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Journal of Chemotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398176/septic-shock-due-to-nsti-caused-by-actinomyces-turicensis-the-role-of-clinical-pharmacology-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
Milo Gatti, Laura Elisa Gasparini, Chiara Maria Grimaldi, Daniela Abbati, Stefano Clemente, Paolo Riccardo Brioschi, Roberto Fumagalli, Francesco Scaglione
Critical septic patients affected by necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTI) require an early, aggressive and multidisciplinary treatment. Pharmacokinetic alterations in antibiotic therapy are peculiar in these infections. Clinical pharmacology represents a first step in this setting. We report a case of septic shock due to NSTI in which clinical pharmacology is taken into account.
April 11, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398170/ipilimumab-in-real-world-clinical-practice-efficacy-and-safety-data-from-a-multicenter-observational-study
#2
Alberto Russi, Vera Damuzzo, Marco Chiumente, Jacopo Pigozzo, Marco Cesca, Vanna Chiarion-Sileni, Angelo Claudio Palozzo
In patients with metastatic melanoma, ipilimumab has been shown to improve long-term survival. This observational multicenter study reports clinical outcomes of 418 patients treated with second-line ipilimumab from February 2013 to August 2014. Median overall survival (OS) was 6.43 months (95%CI: 5.45-7.42; n = 300), while median progression-free survival (PFS) was 3.7 months (95%CI: 3.23-4.17; n = 188). Demographic factors, such as sex or number of previous therapies did not affect OS. Survival was shorter in patients with ECOG > 0 (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group, Performance Status) (p < 0...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378613/diagnosis-and-management-of-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-ssti-a-literature-review-and-consensus-statement-an-update
#3
S Esposito, M Bassetti, E Concia, G De Simone, F G De Rosa, P Grossi, A Novelli, F Menichetti, N Petrosillo, M Tinelli, M Tumbarello, M Sanguinetti, P Viale, M Venditti, C Viscoli
Skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections, posing considerable diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Fourteen members of the Italian Society of Infectious Diseases, after a careful review of the most recent literature using Medline database and their own clinical experience, updated a previous paper published in 2011 by preparing a draught manuscript of the statements. The manuscript was successively reviewed by all members and ultimately re-formulated the present manuscript during a full day consensus meeting...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335692/liposomal-amphotericin-b-ambisome%C3%A2-at-beginning-of-its-third-decade-of-clinical-use
#4
Franco Aversa, Alessandro Busca, Anna Candoni, Simone Cesaro, Corrado Girmenia, Mario Luppi, Anna Maria Nosari, Livio Pagano, Luigina Romani, Giuseppe Rossi, Adriano Venditti, Andrea Novelli
Haematologists have been using liposomal amphotericin-B (L-AMB) since 1993 and despite the introduction of several novel antifungal agents over the past decade, their propensity to prescribe L-AMB remains unchanged. Although antifungal guidelines strongly recommend voriconazole as the drug of choice in the treatment of probable and proven invasive fungal disease (IFD), L-AMB is widely used in the real life because of its several advantages in terms of wide anti-mould spectrum, tolerability and efficacy. Furthermore, the concept that L-AMB is endowed with immune-modulating effects, which may have a role in fighting IFD, represent another reason for its use in patients who do not tolerate an excess of inflammation...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300496/corrigendum
#5
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298164/the-most-appropriate-therapeutic-strategy-for-acute-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-a-delphi-based-approach
#6
Francesco Blasi, Ercole Concia, Bruno Del Prato, Massimo Giusti, Teresita Mazzei, Barbara Polistena, Alessandro Rossi, Stefania Stefani, Andrea Novelli
Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) cause high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Empiric therapy often base the choice of antibiotic treatment on antibacterial spectrum of the agent rather than on its pharmacological properties or the pathogen resistance profile. Inappropriate prescribing leads to therapeutic failure and antibiotic resistance, with increasing direct and indirect health costs. A consensus on appropriate prescribing in LRTI therapy was appraised by this Delphi exercise, based on a panel of 70 pulmonologists, coordinated by a Scientific Committee of nine experts in respiratory medical care...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281912/naphthofuroquinone-derivatives-show-strong-antimycobacterial-activities-against-drug-resistant-mycobacteria
#7
