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Journal of Chemotherapy

Carlo Tascini, Emanuela Sozio, Antonello Di Paolo, Giancarlo Tintori, Alessandro Leonildi, Giacomo Bertolino, Franco Carmassi, Enrico Tagliaferri, Francesco Menichetti, Francesco Barchiesi
Candida parapsilosis may be responsible for bloodstream infections (BSI) and it is characterised by an increased incidence of fluconazole resistance. A 75-year old woman with severe comorbidities received the insertion of a peripherally inserted central venous catheter. Fluconazole did not prevent a C. parapsilosis BSI hence caspofungin was started after a nephrotoxic first-line treatment with amphotericin B. The ratio of peak plasma concentration over the minimum inhibitory concentration (Cmax/MIC) was adopted to maximise efficacy of caspofungin...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
Maria V Golikova, Elena N Strukova, Yury A Portnoy, Svetlana A Dovzhenko, Mikhail B Kobrin, Stephen H Zinner, Alexander A Firsov
To predict the effects of combined use of antibiotics on their pharmacodynamics, the susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus to linezolid-rifampicin combinations was tested at concentration ratios equal to the ratios of 24-area under the concentration-time curve (AUC24) simulated in an in vitro dynamic model. The linezolid MICs in combination with rifampicin decreased 8- to 67-fold. The rifampicin MICs were similar with or without linezolid. The enhanced activity of linezolid combined with rifampicin increased the AUC24/MIC ratios and provided more pronounced antibacterial effects compared with single treatments...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
Matteo Vassallo, Pierre-Luc Genillier, Brigitte Dunais, Regis Kaphan, Laurence Saudes, Yannick Duval, Fabien Rolland, Valerie Jullien, Nicolas Weiss, Elea Blanchouin, Annick Boscagli, Christophe Perrin, Nathalie Montagne
PURPOSE: Few in vivo studies have been reported describing efficacy and duration of antibiotic lock therapy (ALT) with daptomycin (DPT) for long-term catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) due to coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). We retrospectively analysed the efficacy of short-course ALT with DPT in combination with systemic treatment (ST) for CoNS-associated CRBSI in our hospital. METHODS: Patients admitted for CoNS-associated CRBSI and treated with DPT as ALT and ST were retrospectively analysed...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 23, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
Ercan Cacan
Regulator of G-protein signaling 2 (RGS2) is a GTPase-activating protein functioning as an inhibitor of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). RGS2 dysregulation was implicated in solid tumour development and RGS2 downregulation has been reported in prostate and ovarian cancer progression. However, the molecular mechanism by which RGS2 expression is suppressed in ovarian cancer remains unknown. The expression and epigenetic regulation of RGS2 in chemosensitive and chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells were determined by qRT-PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, respectively...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
Lijun Yang, Yutao Wang, Haifeng Zheng, Dong Zhang, Xiangwei Wu, Gongqin Sun, Tao Yang
Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising candidate for cancer treatment due to its highly selective apoptosis-inducing action on tumour cells without harming normal cells. However, because of TRAIL resistance by some cancer cells, combined treatment with sensitizing agents is required to enhance the anticancer potential of TRAIL. In the present study, we investigated the sensitizing effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on TRAIL-induced apoptosis in TRAIL-resistant HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
Paola Bertocchi, Francesca Aroldi, Tiziana Prochilo, Fausto Meriggi, Giordano Domenico Beretta, Alberto Zaniboni
INTRODUCTION: The introduction of biological agents in cancer therapy is changing the progression of metastatic colorectal cancer. Currently, resistance to biological agents is an emerging problem; the progression of the disease is caused by the development of resistant clones. According to some authors, these clones can be re-sensitized to traditional and previously utilized chemotherapy agents. The results of the CORRECT study demonstrated the efficacy of regorafenib monotherapy in both KRAS wild type and mutant pretreated patients (pts)...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Chemotherapy
Roberta Gagliardini, Massimiliano Fabbiani, Manuela Colafigli, Alessandro D'Avino, Annalisa Mondi, Alberto Borghetti, Silvia Lamonica, Roberto Cauda, Andrea De Luca, Simona Di Giambenedetto
Tenofovir could have a direct lipid-lowering effect. The aim of our retrospective study was to investigate changes in cardiovascular risk after switching from a tenofovir-sparing to a tenofovir-containing backbone. Lipid parameters and cardiovascular risk [calculated using 10-years Framingham Risk Score (FRS) and 5-years DAD Risk Score (DRS)] were analysed at baseline and after three months. 273 patients were enrolled. After switching, significant decreases in total cholesterol (TC) (-8.2mg/dl, p < 0.001), LDL (-8...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Chemotherapy
Lara Peterlin, Mateja Žagar, Tatjana Lejko Zupanc, Marija Paladin, Bojana Beović
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases are responsible for resistance of Gram-negative bacilli to several beta-lactam antibiotics, including those prescribed for treatment pneumonia. To evaluate the importance of colonization with E-GNB for the choice of empirical treatment we performed a retrospective case-control study including 156 patients, hospitalized for treatment of pneumonia from 2009 through 2013. Empirical treatment success and in-hospital survival were significantly lower in patients colonized with E-GNB compared to non-colonized (p = 0...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Chemotherapy
Andrea Camerini, Antonio Chella, Francesca Mazzoni, Cheti Puccetti, Sara Donati, Alice Lunghi, Paolo Petreni, Gianna Tartarelli, Massimiliano Serradori, Francesco Di Costanzo, Domenico Amoroso
BACKGROUND: We aimed to explore the use of platinum plus bevacizumab in a real world NSCLC population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from patients affected by NS-NSCLC treated with platinum plus bevacizumab across Tuscany. RESULTS: We evaluated 62 (median age: 63.5 [30-77] years) pts. All but one presented with adenocarcinoma and the majority had ECOG PS of 0/1. 17.7% presented with central lesion, 11.3% with brain metastasis, 38...
