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Reproduction, Fertility, and Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30641031/the-sertoli-cell-marker-foxd1-regulates-testis-development-and-function-in-the-chicken
#1
Xiaofan Yu, Yangyang Yuan, Lingyun Qiao, Yanzhang Gong, Yanping Feng
FOXD1, one of the transcription factors of the FOX family, has been shown to be important for mammalian reproduction but little is known about its function in avian species. In the present study, we identified the expression pattern and location of FOXD1 in chicken tissues and testis by performing quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence, and further investigated the regulatory relationship of FOXD1 with genes involved in testis development by RNA interference. Our results showed that FOXD1 is confirmed to be significantly male-biased expressed in the brain, kidney and testis of adults as well as in embryonic gonads, and it is localised in the testicular Sertoli cell in chicken, consistent with its localisation in mammals...
January 15, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30641030/highly-methylated-xist-in-scnt-embryos-was-retained-in-deceased-cloned-female-goats
#2
Mingtian Deng, Zifei Liu, Caifang Ren, Shiyu An, Yongjie Wan, Feng Wang
X (inactive)-specific transcript (Xist) is crucial in murine cloned embryo development, but its role in cloned goats remains unknown. Therefore, in this study we examined the expression and methylation status of Xist in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos, as well as in ear, lung, and brain tissue of deceased cloned goats. First, the Xist sequence was amplified and a differentially methylated region was identified in oocytes and spermatozoa. Xist methylation levels were greater in SCNT- than intracytoplasmic sperm injection-generated female 8-cell embryos...
January 15, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30641029/marsupial-milk-a-fluid-source-of-nutrition-and-immune-factors-for-the-developing-pouch-young
#3
Elizabeth A Pharo
Marsupials have a very different reproductive strategy to eutherians. An Australian marsupial, the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) has a very short pregnancy of about 26.5 days, with a comparatively long lactation of 300-350 days. The tammar mother gives birth to an altricial, approximately 400 mg young that spends the first 200 days postpartum (p.p.) in its mother's pouch, permanently (0-100 days p.p.; Phase 2A) and then intermittently (100-200 days p.p.; Phase 2B) attached to the teat. The beginning of Phase 3 marks the first exit from the pouch (akin to the birth of a precocious eutherian neonate) and the supplementation of milk with herbage...
January 15, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30636191/fifty-years-of-reproductive-biology-in-australia-highlights-from-the-50th-annual-meeting-of-the-society-for-reproductive-biology-srb
#4
Elizabeth G Bromfield, Samson N Dowland, Jessica E M Dunleavy, Kylie R Dunning, Olivia J Holland, Brendan J Houston, Michael W Pankhurst, Dulama Richani, Angelique H Riepsamen, Ryan Rose, Michael J Bertoldo
The 2018 edition of the Society for Reproductive Biology's (SRB) Annual Meeting was a celebration of 50 years of Australian research into reproductive biology. The past 50 years has seen many important contributions to this field, and these advances have led to changes in practice and policy, improvements in the efficiency of animal reproduction and improved health outcomes. This conference review delivers a dedicated summary of the symposia, discussing emerging concepts, raising new questions and proposing directions forward...
January 14, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30636190/exposure-to-atrazine-during-puberty-reduces-sperm-viability-increases-weight-gain-and-alters-the-expression-of-key-metabolic-genes-in-the-liver-of-male-mice
#5
Laura E Cook, Bethany J Finger, Mark P Green, Andrew J Pask
Atrazine (ATZ) is one of the most widely used herbicides worldwide and is a common contaminant in human drinking water. It disrupts metabolic pathways in plants, and has metabolic and reproductive effects in vertebrates, including humans. Few studies have investigated the effects of exposure to low doses of ATZ, especially during sexual development in males. In this study, we exposed C57BL/6J male mice from weaning for 8 weeks to drinking water containing 0.5mgkg-1 bodyweight (BW) day-1 ATZ, the 'no observed effect' level used by the Australian government, or a 10-fold higher dose (5mgkg-1 BW day-1)...