Woong Sik Jang, Young-Sang Choi, Sukyung Kim, Md Anirban Jyoti, Hoonhee Seo, Juhye Han, Yong-Sik Kim, Jiwon Lyu, Kung-Woo Nam, Byung-Eui Lee, Kee-In Lee, Ho-Yeon Song
Tuberculosis, one of the world's major health problems, has become more serious due to the emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). In this study, we performed three anti-MTB assays to evaluate the anti-mycobacterial activity of naphthofuroquinone derivatives against drug-resistant MTB. Among them, methyl 5-[2-(dimethylamino)ethoxy]-7,12-dioxo-7,12-dihydrodinaphtho[1,2-b:2',3'-d]furan-6-carboxylate (DFC2) exhibited strong anti-mycobacterial activity against MTB H37Ra, H37Rv and four drug-resistant MTB strains...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245728/risk-factors-for-acute-kidney-injury-associated-with-the-treatment-of-bacterial-endocarditis-at-a-tertiary-academic-medical-center
#8
Brianne M Ritchie, Beth A Hirning, Craig A Stevens, Steven A Cohen, Jeremy R DeGrado
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of endocarditis. OBJECTIVE: To determine risk factors for the development of AKI in patients treated for endocarditis. METHODS: This single centre, retrospective univariate and multivariate analysis to determine risk factors for the development of AKI included patients diagnosed with endocarditis between January 2009 and October 2013. RESULTS: Of 211 included patients, a total of 84 (39...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198656/fungicidal-activity-and-pk-pd-of-caspofungin-as-tools-to-guide-antifungal-therapy-in-a-fluconazole-resistant-c-parapsilosis-candidemia
#9
Carlo Tascini, Emanuela Sozio, Antonello Di Paolo, Giancarlo Tintori, Alessandro Leonildi, Giacomo Bertolino, Franco Carmassi, Enrico Tagliaferri, Francesco Menichetti, Francesco Barchiesi
Candida parapsilosis may be responsible for bloodstream infections (BSI) and it is characterised by an increased incidence of fluconazole resistance. A 75-year old woman with severe comorbidities received the insertion of a peripherally inserted central venous catheter. Fluconazole did not prevent a C. parapsilosis BSI hence caspofungin was started after a nephrotoxic first-line treatment with amphotericin B. The ratio of peak plasma concentration over the minimum inhibitory concentration (Cmax/MIC) was adopted to maximise efficacy of caspofungin...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192070/predicting-effects-of-antibiotic-combinations-using-mics-determined-at-pharmacokinetically-derived-concentration-ratios-in-vitro-model-studies-with-linezolid-and-rifampicin-exposed-staphylococcus-aureus
#10
Maria V Golikova, Elena N Strukova, Yury A Portnoy, Svetlana A Dovzhenko, Mikhail B Kobrin, Stephen H Zinner, Alexander A Firsov
To predict the effects of combined use of antibiotics on their pharmacodynamics, the susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus to linezolid-rifampicin combinations was tested at concentration ratios equal to the ratios of 24-area under the concentration-time curve (AUC24) simulated in an in vitro dynamic model. The linezolid MICs in combination with rifampicin decreased 8- to 67-fold. The rifampicin MICs were similar with or without linezolid. The enhanced activity of linezolid combined with rifampicin increased the AUC24/MIC ratios and provided more pronounced antibacterial effects compared with single treatments...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110606/corrigendum
#11
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032528/chemotherapy-rechallenge-after-regorafenib-treatment-in-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-still-hope-after-the-last-hope
#12
Paola Bertocchi, Francesca Aroldi, Tiziana Prochilo, Fausto Meriggi, Giordano Domenico Beretta, Alberto Zaniboni
INTRODUCTION: The introduction of biological agents in cancer therapy is changing the progression of metastatic colorectal cancer. Currently, resistance to biological agents is an emerging problem; the progression of the disease is caused by the development of resistant clones. According to some authors, these clones can be re-sensitized to traditional and previously utilized chemotherapy agents. The results of the CORRECT study demonstrated the efficacy of regorafenib monotherapy in both KRAS wild type and mutant pretreated patients (pts)...
April 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866454/the-role-of-thymidylate-synthase-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-treated-with-pemetrexed-continuation-maintenance-therapy
#13
Min Yang, Wei-Fei Fan, Xiao-Lin Pu, Li-Juan Meng, Jun Wang
Pemetrexed continuation maintenance therapy has been proven to be beneficial for patients with advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the eligibility criteria for maintenance treatment are too simple. This study sought to evaluate thymidylate synthase (TS) as a predicting biomarker for pemetrexed continuation maintenance treatment in NSCLC. Specimens were collected from 87 patients treated with pemetrexed continuation maintenance therapy before and after four-cycle induction chemotherapy...
