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Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792914/modulation-of-diverse-oncogenic-transcription-factors-by-thymoquinone-an-essential-oil-compound-isolated-from-the-seeds-of-nigella-sativa-linn
#1
LETTER
Muthu K Shanmugam, Frank Arfuso, Alan Prem Kumar, Lingzhi Wang, Boon Cher Goh, Kwang Seok Ahn, Anupam Bishayee, Gautam Sethi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 21, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791873/rhoa-rock-signaling-regulates-smooth-muscle-phenotypic-modulation-and-vascular-remodeling-via-the-jnk-pathway-and-vimentin-cytoskeleton
#2
Lian Tang, Fan Dai, Yan Liu, Xiaoqiang Yu, Chao Huang, Yuqin Wang, Wenjuan Yao
The RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway regulates cell morphology, adhesion, proliferation, and migration. In this study, we investigated the regulatory role of RhoA/ROCK signaling on PDGF-BB-mediated smooth muscle phenotypic modulation and vascular remodeling and clarified the molecular mechanisms behind these effects. PDGF-BB treatment induced the activation of RhoA, ROCK, PDGF-Rβ, and the expression of PDGF-Rβ in HA-VSMCs (human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells). PDGF-Rβ inhibition and RhoA suppression blocked PDGF-BB-induced RhoA activation and ROCK induction...
May 20, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787870/oral-hydroxysafflor-yellow-a-reduces-obesity-in-mice-by-modulating-the-gut-microbiota-and-serum-metabolism
#3
Juan Liu, Shijun Yue, Zhirui Yan, Wuwen Feng, Xintong Meng, Aiting Wang, Cheng Peng, Changyun Wang, Dan Yan
Given the high and increasing prevalence of obesity, the safe and effective treatment of obesity would be beneficial. Here, we examined whether oral hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA), an active compound from the dried florets of Carthamus tinctorius L., can reduce high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6 J mice. Our results showed that the average body weight of HF group treated by HSYA was significantly lower than that of the HF group (P < 0.01). HSYA also reduced fat accumulation, ameliorated insulin resistance, restored glucose homeostasis, reduced inflammation, enhanced intestinal integrity, and increased short-chain fatty acids ((SCFAs)) production in HF diet-fed mice...
May 19, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787869/shear-stress-sensitizes-trpv4-in-endothelium-dependent-vasodilatation
#4
William G Darby, Simon Potocnik, Rithwik Ramachandran, Morley D Hollenberg, Owen L Woodman, Peter McIntyre
The aim of this study was to better understand the role of TRPV4 in the regulation of blood vessel dilatation by blood flow and activation of GPCRs. Using pressure myography, the dilator responses to the TRPV4 agonist GSK1016790 A and to acetylcholine, were examined in rat cremaster arterioles exposed to either no shear stress or to 200 μl/min flow for 6 min. In control vessels GSK1016709 A caused vasodilatation (pEC50 7.73 ± 0.12 M, ΔDmax 97 ± 3%) which was significantly attenuated by the TRPV4 antagonists GSK2193874 (100 nM) (pEC50 6...
May 19, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778808/maternal-treatment-with-a-placental-targeted-antioxidant-mitoq-impacts-offspring-cardiovascular-function-in-a-rat-model-of-prenatal-hypoxia
#5
Mais M Aljunaidy, Jude S Morton, Raven Kirschenman, Tom Phillips, C Patrick Case, Christy-Lynn M Cooke, Sandra T Davidge
Intrauterine growth restriction, a common consequence of prenatal hypoxia, is a leading cause of fetal morbidity and mortality with a significant impact on population health. Hypoxia may increase placental oxidative stress and lead to an abnormal release of placental-derived factors, which are emerging as potential contributors to developmental programming. Nanoparticle-linked drugs are emerging as a novel method to deliver therapeutics targeted to the placenta and avoid risking direct exposure to the fetus...
May 17, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777758/chemical-properties-of-thymoquinone-a-monoterpene-isolated-from-the-seeds-of-nigella-sativa-linn
#6
LETTER
Randolph R J Arroo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775687/effects-of-bronchodilation-on-biomarkers-of-peripheral-airway-inflammation-in-copd
#7
Pierachille Santus, Dejan Radovanovic, Susanna Mascetti, Alessia Pauletti, Vincenzo Valenti, Marco Mantero, Alberto Papi, Marco Contoli
Peripheral airway inflammation and dysfunction are key elements in the pathogenesis of COPD. The exhaled alveolar fraction of nitric oxide (CANO) is an indirect biomarker of lung peripheral inflammation. We tested whether inhaled long-acting bronchodilators (LABA) can affect CANO and we evaluated correlations with lung mechanics in patients with COPD. Two-centre, randomised, double blind, crossover study including COPD patients with moderate-to-severe airflow obstruction. Following a pharmacological washout, multi-flow exhaled fraction of NO (FENO), plethysmography, lung diffusion (DLCO), single breath nitrogen washout test and dyspnoea were measured in a crossover manner at baseline and 30, 60 and 180 minutes following administration of salmeterol (Sal) or formoterol fumarate (FF)...
