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Reproduction, Fertility, and Development

Lei Zhang, Xiaorui Liu, Sicheng Che, Jiuzeng Cui, Yuexia Liu, Xiaopeng An, Binyun Cao, Yuxuan Song
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been found to play important functional roles in epigenetic regulation under certain physiological and pathological conditions. However, knowledge of circRNAs during the development of receptive endometrium (RE) from pre-RE is limited. In the RE of dairy goats, higher circRNA-9119 levels, with lower miR-26a and higher prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) levels, were detected. Further study showed that circRNA-9119 decreased levels of miR-26a by acting as a microRNA sponge, and that miR-26a downregulated the expression of PTGS2 via the predicted target site in endometrial epithelial cells (EECs) of dairy goats in vitro...
July 9, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
M Arias-Álvarez, R M García-García, J López-Tello, P G Rebollar, A Gutiérrez-Adán, P L Lorenzo
The developmental competence of invitro maturation (IVM) oocytes can be enhanced by antioxidant agents. The present study investigated, for the first time in the rabbit model, the effect of adding α-tocopherol (0, 100, 200 and 400µM) during IVM on putative transcripts involved in antioxidant defence (superoxide dismutase 2, mitochondrial (SOD2), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1), catalase (CAT)), cell cycle regulation and apoptosis cascade (apoptosis tumour protein 53 (TP53), caspase 3, apoptosis-related cysteine protease (CASP3)), cell cycle progression (cellular cycle V-Akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homologue 1 (AKT1)), cumulus expansion (gap junction protein, alpha 1, 43 kDa (GJA1) and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclo-oxygenase) (PTGS2)) and metabolism (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD))...
July 3, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Bredford Kerr, Mariana Ríos, Karla Droguett, Manuel Villalón
Ciliary beat frequency (CBF) regulates the oviductal transport of oocytes and embryos, which are important components of the reproductive process. Local release of ATP transiently increases CBF by increasing [Ca2+]i. Ovarian hormones also regulate ciliary activity and oviductal transport. Progesterone (P4) induces nitric oxide (NO) production and high P4 concentrations induce ciliary dysfunction. However, the mechanism by which P4 affects CBF has not been elucidated. To evaluate the role of P4 in NO production and its effect on ATP-induced increases in CBF, we measured CBF, NO concentrations and [Ca2+]i in cultures of oviductal ciliated cells treated with P4 or NO signalling-related molecules...
June 25, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Qian-Nan Li, Lei Guo, Yi Hou, Xiang-Hong Ou, Zhonghua Liu, Qing-Yuan Sun
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a familial aggregation disease that causes anovulation in women, has well-recognised characteristics, two of which are hyperinsulinaemia and hyperandrogenaemia. To determine whether the DNA methylation status is altered in oocytes by high insulin and androgen levels, we generated a mouse model with hyperinsulinaemia and hyperandrogenaemia by injection of insulin and human chorionic gonadotrophin and investigated DNA methylation changes through single-cell level whole genome bisulphite sequencing...
June 22, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Joanna Liss, Ewa Pastuszek, Sebastian Pukszta, Eva Hoffmann, Waldemar Kuczynski, Aron Lukaszuk, Krzysztof Lukaszuk
The present study analysed live birth ratios in frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles where embryo ploidy status was determined with preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) using next-generation sequencing (NGS). PGT was performed on trophectoderm cells biopsied at the blastocyst stage. The present prospective cohort study included 112 women undergoing frozen embryo transfer, with NGS PGT. The control group consisted of 85 patients who underwent the IVF procedure with FET planned for a subsequent cycle. The live birth rate per cycle was higher by ~18...
June 22, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Lisanne M Fermin, Sarah J Pain, Kristene R Gedye, Patrick C H Morel, Paul R Kenyon, Hugh T Blair
Progesterone (P4) administration in early pregnancy enhances embryo growth in sheep but is associated with decreased embryo survival. This study examined the effects of exogenous P4 administered during specific time periods between pregnancy Day 0 and Day 6 to determine the critical time point for advancement of embryo growth without pregnancy loss and to examine Day 6 and Day 19 endometrial gene expression. Suffolk (S) embryos were transferred into Cheviot (C) ewes that received exogenous P4 (CP4) on Days 0-3 (CP40-3), Days 0-6 (CP40-6), Days 2-4 (CP42-4) or Days 3-6 (CP43-6)...
