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Reproduction, Fertility, and Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727982/genome-wide-dna-methylation-profile-of-prepubertal-porcine-testis
#1
Xi Chen, Liu-Hong Shen, Li-Xuan Gui, Fang Yang, Jie Li, Sui-Zhong Cao, Zhi-Cai Zuo, Xiao-Ping Ma, Jun-Liang Deng, Zhi-Hua Ren, Zhong-Xu Chen, Shu-Min Yu
The biological structure and function of the mammalian testis undergo important developmental changes during prepuberty and DNA methylation is dynamically regulated during testis development. In this study, we generated the first genome-wide DNA methylation profile of prepubertal porcine testis using methyl-DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) combined with high-throughput sequencing (MeDIP-seq). Over 190 million high-quality reads were generated, containing 43642 CpG islands. There was an overall downtrend of methylation during development, which was clear in promoter regions but less so in gene-body regions...
July 21, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723341/quantitative-changes-of-extravillous-trophoblast-cells-in-heavy-smoker-mothers-compared-with-healthy-controls
#2
Zahra Heidari, Hamidreza Mahmoudzadeh-Sagheb, Nadia Sheibak
Maternal smoking during pregnancy can induce structural and functional changes in the placenta. Placentas from heavy smoker (>20 cigarettes per day) mothers and non-smoker healthy controls (n=10 in each group) were enrolled in the present case-control study. Sample selection and sectioning were performed by systematic uniform random sampling (SURS). Selected sections were stained using Masson's trichrome to estimate quantitative parameters of placental extravillous trophoblast cells (EVTs) and the number of EVTs...
July 20, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712411/calcium-sensing-receptor-casr-is-involved-in-porcine-in-vitro-fertilisation-and-early-embryo-development
#3
C Liu, Y Liu, K Larsen, Y P Hou, H Callesen
It has been demonstrated that extracellular calcium is necessary in fertilisation and embryo development but the mechanism is still not well understood. The present study mainly focussed on the extracellular calcium effector called the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) and examined its expression in porcine gametes and embryos and its function during fertilisation and early embryo development. By using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, CASR was found to be expressed in porcine oocytes, spermatozoa and embryos at different developmental stages...
July 17, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701259/markers-of-protein-synthesis-are-increased-in-fetal-membranes-and-myometrium-after-human-labour-and-delivery
#4
Stella Liong, Martha Lappas
Preterm birth remains one of the leading causes of neonatal death. Inflammation and maternal infection are two of the leading aetiological factors for preterm birth. Labour is associated with increased production of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines and prolabour mediators in human gestational tissues. In non-gestational tissues, synthesis of proinflammatory and prolabour mediators is regulated by components of the protein synthesis machinery. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the effect of human labour on the expression of three protein synthesis markers, namely eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (EEF2K), mitogen-activated protein kinase interacting protein kinase 1 (MKNK1) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (EIF4E), and their role in regulating inflammation in human gestational tissues...
July 13, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701256/toll-like-receptor-expression-patterns-in-the-rat-uterus-during-post-partum-involution
#5
Emel Alan, Narin Liman
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) belong to a family of pathogen recognition receptors and play critical roles in detecting and responding to invading pathogens. TLR expression could be significant because, in the uterus, the reproductive tract is an important site of exposure to and infection by pathogens during the post partum involution period. To clarify the expression and localisation patterns of TLRs in the rat uterus on Days 1, 3, 5 and 10 post partum (PP1, PP3, PP5 and PP10 respectively), immunohistochemistry and western blotting were used to analyse TLR1-7, TLR9 and TLR10...
July 13, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692816/unique-oestrogen-receptor-ligand-binding-domain-sequence-of-native-parrots-a-possible-link-between-phytoestrogens-and-breeding-success
#6
Catherine E J Davis, Adrian H Bibby, Kevin M Buckley, Kenneth P McNatty, Janet L Pitman
The New Zealand (NZ) native parrots kākāpō, kākā and kea are classified as critically endangered, endangered and vulnerable respectively. Successful reproduction of kākāpō and kākā is linked to years of high levels of fruiting in native flora (mast years). To assess a possible hormonal link between native plants and reproductive success in these parrots in mast years, we examined the ligand-binding domains (LBD) of the progesterone receptor (PR), androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) and estrogen receptor 2 (ESR2) in NZ native (kākāpō, kākā, kea and kākāriki) and non-native (Australian cockatiel) parrots and compared them with those in the chicken...