May 15, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772270/identification-of-certain-panax-species-to-be-potential-substitutes-for-panax-notoginseng-in-hemostatic-treatments
#8
REVIEW
Bin Rui Yang, Sze Chung Yuen, Guang Yi Fan, Wei-Hong Cong, Siu-Wai Leung, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee
Panax notoginseng (Burkill) F. H. Chen ex C. H. Chow (P. notoginseng) is a highly valued Chinese materia medica having a hemostatic effect and mainly used for the treatment of trauma and ischemic cardiovascular diseases. Stringent growth requirements, weak resistance to insect pests and plant diseases, arsenic contamination and continuous cropping constitute hurdles to further increases in the agricultural production of P. notoginseng. This review focuses on the traditional uses (based on traditional Chinese medicine theory), major chemical components, biological activities, pharmacological properties, geographical distributions and historical development of taxonomy of P...
May 14, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758279/potential-role-of-genipin-in-cancer-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Muthu K Shanmugam, Hongyuan Shen, Feng Ru Tang, Frank Arfuso, Mohanraj Rajesh, Lingzhi Wang, Alan Prem Kumar, Bian Jinsong, Goh Boon Cher, Anupam Bishayee, Gautam Sethi
Genipin, an aglycone derived from the iridoid glycoside, geniposide, is isolated and characterized from the extract of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis fruit (family Rubiaceae). It has long been used in traditional oriental medicine for the prevention and treatment of several inflammation driven diseases, including cancer. Genipin has been shown to have hepatoprotective activity acting as a potent antioxidant and inhibitor of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), and also reported to exert significant anticancer effects...
May 11, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753688/citrus-fruits-intake-and-oral-cancer-risk-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Santa Cirmi, Michele Navarra, Jayne V Woodside, Marie M Cantwell
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the relationship between Citrus intake and risk of cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science were searched until September 2017. Search terms included Citrus, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus sinensis, Citrus paradisi, Citrus fruits, Citrus fruits extract, Citrus oil, fruits, oral cancer, mouth cancer, mouth neoplasm. STUDY SELECTION: The selection of studies and the systematic review were carried out in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement...
May 10, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753687/istaroxime-a-positive-inotropic-agent-devoid-of-proarrhythmic-properties-in-sensitive-chronic-atrioventricular-block-dogs
#11
Alexandre Bossu, Amée Kostense, Henriette D M Beekman, Marien J C Houtman, Marcel A G van der Heyden, Marc A Vos
Current inotropic agents in heart failure therapy associate with low benefit and significant adverse effects, including ventricular arrhythmias. Istaroxime, a novel Na+ /K+ -transporting ATPase inhibitor, also stimulates SERCA2a activity, which would confer improved inotropic and lusitropic properties with less proarrhythmic effects. We investigated hemodynamic, electrophysiological and potential proarrhythmic and antiarrhythmic effects of istaroxime in control and chronic atrioventricular block (CAVB) dogs sensitive to drug-induced Torsades de Pointes arrhythmias (TdP)...
May 10, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730267/imatinib-prevents-lung-cancer-metastasis-by-inhibiting-m2-like-polarization-of-macrophages
#12
Zhangting Yao, Jieqiong Zhang, Bo Zhang, Guikai Liang, Xi Chen, Fengqi Yao, Xiaqing Xu, Honghai Wu, Qiaojun He, Ling Ding, Bo Yang
Although M2-like tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have been considered as a vital therapeutic target in cancer therapy due to their role in promoting tumor progression and metastasis, very few compounds have been identified to inhibit M2-like polarization of TAMs. Here, we showed that Imatinib significantly prevented macrophage M2-like polarization induced by IL-13 or IL-4 in vitro, as illustrated by reduced expression of cell surface marker CD206 and M2-like genes, including Arg1, Mgl2, Mrc1, CDH1, and CCL2...
May 3, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729421/possible-use-of-punica-granatum-pomegranate-in-cancer-therapy
#13
REVIEW
Amrita Devi Khwairakpam, Devivasha Bordoloi, Krishan Kumar Thakur, Javadi Monisha, Frank Arfuso, Gautam Sethi, Srishti Mishra, Alan P Kumar, Ajaikumar B Kunnumakkara
The intake of fruits has proven to reduce the risk and incidence of cancer worldwide and plays a crucial role in cancer prevention. Pomegranate (Punica granatum), which belongs to the Punicaceae family, is one such plant that contains beneficial nutrients as well as many bioactive components and important phytochemicals that can be attributed to cancer-related therapeutic purposes. Pomegranate possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenic, anti-invasive, and anti-metastatic properties, and induces apoptosis...
