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Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331332/hiv-infection-and-its-effects-on-the-development-of-autoimmune-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Luis E Vega, Luis R Espinoza
More than 35 years have elapsed since the initial outbreak of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and the status of a considerable number of patients has changed from a fatal disorder to a chronic one where comorbidities including sarcoidosis and autoimmune diseases have become relevant and dominant. HIV targets the immune system leading to a state of immunodeficiency in a setting of immune activation in which CD4+ T cell depletion plays a critical role. The onset, natural history and course of HIV-associated autoimmune disease has dramatically changed according to the stage of HIV infection and since the introduction of combined anti-retroviral therapy...
January 10, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329999/understanding-melanocortin-4-receptor-control-of-neuronal-circuits-toward-novel-therapeutics-for-obesity-syndrome
#2
REVIEW
Sang Hyeon Ju, Gyu-Bon Cho, Jong-Woo Sohn
It is well known that melanocortin-4 receptors (MC4Rs) and central melanocortin pathways regulate food intake, energy expenditure, and glucose homeostasis. Importantly, MC4R deficiency is the most common monogenic cause of human obesity. Interestingly, MC4Rs expressed by distinct central nuclei are responsible for the different physiological function of MC4R stimulation. In addition, MC4Rs activate multiple intracellular and/or synaptic signaling molecules for the regulation of neuronal circuits. Therefore, MC4Rs and the downstream signal molecules are plausible targets for development of novel therapeutics against obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders...
January 9, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309904/regulator-of-calcineurin-1-modulates-vascular-contractility-and-stiffness-through-the-upregulation-of-cox-2-derived-prostanoids
#3
Ana B García-Redondo, Vanesa Esteban, Ana M Briones, Lucía S Díaz Del Campo, María González-Amor, Nerea Méndez-Barbero, Miguel R Campanero, Juan M Redondo, Mercedes Salaices A
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) derived-prostanoids participate in the altered vascular function and mechanical properties in cardiovascular diseases. We investigated whether regulator of calcineurin 1 (Rcan1) participates in vascular contractility and stiffness through the regulation of COX-2. For this, wild type (Rcan1+/+) and Rcan1-deficient (Rcan1-/-) mice untreated or treated with the COX-2 inhibitor rofecoxib were used. Vascular function and structure were analysed by myography. COX-2 and phospo-p65 expression were studied by western blotting and immunohistochemistry and TXA2 production by ELISA...
January 5, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309903/histamine-h4-receptor-antagonism-prevents-the-progression-of-diabetic-nephropathy-in-male-dba2-j-mice
#4
Alessandro Pini, Cristina Grange, Eleonora Veglia, Monica Argenziano, Roberta Cavalli, Daniele Guasti, Laura Calosi, Corrado Ghè, Roberto Solarino, Robin L Thurmond, Giovanni Camussi, Paul L Chazot, Arianna Carolina Rosa
Due to the incidence of diabetes and the related morbidity of diabetic nephropathy, identification of new therapeutic strategies represents a priority. In the last few decades new and growing evidence on the possible role of histamine in diabetes has been provided. In particular, the histamine receptor H4R is emerging as a new promising pharmacological target for diabetic nephropathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of selective H4R antagonism by JNJ39758979 on the prevention of diabetic nephropathy progression in a murine model of diabetes induced by streptozotocin injection...
January 5, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309902/highlighting-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-mitochondria-connection-focus-on-mitofusin-2
#5
REVIEW
Riccardo Filadi, Elisa Greotti, Paola Pizzo
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the mitochondrial network are two highly interconnected cellular structures. By proteinaceous tethers, specialized membrane domains of the ER are tightly associated with the outer membrane of mitochondria, allowing the assembly of signaling platforms where different cell functions take place or are modulated, such as lipid biosynthesis, Ca2+ homeostasis, inflammation, autophagy and apoptosis. The ER-mitochondria coupling is highly dynamic and contacts between the two organelles can be modified in their number, extension and thickness by different stimuli...
January 5, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309901/ischemia-reperfusion-associated-tubular-cells-injury-in-renal-transplantation-can-metabolomics-inform-about-mechanisms-and-help-identify-new-therapeutic-targets
#6
REVIEW
Chantal Barin-Le Guellec, Bérenger Largeau, Delphine Bon, Pierre Marquet, Thierry Hauet
Tubular cells are central targets of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in kidney transplantation. Inflammation and metabolic disturbances occurring within these cells are deleterious by themselves but also favor secondary events, such as activation of immune response. It is critical to have an in depth understanding of the mechanisms governing tubular cells response to I/R if one wants to define pertinent biomarkers or to elaborate targeted therapeutic interventions. As oxidative damage was shown to be central in the patho-physiological mechanisms, the impact of I/R on proximal tubular cells metabolism has been widely studied, contrary to its effects on expression and activity of membrane transporters of the proximal tubular cells...