July 11, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692815/efficient-generation-of-goats-with-defined-point-mutation-i397v-in-gdf9-through-crispr-cas9
#7
Yiyuan Niu, Xiaoe Zhao, Jiankui Zhou, Yan Li, Yu Huang, Bei Cai, Yutai Liu, Qiang Ding, Shiwei Zhou, Jin Zhao, Guangxian Zhou, Baohua Ma, Xingxu Huang, Xiaolong Wang, Yulin Chen
The recent emergence of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) 9 system has attracted significant attention for its potential to improve traits of agricultural importance. However, most applications in livestock species to date have depended on aberrant DNA repair to generate frameshifting indels. Whether this genomic engineering technique involving homology-dependent repair (HDR) can be used to introduce defined point mutations has been less explored. Previously, we reported a G→A point mutation (g...
July 11, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679464/linoleic-la-and-linolenic-ala-acid-concentrations-in-follicular-fluid-of-prepubertal-goats-and-their-effect-on-oocyte-in-vitro-maturation-and-embryo-development
#8
Montserrat Roura, María G Catalá, Sandra Soto-Heras, Sondes Hammami, Dolors Izquierdo, Ali Fouladi-Nashta, Maria-Teresa Paramio
In this study we assessed the concentration of linoleic acid (LA) and linolenic acid (ALA) in follicular fluid of prepubertal goats according to follicle size (<3mm or ≥3mm) by gas chromatography and tested the addition of different LA and ALA (LA:ALA) concentration ratios (50:50, 100:50 and 200:50µM) to the IVM medium on embryo development, mitochondrial activity, ATP concentration and relative gene expression (RPL19, ribosomal protein L19; SLC2A1, facilitated glucose transporter 1; ATF4, activating transcription factor 4; GPX1, glutathione peroxidase 1; HSPA5, heat-shock protein family A 70 kDa; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; DNMT1, DNA methyltransferase 1; GCLC, glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit; SOD1, superoxide dismutase 1)...
July 6, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679463/expanded-equine-cumulus-oocyte-complexes-exhibit-higher-meiotic-competence-and-lower-glucose-consumption-than-compact-cumulus-oocyte-complexes
#9
L González-Fernández, M J Sánchez-Calabuig, M G Alves, P F Oliveira, S Macedo, A Gutiérrez-Adán, A Rocha, B Macías-García
Equine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) are classified as compact (cCOC) or expanded (eCOC) and vary in their meiotic competence. This difference could be related to divergent glucose metabolism. To test this hypothesis in the present study, eCOCs, cCOCs and expanded or compact mural granulosa cells (EC and CC respectively) were matured in vitro for 30h, at which time maturation rate, glucose metabolism and the expression of genes involved in glucose transport, glycolysis, apoptosis and meiotic competence were determined...
July 6, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679462/analysis-of-zp1-gene-reveals-differences-in-zona-pellucida-composition-in-carnivores
#10
C Moros-Nicolás, A Leza, P Chevret, A Guillén-Martínez, L González-Brusi, F Boué, M Lopez-Bejar, J Ballesta, M Avilés, M J Izquierdo-Rico
The zona pellucida (ZP) is an extracellular envelope that surrounds mammalian oocytes. This coat participates in the interaction between gametes, induction of the acrosome reaction, block of polyspermy and protection of the oviductal embryo. Previous studies suggested that carnivore ZP was formed by three glycoproteins (ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4), with ZP1 being a pseudogene. However, a recent study in the cat found that all four proteins were expressed. In the present study, in silico and molecular analyses were performed in several carnivores to clarify the ZP composition in this order of mammals...