January 14, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30630589/marsupial-chromosomics-bridging-the-gap-between-genomes-and-chromosomes
#6
Janine E Deakin, Sally Potter
Marsupials have unique features that make them particularly interesting to study, and sequencing of marsupial genomes is helping to understand their evolution. A decade ago, it was a huge feat to sequence the first marsupial genome. Now, the advances in sequencing technology have made the sequencing of many more marsupial genomes possible. However, the DNA sequence is only one component of the structures it is packaged into: chromosomes. Knowing the arrangement of the DNA sequence on each chromosome is essential for a genome assembly to be used to its full potential...
January 11, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30625287/evolution-of-viviparity-in-mammals-what-genomic-imprinting-tells-us-about-mammalian-placental-evolution
#7
Tomoko Kaneko-Ishino, Fumitoshi Ishino
Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic mechanism of regulating parent-of-origin-specific monoallelic expression of imprinted genes in viviparous therian mammals such as eutherians and marsupials. In this review we discuss several issues concerning the relationship between mammalian viviparity and genomic imprinting, as well as the domestication of essential placental genes: why has the genomic imprinting mechanism been so widely conserved despite the evident developmental disadvantages originating from monoallelic expression? How have genomic imprinted regions been established in the course of mammalian evolution? What drove the evolution of mammalian viviparity and how have genomic imprinting and domesticated genes contributed to this process? In considering the regulatory mechanism of imprinted genes, reciprocal expression of paternally and maternally expressed genes (PEGs and MEGs respectively) and the presence of several essential imprinted genes for placental formation and maintenance, it is likely that complementary, thereby monoallelic, expression of PEGs and MEGs is an evolutionary trade-off for survival...
January 10, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30625115/vitrification-of-invitro-derived-bovine-embryos-targeting-enhancement-of-quality-by-refining-technology-and-standardising-procedures
#8
V H Do, S Catt, J E Kinder, S Walton, A W Taylor-Robinson
Bovine invitro fertilisation technology has been widely exploited in commercial settings. The majority of invitro-derived cattle embryos are transferred into recipient cows as recently collected (i.e. 'fresh') embryos due to the lack of a reliable cryopreservation method that results in favourable pregnancy rates following transfer of thawed embryos. This is a primary reason for the poor industry uptake of this extreme temperature freezing process. Numerous investigations into vitrification have revealed the importance of rapid cooling and warming rates, enhancing embryo viability after cryopreservation compared with conventional slow freezing...
January 10, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30625114/raman-spectroscopic-analysis-of-testicular-lamina-propria-predicts-spermatogenesis-in-a-mouse-infertility-model
#9
Yufei Liu, Xiaobo Wu, Haowen Jiang
The status of the testicular lamina propria (LP) is associated with spermatogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine whether Raman spectroscopy (RS) could detect material components within the LP and predict spermatogenesis. Twenty adult male mice were divided into a busulfan-treated group (n=16 mice receiving a single injection of 50mgkg-1, i.p., busulfan) and a control group (n=4 mice receiving an equivalent volume of 0.9% saline solution injected i.p.). Mice were killed 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after injection of busulfan or saline solution (n=1 control and 4 busulfan-treated mice at each time point)...
January 10, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30615843/the-origins-of-genomic-imprinting-in-mammals
#10
Carol A Edwards, Nozomi Takahashi, Jennifer A Corish, Anne C Ferguson-Smith
Genomic imprinting is a process that causes genes to be expressed according to their parental origin. Imprinting appears to have evolved gradually in two of the three mammalian subclasses, with no imprinted genes yet identified in prototheria and only six found to be imprinted in marsupials to date. By interrogating the genomes of eutherian suborders, we determine that imprinting evolved at the majority of eutherian specific genes before the eutherian radiation. Theories considering the evolution of imprinting often relate to resource allocation and recently consider maternal-offspring interactions more generally, which, in marsupials, places a greater emphasis on lactation...
