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Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634084/drug-delivery-to-melanoma-brain-metastases-can-current-challenges-lead-to-new-opportunities
#1
Gautham Gampa, Shruthi Vaidhyanathan, Jann N Sarkaria, William F Elmquist
Melanoma has a high propensity to metastasize to the brain, and patients with melanoma brain metastases (MBM) have an extremely poor prognosis. The recent approval of several molecularly-targeted agents (e.g., BRAF, MEK inhibitors) and biologics (anti-CTLA-4, anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 antibodies) has brought new hope to patients suffering from this formerly untreatable and lethal disease. Importantly, there have been recent reports of success in some clinical studies examining the efficacy of both targeted agents and immunotherapies that show similar response rates in both brain metastases and extracranial disease...
June 17, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629929/interactions-between-micrornas-and-long-non-coding-rnas-in-cardiac-development-and-repair
#2
REVIEW
Alessio Rotini, Ester Martínez-Sarrà, Enrico Pozzo, Maurilio Sampaolesi
Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are emerging players in muscle regulation. Based on their length and differences in molecular structure, ncRNAs are subdivided into several categories including small interfering RNAs, stable non-coding RNAs, microRNAs (miRs), long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and circular RNAs. miRs and lncRNAs are able to post-transcriptionally regulate many genes and bring into play several traits simultaneously due to a myriad of different targets. Recent studies have emphasized their importance in cardiac regeneration and repair...
June 16, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625868/distinct-characteristics-of-neonatal-platelet-reactivity
#3
REVIEW
Belay Tesfamariam
Platelets undergo a process of developmental maturation, and hence its regulation of vascular integrity and control of hemostasis at various stages of neonatal ages deserves better characterization. Functional assays for platelets require a larger volume of blood than what is feasible to collect in neonates, creating a technical hurdle that has been a challenge to investigate neonatal platelets. For this reason, the current knowledge of neonatal platelet function has been based on studies from cord blood-derived platelets as a surrogate for neonatal peripheral blood...
June 15, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627370/chasing-c-kit-through-the-heart-taking-a-broader-view
#4
REVIEW
Natalie A Gude, Mark A Sussman
Stem cell mediated cardiac repair is an exciting and controversial area of cardiovascular research that holds the potential to produce novel, revolutionary therapies for the treatment of heart disease. Extensive investigation to define cell types contributing to cardiac formation, homeostasis and regeneration has produced several candidates, including adult cardiac c-Kit+ expressing stem and progenitor cells that have even been employed in a Phase I clinical trial demonstrating safety and feasibility of this therapeutic approach...
June 13, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619366/bpi-3016-a-novel-long-acting-hglp-1-analogue-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#5
Lieming Ding, Sisi Lu, Yanping Wang, Haibo Chen, Wei Long, Cunbo Ma, Erlong He, Dan Yan, Fenlai Tan
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues have been commonly used as add-on medications for patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Currently, the development of long-acting GLP-1 analogues which allow the freedom and flexibility of once-weekly injections while maintaining their potency for a relatively long period has become the mainstream. Here, we successfully developed a long-acting human GLP-1(7-37) analogue (BPI-3016) with significantly extended half-life and increased resistance to dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) cleavage by structural modifications of human GLP-1...
June 13, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619367/the-vasoprotective-axes-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system-physiological-relevance-and-therapeutic-implications-in-cardiovascular-hypertensive-and-kidney-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Xiao C Li, Jianfeng Zhang, Jia L Zhuo
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is undisputedly one of the most prominent endocrine (tissue-to-tissue), paracrine (cell-to-cell) and intracrine (intracellular/nuclear) vasoactive systems in the physiological regulation of neural, cardiovascular, blood pressure, and kidney function. The importance of the RAS in the development and pathogenesis of cardiovascular, hypertensive and kidney diseases has now been firmly established in clinical trials and practice using renin inhibitors, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, type 1 (AT1) angiotensin II (ANG II) receptor blockers (ARBs), or aldosterone receptor antagonists as major therapeutic drugs...
June 12, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610958/sulfate-nitrate-and-blood-pressure-an-epic-interaction-between-sulfur-and-nitrogen
#7
Gunter G Kuhnle, Robert Luben, Kay-Tee Khaw, Martin Feelisch
Nitrate (NO3(-))-rich foods such as green leafy vegetables are not only part of a healthy diet, but increasingly marketed for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and used as ergogenic aids by competitive athletes. While there is abundant evidence for mild hypotensive effects of nitrate on acute application there is limited data on chronic intake in humans, and results from animal studies suggest no long-term benefit. This is important as nitrate can also promote the formation of nitrosamines...