July 6, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672116/visfatin-and-resistin-in-gonadotroph-cells-expression-regulation-of-lh-secretion-and-signalling-pathways
#11
Virginie Maillard, Sébastien Elis, Alice Desmarchais, Céline Hivelin, Lionel Lardic, Didier Lomet, Svetlana Uzbekova, Philippe Monget, Joëlle Dupont
Visfatin and resistin appear to interfere with reproduction in the gonads, but their potential action at the hypothalamic-pituitary level is not yet known. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mRNA and protein expression of these adipokines in murine gonadotroph cells and to analyse the effects of different concentrations of recombinant mouse visfatin and resistin (0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10ngmL-1) on LH secretion and signalling pathways in LβT2 cells and/or in primary female mouse pituitary cells...
July 4, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641706/delayed-onset-of-puberty-in-male-offspring-from-bisphenol-a-treated-dams-is-followed-by-the-modulation-of-gene-expression-in-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-testis-axis-in-adulthood
#12
Isabela M Oliveira, Renata M Romano, Patricia de Campos, Monica D Cavallin, Claudio A Oliveira, Marco A Romano
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic endocrine-disrupting chemical of high prevalence in the environment, which may affect the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testis (HPT) axis in adult rats. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether exposure to BPA during hypothalamic sexual differentiation at doses below the reproductive no observable adverse effect level of the World Health Organization causes changes in the regulation of the HPT axis. For this, 0.5 or 5mgkg-1 BPA was injected subcutaneously to the mothers from gestational day 18 to postnatal day (PND) 5...
June 23, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625274/beneficial-effects-of-melatonin-on-in-vitro-embryo-production-from-juvenile-goat-oocytes
#13
Sandra Soto-Heras, Montserrat Roura, Maria G Catalá, Irene Menéndez-Blanco, Dolors Izquierdo, Ali A Fouladi-Nashta, Maria T Paramio
Melatonin is a universal antioxidant that improves in vitro embryo production in several species. The aims of this study were to determine the melatonin concentration in the ovarian follicular fluid (FF) of juvenile goats and the effect of melatonin during in vitro maturation (IVM) on embryo development. The FF melatonin concentration was 0.57--1.07×10-9 M, increasing with follicular diameter. Oocytes were matured, fertilised and cultured under conventional conditions. Blastocyst development, embryo quality and levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reduced glutathione were assessed...
June 19, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610652/novel-insights-into-the-role-of-cell-free-seminal-mrnas-on-semen-quality-and-cryotolerance-of-spermatozoa-in-bulls-bos-taurus
#14
Munivenkatappa Shilpa, Sellappan Selvaraju, Venkataswamy GirishKumar, Sivashanmugam Parthipan, Krishnan B Binsila, Arunachalam Arangasamy, Janivara Parameshwaraiah Ravindra
The aim of the present study was to ascertain the effectiveness of seminal plasma mRNAs as markers to assess the reproductive performance of bulls. Semen samples (33 ejaculates) from 11 bulls were evaluated for sperm kinematic and functional parameters. Total RNA was isolated from cell-free seminal (cfs) using TRIzol LS reagent and the concentration of cfs-RNA was 24.4±2.3µgmL-1 seminal plasma. The cfs-RNA was fragmented to a size of 25-500bp. Of the cfs-mRNAs screened using real time PCR, expression of protamine 1 (PRM1) was positively (P<0...
June 14, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610651/increased-high-molecular-weight-adiponectin-but-decreased-total-adiponectin-and-kisspeptin-in-central-precocious-puberty-compared-with-aged-matched-prepubertal-girls
#15
Chantacha Sitticharoon, Maynart Sukharomana, Supawadee Likitmaskul, Malika Churintaraphan, Pailin Maikaew
The aim of the present study was to compare serum leptin, kisspeptin, total adiponectin, high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and neuropeptide Y (NPY) levels between girls with central precocious puberty (CPP; n=26, 7-9.5 years old) and age-matched controls (n=29) including or excluding obese girls. Leptin and NPY levels were comparable between CPP and control girls. Kisspeptin levels were lower in the CPP than control group, and were positively correlated with oestrogen in the control group and with systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the CPP group...