January 5, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305909/targeting-oncogenic-transcription-factors-by-polyphenols-a-novel-approach-for-cancer-therapy
#7
REVIEW
Chitra Rajagopal, Manendra Babu Lankadasari, Jesil Mathew Aranjani, K B Harikumar
Inflammation is one of the major causative factor of cancer and chronic inflammation is involved in all the major steps of cancer initiation, progression metastasis and drug resistance. The molecular mechanism of inflammation driven cancer is the complex interplay between oncogenic and tumor suppressive transcription factors which include FOXM1, NF-kB, STAT3,Wnt/β- Catenin, HIF-1α,NRF2, androgen and estrogen receptors. Several products derived from natural sources modulate the expression and activity of multiple transcription factors in various tumor models as evident from studies conducted in cell lines, pre-clinical models and clinical samples...
January 3, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305228/effect-of-resveratrol-on-lipid-profile-an-updated-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-on-randomized-clinical-trials
#8
REVIEW
Fahimeh Haghighatdoost, Mitra Hariri
BACKGROUND: New studies indicate that resveratrol can significantly reduce plasma lipids, but the result of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on resveratrol effect and the serum lipid profile are contradictory. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on RCTs assessed the effect of resveratrol on lipids. MATERIAL AND METHODS: PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Scopus and Google scholar data bases were searched up to Jun 2017. RCTs which assessed resveratrol effects on lipid profile among adult participants were chosen...
January 2, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294355/comparison-of-%C3%AE-b%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-g-gabaa-receptors-allosteric-modulation-and-identification-of-subunit-arrangement-by-site-selective-general-anesthetics
#9
REVIEW
Hua-Jun Feng, Stuart A Forman
GABAA receptors play a dominant role in mediating inhibition in the mature mammalian brain, and defects of GABAergic neurotransmission contribute to the pathogenesis of a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Two types of GABAergic inhibition have been described: αβγ receptors mediate phasic inhibition in response to transient high-concentrations of synaptic GABA release, and αβδ receptors produce tonic inhibitory currents activated by low-concentration extrasynaptic GABA. Both αβδ and αβγ receptors are important targets for general anesthetics, which induce apparently different changes both in GABA-dependent receptor activation and in desensitization in currents mediated by αβγ vs...
December 30, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29292214/a-mechanistic-overview-of-herbal-medicine-and-botanical-compounds-to-target-transcriptional-factors-in-breast-cancer
#10
REVIEW
YingkeZhao, Yue Liu
The abnormalities of transcription factors, such as NF-κB, STAT, estrogen receptor, play critical role in the initiation and progression of breast cancer. Due to the limitation in current treatment, transcription factors could be promising therapeutic targets, which have received close attention. In this review, we introduced herbal medicines, as well as botanical compounds that had been verified with anti-tumor properties via regulating transcription factors. Herbs, compounds, as well as formulae reported with various transcriptional targets were summarized thoroughly,to provideimplication for the future research on basic experiment and clinical application...
December 29, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29292213/effect-of-fibrates-on-glycemic-parameters-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-placebo-controlled-trials
#11
Luis E Simental-Mendía, Mario Simental-Mendía, Adriana Sánchez-García, Maciej Banach, Stephen L Atkin, Antonio M Gotto, Amirhossein Sahebkar
AIMS: The aim of this meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials was to assess the effect of fibrates on glycemic parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Only randomized placebo-controlled trials investigating the impact of fibrate treatment on glucose homeostasis markers were searched in PubMed-Medline, SCOPUS, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases (from inception to April 11, 2017). A random-effects model and generic inverse variance method were used for quantitative data synthesis...
December 29, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289576/botanicals-and-phytochemicals-active-on-cognitive-decline-the-clinical-evidence
#12
REVIEW
Arrigo F G Cicero, Federica Fogacci, Maciej Banach
Beyond the well-known effects on cognitive impairment of the Mediterranean diet, a number of studies have investigated the possible action on cognitive decline of different botanicals and phytochemicals, most of which are well-known anti-inflammatory or antioxidant agents with a good tolerability and safety profile. In particular, the current literature supports the use of Ginkgo biloba, resveratrol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate and l-theanine, Theobroma cacao, Bacopa monnieri, Crocus sativus and curcumin, which might have a positive impact on cognitive impairment used alone or in combination with other nutraceuticals or traditional drugs...
December 28, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288718/kr%C3%A3-ppel-like-factor-15-regulator-of-bcaa-metabolism-and-circadian-protein-rhythmicity
#13
REVIEW
Liyan Fan, Paishiun N Hsieh, David R Sweet, Mukesh K Jain
Regulation of nutrient intake, utilization, and storage exhibits a circadian rhythmicity that allows organisms to anticipate and adequately respond to changes in the environment across day/night cycles. The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine, and valine are important modulators of metabolism and metabolic health - for example, their catabolism yields carbon substrates for gluconeogenesis during periods of fasting. Krüppel-like factor 15 (KLF15) has recently emerged as a critical transcriptional regulator of BCAA metabolism, and the absence of this transcription factor contributes to severe pathologies such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy and heart failure...