June 10, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610957/effectiveness-of-heart-rate-control-on-hemodynamics-in-critically-ill-patients-with-atrial-tachyarrhythmias-managed-by-amiodarone
#8
Joe-Elie Salem, Pauline Dureau, Christian Funck-Brentano, Jean-Sébastien Hulot, Maria El-Aissaoui, Nadia Aissaoui, Saik Urien, Christophe Faisy
Atrial tachyarrhythmias (AT) are common in intensive care unit (ICU) patients and might contribute to hemodynamic instability if heart rate (HR) is persistently too rapid. We aimed to assess if HR control below 115 or 130bpm with amiodarone improves hemodynamics in ICU patients with AT. This observational study included 73 ICU patients with disabling AT receiving amiodarone for HR control. A total of 525 changes (mainly within 4-8h) in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and 167 changes in plasma lactate in response to HR variations above 115 or 130bpm were analyzed...
June 10, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602797/the-effect-of-statins-on-cardiovascular-outcomes-by-smoking-status-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#9
Sorin Ursoniu, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Maria-Corina Serban, Peter Penson, Peter P Toth, Paul M Ridker, Kausik K Ray, G Kees Hovingh, John J Kastelein, Adrian V Hernandez, JoAnn E Manson, Jacek Rysz, Maciej Banach
Smoking is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. The impact of statin therapy on CVD risk by smoking status has not been fully investigated. Therefore we assessed the impact of statin therapy on CVD outcomes by smoking status through a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The literature search included EMBASE, ProQuest, CINAHL and PUBMED databases to 30 January 2016 to identify RCTs that investigated the effect of statin therapy on cumulative incidence of major CVD endpoints (e...
June 9, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602846/granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-for-the-treatment-of-cardiovascular-diseases-an-update-with-a-critical-appraisal
#10
REVIEW
Domenico D'Amario, Antonio Maria Leone, Josip Anđelo Borovac, Francesco Cannata, Andrea Siracusano, Giampaolo Niccoli, Filippo Crea
Heart failure and acute myocardial infarction are conditions that are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Significant dysfunction of the heart muscle can occur as the consequence of end-stage chronic cardiovascular diseases or acute ischemic events that are marked by large infarction area and significant tissue necrosis. Despite the remarkable improvement of conventional treatments, a substantial proportion of patients still develops severe heart failure that can only be resolved by heart transplantation or mechanical device implantation...
June 7, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579443/value-based-pricing-and-the-end-of-pharmaceutical-pricing-as-we-know-it-a-case-study-on-sorafenib-and-axitinib
#11
EDITORIAL
Panagiotis Petrou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578204/pericytes-and-cardiac-stem-cells-common-features-and-peculiarities
#12
REVIEW
Antonio Paolo Beltrami, Paolo Madeddu
Clinical data and basic research indicate that the structural and functional alterations that characterize the evolution of cardiac disease towards heart failure may be, at least in part, reversed. This paradigm shift is due to the accumulation of evidence indicating that, in peculiar settings, cardiomyocytes may be replenished. Moving from the consideration that cardiomyocytes are rapidly withdrawn from the cell cycle after birth, independent laboratories have tested the hypothesis that cardiac resident stem/progenitor cells resided in mammalian hearts and were important for myocardial repair...
May 31, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578203/what-next-preferably-development-of-drugs-that-are-no-longer-transported-by-abc-efflux-transporters
#13
LETTER
Stéphanie van Hoppe, Alfred H Schinkel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 31, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576475/gut-microbiota-and-acute-graft-versus-host-disease
#14
REVIEW
Kosuke Yoshioka, Kazuhiko Kakihana, Noriko Doki, Kazuteru Ohashi
Although allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is a potentially curative treatment for various hematological diseases, acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and its management is clinically important. Advances in biological techniques have led to great progress in understanding the complex interactions between the host and the gut microbiota. The gut microbiota clearly modulates the immune response and is associated with the pathogenesis of various disorders...