June 22, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Charlotte Gibson, Marta de Ruijter-Villani, Jolanda Rietveld, Tom A E Stout
Maternally derived amino acids (AA) are essential for early conceptus development, and specific transporters enhance histotrophic AA content during early ruminant pregnancy. In the present study we investigated AA transporter expression in early equine conceptuses and endometrium, during normal pregnancy and after induction of embryo-uterus asynchrony. 'Normal' conceptuses and endometrium were recovered on Days 7, 14, 21 and 28 after ovulation. To investigate asynchrony, Day 8 embryos were transferred to recipient mares on Day 8 or Day 3, and conceptuses were recovered 6 or 11 days later...
June 15, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Magali Del C de la Vega, María B Delsouc, Ivana Ponce, Vicente Ragusa, Sandra Vallcaneras, Ana C Anzulovich, Marilina Casais
The rhythm of factors involved in luteal regression is crucial in determining the physiological duration of the oestrous cycle. Given the role of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α in luteal function and circadian regulation and that most of the effects of TNF-α are mediated by p55 TNF receptor (TNFRp55), the aims of the present study were to analyse the following during the luteal regression phase in the ovary of mice: (1) whether the pattern of expression of progesterone (P4) and the enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of P4 is circadian and endogenous (the rhythm persists in constant conditions, (i...
June 15, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Mina Ojaghi, Chinju Johnson, Guilherme Rizzoto, John Kastelic, Jacob C Thundathil
Sperm cryopreservation and thawing reduces fertility and alters the content and function of various sperm proteins. Previously, we reported that a testes-specific isoform of angiotensin-converting enzyme (tACE) was required for capacitation of bovine spermatozoa. The aim of the present study was to determine effects of sperm cryopreservation and thawing on the content, activity and localisation of tACE in bovine spermatozoa. Relative median fluorescence intensity (flow cytometry) was greater (P<0.01), tACE content (110 kDa protein) in sperm proteins was higher (P<0...
June 14, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Robert Rekawiecki, Katarzyna Kisielewska, Magdalena K Kowalik, Jan Kotwica
The aim of this study was to investigate whether the promoters of progesterone receptor isoform A (PGRA) and B (PGRB) are methylated and to determine the percentage of methylation occurring for each isoform. Genomic DNA was isolated from the corpora lutea (CL) and endometrial slices from cows on Days 2-5, 6-10, 11-16 and 17-20 of the oestrous cycle. DNA was bisulphite-converted and amplified using methyl-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers that detect both methylated and unmethylated sequences...
June 14, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
C M Christante, M E Pinto-Fochi, A C Negrin, S R Taboga, R M Góes
Phthalate esters are endocrine disrupters that can affect the development of the testis in a species-specific manner. However, their interference in the male gonads of the Mongolian gerbil is unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether gestational exposure to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) interferes with the development of the gerbil testis during the first six weeks of life. Males were evaluated at 1, 7, 14, 28, 35 and 42 days of age in an untreated (control) group or groups exposed from 8 to 23 days gestation to DBP (100mgkg-1day-1 in mineral oil) or vehicle by maternal gavage...
June 14, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Mina Ojaghi, John Kastelic, Jacob C Thundathil
Although a traditional bull breeding soundness evaluation is designed to identify bulls that are grossly abnormal, bulls classified as satisfactory potential breeders still vary in fertility, implying submicroscopic differences in sperm characteristics. Testis-specific isozyme of angiotensin-converting enzyme (tACE) is involved in the regulation of sperm function. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine tACE content, activity and localisation in bull spermatozoa and their associations with fertility...
June 14, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Shuang Sun, Cong Li, Shimin Liu, Jun Luo, Zhi Chen, Changhui Zhang, Tianying Zhang, Jiangtao Huang, Limeng Xi
A total of 24 female Xinong Saanen dairy goats were used to examine differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the ovaries of goats treated once or three times for oestrus synchronisation (ES). The goats were randomly divided into two groups: one group received three ES treatments at fortnightly intervals (repeated or triple ES group), whereas the other was only treated once on the same day as the third ES treatment for the triple group (control group) during the breeding season. Ovaries of three goats in oestrus from each group were collected for morphological examination and transcriptome sequencing, while the rest of the goats were artificially inseminated twice...
