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Reproduction, Fertility, and Development

Silvia Gimeno-Martos, Adriana Casao, Marc Yeste, José A Cebrián-Pérez, Teresa Muiño-Blanco, Rosaura Pérez-Pé
The presence of melatonin receptors on the surface of ram spermatozoa has led to speculation about melatonin having a role in sperm functionality. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism through which melatonin regulates ram sperm capacitation induced by a cocktail containing cAMP-elevating agents. Cocktail samples capacitated in the presence of 1 µM melatonin showed lower percentages of capacitated spermatozoa (chlortetracycline staining; P < 0.001) together with a decrease in protein tyrosine phosphorylation (P < 0...
September 13, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Hiroyuki Imai, Wataru Fujii, Ken Takeshi Kusakabe, Yasuo Kiso, Kiyoshi Kano
Tetraploid embryos normally develop into blastocysts and embryonic stem cells can be established from tetraploid blastocysts in mice. Thus, polyploidisation does not seem to be so harmful during preimplantation development. However, the mechanisms by which early mammalian development accepts polyploidisation are poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the effect of polyploidisation on early mammalian development and to further comprehend its tolerance using hyperpolyploid embryos produced by repetitive whole genome duplication...
September 13, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Hui Cao, Jun Li, Wenlong Su, Junjie Li, Zhigang Wang, Shuchun Sun, Shujun Tian, Lu Li, Hanyang Wang, Jiexin Li, Xiaohuan Fang, Qiaoli Wei, Chuang Liu
Aberrant DNA methylation reduces the developmental competence of mammalian somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. Thus, hypomethylation-associated drugs are beneficial for improving reprogramming efficiency. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the effect of zebularine, a relatively novel DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, on the developmental potential of ovine SCNT embryos. First, reduced overall DNA methylation patterns and gene-specific DNA methylation levels at the promoter regions of pluripotency genes (octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4), SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (Sox2) and Nanog) were found in zebularine-treated cumulus cells...
September 10, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Pengxiang Qu, Yuelei Zhao, Rong Wang, Yali Zhang, Lu Li, Jianglin Fan, Enqi Liu
Embryo transfer (ET) is an important procedure for assisted reproduction. However, the relatively lower success rate of ET hampers its application potential. In this study we aimed to elucidate the effects of extracellular vesicles derived from donor oviduct fluid (EDOF) on embryo development after ET. Extracellular vesicles from the oviduct were isolated and purified using ultracentrifugation and identified using transmission electron microscopy, NanoSight, bicinchoninic acid (BCA) protein assay and western blotting...
September 10, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Jeongwoo Kwon, Shuha Park, Min-Jung Seong, Inchul Choi, Nam-Hyung Kim
Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein (CPEB) is an RNA-binding protein that promotes elongation of poly(A) tails and regulates mRNA translation. CPEB depletion in mammary epithelium is known to disrupt tight-junction (TJ) assembly via mislocalisation of tight junction protein 1 (TJP1), but the role of CPEB in the biological functions associated with TJs has not yet been studied. The objective of this study was to investigate the roles of CPEB2 during porcine parthenote development. CPEB2 was detected in both the nuclei and apical cytoplasm at the 4- and 8-cell stages and was localised to cell-cell contact after the initiation of the morula stage...
August 27, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Kaustubh Kishor Saraf, Raushan Kumar Singh, Arumugam Kumaresan, Samiksha Nayak, Shivani Chhillar, Sreela Lathika, Tirtha Kumar Datta, Tushar Kumar Mohanty
We report here the differences in sperm functional attributes and sperm-oviduct binding index in bulls with different field fertility ratings. Cryopreserved spermatozoa from Murrah buffalo bulls (n = 9) with different fertility ratings were evaluated for membrane integrity, capacitation status, acrosome intactness and protein tyrosine phosphorylation status. Frozen--thawed spermatozoa were incubated with oviduct explants for 1 h under 5% CO2, 38.5°C with 95% relative humidity and the number of spermatozoa bound to the unit area of oviduct explants (binding index; BI) was assessed using 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolyl-carbocyanine iodide (JC-1) fluorescent staining...
August 23, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Kejia Wu, Fulin Liu, Wanrong Wu, Yurou Chen, Hanshu Wu, Wei Zhang
HOX transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR) is a long non-coding RNA located within the Homeobox C (HOXC) gene cluster on chromosome 12. Previous studies have revealed that HOTAIR is overexpressed in many types of cancers and is associated with metastasis and poor survival rates; however, few reports have mentioned the relationship between HOTAIR and angiogenesis of the human placenta. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between HOTAIR and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A in the human placenta...
