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Reproduction, Fertility, and Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332623/gene-expression-and-lymphocyte-population-at-the-fetal-maternal-interface-in-sheep-pregnancies-established-by-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer
#1
Jason A Koroghli, Elizabeth Floyd, Misha Regouski, Kerry Rood, Kirsten Gash, Kip Panter, Rusty Stott, Christopher J Davies, Irina A Polejaeva, Heloisa M Rutigliano
The hypothesis of this study was that the leukocyte populations and expression levels of genes related to immune response, growth factors and apoptosis would be altered at the fetal-maternal interface in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)-generated sheep pregnancies. Placental and endometrial samples from sheep pregnancies established by SCNT and natural breeding (control) were collected at 45 days and at term. Expression of genes related to growth factors, apoptosis and immune response was examined using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction...
January 15, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332622/in-vivo-and-in-vitro-strategies-to-support-caprine-preantral-follicle-development-after-ovarian-tissue-vitrification
#2
N J Donfack, K A Alves, B G Alves, R M P Rocha, J B Bruno, L F Lima, C H Lobo, R R Santos, S F S Domingues, M Bertolini, J Smitz, A P R Rodrigues
The aim of the present study was to compare fresh and vitrified goat ovarian tissue after autotransplantation and in vitro culture. Adult goats were completely ovariectomised and each ovarian pair was sliced and distributed among six different treatment groups: fresh control, fresh transplant, fresh culture, vitrified control, vitrified transplant and vitrified culture. Follicular morphology, development, growth, density, revascularisation and hormone production were evaluated in all groups. Three antral follicles (two in the fresh transplant and one in the vitrified transplant groups) were observed on the surface of the graft 90 days after transplantation...
January 15, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325604/implications-of-body-condition-and-seasonality-on-morphological-and-functional-parameters-of-testes-of-myotis-nigricans-chiroptera-vespertilionidae
#3
Marcelo Ferreira, Aline Soldati, Sirlene S S Rodrigues, Laércio Dos Anjos Benjamin
The insectivorous bat Myotis nigricans is widely distributed throughout the Neotropics, including Brazil, and has a reproductive biology that is affected by climate and food availability. To evaluate the reproductive capacity of this species, morphofunctional parameters of the testes were correlated with environmental variables and the body condition of individuals captured. After bats had been killed, their testes were removed, fixed in Karnovsky's fluid for 24h and embedded in resin for evaluation by light microscopy...
January 12, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325603/culture-conditions-affect-ca2-release-in-artificially-activated-mouse-and-human-oocytes
#4
Yuechao Lu, Davina Bonte, Minerva Ferrer-Buitrago, Mina Popovic, Jitesh Neupane, Margot Van der Jeught, Luc Leybaert, Petra De Sutter, Björn Heindryckx
Inconsistent fertilisation and pregnancy rates have been reported by different laboratories after application of ionomycin as a clinical method of assisted oocyte activation (AOA) to overcome fertilisation failure. Using both mouse and human oocytes, in the present study we investigated the effects of ionomycin and Ca2+ concentrations on the pattern of Ca2+ release and embryonic developmental potential. In the mouse, application of 5μM ionomycin in potassium simplex optimisation medium (KSOM) or 10µM ionomycin in Ca2+-free KSOM significantly reduced the Ca2+ flux and resulted in failure of blastocyst formation compared with 10μM ionomycin in KSOM...
January 12, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309736/patterns-of-conceptus-development-and-of-progesterone-concentrations-in-maternal-blood-preceding-spontaneous-early-pregnancy-failure-in-mares
#5
Keith J Betteridge, James I Raeside, Rudolf O Waelchli, Heather L Christie, M Anthony Hayes
Sixteen cases of spontaneous pregnancy loss (11 of singletons and five of pairs of twins) are described. The losses occurred between gestation Days 13 and 25 in 12 mares being monitored almost daily by transrectal ultrasonography (for measurement of conceptus growth) and blood sampling (for determination of maternal plasma progesterone concentrations as evidence of luteolysis) in experimental studies of early pregnancy. In 10 of the 16 cases the uterus was flushed and eight conceptuses were recovered for morphological assessment...
