, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678473/in-vivo-and-in-vitro-maturation-of-rabbit-oocytes-differently-affects-the-gene-expression-profile-mitochondrial-distribution-apoptosis-and-early-embryo-development
#20
M Arias-Álvarez, R M García-García, J López-Tello, P G Rebollar, A Gutiérrez-Adán, P L Lorenzo
In vivo-matured cumulus-oocyte complexes are valuable models in which to assess potential biomarkers of rabbit oocyte quality that contribute to enhanced IVM systems. In the present study we compared some gene markers of oocytes and cumulus cells (CCs) from immature, in vivo-matured and IVM oocytes. Moreover, apoptosis in CCs, nuclear maturation, mitochondrial reallocation and the developmental potential of oocytes after IVF were assessed. In relation to cumulus expansion, gene expression of gap junction protein, alpha 1, 43 kDa (Gja1) and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (Ptgs2) was significantly lower in CCs after in vivo maturation than IVM...
September 28, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
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