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Journal of Chemotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125052/prevalence-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-and-carbapenemase-producing-bloodstream-isolates-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#1
Henrietta Abodakpi, Kai-Tai Chang, Ana María Sánchez Díaz, Rafael Cantón, Todd M Lasco, Katrina Chan, Amelia K Sofjan, Vincent H Tam
To improve prescribing of empiric therapy, the local molecular epidemiology of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) in bloodstream isolates of K. pneumoniae were evaluated. Isolates resistant to third generation cephalosporins were screened phenotypically for ESBLs and carbapenemases, and subsequently confirmed by PCR for the presence of ESBL (blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M) and carbapenemase (blaKPC, blaVIM, blaNDM and blaOXA-48) genes. Hydrolytic activity (functional gene expression) was quantified using a nitrocefin degradation assay and correlated to ceftazidime or meropenem MIC...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108486/role-of-insertion-sequence-aba-1-and-ades-in-reduced-tigecycline-susceptibility-in-mdr-acinetobacter-baumannii-clinical-isolates-from-cairo-egypt
#2
Reem Hassan, Ahmed Mukhtar, Ahmed Hasanin, Doaa Ghaith
Infections caused by multidrug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) especially in intensive care units have limited therapeutic options. Overexpression of the adeABC efflux pump may be caused either by the ISAba-1 insertion or by specific point mutations in adeR and adeS, therefore, plays a major role in conferring MDR-A. baumannii. We aimed in our study to monitor the tigecycline (TGC) susceptibility and to study the role of ISAba-1 and the adeS regulator within the AdeABC efflux pump among MDR-A...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098953/efficacy-of-clara-in-recurrent-refractory-acute-myeloid-leukaemia-patients-unresponsive-to-flag-chemotherapy
#3
Ali Hakan Kaya, Emre Tekgündüz, Kadir Ilkkiliç, Mehmet Sinan Dal, Alparslan Merdin, Abdullah Karakus, Sibel Kabukcu Hacioglu, Filiz Bekdemir, Merih Kızıl Çakar, Mehmet Hilmi Dogu, Mehmet Orhan Ayyildiz, Serdal Korkmaz, Fevzi Altuntaş
We hereby report our multicentre, retrospective experience with CLARA in patients with fludarabine/cytarabine/G-CSF (FLAG) refractory AML. The study included all consecutive R/R AML patients, who received CLARA salvage during October 2010-October 2015 period. All patients were unresponsive to FLAG salvage chemotherapy regimen and did not undergo previous allo-HCT. A total of 40 patients were included. Following CLARA 5 (12.5%) patients experienced induction mortality and 10 (25%) patients achieved CR. 25 (62...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078739/effects-of-a-new%C3%A2-combination-of%C3%A2-plant-extracts-plus-d-mannose-for-the-management-of-uncomplicated-recurrent-urinary-tract-infections
#4
Carlo Genovese, Sergio Davinelli, Katia Mangano, Gianna Tempera, Daria Nicolosi, Salvatore Corsello, Franca Vergalito, Edoardo Tartaglia, Giovanni Scapagnini, Roberto Di Marco
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are an economic burden for public health. The increasing prevalence of resistant bacteria which cause UTIs may be related to the inappropriate prescription of antibiotics. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate whether three different combinations of plant extracts plus d-mannose are effective in preventing the recurrence of UTIs. Three groups of patients received three combinations of plant extracts in conjunction with d-mannose. These were: berberine, arbutin and birch (group A); berberine, arbutin, birch and forskolin (group B); and proanthocyanidins (group C)...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065784/effect-of-vancomycin-initial-dosing-on-time-to-systemic-inflammatory-response-syndrome-resolution-in-patients-with-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia
#5
Jessica Lynn Wesolek, Kelly McNorton, George Delgado, Christopher Alan Giuliano
Current guidelines suggest using vancomycin-loading doses for complicated infections despite a lack of evidence to support this practice. To address this gap, we performed a single-centre cohort study of 124 patients with sepsis due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Patients were allocated into two groups based on initial dose of vancomycin, <20 mg/kg or ≥20 mg/kg, and evaluated for time to resolution of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Among a cohort of 124 patients, 87 received vancomycin initial doses <20 mg/kg and 37 received ≥20 mg/kg...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063819/investigation-of-the-effects-of-various-antibiotics-against-klebsiella-pneumoniae-biofilms-on-in-vitro-catheter-model
#6
Emel Mataraci Kara, Berna Ozbek Celik
Klebsiella pneumoniae continues to be an important cause of community-acquired and nosocomial infection. This bacterium can cause catheter related infections by forming biofilm on the surface of catheter. The aim of our study is to determine the in vitro stability and efficacy of colistin, ciprofloxacin, tobramycin, doripenem and tigecycline alone, or in combination with clarithromycin or esomeprazole, as 24-h lock solutions against biofilm-embedded K. pneumoniae strains. The efficacy of antibiotic lock solutions was tested in an in vitro catheter biofilm model against K...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063811/emergence-of-colistin-resistance-in-enterobacter-aerogenes-from-croatia
#7
Branka Bedenić, Mirna Vranić-Ladavac, Carolina Venditti, Arjana Tambić-Andrašević, Nada Barišić, Marija Gužvinec, Natalie Karčić, Nicola Petrosillo, Ranko Ladavac, Antonino di Caro