January 9, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306361/steroid-hormone-concentrations-and-body-mass-are-differently-affected-by-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-during-the-oestrous-cycle-in-guinea-pigs
#6
Matthias Nemeth, Bernard Wallner, Carina Siutz, Elisabeth Pschernig, Karl-Heinz Wagner, Eva Millesi
Reproductive functions in female mammals can be significantly affected by the actions of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on steroid hormone secretion rates. Nevertheless, the effects of plasma free PUFAs on the oestrous cycle have seldom been considered. Therefore, in the present study, the diet of domestic guinea pigs was supplemented with high concentrations of different PUFAs and the effects of altered plasma PUFA patterns on steroid hormone concentrations, measured non-invasively, and body mass during oestrus and dioestrus were analysed...
January 8, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301092/metabolomic-profiling-of-bovine-oviductal-fluid-across-the-oestrous-cycle-using-proton-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#7
Julie Lamy, Julie Gatien, Florine Dubuisson, Lydie Nadal-Desbarats, Pascal Salvetti, Pascal Mermillod, Marie Saint-Dizier
In the present study we tested whether regulation of the metabolome in bovine oviductal fluid depended on the stage of the oestrous cycle, the side relative to ovulation and local concentrations of steroid hormones. Luminal fluid samples from both oviducts were collected in the preovulatory, postovulatory, mid- and late luteal phases, from cyclic cows at a local abattoir (18-27 cows per stage and side). The metabolomes were assessed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-NMR). In all, 39 metabolites were identified, among which the amino acid glycine and the energy substrates lactate and myoinositol were the most abundant at all stages...
January 5, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301091/the-cyclin-dependent-kinase-inhibitor-jnj-7706621-improves-in-vitro-developmental-competence-of-porcine-parthenogenetic-activation-and-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-embryos
#8
Qing Guo, Long Jin, Hai-Ying Zhu, Xiao-Xu Xing, Mei-Fu Xuan, Qi-Rong Luo, Guang-Lei Zhang, Zhao-Bo Luo, Jun-Xia Wang, Xi-Jun Yin, Jin-Dan Kang
In this study we examined the effects of JNJ-7706621, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, on the in vitro growth of pig embryos that had been produced either by parthenogenetic activation (PA) or somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). A significantly higher percentage of PA embryos reached the blastocyst stage by Day 7 after exposure to 10µM JNJ-7706621 for 4h compared with embryos exposed to 5µgmL-1 cytochalasin B for 4h (P<0.05). Similarly, the rate of Tyr15 phosphorylation of the complex of cyclin and p34cdc2 (CDK1) was significantly elevated in the JNJ-7706621-treated embryos compared with embryos exposed to cytochalasin B or non-treated controls (P<0...
January 5, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207253/influence-of-postnatal-prolactin-modulation-on-the-development-and-maturation-of-ventral-prostate-in-young-rats
#9
Ana C L Camargo, Flávia B Constantino, Sérgio A A Santos, Ketlin T Colombelli, Maeli Dal-Pai-Silva, Sérgio L Felisbino, Luis A Justulin
Besides androgenic dependence, other hormones also influence the prostate biology. Prolactin has been described as an important hormone associated with maintenance of prostatic morphophysiology; however, there is a lack of information on the involvement of prolactin during prostate development and growth. This study aimed to evaluate whether perinatal prolactin modulation interferes with rat ventral prostate (VP) development and maturation. Therefore, prolactin or bromocriptine (an inhibitor of prolactin release from the pituitary) were administered to Sprague Dawley rats from postnatal Day (PND) 12 to PND 21 or 35...
December 6, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207252/role-of-activin-c-in-normal-ovaries-and-granulosa-cell-tumours-of-mice-and-humans
#10
Karen L Reader, Francesco E Marino, Helen D Nicholson, Gail P Risbridger, Elspeth J Gold
Activins and inhibins play important roles in the development, growth and function of the ovary. Mice lacking inhibin develop granulosa cell tumours in their ovaries that secrete activin A, and these tumours are modulated by increased activin C expression. The aim of the present study was to identify where activin C is expressed in mouse and human ovaries and whether overexpression of activin C modulates normal follicular development in mice. Immunohistochemical staining for the activin βC subunit was performed on sections from mouse and human ovaries and human adult granulosa cell tumours...
