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Journal of Chemotherapy

Giulia Carnesecchi, Raffaele Lobello, Laura Liggieri, Candida Palmero, Luisa Pescetto, Patrizia Morelli, Elio Castagnola, Roberto Bandettini
Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC, mg/l) of ceftaroline and ceftobiprole were evaluated over 70 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains with vancomycin MIC ≥1 isolated in a paediatric hospital. The proportion of non-wild-type strains (MIC > epidemiological cut off) was 18% for ceftobiprole and 64% for ceftaroline. Only 1.4% of strains was resistant to ceftobiprole, and none to ceftaroline. These results are worrisome, since show the presence of non-negligible proportions of MRSA strains with high MIC values for ceftaroline and ceftobiprole in a setting where both drugs were never used...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
Caroline Migault, Delphine Lebrun, Olivier Toubas, Yohan Nguyen, Aurélien Giltat, Gautier Julien, Dominique Toubas, François Lebargy, Alain Delmer, Firouzé Bani-Sadr
Idelalisib is a potent and selective inhibitor of the PI3Kδ approved since September 2014 for the treatment of several types of B cell malignancies. Pulmonary adverse events related to idelalisib are an emerging serious adverse event. We report here a single centre cohort of 16 patients who initiated idelalisib as routine treatment. Five of them experienced severe pulmonary adverse events related to idelalisib therapy. Comparison of the 5 patients with severe pulmonary events versus the 11 patients without identified no predisposing factors...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
Vera Loizzi, Vittoria Del Vecchio, Francesco M Crupano, Valentina Minicucci, Valeria V Fumarulo, Leonardo Resta, Antonella Vimercati, Stefano Bettocchi, Ettore Cicinelli, Gennaro Cormio
This study evaluates the efficacy and toxicity of dose-dense weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin as neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC). We collected 23 cases of LACC treated with weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin for nine cycles: 20 patients had complete or partial response to chemotherapy and were submitted to surgery, 3 with poor response received chemoradiation therapy. Pathologic examination showed complete response in four patients, myometrial invasion <50% in nine and >50% in seven patients, parametrial involvement in two, vaginal metastasis in one and lymphovascular space invasion, with positive margins, in another case...
July 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
Na Li, Liqin Zhu, Fang Qi, Mengxue Li, Gaoqi Xu, Tingyue Ge
To evaluate the impact of voriconazole on the pharmacokinetics of Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Pharmacokinetic and physiochemical properties of voriconazole and NSAIDs are applied to build physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models using GastroplusTM . The PBPK models of voriconazole and NSAIDs are verified by published studies, respectively. After the successful verification, DDI simulations are applied to predict the effect of voriconazole on the pharmacokinetics of NSAIDs. The area under the plasma concentration-time curves extrapolated to infinity (AUC0-inf ) of celecoxib, ibuprofen, tenoxicam and piroxicam are increased by 51%, 7%, 2% and 1% in concurrent use with voriconazole, respectively...
July 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
Tamás Kardos, Renátó Kovács, Gábor Kardos, Istvan Varga, Aliz Bozó, Zoltán Tóth, Fruzsina Nagy, László Majoros
We determined micafungin, caspofungin and amphotericin B (AMB) minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs) and killing rates in RPMI-1640 and in RPMI-1640 with 50% serum against three Candida krusei bloodstream isolates. MIC ranges in RPMI-1640 were 0.125-0.25, 0.25 and 0.125-0.5 mg/L, in RPMI-1640 with 50% serum, MICs were 64-128-, 8- and 4-16-fold higher, respectively. In RPMI-1640 micafungin and caspofungin at 1, 4, 16 and 32 mg/L as well as AMB at 2 mg/L were fungicidal against all isolates in ≤3.96, ≤4...