August 21, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Asma Neisy, Fatemeh Zal, Atefeh Seghatoleslam, Sanaz Alaee
Insulin resistance (IR) and infertility are two major complications of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which are the results of changes in certain parts of the reproductive and metabolic systems. We aimed to observe the effect of quercetin on dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)-induced PCOS and insulin resistance in rats. All animals were divided into five groups and DHEA was used to induce PCOS. Bodyweight and ovarian morphology of all groups were observed. Fasting blood glucose and insulin levels were analysed...
August 14, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
L A Frank, R D Rose, M R Anastasi, T C Y Tan, M F Barry, J G Thompson, H M Brown
Blastocoel expansion during embryo development is known to be reliant on the Na+/K+-ATPase pump, but little is known about the relative contribution of active (Na+/K+-ATPase pump) and facilitated diffusion (aquaporins) water transport during blastocoel re-expansion after vitrification. The aims of this study were to examine potential effects of artificial blastocoel collapse (ABC) on markers of embryo stress and the contribution of active and facilitated diffusion water transport mechanisms to blastocoel re-expansion...
August 13, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Qian-Qian Wang, Yu-Mei Zhang, Xia Zhong, Jian-Wei Li, Xiao-Rong An, Jian Hou
Both developmental pluripotency-associated protein 3 (Dppa3/Stella/PGC7) and dioxygenase ten-eleven translocation 3 (Tet3) are maternal factors that regulate DNA methylation reprogramming during early embryogenesis. In the mouse zygote, dimethylated histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9me2) attracts Dppa3 to prevent Tet3-mediated oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC). Here, we addressed the interplay between Dppa3 and Tet3 or H3K9me2 in somatic cells. In mouse NIH3T3 cells, the exogenously expressed Dppa3 preferentially accumulated in the cytoplasm and had no effect on Tet3-mediated 5hmC generation...
August 13, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Yao Gao, Chenhao Yang, Huihui Gao, Liqing Wang, Changming Yang, Hong Ji, Wuzi Dong
The aim of this study was to characterise the molecular structure of the oestrogen receptor ERα and to evaluate the effect of bisphenol A (BPA) on ERα expression during sexual development of the Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus). The ERα cDNA of A. davidianus includes an open reading frame of 1755 bp (encoding 584 amino acids), a 219-bp 5' untranslated region (UTR) and a 611-bp 3'UTR. A polyadenylation signal was not found in the 3'UTR. Amino acid sequence analysis showed high homology between ERα of A...
August 10, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Monika Nõmm, Rando Porosk, Pille Pärn, Kalle Kilk, Ursel Soomets, Sulev Kõks, Ülle Jaakma
Selecting high-quality embryos for transfer has been a difficult task when producing bovine embryos in vitro. The most used non-invasive method is based on visual observation. Molecular characterisation of embryo growth media has been proposed as a complementary method. In this study we demonstrate a culture medium sampling method for identifying potential embryonic viability markers to predict normal or abnormal embryonic development. During single embryo culture, 20 µL culture media was removed at Days 2, 5 and 8 after fertilisation from the same droplet (60 µL)...
August 10, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
W Chankeaw, Y Z Guo, R Båge, A Svensson, G Andersson, P Humblot
Elevated non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) are associated with negative effects on bovine theca, granulosa and oviductal cells but the effects of NEFAs on bovine endometrial epithelial cells (bEECs) are not as well documented. The objective of this study was to define the effects of NEFAs on bEECs. Postprimary bEECs were treated with 150, 300 or 500µM of either palmitic acid (PA), stearic acid (SA) or oleic acid (OA) or a mixture of NEFAs (150µM of each FA) or 0.5% final concentration of vehicle ethanol (control)...
August 8, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Wuhui Li, Hui Tan, Junmei Liu, Jie Hu, Jialin Cui, Shi Wang, Qingfeng Liu, Fangzhou Hu, Li Ren, Min Tao, Rurong Zhao, Conghui Yang, Qinbo Qin, Shaojun Liu
Spermatogenesis involves a series of cellular transformations and thousands of regulated genes. Previously, we showed that the triploid fish (3nBY) cannot produce mature spermatozoa. In the present study, evaluation of the testis microstructure revealed that germ cells of 3nBY could develop into round spermatids, but then degenerated, resulting in male infertility. In this study we comparatively analysed the testis transcriptomes from 3nBY and its diploid parent YB and identified a series of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that were enriched in the Wnt signalling pathway and the apoptotic and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis processes in 3nBY...