December 6, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179810/de-novo-transcription-of-thyroid-hormone-receptors-is-essential-for-early-bovine-embryo-development-in-vitro
#11
N-Y Rho, F A Ashkar, T Revay, P Madan, G-J Rho, W A King, L A Favetta
Thyroid hormone receptor (THR) α and THRβ mediate the genomic action of thyroid hormones (THs) that affect bovine embryo development. However, little is known about THRs in the preimplantation embryo. The aim of the present study was to investigate the importance of THRs in in vitro preimplantation bovine embryos. THR transcripts and protein levels were detected in developing preimplantation embryos up to the blastocyst stage. Embryonic transcription of THRs was inhibited by α-amanitin supplementation, and both maternal and embryonic transcription were knocked down by short interference (si) RNA microinjection...
November 28, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167013/bovine-oviductal-and-uterine-fluid-support-in-vitro-embryo-development
#12
Meriem Hamdi, Ricaurte Lopera-Vasquez, Veronica Maillo, Maria Jesus Sanchez-Calabuig, Carolina Núnez, Alfonso Gutierrez-Adan, Dimitrios Rizos
In order to mimic the maternal oviductal environment, we evaluated the effect of oviductal fluid (OF) and/or uterine fluid (UF) supplementation on in vitro embryo development and quality. In vitro-produced zygotes were cultured with 1.25% OF from Day 1 to Day 4 after insemination (OF group), 1.25% OF from Day 1 to Day 4 followed by 1.25% UF from Day 4 to Day 9 (OF+UF group) or 1.25% UF only from Day 4 to Day 9 (UF group). Control groups were cultured in the presence of synthetic oviduct fluid (SOF) supplemented with 3mgmL-1 bovine serum albumin (BSA) or 5% fetal calf serum (FCS)...
November 23, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162213/composition-of-marsupial-zona-pellucida-a-molecular-and-phylogenetic-approach
#13
Carla Moros-Nicolás, Pascale Chevret, María José Izquierdo-Rico, William V Holt, Daniela Esteban-Díaz, Manel López-Béjar, Eva Martínez-Nevado, Maria A Nilsson, José Ballesta, Manuel Avilés
The zona pellucida (ZP) is an extracellular matrix that surrounds mammalian oocytes. In eutherians it is formed from three or four proteins (ZP1, ZP2, ZP3, ZP4). In the few marsupials that have been studied, however, only three of these have been characterised (ZP2, ZP3, ZP4). Nevertheless, the composition in marsupials may be more complex, since a duplication of the ZP3 gene was recently described in one species. The aim of this work was to elucidate the ZP composition in marsupials and relate it to the evolution of the ZP gene family...
November 22, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157356/effect-of-exogenous-progesterone-on-embryo-size-and-ewe-uterine-gene-expression-in-an-ovine-dam-size-model-of-maternal-constraint
#14
Lisanne M Fermin, Sarah J Pain, Patrick C H Morel, Kristene R Gedye, Paul R Kenyon, Hugh T Blair
Progesterone (P4), acting via its receptor, regulates uterine function and histotroph production, which are crucial to embryo growth. This study aimed to examine exogenous P4 effects on embryo size and differential endometrial gene expression at Day 19 of gestation using a 'dam size' sheep model of maternal constraint. Purebred Suffolk (S, genotypically large) embryos were transferred into recipient groups of Cheviot (C, genotypically small) or Suffolk ewes that had, or had not, been pre-treated with P4 from Days 0 to 6 of pregnancy...
November 21, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141178/peri-conception-and-first-trimester-diet-modifies-reproductive-development-in-bulls
#15
K J Copping, M D Ruiz-Diaz, C S Rutland, N P Mongan, M J Callaghan, I C McMillen, R J Rodgers, V E A Perry
Nutritional perturbation during gestation alters male reproductive development in rodents and sheep. In cattle both the developmental trajectory of the feto-placental unit and its response to dietary perturbations is dissimilar to that of these species. This study examined the effects of dietary protein perturbation during the peri-conception and first trimester periods upon reproductive development in bulls. Nulliparous heifers (n=360) were individually fed a high- or low-protein diet (HPeri and LPeri) from 60 days before conception...