July 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
Meric A Altinoz, Aysel Ozpinar, Ebru Emekli Alturfan, Ilhan Elmaci
Vinorelbine is a very potent chemotherapeutic agent which is used to treat a number of cancers including breast and non-small cell lung tumors. Vinorelbine mainly acts via blocking microtubules and induces a specific type of cell death called 'mitotic catastrophe/apoptosis' subsequent to mitotic slippage, which is the failure of cells to stay in a mitotic arrested state and replicating their DNA without cytokinesis. Glial tumor cells are especially sensitive to mitotic slippage. In recent years, vinorelbine demonstrated potency in pediatric optic and pontine gliomas...
July 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
Alessandra Lumaca, Luisa Galli, Maurizio de Martino, Elena Chiappini
INTRODUCTION: HIV-1 epidemiology is changing and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) strategies have been continuously optimized over time. However, the correct management of infected women during pregnancy is crucial for PMTCT and cases of vertical transmission continue to occur. OBJECTIVE: To review the most recent evidence regarding the prevention of MTCT in resource-rich and resource-limited settings, focalizing on new possible approaches. RESULTS: New issues regard the optimal antiretroviral therapy regimen for pregnant women with good immunological control, the use of intrapartum zidovudine (ZDV) in pregnant women with low viral load, the optimization of prophylaxis in the settings where breastfeeding is recommended and use of combined neonatal prophylaxis (CNP) in infants at high-risk for MTCT...
July 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
Hakeam A Hakeam, Zainab Al Duhailib, Nawal Salahuddin, Tarek Amin
The aim of this prospective, randomized study was to compare the effects of tigecycline and imipenem-cilastatin on fibrinogen levels in patients undergoing cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). Patients were empirically randomized to receive tigecycline or imipenem-cilastatin. Fibrinogen levels were measured in both patient groups on days 1, 3, 5 and 8 of antibiotic therapy and 3 days after antibiotic therapy completion. Twenty patients received tigecycline and 22 patients received imipenem-cilastatin ...
July 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
Wafaa Jamal, Hayfaa Abdulkareem, Vincent O Rotimi
The objective was to test the in vitro activities of ceftaroline and comparator agents against clinical isolates of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Isolates were identified with VITEK II. Susceptibility testing was with E test. A total of 1264 isolates were tested. Compared to other cephalosporins, ceftaroline demonstrated excellent in vitro activities (MIC90 , ≤0.5 mg/L) against Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Haemophilus influenzae. When matched with the comparator cephalosporins, ceftaroline demonstrated the greatest activity against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), with MIC90 of 0...
July 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
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July 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
Ioannis A Voutsadakis
Chemotherapy is one of the main treatments for cancer and is associated in many cancers with significant benefits in overall and disease-free survival. Nevertheless, it is also associated with adverse effects that make its administration difficult in patients with comorbidities or decreased general status. Older patients belong more often to these categories because of the physiologic effects of aging in organ functions but also because of longer effects of chronic conditions in different organs. As a result, the decision for administration of possibly beneficial chemotherapy to older patients becomes more problematic given that there is a requirement to balance this benefit with a higher probability of severe adverse effects that may even culminate to patient's demise...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
Ivana Mareković, Zrinka Bošnjak, Karla Jurić, Mario Ćorić, Sanja Popović-Grle
Nitroxoline (NTX), 5-nitro-8-hydroxyquinoline is an oral antibiotic with mechanism of bacteriostatic activity that is based on chelation of divalent cations required for bacterial RNA polymerase. Susceptibility to NTX of 100 Escherichia coli urine isolates was determined at the Department of Clinical and Molecular Microbiology, University Hospital Centre Zagreb during September and October 2017. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by disc diffusion and the results were interpreted according to the European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) standards...
May 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
Carlo Pallotto, Gioele Simonte, Fabio Verzini, Massimo Lenti, Franco Baldelli, Daniela Francisci, Maurizio Fiorio
Propionibacterium acnes is a member of the human microbiota that has been recently associated with late-onset infections of indwelling devices, especially shoulder prosthesis. Aortic graft infection are rare events with significant morbidity and mortality. Here, we describe the case of an abdominal aortic graft infection due to P. acnes with an unusual early onset. A review of the recent English language literature has been added.
