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Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919827/pkc%C3%AE-ii-mediated-cross-talk-of-trpv1-cb2-modulates-the-glucocorticoid-induced-osteoclast-overactivity
#1
Giulia Bellini, Marco Torella, Iolanda Manzo, Chiara Tortora, Livio Luongo, Francesca Punzo, Nicola Colacurci, Bruno Nobili, Sabatino Maione, Francesca Rossi
In this study, we investigated the role of the endovanilloid/endocannabinoid system in the glucocorticoid-induced osteoclast overactivity. Receptorial and enzymatic component of the endovanilloid/endocannabinoid system are expressed in bone cells, and dysregulated when bone mass is reduced. Moreover, blockade or desensitization of vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) and/or stimulation of cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) are beneficial for reducing number and activity of the bone cells modulating resorption, the osteoclasts...
December 2, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919826/should-blood-pressure-goal-be-individualized-in-hypertensive-patients
#2
REVIEW
Alexandra Yannoutsos, Rania Kheder-Elfekih, Jean-Michel Halimi, Michel E Safar, Jacques Blacher
The aim of the present review is to consider the clinical relevance of individualized blood pressure (BP) goal under treatment in hypertensive patients according to their age, comorbidities or established cardiovascular (CV) disease. Evidence from large-scale randomized trials to support a lower BP goal, as initially recommended by guidelines in high-risk hypertensive patients, were lacking. Recently, the randomized intervention SPRINT trial studied two treatment targets for systolic BP (120mm Hg versus 140mm Hg in the intensive and standard treatment group, respectively) among high-risk hypertensive patients, without diabetes and without a history of prior stroke...
December 2, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914945/effects-of-zacopride-a-moderate-ik1-channel-agonist-on-triggered-arrhythmia-and-contractility-in-human-ventricular-myocardium
#3
Mohammad T Elnakish, Benjamin D Canan, Ahmet Kilic, Peter J Mohler, Paul M L Janssen
Ventricular tachycardia is the leading cause of sudden arrhythmic death in the U.S. Recently, the moderate IK1 channel activator, zacopride, was shown to suppress triggered ventricular tachycardia in rats. Nonetheless, concerns were raised about the possibility of pro-arrhythmic activity after IK1 channel stimulation based on the promising anti-arrhythmic strategy of IK1 blockade in other animal models. Therefore, the goal of the current study was to investigate the ex-vivo effects of zacopride on triggered arrhythmia and contractility in ventricular human myocardium in order to validate data that was solely obtained from animal models...
November 30, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913252/sex-and-gender-differences-in-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#4
Marco Canevelli, Federica Quarata, Francesca Remiddi, Flaminia Lucchini, Eleonora Lacorte, Nicola Vanacore, Giuseppe Bruno, Matteo Cesari
In recent years, epidemiological, clinical, and biological evidence has drawn the attention on the influence of sex and gender on Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nevertheless, not enough attention has been paid to their impact on treatment outcomes. The present study is aimed at systematically retrieve, review and discuss data coming from available randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) on currently marketed treatments for AD (i.e., cholinesterase inhibitors [ChEIs] and memantine) in order to describe possible sex and gender differences in their efficacy, safety and tolerability...
November 30, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894923/therapeutic-implications-of-toll-like-receptors-in-peripheral-neuropathic-pain
#5
REVIEW
Krishan K Thakur, Jyoti Saini, Kanika Mahajan, Dhyanendra Singh, Dinkar P Jayswal, Srishti Mishra, Anupam Bishyaee, Gautam Sethi, Ajaikumar B Kunnumakkara
Neuropathic pain is a state of chronic pain arising after peripheral or central nerve injury. These injuries can be mediated through the activation of various cells (astrocytes, microglia and Schwann cells), as well as the dissolution of distal axons. Recent studies have suggested that after nerve injury, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) involved in Wallerian degeneration and generation of neuropathic pain. Furthermore, these TLRs are responsible for the stimulation of astrocytes and microglia that can cause induction of the proinflammatory mediators and cytokines in the spinal cord, thereby leading to the generation and maintenance of neuropathic pain...