June 14, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595033/temperature-gradients-in-vivo-influence-maturing-male-and-female-gametes-in-mammals-evidence-from-the-cow
#16
R H F Hunter, F López-Gatius, O López-Albors
Since 1980 several reports have indicated that temperatures vary between preovulatory follicles and other ovarian tissues in rabbit, cow, pig and human. However, these observations did not achieve prominence; they were regarded as artefacts due to the use of anaesthetics and open surgery (laparotomy). Recently, without resorting to anaesthesia or surgery, direct measurements of temperature in preovulatory follicles have been performed in the cow by means of a thermistor probe introduced into the antrum under ultrasonic guidance...
June 9, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570851/effect-of-seminal-plasma-from-high-and-low-fertility-bulls-on-cauda-epididymal-sperm-function
#17
S A Holden, B Fernandez-Fuertes, E M Murphy, P Lonergan, S Fair
The aim of this study was to characterise the effect of seminal plasma (SP) from bulls of high or low fertility on sperm function. First, the effect of SP on the motility of fresh cauda epididymal spermatozoa (CES) and frozen-thawed ejaculated spermatozoa was assessed (Experiment 1a). Seminal plasma was then collected from bulls of known high and low fertility. Pooled CES were incubated in the SP from each bull, diluted and assessed for motility and viability on Days 1, 2, 3 and 5 after packaging as fresh semen (Experiment 1b)...
June 2, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566114/effects-of-ovarian-disaggregation-on-adult-murine-follicle-yield-and-viability
#18
Fiona Young, John Drummond, Emma Akers, Louise Bartle, David Kennedy, Mohammad Asaduzzaman
Follicles are isolated from ovaries for numerous reasons, including IVM, but adult murine yields are <2 folliclesmg-1. The aim of the present study was to optimise ovarian disaggregation and develop methods applicable to the rapid screening of follicle viability. Ovaries from adult mice (n=7) were halved and disaggregated mechanically, or by using collagenase IV (Col-IV; 590UmL-1) or animal origin-free collagenase IV (AOF) at 590 or 1180UmL-1. Isolated follicles were stained with 4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI; nuclei), chloromethyl-X-rosamine (CMXRos; mitochondria) or fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated anti-α-tubulin antibody...
June 1, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553998/splicing-related-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-of-rab-member-of-ras-oncogene-family-like-2b-rabl2b-jeopardises-semen-quality-in-chinese-holstein-bulls
#19
Xiuge Wang, Xiaohui Cui, Yan Zhang, Haisheng Hao, Zhihua Ju, Deyu Liu, Qiang Jiang, Chunhong Yang, Yan Sun, Changfa Wang, Jinming Huang, Huabin Zhu
RAB, member of RAS oncogene family like 2B (RABL2B) is a member of a poorly characterised clade of the RAS GTPase superfamily, which plays an essential role in male fertility, sperm intraflagellar transport and tail assembly. In the present study, we identified a novel RABL2B splice variant in bovine testis and spermatozoa. This splice variant, designated RABL2B-TV, is characterised by exon 2 skipping. Moreover, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), namely c.125G>A, was found within the exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) motif, indicating that the SNP caused the production of the RABL2B-TV aberrant splice variant...
May 30, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531375/mouse-minipuberty-coincides-with-gonocyte-transformation-into-spermatogonial-stem-cells-a-model-for-human-minipuberty
#20
Ruili Li, Amanda Vannitamby, Sarah S K Yue, David Handelsman, John Hutson
As the transient postnatal hormone surge in humans, known as 'minipuberty', occurs simultaneously with key steps in germ-cell development, we investigated whether similar changes occur in the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis of neonatal mice at a time that would coincide with gonocyte transformation into spermatogonial stem cells (SSC). Serum and testes were collected from C57Bl/6 mice at embryonic Day 17 (E17), birth (postnatal Day 0; P0) and daily until P10. Serum FSH and testosterone levels in both serum and testes were analysed and gene expression of FSH receptor (Fshr), luteinising hormone receptor (Lhr), anti-Müllerian hormone (Amh), octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct-4), membrane type 1 metalloprotease (Mt1-mmp), proto-oncogene C-kit and promyelocytic leukaemia zinc finger (Plzf ) was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction...
May 23, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
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