May 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
Kristina Nadrah, Mateja Pirs, Samo Kreft, Manica Mueller Premru, Bojana Beovic
Decreasing cephalosporin use was described as an effective intervention in decreasing the incidence of infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae harbouring extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBLKP). Due to sustained increased levels of infections caused by ESBLKP, a multifaceted antibiotic stewardship intervention aimed to decrease cephalosporin use was carried out at a large medical unit of a teaching hospital. All cephalosporins except the first-generation were restricted and could only be prescribed after authorization by an infectious disease physician...
May 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
Xiang-Rong Bai, Jia-Ming Liu, De-Chun Jiang, Su-Ying Yan
The broad spectrum antibiotic tigecycline shows promising efficacy against many multiple drug resistant (MDR) pathogens. However, its clinical efficacy in the treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is unclear. Several studies have reported on the treatment failures of tigecycline monotherapy, suggesting that it may not be sufficient to control severe infections. Combination therapy has become an option to treat MDR bacterial infections. We conducted a literature search using PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Elsevier and the Web of Knowledge databases up to 29 February 2017 to identify relevant published studies...
May 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Kareem Hinedi
BACKGROUND: Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection emerged in 2012. The majority of cases occurred in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the disease carries a high case fatality rate. METHODS: We present three MERS-CoV cases and highlight the salient clinical features and laboratory, and radiographic characteristics. RESULTS: Although all nasopharyngeal samples were negative, MERS CoV infection was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of the E gene (UpE) and open reading frame (ORF1b) on sputum samples...
May 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
Ercole Concia, Claudio Viscoli, Valerio Del Bono, Maddalena Giannella, Matteo Bassetti, Giuseppe Francesco De Rosa, Emanuele Durante Mangoni, Silvano Esposito, Massimo Giusti, Paolo Grossi, Francesco Menichetti, Federico Pea, Nicola Petrosillo, Mario Tumbarello, Stefania Stefani, Mario Venditti, Pierluigi Viale
Staphylococcus aureus is still an important problem in clinical and therapeutic area, worldwide. In Italy, in recent years, methicillin resistance remained stable, yet considerably high, the percentage of strains of MRSA being around 40%. It was deemed interesting and timely to carry out a consensus conference using the RAND/UCLA method to collect the opinion of a group of experts in infectious diseases on the role of glycopeptides in the management of MRSA infections within several clinical scenarios and namely in pneumonia, bacteremia and endocarditis, joint replacement infections, skin and soft tissue infections, diabetic foot, abdominal infections and central nervous system infections...
May 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
Novella Carannante, Carlo Pallotto, Mariano Bernardo, Giovanni Di Caprio, Carlo Tascini
KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) is nowadays a global concern. Ceftazidime/avibactam is the most promising novel antibiotic combination available at the moment. We describe the case of a migrant with no risk factors for an infection due to multidrug resistant bacteria. He suffered from a KPC-Kp cellulitis and was treated with a ceftazidime/avibactam-meropenem-fosfomycin combination that not only eradicated the infection but also decontaminated his gut. Ceftazidime/avibactam-based treatment can be useful also in decontamination procedures...
May 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
Bo Yang, Fujia Yang, Shanmei Wang, Qian Wang, Zhirui Liu, Wei Feng, Fengjun Sun, Peiyuan Xia
The objective of this study was to analyse the distribution and antimicrobial resistance of bacterial uropathogens isolated from outpatients at Henan Provincial People's Hospital. A total of 1419 samples from 823 newly diagnosed and 596 recurrent UTI outpatients culture positive. Escherichia coli was the most common uropathogen. Compared with the recurrent group, the newly diagnosed group had a higher isolation rate of E. coli and Enterobacter cloacae but a lower isolation rate of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp...
May 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
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