November 16, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136400/changes-in-bone-turnover-and-calcium-homeostasis-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-in-mammals-a-meta-analysis
#16
Diego A Torres, Mariella B Freitas, Reggiani V Gonçalves
Large amounts of calcium are required during pregnancy and lactation to support fetal and neonatal bone growth and calcification. An inadequate supply of calcium during these stages can lead to unsuccessful reproduction or impaired offspring fitness. During reproduction, female mammals undergo numerous physiological changes, including adaptations to allow an adequate supply of calcium. The lack of quantitative studies analysing these physiological changes from a comparative perspective limits our ability to explain and understand these adaptations...
November 15, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136399/proteinaceous-sperm-motility-inhibitory-factor-from-the-female-indian-garden-lizard-calotes-versicolor
#17
Goutham Shankar, Shubhashree Uppangala, Satish K Adiga, Belinda Willard, Bhadravathi K C Sagar, Ruth S K Titus, Gopal K Marathe
Female sperm storage is an intriguing adaptation exhibited by a wide array of both vertebrates and invertebrates. The mechanisms underlying female sperm storage have remained elusive. Using the Indian garden lizard Calotes versicolor as a model organism, we investigated the role of low and high molecular weight factors in this phenomenon. Previously, we demonstrated three distinct phases of the reproductive cycle in this animal with live, motile spermatozoa recovered from the uterovaginal region during the reproductive phase...
November 15, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136398/molecular-cloning-and-epigenetic-change-detection-of-kiss1-during-seasonal-reproduction-in-chinese-indigenous-sheep
#18
Xiaoyun He, Qiuyue Liu, Xiaoyu Li, Xiaofei Guo, Xiangyu Wang, Wenping Hu, Ran Di, Mingxing Chu
Like most seasonal domesticated species, sheep are short-day breeders, which means that the reproduction axis is activated by short days. The annual photoperiodic cycle affects the amount of daylength information that is transmitted to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis by regulating pulsatile secretion of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus. Kisspeptin, which is encoded by Kiss1, plays a major role in reproductive seasonality. Based on results from our previous Solexa sequencing data obtained from Tan (T) and Small Tail Han (STH) sheep during anoestrus and the breeding season, full-length mRNA information for ovine Kiss1 was obtained; 894bp in T sheep and 1145bp in STH sheep...
November 15, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121483/effects-of-n-carbamylglutamate-and-l-arginine-on-gonadotrophin-releasing-hormone-gnrh-gene-expression-and-secretion-in-gt1-7-cells
#19
Y Liu, J H Bai, X L Xu, Z L Chen, L J Spicer, T Feng
Recent studies have shown that N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) and arginine (ARG) supplementation improves reproductive performance in livestock. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of NCG and ARG on GT1-7 cell gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion, gene expression and cell proliferation. GT1-7 cells were treated in vitro with different concentrations of NCG (0-1.0mM) or ARG (0-4.0mM) in serum-free medium for 12 or 24h. For GnRH secretion and cell proliferation, GT1-7 cells were more sensitive to NCG than ARG...
November 10, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096761/profilin-1-plays-feedback-role-in-actin-mediated-polar-body-extrusion-in-mouse-oocytes
#20
Jun Liu, Qiao-Chu Wang, Xing Duan, Xiang-Shun Cui, Nam-Hyung Kim, Yu Zhang, Shao-Chen Sun
Mammalian oocytes undergo several crucial processes during meiosis maturation, including spindle formation and migration and polar body extrusion, which rely on the regulation of actin. As a small actin-binding protein, profilin 1 plays a central role in the regulation of actin assembly. However, the functions of profilin 1 in mammalian oocytes are uncertain. To investigate the function of profilin 1 in oocytes, immunofluorescent staining was first used to examine profilin 1 localisation. The results showed that profilin 1 was localised around the meiotic spindles and was colocalised with cytoplasmic actin...
November 3, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
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