Read by QxMD icon Read

Journal of Chemotherapy

Wafaa Jamal, Hayfaa Abdulkareem, Vincent O Rotimi
The objective was to test the in vitro activities of ceftaroline and comparator agents against clinical isolates of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Isolates were identified with VITEK II. Susceptibility testing was with E test. A total of 1264 isolates were tested. Compared to other cephalosporins, ceftaroline demonstrated excellent in vitro activities (MIC90 , ≤0.5 mg/L) against Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Haemophilus influenzae. When matched with the comparator cephalosporins, ceftaroline demonstrated the greatest activity against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), with MIC90 of 0...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
Kristina Nadrah, Mateja Pirs, Samo Kreft, Manica Mueller Premru, Bojana Beovic
Decreasing cephalosporin use was described as an effective intervention in decreasing the incidence of infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae harbouring extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBLKP). Due to sustained increased levels of infections caused by ESBLKP, a multifaceted antibiotic stewardship intervention aimed to decrease cephalosporin use was carried out at a large medical unit of a teaching hospital. All cephalosporins except the first-generation were restricted and could only be prescribed after authorization by an infectious disease physician...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
Xiang-Rong Bai, Jia-Ming Liu, De-Chun Jiang, Su-Ying Yan
The broad spectrum antibiotic tigecycline shows promising efficacy against many multiple drug resistant (MDR) pathogens. However, its clinical efficacy in the treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is unclear. Several studies have reported on the treatment failures of tigecycline monotherapy, suggesting that it may not be sufficient to control severe infections. Combination therapy has become an option to treat MDR bacterial infections. We conducted a literature search using PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Elsevier and the Web of Knowledge databases up to 29 February 2017 to identify relevant published studies...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Kareem Hinedi
BACKGROUND: Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection emerged in 2012. The majority of cases occurred in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the disease carries a high case fatality rate. METHODS: We present three MERS-CoV cases and highlight the salient clinical features and laboratory, and radiographic characteristics. RESULTS: Although all nasopharyngeal samples were negative, MERS CoV infection was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of the E gene (UpE) and open reading frame (ORF1b) on sputum samples...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
Ercole Concia, Claudio Viscoli, Valerio Del Bono, Maddalena Giannella, Matteo Bassetti, Giuseppe Francesco De Rosa, Emanuele Durante Mangoni, Silvano Esposito, Massimo Giusti, Paolo Grossi, Francesco Menichetti, Federico Pea, Nicola Petrosillo, Mario Tumbarello, Stefania Stefani, Mario Venditti, Pierluigi Viale
Staphylococcus aureus is still an important problem in clinical and therapeutic area, worldwide. In Italy, in recent years, methicillin resistance remained stable, yet considerably high, the percentage of strains of MRSA being around 40%. It was deemed interesting and timely to carry out a consensus conference using the RAND/UCLA method to collect the opinion of a group of experts in infectious diseases on the role of glycopeptides in the management of MRSA infections within several clinical scenarios and namely in pneumonia, bacteremia and endocarditis, joint replacement infections, skin and soft tissue infections, diabetic foot, abdominal infections and central nervous system infections...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
Novella Carannante, Carlo Pallotto, Mariano Bernardo, Giovanni Di Caprio, Carlo Tascini
KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) is nowadays a global concern. Ceftazidime/avibactam is the most promising novel antibiotic combination available at the moment. We describe the case of a migrant with no risk factors for an infection due to multidrug resistant bacteria. He suffered from a KPC-Kp cellulitis and was treated with a ceftazidime/avibactam-meropenem-fosfomycin combination that not only eradicated the infection but also decontaminated his gut. Ceftazidime/avibactam-based treatment can be useful also in decontamination procedures...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
Bo Yang, Fujia Yang, Shanmei Wang, Qian Wang, Zhirui Liu, Wei Feng, Fengjun Sun, Peiyuan Xia
The objective of this study was to analyse the distribution and antimicrobial resistance of bacterial uropathogens isolated from outpatients at Henan Provincial People's Hospital. A total of 1419 samples from 823 newly diagnosed and 596 recurrent UTI outpatients culture positive. Escherichia coli was the most common uropathogen. Compared with the recurrent group, the newly diagnosed group had a higher isolation rate of E. coli and Enterobacter cloacae but a lower isolation rate of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
Alessio Mesini, Giuliana Cangemi, Elena Palmisani, Carlo Dufour, Elio Castagnola
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 26, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
Ercole Concia, Giuseppe Cornaglia, Andrea Novelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
Annarita Mazzariol, Alda Bazaj, Giuseppe Cornaglia
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most frequent infectious diseases affecting humans, and represent an important public health problem with a substantial economic burden. Due to the high empiric use of antibiotics for the treatment of UTI, antibacterial resistance of Enterobacteriaceae, specifically the main uropathogens Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, has significantly increased worldwide. In this article the worldwide epidemiology of resistant Gram-negative bacteria causing UTIs, with a special focus on extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) positive pathogens, as well as new threats such as multi-drug-resistant (MDR) clones (e...
December 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
Ercole Concia, Damiano Bragantini, Fulvia Mazzaferri
Antibiotic resistance represents a real health emergency worldwide, mostly due to the lack of new antibiotics active against multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Considering the global epidemiological situation in several infections, including urinary tract infections (UTIs), some antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, can no longer be used for empiric treatment due to high resistance rates. However, some old antibiotics maintain high microbiological activity against UTI pathogens: according to many recent guidelines, fosfomycin trometamol, nitrofurantoin and pivmecillinam are recommended for the first-line treatment of uncomplicated UTIs...