A colistin-resistant Enterobacter aerogenes [study code 12264] was isolated from the tracheal aspirate of a 71-year-old male patient in the General Hospital [GH] in Pula, Croatia. The patient was previously treated in University Hospital Centre in Rijeka with colistin in order to eradicate Acinetobacter baumannii isolate, susceptible only to colistin and tigecycline. Genes encoding ESBLs [blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M, blaPER-1] were screened by PCR. The strain was shown to possess blaCTX-M-15 and blaTEM-1 genes...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025364/pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-parameters-for-treatment-optimization-of-infection-due-to-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria-a-summary-for-practical-purposes-in-children-and-adults
#8
Giulia Gustinetti, Giuliana Cangemi, Roberto Bandettini, Elio Castagnola
In the last years, there has been a tremendous increase in the incidence of bacterial infections due to resistant strains, especially multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacilli. In Europe, a north to south and a west to east gradient was noticed, with more than one third of the K. pneumonia isolates being resistant to carbapenems in few countries. New antibiotics are lacking and, as a consequence, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameters, normalized to pathogen minimal inhibitory concentration, are used with increased frequency to treat infections due to difficult-to-treat pathogens...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956738/comparison-of-antibiotics-use-urinary-tract-infection-uti-causative-bacteria-and-their-antibiotic-susceptibilities-among-4-hospitals-with-different-backgrounds-and-regions-in-japan
#9
Katsumi Shigemura, Koichi Kitagawa, Kayo Osawa, Fukashi Yamamichi, Issei Tokimatsu, Masashi Nomi, Kei Takaba, Masato Fujisawa
In this study, we compared the antibiotic use, urinary tract infection-causative bacteria and their antibiotic susceptibilities among four hospitals with different backgrounds and regions in Japan in 2014. Frequency of antibiotic use (antibiotic use density: AUD/all AUD) were: ampicillin: 0.21-20.3 (median: 1.6) and cefazolin: 0.8-34.2 (2.5), representatively. The antibiotic resistant rates of Escherichia coli were ampicillin: 1.1-52.3% (median: 51.8%), piperacillin: 47.9-49.1% (48.0%), cefazolin: 23.2-34.1% (28...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956494/in-vitro-effect-of-subminimal-inhibitory-concentrations-of-antibiotics-on-the-biofilm-formation-ability-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-clinical-isolates
#10
Maja Bogdan, Domagoj Drenjancevic, Ivana Harsanji Drenjancevic, Branka Bedenic, Vlasta Zujic Atalic, Jasminka Talapko, Dubravka Vukovic
The ability of A cinetobacter baumannii strains to form biofilm is one of the most important virulence factor which enables bacterial survival in a harsh environment and decreases antibiotic concentration as well. Subminimal inhibitory concentrations (subMICs) of antibiotics may change bacterial ultrastructure or have an influence on some different molecular mechanisms resulting in morphological or physiological changes in bacteria itself. The aim of this study was to determine effects of 1/2, 1/4, 1/8 and 1/16 minimal inhibitory concentrationsof imipenem, ampicillin-sulbactam, azithromycin, rifampicin and colistin on biofilm formation ability of 22 biofilm non-producing and 46 biofilm producing A...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950787/estimation-of-once-daily-amikacin-dose-in-critically-ill-adults
#11
Martin Šíma, Jan Hartinger, Tereza Cikánková, Ondřej Slanař
This study aimed at investigating variables affecting amikacin pharmacokinetics in order to propose optimal initial dosing in critically ill adult patients treated with once-daily amikacin regimen. Amikacin pharmacokinetics was calculated based on plasma concentrations using one compartmental analysis. Relationships between pharmacokinetic parameters and demographic/clinical data were explored in linear regression models. Simulated dose and dosing intervals were derived from body size descriptors and estimated creatinine clearances for each patient...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949279/surveillance-of-antimicrobial-susceptibility-patterns-among-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-isolated-in-china-during-the-10-year-period-of-2005-2014
#12
Li-Fen Hu, Xi-Hai Xu, Hong-Ru Li, Li-Ping Gao, Xi Chen, Nian Sun, Yan-Yan Liu, Hua-Fa Ying, Jia-Bin Li
The antimicrobial resistance pattern was studied among 300 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates collected from 300 nonduplicated inpatients. The average age of the patients was 73.5 ± 14.6 years old. Isolates nonsusceptible to levofloxacin, chloramphenicol, minocycline or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT) were more prevalent in the 99 patients aged over 81 years than in the other patients (p < 0.05). Multidrug resistance was found to be significantly associated with isolates recovered from the blood (72...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942725/piero-periti-review-article-award-2015
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 23, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925824/can-we-go-for-a-shorter-treatment-course-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-more-inspiring-cases
#14
Rosa Zampino, Martina Vitrone, Antonio Parrella, Enrico Ragone, Emanuele Durante-Mangoni
Current interest in HCV therapy with direct acting antivirals is focused on shortening treatment length. We managed two cirrhotics who achieved virological cure after 4 weeks of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir, dasabuvir, ribavirin treatment. Analysis to identify potential predictive factors for a successful outcome with a shorter treatment course was conducted.