November 25, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894922/new-preclinical-model-are-required-to-discover-neuroprotective-compound-in-parkinson-s-disease
#6
LETTER
Juan Segura-Aguilar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 25, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890819/reply-to-the-letter-addressed-by-amr-a-el-arabey-dual-function-of-oct-2-and-mate1-in-cisplatin-induced-nephrotoxicity
#7
LETTER
Fabienne Thomas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 24, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890818/the-anabolic-steroid-nandrolone-alters-cannabinoid-self-administration-and-brain-cb1-receptor-density-and-function
#8
Dicky Struik, Paola Fadda, Tamara Zara, Erica Zamberletti, Tiziana Rubino, Daniela Parolaro, Walter Fratta, Liana Fattore
Clinical and pre-clinical observations indicate that anabolic-androgenic steroids can induce neurobiological changes that alter the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. In this study, we investigated the effect of the anabolic steroid nandrolone on the rewarding properties of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN) in rats. Lister Hooded male rats were treated intramuscularly with nandrolone (15mg/kg) or vehicle for 14 consecutive days, and then allowed to self-administer WIN (12.5μg/kg/infusion) intravenously...
November 24, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890817/sec-butylpropylacetamide-spd-a-new-amide-derivative-of-valproic-acid-for-the-treatment-of-neuropathic-and-inflammatory-pain
#9
Dan Kaufmann, Peter J West, Misty D Smith, Boris Yagen, Meir Bialer, Marshall Devor, H Steve White, K C Brennan
Chronic pain is a multifactorial disease comprised of both inflammatory and neuropathic components that affect ∼20% of the world's population. sec-Butylpropylacetamide (SPD) is a novel amide analogue of valproic acid (VPA) previously shown to possess a broad spectrum of anticonvulsant activity. In this study we defined the pharmacokinetic parameters of SPD in rat and mouse, and then evaluated its antinociceptive potential in neuropathic and acute inflammatory pain models. In the sciatic nerve ligation (SNL) model of neuropathic pain, SPD was equipotent to gabapentin and more potent than its parent compound VPA...
November 24, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890816/pathophysiology-of-hemophilic-arthropathy-and-potential-targets-for-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Astrid E Pulles, Simon C Mastbergen, Roger E G Schutgens, Floris P J G Lafeber, Lize F D van Vulpen
Hemophilia is a congenital clotting factor deficiency characterized by spontaneous and trauma-related bleeding. Spontaneous bleeding shows a predilection for joints, and repeated hemarthroses lead to a disabling condition called hemophilic arthropathy. Treatment of this condition consists of preventing joint bleeding on the one hand and orthopedic surgery as a last resort on the other. Up till now, there is no disease modifying therapy available to fill the gap between these extremes. This review provides an overview of the pathogenesis of hemophilic arthropathy in order to identify potential targets for therapy...
November 24, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890815/passive-drug-permeation-through-membranes-and-cellular-distribution
#11
REVIEW
D O Scott, A Ghosh, L Di, T S Maurer
Although often overlooked, passive mechanisms can lead to significant accumulation or restriction of drugs to intracellular sites of drug action. These mechanisms include lipoidal diffusion of ionized species and pH partitioning according to the electrochemical potential and to pH gradients that exist across subcellular compartments, respectively. These mechanisms are increasingly being exploited in the design of safe and effective drugs for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases. In this work, the authors review these efforts and the associated passive mechanisms of cellular drug permeation...
November 24, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890814/response-to-comment-by-juan-segura-aguilar-new-preclinical-model-are-required-to-discover-neuroprotective-compound-in-parkinson-s-disease
#12
LETTER
Giuseppina Mattace Raso, Carmen Avagliano, Antonio Calignano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 24, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890551/dual-function-of-oct2-and-mate1-in-cisplatin-induced-nephrotoxicity
#13
LETTER
Amr Ahmed El-Arabey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890550/paradoxical-sleep-deprivation-in-rats-causes-a-selective-reduction-in-the-expression-of-type-2-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-in-the-hippocampus
#14
Isabella Panaccione, Luisa Iacovelli, Luigi di Nuzzo, Francesca Nardecchia, Gianluca Mauro, Delfina Janiri, Antonio De Blasi, Gabriele Sani, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Rosamaria Orlando
Paradoxical sleep deprivation in rats is considered as an experimental animal model of mania endowed with face, construct, and pharmacological validity. We induced paradoxical sleep deprivation by placing rats onto a small platform surrounded by water. This procedure caused the animal to fall in the water at the onset of REM phase of sleep. Control rats were either placed onto a larger platform (which allowed them to sleep) or maintained in their home cage. Sleep deprived rats showed a substantial reduction in type-2 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu2) receptors mRNA and protein levels in the hippocampus, but not in the prefrontal cortex or corpus striatum, as compared to both groups of control rats...