December 27, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287690/implication-of-stard5-and-cholesterol-homeostasis-disturbance-in-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-related-response-induced-by-pro-apoptotic-aminosteroid-rm-133
#14
Martin Perreault, René Maltais, Lucie-Carole Kenmogne, Danny Létourneau, Jean-Guy LeHoux, Stéphane Gobeil, Donald Poirier
The aminosteroid derivative RM-133 is an effective anticancer molecule for which proof of concept has been achieved in several mouse xenograph models (HL-60, MCF-7, PANC-1 and OVCAR-3). To promote this new family of molecules toward a clinical phase 1 trial, the mechanism of action governing the anticancer properties of the representative candidate RM-133 needs to be characterized. In vitro experiments were first used to determine that RM-133 causes apoptosis in cancer cells. Then, using proteomic and transcriptomic experiments, RM-133 cytotoxicity was proven to be achieved via the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-related apoptosis, which characterizes RM-133 as an endoplasmic reticulum stress aggravator (ERSA) anticancer drug...
December 26, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287689/present-therapeutic-role-of-cholesteryl-ester-transfer-protein-inhibitors
#15
REVIEW
Nicola Ferri, Alberto Corsini, Cesare R Sirtori, Massimiliano Ruscica
Therapeutic interventions aimed at increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels, in order to reduce the residual cardiovascular (CV) risk of optimally drug treated patients have not provided convincing results, so far. Transfer of cholesterol from extrahepatic tissues to the liver appears to be the major atheroprotective function of HDL, and an elevation of HDL levels could represent an effective strategy. Inhibition of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), raising HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) levels, reduces low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and apoB levels, thus offering a promising approach...
December 26, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287688/anti-inflammatory-effect-of-atb-352-a-h2s-releasing-ketoprofen-derivative-on-lipopolysaccharide-induced-periodontitis-in-rats
#16
Enrico Gugliandolo, Roberta Fusco, Ramona D'Amico, Angela Militi, Giacomo Oteri, John L Wallace, Rosanna Di Paola, Salvatore Cuzzocrea
Periodontal disease is the most common cause of tooth loss in humans, is an inflammatory disease initiated by oral microbial biofilm. Given the involvement of the inflammatory pathway in this type of pathology, the main pharmacological strategy for the treatment of periodontitis, is the inhibition of the inflammatory process in order to prevent tissue destruction and bone resorption, a condition associated with a painful state. To do this, the best class of drugs are Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), however, the presence of side effects, especially at the gastrointestinal tract, limits their use for long-term therapy...
December 26, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287687/an-overview-of-the-possible-therapeutic-role-of-sumoylation-in-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
REVIEW
S Marcelli, E Ficulle, L Piccolo, M Corbo, M Feligioni
Nowadays, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is recognized as a multifactorial neurological pathology whose complexity is the cause of our still low achievements in the understanding of the associated mechanisms as well the discovery of a possible definitive cure. Clinicians are aware of the few possibilities offered by medicine to cure Alzheimer's patients, restore their memory and take them back to normal life. Unfortunately, the therapeutic tools available today are not able to contrast the pathology. In the last years the tendency of the research is to formulate new hypotheses that can help to develop future effective drugs...
December 26, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287686/indole-and-indoxyl-sulfate-gut-bacteria-metabolites-of-tryptophan-change-arterial-blood-pressure-via-peripheral-and-central-mechanisms-in-rats
#18
Tomasz Huć, Artur Nowinski, Adrian Drapala, Piotr Konopelski, Marcin Ufnal
Arterial blood pressure (BP) is regulated by a complex network of peripheral and central (brain) mechanisms. Research suggests that gut bacteria-derived compounds may affect the circulatory system. We evaluated hemodynamic effects of indole, a gut bacteria-derived product of tryptophan, and indoxyl sulfate (indoxyl), a liver metabolite of indole.
December 26, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287685/medicinal-plants-and-bioactive-natural-compounds-in-the-treatment-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-clinical-review
#19
REVIEW
Mohammad Bagherniya, Valerio Nobili, Christopher N Blesso, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of liver diseases, and is closely related to metabolic syndrome and its related conditions, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. On the other hand, NAFLD as a multisystem disease increases the risk of several chronic diseases include type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and chronic kidney disease. The main objective was to review the efficacy of bioactive natural compounds assessed by clinical trials. Search literature using four databases (PubMed, EBSCO, Web of Science, and Ovid Medline) to review publications that focused on the impact of bioactive natural compounds in NAFLD treatment...
December 26, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284153/role-of-ret-protein-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-in-the-treatment-ret-driven-thyroid-and-lung-cancers
#20
REVIEW
Robert Roskoski, Abdollah Sadeghi-Nejad
RET is a transmembrane receptor protein-tyrosine kinase that is required for the development of the nervous system and several other tissues. The mechanism of activation of RET by its glial-cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) ligands differs from that of all other receptor protein-tyrosine kinases owing to the requirement for additional GDNF family receptor-α (GFRα) co-receptors (GFRα1/2/3/4). RET point mutations have been reported in multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN2A, MEN2B) and medullary thyroid carcinoma...
December 25, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
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