May 30, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576474/netrins-as-prophylactic-targets-in-skeletal-diseases-a-double-edged-sword
#15
REVIEW
Kenta Maruyama, Naoki Takemura, Mikaël M Martino, Takeshi Kondo, Shizuo Akira
The netrin family of proteins are involved in axon guidance during central nervous system development. In vertebrates, two membrane bound forms and five secreted forms of netrin have been reported. In addition to their critical role in neural morphogenesis, a growing number of reports suggest that netrin family proteins also play a role in inflammatory conditions, angiogenesis, and tumorigenesis. In these processes, Unc5 and DCC family proteins serve as receptors of netrin proteins. Recently, it was reported that some netrin family proteins may be involved in the pathogenesis of skeletal diseases including osteoporosis and arthritis...
May 30, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571892/lpe-1-an-orally-active-pyrimidine-derivative-inhibits-growth-and-mobility-of-human-esophageal-cancers-by-targeting-lsd1
#16
Bo Wang, Bing Zhao, Lu-Ping Pang, Yuan-Di Zhao, Qian Guo, Jun-Wei Wang, Yi-Chao Zheng, Xin-Hui Zhang, Ying Liu, Guang-Yao Liu, Wen-Ge Guo, Chao Wang, Zhong-Hua Li, Xue-Jing Mao, Bin Yu, Li-Ying Ma, Hong-Min Liu
Histone lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) plays an important role in epigenetic modifications, and aberrant expression of LSD1 predicts tumor progression and poor prognosis in human esophageal cancers. In this study, a series of LSD1 inhibitors were synthesized and proved to be highly potent against human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Our data showed that these LSD1 inhibitors selectively suppressed the viability of esophageal cancer cell line (EC-109) bearing overexpressed LSD1. Among these, compound LPE-1 (LSD1 IC50=0...
May 30, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571891/renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-inhibition-in-the-treatment-of-cardiovascular-disease
#17
REVIEW
Carlos M Ferrario, Adam E Mullick
A collective century of discoveries establishes the importance of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system in maintaining blood pressure, fluid volume and electrolyte homeostasis via autocrine, paracrine and endocrine signaling. While research continues to yield new functions of angiotensin II and angiotensin-(1-7), the gap between basic research and clinical application of these new findings is widening. As data accumulates on the efficacy of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers as drugs of fundamental importance in the treatment of cardiovascular and renal disorders, it is becoming apparent that the achieved clinical benefits is suboptimal and surprisingly no different than what can be achieved with other therapeutic interventions...
May 29, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559211/effect-of-orlistat-on-plasma-lipids-and-body-weight-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-33-randomized-controlled-trials
#18
Amirhossein Sahebkar, Luis E Simental-Mendía, Željko Reiner, Petri T Kovanen, Mario Simental-Mendía, Vanessa Bianconi, Matteo Pirro
Orlistat, an inhibitor of intestinal lipase, promotes body weight reduction. The lipid-lowering efficacy of orlistat is controversial and the effect of orlistat-induced body weight reduction on lipid changes has not been explored in meta-regression analyses. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials investigating the efficacy of orlistat on plasma total, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoprotein(a) levels. Thirty-three studies were included in the meta-analysis (5522 and 4210 participants in the orlistat therapy and control groups, respectively)...
May 27, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559210/cinnamaldehyde-in-diabetes-a-review-of-pharmacology-pharmacokinetics-and-safety
#19
REVIEW
Ruyuan Zhu, Haixia Liu, Chenyue Liu, Lili Wang, Rufeng Ma, Beibei Chen, Lin Li, Jianzhao Niu, Min Fu, Dongwei Zhang, Sihua Gao
Cinnamaldehyde, one of the active components derived from Cinnamon, has been used as a natural flavorant and fragrance agent in kitchen and industry. Emerging studies have been performed over the past decades to evaluate its beneficial role in management of diabetes and its complications. This review highlights recent advances of cinnamaldehyde in its glucolipid lowering effects, its pharmacokinetics, and its safety by consulting the Pubmed, China Knowledge Resource Integrated, China Science and Technology Journal, National Science and Technology Library, Wanfang Data, and the Web of Science Databases...
May 27, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554583/autologous-and-allogeneic-cardiac-stem-cell-therapy-for-cardiovascular-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Ricardo Sanz-Ruiz, Francisco Fernández-Avilés
Stem cell therapy is one of the most promising therapeutic innovations to help restore cardiac structure and function after ischemic insults to the heart. However, phase I and II clinical trials with autologous "first-generation stem cells" have yielded inconsistent results in ischemic cardiomyopathy patients and have not produced the definitive evidence for their broad clinical application. Recently, new cell types such as cardiac stem cells (CSC) and new allogeneic sources have attracted the attention of researchers given their inherent biological, clinical and logistic advantages...
May 26, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
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