November 23, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888156/effects-of-pomegranate-juice-on-blood-pressure-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#15
Amirhossein Sahebkar, Claudio Ferri, Paolo Giorgini, Simona Bo, Petr Nachtigal, Davide Grassi
Punica granatum L. (Pomegranate) has been claimed to provide several health benefits. Pomegranate juice is a polyphenol-rich fruit juice with high antioxidant capacity. Several studies suggested that pomegranate juice can exert antiatherogenic, antioxidant, antihypertensive, and anti-inflammatory effects. Nevertheless, the potential cardioprotective benefits of pomegranate juice deserve further clinical investigation. To systematically review and meta-analyze available evidence from randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effects of pomegranate juice consumption and blood pressure (BP)...
November 23, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888154/modulation-of-vegf-receptor-2-signaling-by-protein-phosphatases
#16
REVIEW
Federico Corti, Michael Simons
Phosphorylation of serines, threonines, and tyrosines is a central event in signal transduction cascades in eukaryotic cells. The phosphorylation state of any particular protein reflects a balance of activity between kinases and phosphatases. Kinase biology has been exhaustively studied and is reasonably well understood, however, much less is known about phosphatases. A large body of evidence now shows that protein phosphatases do not behave as indiscriminate signal terminators, but can function both as negative or positive regulators of specific signaling pathways...
November 23, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888159/transmembrane-tnf-alpha-reverse-signaling-leading-to-tgf-beta-production-is-selectively-activated-by-tnf-targeting-molecules-therapeutic-implications
#17
REVIEW
Zsuzsa Szondy, Anna Pallai
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine exerting pleiotropic effects on various cell types. It is synthesized in a precursor form called transmembrane TNF-α (mTNF-α) which, after being processed by metalloproteinases, is released in a soluble form to mediate its biological activities through Type 1 and 2 TNF receptors in TNF receptor expressing cells. In addition to acting in soluble form, TNF-α also acts in the transmembrane form both as a ligand by activating TNF receptors, as well as a receptor that transmits outside-to-inside (reverse) signals back into mTNF-α bearing cells...
November 22, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888158/metabolomic-profile-of-children-with-recurrent-respiratory-infections
#18
Sara Bozzetto, Paola Pirillo, Silvia Carraro, Mariangela Berardi, Laura Cesca, Matteo Stocchero, Giuseppe Giordano, Stefania Zanconato, Eugenio Baraldi
Recurrent respiratory infections (RRI) represent a widespread condition which has a severe social and economic impact. Immunostimulants are used for their prevention. It is crucial to better characterize children with RRI to refine their diagnosis and identify effective personalized prevention strategies. Metabolomics is a high-dimensional biological method that can be used for hypothesis-free biomarker profiling, examining a large number of metabolites in a given sample using spectroscopic techniques. Multivariate statistical data analysis then enables us to infer which metabolic information is relevant to the biological characterization of a given physiological or pathological condition...
November 22, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888157/curcumin-use-in-pulmonary-diseases-state-of-the-art-and-future-perspectives
#19
REVIEW
Diana Lelli, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Thomas P Johnston, Claudio Pedone
Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a yellow pigment present in the spice turmeric (Curcuma longa). It has been used for centuries in Ayurveda (Indian traditional medicine) for the treatment of several diseases. Over the last several decades, the therapeutic properties of curcumin have slowly been elucidated. It has been shown that curcumin has pleiotropic effects, regulating transcription factors (e.g., NF-kB), cytokines (e.g., IL6, TNF-alpha), adhesion molecules (e.g., ICAM-1), and enzymes (e.g., MMPs) that play a major role in inflammation and cancerogenesis...
November 22, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888155/significant-hla-class-i-type-associations-with-aromatic-antiepileptic-drug-aed-induced-sjs-ten-are-different-from-those-found-for-the-same-aed-induced-dress-in-the-spanish-population
#20
Elena Ramírez, Teresa Bellón, Hoi Y Tong, Alberto M Borobia, Francisco J de Abajo, Victoria Lerma, Miguel A Moreno Hidalgo, José L Castañer, Rosario Cabañas, Ana Fiandor, Jessica González-Ramos, Pedro Herranz, Lucía Cachafeiro, Carlos González-Herrada, Olga González, José A Aramburu, Olga Laosa, Rafael Hernández, Antonio J Carcas, Jesús Frías
Aromatic antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are among the drugs most frequently involved in severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs), such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), and drug reactions with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). This study investigated the associations between the genetic polymorphisms of HLA class-I and AED-induced SCARs in the Spanish population. HLA class-I genotypes were determined in AED (phenytoin[PHT],lamotrigine[LTG],carbamazepine[CBZ],phenobarbital[PB])-induced SJS/TEN (n=15) or DRESS (n=12) cases included in the Spanish SCAR registry, PIELenRed...
November 22, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
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