February 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
Faranak Rezaei, Mehri Haeili, Abbasali Imani Fooladi, Gholam Ali Azari Garmjan, Mohammad Mehdi Feizabadi
Point mutations in the rpsL and rrs genes can lead to development of streptomycin (STR) resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The aims of this study were to determine the frequency of mutations in STR resistant M. tuberculosis isolates in Iran and to analyze the possible relationship between bacterial genotype and STR resistance. Twenty-three M. tuberculosis samples comprising 9 multidrug-resistant (MDR) and 14 non-MDR isolates, recovered from TB patients in four regions: Tehran (n = 14), Isfahan (n = 2), Zahedan (n = 2), and Khorasan (n = 5), were analysed...
February 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
Benjamin J Ereshefsky, Majdi N Al-Hasan, Yevgeniya Gokun, Craig A Martin
We sought to compare clinical cure on day 7 and a 28-day all-cause mortality in patients who received an anti-pseudomonal ß-lactam with a fluoroquinolone or an aminoglycoside for treatment of nosocomial bacteremia or pneumonia due to Gram-negative bacilli while in the ICU. This retrospective cohort study was conducted in critically ill patients at an academic medical centre from January 2005 to August 2011. A total of 129 patients (83 receiving aminoglycoside and 46 receiving fluoroquinolone combinations) were included...
February 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
Mohamad-Ali Trad, Lihua H Zhong, Ryan M Llorin, Shire Yang Tan, Monica Chan, Sophia Archuleta, Zuraidah Sulaiman, Vincent H Tam, David C Lye, Dale A Fisher
BACKGROUND: Ertapenem is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that is increasingly being utilized. Its dosing convenience renders it suitable for outpatient therapy, and its pharmacokinetic characteristics favour its use against complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs). Despite this, sufficient clinical data are lacking for its use against cUTIs in the outpatient setting. We assessed the microbiological and clinical cure rates associated with ertapenem treatment for cUTIs in two outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) departments...
February 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
Ertugrul Guclu, Aziz Ogutlu, Oguz Karabay, Tuna Demirdal, Ibrahim Erayman, Salih Hosoglu, Vedat Turhan, Serpil Erol, Nefise Oztoprak, Ayse Batirel, Fatma Aybala Altay, Gulsum Kaya, Mustafa Karahocagil, Hamdi Sozen, Mustafa Yildirim, Funda Kocak, Bahri Teker
This multi-centre study aimed to determine the antibiotic consumption in Turkish hospitals by point prevalence. Antibiotic consumption of 14 centres was determined using the DDD method. Among hospitalized patients, 44.8% were using antibiotics and the total antibiotic consumption was 674.5 DDD/1000 patient-days (DPD). 189.6 (28%) DPD of the antibiotic consumption was restricted while 484.9 (72%) DPD was unrestricted. Carbapenems (24%) and beta lactam/beta lactamase inhibitors (ampicillin-sulbactam or amoxicillin-clavulanate; 22%) were the most commonly used restricted and unrestricted antibiotics...
February 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
Azam Mahmoudi-Aznaveh, Bita Bakhshi, Shahin Najar-Peerayeh
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of multidrug resistance (MDR) in atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) genotypes among 547 diarrheal children. All E. coli isolates with eae(+)stx1(-)stx2(-) genotypes included in this study and atypical property of EPEC was characterized by the absence of Bundle-forming pili (bfpA gene). Bacterial pathogens were detected in 70 patients (12.8%) among which atypical EPEC (5.3%) were the most common. The higher resistance rate was seen to tetracycline (70%), cotrimoxazole (60%) and nalidixic acid (53...
February 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
Neeraj Kumar, Fouzia Nahid, Rabaab Zahra
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli, the most frequent cause of UTIs has extensive genetic substructure and can be assigned to eight phylogroups, A, B1, B2, C, D, E, F and Escherichia cryptic clade I. We investigated the distribution of virulence determinants and antimicrobial resistance genes in relation to phylogenetic groups. METHODS: A total of 77 E. coli isolates were collected from Civil Hospital Badin, Pakistan. Isolates were assigned phylogroups using quadruplex PCR method, while virulence and antibiotic resistance genes, blaCTX-M and blaNDM-1 were also detected using PCR...
February 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
Andreas Sashegyi, Yawei Zhang, Yong Lin, Polina Binder, David Ferry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
Leandro Reus Rodrigues Perez, Afonso Luís Barth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
Gian Maria Pacifici, Karel Allegaert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
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