August 8, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Ayman Mesalam, Kyeong-Lim Lee, Imran Khan, M M R Chowdhury, Shimin Zhang, Seok-Hwan Song, Myeong-Don Joo, Jae-Hoon Lee, Jong-In Jin, Il-Keun Kong
This study investigated the use of bovine serum albumin (BSA) plus insulin-transferrin-sodium selenite (ITS) and/or epidermal growth factor (EGF) as alternatives to fetal bovine serum (FBS) in embryo culture medium. The developmental ability and quality of bovine embryos were determined by assessing their cell number, lipid content, gene expression and cryotolerance, as well as the invasion ability of trophoblasts. The percentage of embryos that underwent cleavage and formed a blastocyst was higher (P<0...
August 8, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
M A Abdel-Ghani, Y Yanagawa, A Z Balboula, K Sakaguchi, C Kanno, S Katagiri, M Takahashi, M Nagano
In this study we investigated the effect of astaxanthin (Ax), which exhibits strong antioxidant activity, during invitro growth (IVG) on the developmental competence of oocytes and steroidogenesis of granulosa cells derived from early antral follicles. Bovine oocyte-cumulus-granulosa complexes collected from early antral follicles were cultured for 12 days in the presence or absence (control) of 500µM Ax. The viability of oocytes and antrum formation in the granulosa cell layer during IVG culture were greater in the presence than absence of Ax (P<0...
August 3, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Yuping Guo, Enzhong Li
In the present study we screened a panel of regulatory proteins associated with gametogenesis disorders in the testis that are induced by intensive exercise. Four-week-old Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into three groups: a control group, a no-load exercise group and an intensive exercise group. Rats in the control group were free to move in their cage. Rats in the no-load exercise and intensive exercise groups swam for 60minday-1, six times each week, for a total 9-week exercise regimen; rats in the intensive exercise group swam with a load of 6% body mass...
August 3, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Di-Cheng Zhao, Yu-Mei Li, Jie-Liang Ma, Ning Yi, Zhong-Yuan Yao, Yan-Ping Li, Yi Quan, Xin-Ning Li, Chang-Long Xu, Ying Qiu, Ling-Qian Wu
Precise regulation of glucose metabolism-related genes is essential for early embryonic development. Although previous research has yielded detailed information on the biochemical processes, little is yet known of the dynamic gene expression profiles in glucose metabolism of preimplantation embryos at a single-cell resolution. In the present study, we performed integrated analysis of single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) data of human preimplantation embryos that had been cultured in sequential medium. Different cells in the same embryo have similar gene expression patterns in glucose metabolism...
July 18, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
L T M Vandenberghe, B Heindryckx, K Smits, K Szymanska, N Ortiz-Escribano, M Ferrer-Buitrago, K Pavani, L Peelman, D Deforce, P De Sutter, A Van Soom, C De Schauwer
Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a well-described autocrine growth factor involved in several reproductive processes and is tightly regulated by its hydrolysing enzyme, PAF acetylhydrolase 1B (PAFAH1B). This intracellular enzyme consists of three subunits: one regulatory, 1B1, and two catalytic, 1B2 and 1B3. PAFAH1B3 has remained uncharacterised until now. Here, we report that PAFAH1B3 is present during the different stages of the first meiotic division in bovine, murine and human oocytes. In these species, the PAFAH1B3 subunit was clearly present in the germinal vesicle, while at metaphase I and II, it localised primarily at the meiotic spindle structure...
July 16, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Lei Zhang, Xiaorui Liu, Sicheng Che, Jiuzeng Cui, Yuexia Liu, Xiaopeng An, Binyun Cao, Yuxuan Song
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been found to play important functional roles in epigenetic regulation under certain physiological and pathological conditions. However, knowledge of circRNAs during the development of receptive endometrium (RE) from pre-RE is limited. In the RE of dairy goats, higher circRNA-9119 levels, with lower miR-26a and higher prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) levels, were detected. Further study showed that circRNA-9119 decreased levels of miR-26a by acting as a microRNA sponge, and that miR-26a downregulated the expression of PTGS2 via the predicted target site in endometrial epithelial cells (EECs) of dairy goats in vitro...
July 9, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
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