January 8, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30611314/association-analysis-of-mitochondrial-dna-polymorphisms-with-oocyte-number-in-pigs
#11
Hao Liu, Wenshu Shi, Dan Wang, Xingbo Zhao
In pigs, correlations between mitochondrial (mt) DNA polymorphisms and economic traits have been widely reported across and within swine breeds. In fecundity studies, the number of oocytes within ovaries was highly correlated with litter size. However, the effect of mitochondrial polymorphisms on porcine oocyte number remained unclear. In this study, 181 porcine ovaries were collected to analyse the relationship between oocyte number and mtDNA polymorphisms. There were considerable differences in oocyte numbers among different ovaries from commercial pig breeds, ranging from 2...
January 7, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30562475/metformin-inhibits-human-spermatozoa-motility-and-signalling-pathways-mediated-by-protein-kinase-a-and-tyrosine-phosphorylation-without-affecting-mitochondrial-function
#12
V Calle-Guisado, L Gonzalez-Fernandez, D Martin-Hidalgo, L J Garcia-Marin, M J Bragado
Metformin is a leading antidiabetic drug that is used worldwide in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. This biguanide exerts metabolic and pleiotropic effects in somatic cells, although its in vitro actions on human spermatozoa remain unknown. The present study investigated the effects of metformin on human sperm function. Human spermatozoa were incubated in the presence or absence of 10 mM metformin for 8 or 20 h, and motility was measured by computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA); other parameters were evaluated by flow cytometry...
December 19, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30554591/knockdown-of-dead-box-helicase-4-ddx4-decreases-the-number-of-germ-cells-in-male-and-female-chicken-embryonic-gonads
#13
Nana Aduma, Hiroe Izumi, Shusei Mizushima, Asato Kuroiwa
DEAD-box helicase 4 (DDX4; also known as vasa) is essential for the proper formation and maintenance of germ cells. Although DDX4 is conserved in a variety of vertebrates and invertebrates, its roles differ between species. This study investigated the function of DDX4 in chicken embryos by knocking down its expression using retroviral vectors that encoded DDX4-targeting microRNAs. DDX4 was effectively depleted in vitro and in vivo via this approach. Male and female gonads of DDX4-knockdown embryos contained a decreased number of primordial germ cells, indicating that DDX4 is essential to maintain a normal level of these cells in chicken embryos of both sexes...
December 17, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30554590/bovine-gonadotrophs-express-anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-amh-comparison-of-amh-mrna-and-protein-expression-levels-between-old-holsteins-and-young-and-old-japanese-black-females
#14
Onalenna Kereilwe, Hiroya Kadokawa
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is secreted from ovaries and stimulates gonadotrophin secretion from bovine gonadotroph cells. Other important hormones for endocrinological gonadotroph regulation (e.g. gonadotrophin-releasing hormone, inhibin and activin) have paracrine and autocrine roles. Therefore, in this study, AMH expression in bovine gonadotroph cells and the relationships between AMH expression in the bovine anterior pituitary (AP) and oestrous stage, age and breed were evaluated. AMH mRNA expression was detected in APs of postpubertal heifers (26 months old) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction...
December 17, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30526797/lipophagy-contributes-to-long-term-storage-of-spermatozoa-in-the-epididymis-of-the-chinese-soft-shelled-turtle-pelodiscus-sinensis
#15
Hong Chen, Yufei Huang, Ping Yang, Tengfei Liu, Nisar Ahmed, Lingling Wang, Taozhi Wang, Xuebing Bai, Abdul Haseeb, Qiusheng Chen
Spermatozoa are known to be stored in the epididymis of the Chinese soft-shelled turtle Pelodiscus sinensis for long periods after spermiation from the testes, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this storage are largely unknown. In this study, epididymal spermatozoa were investigated to determine the potential molecular mechanism for long-term sperm storage in P. sinensis. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Oil red O staining indicated that unusually large cytoplasmic droplets containing lipid droplets (LDs) were attached to the epididymal spermatozoa...