December 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
Andrea Novelli, Elia Rosi
The therapeutic management of uncomplicated bacterial urinary tract infections (UTIs) is based on short-term courses of oral antibiotics. The preferred drugs are nitrofurantoin trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, fosfomycin trometamol, fluoroquinolones and β-lactam agents. The choice of agent for treating uncomplicated UTIs should be based on the pharmacokinetic characteristics of the molecule so that clinical benefit is optimized and the risk of antibacterial resistance is minimized. This article discusses the general pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) aspects of antimicrobial chemotherapy, the PK/PD characteristics of oral antimicrobial agents for the treatment of uncomplicated UTIs and the pharmacological and therapeutic strategies for limiting or preventing bacterial resistance...
December 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
Giovanni Di Caprio, Novella Carannante, Mariano Bernardo, Susanna Cuccurullo, Carlo Pallotto, Carlo Tascini
Neisseria meningitidis is a causative agent of community-acquired sepsis and meningitis in humans. These diseases are associated with high mortality and morbidity if treatment is not started promptly. The empiric antibiotic treatment depends on patient factors and local epidemiology. In the past years, an increased number meningococcal strain with reduced susceptibility to penicillin has also been described. We analysed the susceptibility pattern of 11 N. meningitidis strains isolated between 2013 and 2016...
December 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
Davide Tassinari, Chiara Cherubini, Emiliano Tamburini, Fabrizio Drudi, Maximilian Papi, Manuela Fantini, Luigi Lazzari-Agli, Sergio Sartori
An indirect comparison of cisplatin-pemetrexed (CP) and cisplatin-raltitrexed (CR) was performed. The Odds Ratios of 10, 15 and 20 month survival rate and response rate were assumed as indexes of efficacy; the Odds Ratio of grade III-IV side effects, and the absolute risk of overall, hematologic and non-hematologic toxicity, were assumed as indexes of safety. The outcomes of 352 patients were analysed. The Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) of 10, 15 and 20 months survival rate and response rate were 1...
December 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
Abed Zahedi Bialvaei, Ebrahim Kouhsari, Amin Salehi-Abargouei, Nour Amirmozafari, Rashid Ramazanzadeh, Ali Ghadimi-Daresajini, Mansour Sedighi
Acinetobacter baumannii is an important opportunistic pathogen that causes major public health concern especially in hospitalized patients due to the acquisition of multidrug resistance (MDR). The aim of this study was to systematically review published data about the prevalence rate of MDR-A. baumannii (MDR-AB) from different parts of Iran and provide an overall relative frequency (RF) using meta-analysis. All available national and international databanks were searched to find published studies up to June 2016...
December 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
Elena N Strukova, Yury A Portnoy, Stephen H Zinner, Alexander A Firsov
To explore if the 'anti-mutant' ratios of 24-h area under the concentration-time curve (AUC24) to the MIC overlap the clinically attainable AUC24/MICs, the selection of ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae mutants was studied in dynamic model that simulates human pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin. Four strains each of E. coli and P. aeruginosa and three strains of K. pneumoniae were exposed to ciprofloxacin over a 50-400-fold range of the AUC24/MIC ratio...
December 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
Na Li, Liqin Zhu, Gaoqi Xu, Tingyue Ge, Fang Qi, Mengxue Li
This study aimed to assess whether traditional initial loading and maintenance doses of teicoplanin were appropriate in endocarditis and renal failure patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections and to recommend optimal dosage regimens. Pharmacokinetic parameters and physicochemical properties of teicoplanin were performed to develop pharmacokinetic models using GastroPlusTM. Concentration-time curves of teicoplanin in endocarditis and renal failure patients with MRSA infections were simulated by changing clearance (CL) and volume of distribution of the central compartment (Vc)...
December 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
Zeynep Cizmeci, Elif Aktas, Baris Otlu, Ozlem Acikgoz, Seyhan Ordekci
We aimed to characterize carbapenem-resistant isolates in a tertiary hospital in Istanbul, Turkey, high-prevelance area for OXA-48 producers. About 76 Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates were included. Carbapenemase production was detected by Carbapenem Inactivation Method and carbapenemase genes were investigated by PCR. The clonal relationships were evaluated by AP-PCR. Nineteen Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were colistin resistant. About 75 isolates yielded carbapenemase by CIM. 52 OXA-48, 17 NDM-1 and 2 VIM-5 carbapenemase genes were detected...
December 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
Milo Gatti, Laura Elisa Gasparini, Chiara Maria Grimaldi, Daniela Abbati, Stefano Clemente, Paolo Riccardo Brioschi, Roberto Fumagalli, Francesco Scaglione
Critical septic patients affected by necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTI) require an early, aggressive and multidisciplinary treatment. Pharmacokinetic alterations in antibiotic therapy are peculiar in these infections. Clinical pharmacology represents a first step in this setting. We report a case of septic shock due to NSTI in which clinical pharmacology is taken into account.
December 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
Woong Sik Jang, Young-Sang Choi, Sukyung Kim, Md Anirban Jyoti, Hoonhee Seo, Juhye Han, Yong-Sik Kim, Jiwon Lyu, Kung-Woo Nam, Byung-Eui Lee, Kee-In Lee, Ho-Yeon Song
Tuberculosis, one of the world's major health problems, has become more serious due to the emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). In this study, we performed three anti-MTB assays to evaluate the anti-mycobacterial activity of naphthofuroquinone derivatives against drug-resistant MTB. Among them, methyl 5-[2-(dimethylamino)ethoxy]-7,12-dioxo-7,12-dihydrodinaphtho[1,2-b:2',3'-d]furan-6-carboxylate (DFC2) exhibited strong anti-mycobacterial activity against MTB H37Ra, H37Rv and four drug-resistant MTB strains...
December 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"