September 19, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728477/increased-rate-of-penicillin-non-susceptible-strains-of-n-meningitidis-in-naples-italy
#15
Giovanni Di Caprio, Novella Carannante, Mariano Bernardo, Susanna Cuccurullo, Carlo Pallotto, Carlo Tascini
Neisseria meningitidis is a causative agent of community-acquired sepsis and meningitis in humans. These diseases are associated with high mortality and morbidity if treatment is not started promptly. The empiric antibiotic treatment depends on patient factors and local epidemiology. In the past years, an increased number meningococcal strain with reduced susceptibility to penicillin has also been described. We analysed the susceptibility pattern of 11 N. meningitidis strains isolated between 2013 and 2016...
December 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697647/antimetabolites-in-the-treatment-of-advanced-pleural-mesothelioma-a-network-meta-analysis-of-randomized-clinical-trials
#16
Davide Tassinari, Chiara Cherubini, Emiliano Tamburini, Fabrizio Drudi, Maximilian Papi, Manuela Fantini, Luigi Lazzari-Agli, Sergio Sartori
An indirect comparison of cisplatin-pemetrexed (CP) and cisplatin-raltitrexed (CR) was performed. The Odds Ratios of 10, 15 and 20 month survival rate and response rate were assumed as indexes of efficacy; the Odds Ratio of grade III-IV side effects, and the absolute risk of overall, hematologic and non-hematologic toxicity, were assumed as indexes of safety. The outcomes of 352 patients were analysed. The Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) of 10, 15 and 20 months survival rate and response rate were 1...
December 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622734/epidemiology-of-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-strains-in-iran-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Abed Zahedi Bialvaei, Ebrahim Kouhsari, Amin Salehi-Abargouei, Nour Amirmozafari, Rashid Ramazanzadeh, Ali Ghadimi-Daresajini, Mansour Sedighi
Acinetobacter baumannii is an important opportunistic pathogen that causes major public health concern especially in hospitalized patients due to the acquisition of multidrug resistance (MDR). The aim of this study was to systematically review published data about the prevalence rate of MDR-A. baumannii (MDR-AB) from different parts of Iran and provide an overall relative frequency (RF) using meta-analysis. All available national and international databanks were searched to find published studies up to June 2016...
December 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587559/species-differences-in-ciprofloxacin-resistance-among-gram-negative-bacteria-can-anti-mutant-ratios-of-the-area-under-the-concentration-time-curve-to-the-mic-be-achieved-clinically
#18
Elena N Strukova, Yury A Portnoy, Stephen H Zinner, Alexander A Firsov
To explore if the 'anti-mutant' ratios of 24-h area under the concentration-time curve (AUC24) to the MIC overlap the clinically attainable AUC24/MICs, the selection of ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae mutants was studied in dynamic model that simulates human pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin. Four strains each of E. coli and P. aeruginosa and three strains of K. pneumoniae were exposed to ciprofloxacin over a 50-400-fold range of the AUC24/MIC ratio...
December 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587526/optimal-teicoplanin-dosage-regimens-for-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infections-in-endocarditis-patients-and-renal-failure-patients
#19
Na Li, Liqin Zhu, Gaoqi Xu, Tingyue Ge, Fang Qi, Mengxue Li
This study aimed to assess whether traditional initial loading and maintenance doses of teicoplanin were appropriate in endocarditis and renal failure patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections and to recommend optimal dosage regimens. Pharmacokinetic parameters and physicochemical properties of teicoplanin were performed to develop pharmacokinetic models using GastroPlus(TM). Concentration-time curves of teicoplanin in endocarditis and renal failure patients with MRSA infections were simulated by changing clearance (CL) and volume of distribution of the central compartment (Vc)...
December 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486840/molecular-characterization-of-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-yields-increasing-rates-of-ndm-1-carbapenemases-and-colistin-resistance-in-an-oxa-48-endemic-area
#20
Zeynep Cizmeci, Elif Aktas, Baris Otlu, Ozlem Acikgoz, Seyhan Ordekci
We aimed to characterize carbapenem-resistant isolates in a tertiary hospital in Istanbul, Turkey, high-prevelance area for OXA-48 producers. About 76 Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates were included. Carbapenemase production was detected by Carbapenem Inactivation Method and carbapenemase genes were investigated by PCR. The clonal relationships were evaluated by AP-PCR. Nineteen Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were colistin resistant. About 75 isolates yielded carbapenemase by CIM. 52 OXA-48, 17 NDM-1 and 2 VIM-5 carbapenemase genes were detected...
December 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
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