June 7, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Simin Asadian, Vahid Siavashi, Masoumeh Jabarpour, Azam Sharifi, Masoumeh Esmaeilivand, Pirouz Pourmohammad, Seyed Mahdi Nassiri
The frequency of preterm labour has risen over the last few years. Plasma oestrogen concentrations differ between patients who deliver before term and those who deliver at term. Oestrogen can influence the kinetics of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (cEPCs). Here, we attempted to identify the potential association of cEPCs with the incidence of complications typical of prematurity. The study groups consisted of 60 pregnant women with premature rupture of membranes (PROM; less than 37 weeks) and 50 term pregnant women (more than 38 weeks)...
June 4, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
A Kumar, S Raut, N H Balasinor
Spermiation (sperm release) is the culmination of a spermatid's journey in the seminiferous epithelium. After a long association with the Sertoli cell, spermatids have to finally 'let go' of the support from Sertoli cells in order to be transported to the epididymis. Spermiation is a multistep process characterised by removal of excess spermatid cytoplasm, recycling of junctional adhesion molecules by endocytosis, extensive cytoskeletal remodelling and final spermatid disengagement. Successful execution of all these events requires coordinated regulation by endocrine and paracrine factors...
June 4, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Xiao-Cui Li, Meng-Fan Song, Feng Sun, Fu-Ju Tian, Yu-Mei Wang, Bei-Ying Wang, Jin-Hong Chen
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is regulated post-transcriptionally by the AU-rich element (ARE) in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of its mRNA. However, the mechanism of COX-2 induction in infertility has not been thoroughly elucidated to date. The aim of this study was to examine the association between COX-2 and fragile X-related protein 1 (FXR1) in trophoblasts. Using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, our results showed that FXR1 mRNA expression levels were significantly decreased in trophoblasts from recurrent miscarriage patients compared with healthy controls; conversely, COX-2 mRNA expression levels were increased in patient samples...
June 1, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Miji Lee, Hyang Ah Lee, Mira Park, Hee Kyoung Park, Yeon Sun Kim, Seung Chel Yang, Hye-Ryun Kim, Jayeon Kim, Haengseok Song
Decay accelerating factor (DAF) is upregulated in the fetoplacental trophoblast, which protects the fetus from maternal complement injury. DAF was found to be downregulated in the endometrium of patients with repeated implantation failure. Thus, we examined the molecular mechanisms of DAF expression regulation by ovarian steroid hormones in the mouse uterus. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated its exclusive localisation in the apical region of the epithelium in the uterus. Oestrogen (E2) significantly induced Daf mRNA in a time-dependent manner...
June 1, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Mamat H Kamalludin, Alvaro Garcia-Guerra, Milo C Wiltbank, Brian W Kirkpatrick
This study was conducted to characterise differences in follicular fluid proteins between carriers and non-carriers of a bovine allele for high ovulation rate. A total of four non-carrier and five carrier females were used in an initial study with four and six additional non-carriers and carriers respectively used in a validation study. Emergence of the follicular wave was synchronised and the ovaries containing the dominant follicle(s) were extracted by ovariectomy for follicular fluid collection. A hexapeptide ligand library was used to overcome the masking effect of high-abundance proteins and to increase detection of low-abundance proteins in tandem mass spectrometry...
June 1, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
David Martin-Hidalgo, Maria C Gil, Ana Hurtado de Llera, Carlos J Perez, Maria J Bragado, Luis J Garcia-Marin
Herein we describe a new protocol to induce boar sperm hypermotility: temperature-induced hypermotility (TIH). Briefly, spermatozoa stored at 17°C in a calcium-free Tyrode's basal medium (containing EGTA) were exposed to increased temperature by incubation at 38.5°C. Hypermotility induced by the calcium ionophore A23187 was used as a control (calcium ionophore-induced hyperactivity (CIIH)). The increase in temperature led to an increase in the percentage of hypermotile spermatozoa. When the slope of the temperature increase is near zero, sperm hyperactivity becomes a more progressive movement...
May 30, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Maria É S Bezerra, Ricássio S Barberino, Vanúzia G Menezes, Bruna B Gouveia, Taís J S Macedo, Jamile M S Santos, Alane P O Monte, Vanessa R P Barros, Maria H T Matos
We investigated the effects of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) on the morphology and follicular activation of ovine preantral follicles cultured in situ and whether the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) pathway is involved in IGF-1 action in the sheep ovary. Ovine ovarian fragments were fixed for histological and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) analyses (fresh control) or cultured in supplemented alpha-minimum essential medium (α-MEM+; control) or α-MEM+ with IGF-1 (1, 10, 50, 100 or 200ngmL-1) for 7 days...
May 30, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
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