April 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27454143/how-to-treat-splenic-marginal-zone-lymphoma-smzl-in-patients-unfit-for-surgery-or-more-aggressive-therapies-experience-in-30-cases
#14
Giulia Cervetti, Francesco Ghio, Nadia Cecconi, Riccardo Morganti, Sara Galimberti, Mario Petrini
Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) is an indolent disease that typically affects elderly patients. Thanks to its outcome, most patients don't need any specific therapy and 'a watch and wait' policy is frequently employed. Treatment is required in symptomatic cases. Splenectomy remains one of the first line options in patients fit for surgery. The best pharmacological strategy has not yet been identified for poor surgical risk cases. Amongst different possible chemotherapeutic approaches, alkylating agents, alone or in association with Rituximab, could employ in 'frail' patients...
April 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27351356/viability-of-pegifn%C3%AE-rbv-for-chc-in-the-direct-acting-antiviral-era-a-practical-algorithm-between-efficacy-and-cost-containment
#15
Pia Clara Pafundi, Antonio Parrella, Domenico Iossa, Rosa Molaro, Carminia Battimelli, Erasmo Falco, Giuseppe Sodano, Riccardo Utili, Emanuele Durante-Mangoni
The classical pegylated interferon α (peg-IFNα) and ribavirin (RBV) treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is progressively being replaced by new direct acting antivirals, whose costs remain a major barrier to widespread use. Using baseline data and viral kinetics, we developed a predictive algorithm to allocate to DAA patients who are not going to respond to peg-IFNα/RBV. This prospective study evaluated 205 CHC patients treated with peg-IFNα/RBV. HCVRNA kinetics during the initial 3 days of therapy and baseline variables including age, genotype, fibrosis and ALTs were used to construct a prediction rule in terms of sustained virological response (SVR)...
April 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27351108/multi-drug-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-among-egyptian-patients-with-urinary-tract-infection
#16
Mohammad Z Abdelkareem, Mohamed Sayed, Noha A Hassuna, Mahmoud S Mahmoud, Sayed F Abdelwahab
The prevalence of Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) infections among Egyptians with urinary tract infection (UTI), their antimicrobial susceptibility and mechanisms of resistance are under investigated. In this study, 300 urine samples were collected from UTI patients to identify E. faecalis. Antimicrobial susceptibility to 18 antimicrobial agents was tested. The presence of aac(6)-Ie-aph(2)Ia, erm(B) and mef(A/E) genes was examined by PCR. Fifty-seven (19%) isolates were identified as E. faecalis. All isolates were sensitive to teicoplanin and were completely resistant to nalidixic acid, cefotaxime and cefadroxil...
April 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27285830/the-effect-of-sub-inhibitory-concentrations-of-rifaximin-on-urease-production-and-on-other-virulence-factors-expressed-by-klebsiella-pneumoniae-proteus-mirabilis-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-staphylococcus-aureus
#17
Annalisa Ricci, Erika Coppo, Ramona Barbieri, Eugenio A Debbia, Anna Marchese
Rifaximin, a topical derivative of rifampin, inhibited urease production and other virulence factors at sub-MIC concentrations in strains involved in hepatic encephalopathy and the expression of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. In particular, urease production was affected in all Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains as well as in all tested Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. Other exotoxins, synthesized by P. aeruginosa, such as protease, gelatinase, lipase, lecithinase and DNAse were also not metabolized in the presence of rifaximin...
April 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27251893/tetradentate-polyamines-as-efficient-metallodrugs-for-chagas-disease-treatment-in-murine-model
#18
Francisco Olmo, Miquel Costas, Clotilde Marín, Maria José Rosales, Rubén Martín-Escolano, Olaf Cussó, Ramón Gutierrez-Sánchez, Xavi Ribas, Manuel Sánchez-Moreno
A series of tetraamine-based compounds was prepared, and their trypanocidal effects against Trypanosoma cruzi and cytotoxicity were determined through the determination of IC50 values. In vivo assays were performed in mice, where parasitaemia levels were quantified by fresh blood examination and the assignment of a cure was determined by polymerase chain reaction and reactivation of blood parasitaemia levels after immunosuppression. The mechanisms of action were elucidated at metabolic and ultra-structural levels, by (1)H NMR, Fe-SOD inhibition and TEM studies...
April 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26300281/ceftaroline-in-vitro-activity-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-a-short-report-from-italy
#19
Bernardetta Segatore, Domenico Setacci, Francesca Marcoccia, Gianfranco Amicosante
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26239190/the-pharmacokinetic-basis-of-oral-valacyclovir-treatment-of-herpes-simplex-virus-hsv-or-varicella-zoster-virus-vzv-meningitis-meningoencephalitis-or-encephalitis-in-adults
#20
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