December 10, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517837/amelioration-of-sperm-immobilisation-factor-induced-infertility-by-bacterial-antigenic-determinants-cross-reacting-with-spermatozoa
#16
Deepali Thaper, Deepak K Rahi, Vijay Prabha
A strain of Staphylococcus aureus, capable of in vitro immobilisation of human and mouse spermatozoa, was already present in our laboratory. Therefore, in the present study, the factor responsible (sperm immobilisation factor, SIF) was isolated and purified. It was found to compromise not only motility, but also viability, morphology and Mg2+-ATPase activity of mouse spermatozoa. Also, SIF (250 μg mL-1), when administered intravaginally in female BALB/c mice before mating, showed 100% contraceptive effect...
December 6, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30514432/sperm-output-and-body-condition-are-maintained-independently-of-hibernation-in-an-endangered-temperate-amphibian
#17
Sinlan Poo, Kristin M Hinkson, Edward Stege, Kimberly A Terrell
Hibernation is an integral part of the life history of species living in seasonal environments. However, our knowledge about the link between hibernation and reproductive success in amphibians remains limited, which poses an obstacle for critical conservation efforts. To fill this gap, we quantified the effects of captive hibernation on sperm quality, sperm quantity and body condition in an endangered anuran, the Wyoming toad (Anaxyrus baxteri), and used naturally hibernated wild toads as a standard for comparison...
December 5, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30509341/seasonal-expressions-of-luteinising-hormone-receptor-follicle-stimulating-hormone-receptor-and-prolactin-receptor-in-the-epididymis-of-the-male-wild-ground-squirrel-spermophilus-dauricus
#18
Junjie Wang, Qian Liu, Ziyi Wang, Xia Sheng, Haolin Zhang, Yingying Han, Zhengrong Yuan, Qiang Weng
Luteinising hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin (PRL) are pituitary-derived hormones and mediate their functions through LH receptor (LHR), FSH receptor (FSHR) and PRL receptor (PRLR) respectively. This study aimed to investigate the seasonal expression patterns of LHR, FSHR and PRLR in the epididymis of the male wild ground squirrel during the breeding and non-breeding seasons. Histologically, principal cells, basal cells, cilia and mature spermatozoa were found in the lumen of caput, corpus and cauda epididymidis in the breeding season, whereas in the non-breeding season, cilia and basal cells were rarely found and the epididymidal duct was devoid of spermatozoa...
December 4, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30509340/mrl-mpj-mice-produce-more-oocytes-and-exhibit-impaired-fertilisation-and-accelerated-luteinisation-after-superovulation-treatment
#19
Marina Hosotani, Osamu Ichii, Teppei Nakamura, Md Abdul Masum, Yuki Otani, Saori Otsuka-Kanazawa, Yaser H A Elewa, Yasuhiro Kon
MRL/MpJ mice exhibit distinct phenotypes in several biological processes, including wound healing. Herein we report two unique phenotypes in the female reproductive system of MRL/MpJ mice that affect ovulation and luteinisation. We found that superovulation treatment resulted in the production of significantly more oocytes in MRL/MpJ than C57BL/6 mice (71.0 ± 13.4 vs 26.8 ± 2.8 respectively). However, no exon mutations were detected in genes coding for female reproductive hormones or their receptors in MRL/MpJ mice...
December 4, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30509339/regulation-of-steroidogenic-function-of-luteal-cells-by-thrombospondin-and-insulin-in-water-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis
#20
Avishek Paul, Meeti Punetha, Sai Kumar, Arvind Sonwane, Vikrant S Chouhan, Gyanendra Singh, V P Maurya, M Sarkar
The present study examined the effect of exogenous thrombospondin 1 (TSP1) on the steroidogenic function of luteal cells cultured in vitro. Furthermore, the transcriptional interaction of insulin with TSP1 and its receptor, cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) were also investigated. At the highest dose (500 ng mL-1) TSP1 significantly downregulated the expression of the angiogenic marker von Willebrand factor (vWF) and progesterone production in cultured luteal cells. Moreover, the simultaneous upregulation in the expression of caspase 3 by exogenous TSP1 was consistent with a reduction in the number of viable luteal cells as determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltertrazolium bromide (MTT) assay after 72 h of culture...
December 4, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
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