May 2, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727708/artemisinin-and-its-derivatives-in-treating-helminthic-infections-beyond-schistosomiasis
#14
REVIEW
Nelson Siukei Lam, Xinxin Long, Xin-Zhuan Su, Fangli Lu
The World Health Organization estimated that more than 1.5 billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths globally, and foodborne trematodiases in humans cause ∼2 million life-years lost to disability and death worldwide every year. Investment in prevention, treatment, and awareness of helminth infections and discovery of new, safe, effective, and affordable anti-helminth drugs are urgently needed. Artemisinin (ART) and its derivatives have been widely used to treat malaria and other protozoan infections; they also possess activities against helminths...
May 1, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719203/the-burgeoning-role-of-cytochrome-p450-mediated-vitamin-d-metabolites-against-colorectal-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Peili Wang, Xuan Qin, Mingyao Liu, Xin Wang
The metabolites of vitamin D3 (VD3) mediated by different cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, play fundamental roles in many physiological processes in relation to human health. These metabolites regulate a variety of cellular signal pathways through the direct binding of activated vitamin D receptor/retinoic X receptor (VDR/RXR) heterodimeric complex to specific DNA sequences. Thus, the polymorphisms of VDR and VD3 metabolizing enzymes lead to differentiated efficiency of VD3 and further affect serum VD3 levels...
April 30, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719204/drug-drug-interactions-in-the-treatment-for-alcohol-use-disorders-a-comprehensive-review
#16
REVIEW
Guerzoni Simona, Pellesi Lanfranco, Pini Luigi Alberto, Caputo Fabio
Drug interactions are one of the most common causes of side effects in polypharmacy. Alcoholics are a category of patients at high risk of pharmacological interactions, due to the presence of comorbidities, the concomitant intake of several medications and the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interferences of ethanol. However, the data available on this issue are limited. These reasons often frighten clinicians when prescribing appropriate pharmacological therapies for alcohol use disorder (AUD), where less than 15% of patients receive an appropriate treatment in the most severe forms...
April 29, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715499/new-and-upcoming-treatments-in-antiphospholipid-syndrome-a-comprehensive-review
#17
REVIEW
Flavio Signorelli, Gustavo Guimarães Moreira Balbi, Vinicius Domingues, Roger Abramino Levy
Current therapeutic recommendations for thrombosis prevention in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) are limited to anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) or heparins and to anti-platelet aggregating agents. Maintaining optimized anticoagulation to prevent recurrent thrombosis or bleeding remains a therapeutic challenge. Although there are important ongoing trials with direct oral anticoagulants, they still aim the same target. New insights about pathophysiology in APS have revealed a myriad of potential pathways to be investigated as treatment targets...
April 28, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715498/linking-gut-microbiota-to-cardiovascular-disease-and-hypertension-lessons-from-chronic-kidney-disease
#18
REVIEW
B Meijers, F Jouret, P Evenepoel
Bidirectional interactions exist between the kidneys and the gut. These interactions are commonly referred to as the gut-kidney axis. Chronic kidney disease leads to disturbances of the gut ecosystem. Key features include the increase of protein fermentation at the expense of carbohydrate fermentation and a disrupted epithelial barrier. A disturbed gut ecosystem may contribute to the high burden of cardiovascular disease in patients with CKD. The present review discusses the impact of CKD on the gut microenvironment and provides an update as to how gut dysbiosis and a leaky gut may be linked to accelerated cardiovascular disease and hypertension...
April 28, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704617/the-role-of-small-molecule-kit-protein-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-in-the-treatment-of-neoplastic-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Robert Roskoski
The Kit proto-oncogene was found as the consequence of the discovery of the feline v-kit sarcoma oncogene. Stem cell factor (SCF) is the Kit ligand and it mediates Kit dimerization and activation. The Kit receptor contains an extracellular segment that is made up of five immunoglobulin-like domains (D1/2/3/4/5), a transmembrane segment, a juxtamembrane segment, a protein-tyrosine kinase domain that contains an insert of 77 amino acid residues, and a carboxyterminal tail. Activating somatic mutations in Kit have been documented in various neoplasms including gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), mast cell overexpression (systemic mastocytosis), core-binding factor acute myeloid leukemias (AML), melanomas, and seminomas...
April 25, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698794/prognostic-and-therapeutic-implications-of-vascular-disease-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation
#20
REVIEW
Farhan Shahid, Daniele Pastori, Francesco Violi, Gregory Y H Lip
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with a 5-fold increase in the risk of ischemic stroke, and AF-related stroke patients have a higher mortality and greater morbidity than patients with non-AF related stroke. AF and vascular disease share a close relationship, with the concomitant presence of both disease states leading to a dramatic rise in future cardiovascular events. Indeed, the presence of peripheral artery disease independently predicts stroke in patients with AF. Myocardial infarction (MI) is another well-established risk factor for the development of AF; however, the role of pre-existing AF in MI is less well evidenced, with recent studies showing that this population more frequently develops coronary ischaemic events and has a higher risk of mortality than sinus rhythm patients...
April 23, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
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