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Journal of Chemotherapy

Alexander A Firsov, Maria V Golikova, Elena N Strukova, Yury A Portnoy, Svetlana A Dovzhenko, Mikhail B Kobrin, Stephen H Zinner
To explore if combinations of linezolid (L) with rifampicin (R) are able to restrict Staphylococcus aureus resistance, the enrichment of L- and R-resistant mutants was studied in an in vitro dynamic model. L- and R-resistant mutants were enriched in all single drug treatments. In contrast, L-resistant mutants were not enriched and R-resistant mutants were similar to baseline amounts with only minimal regrowth at the end of the combination treatments. These effects appear to be explained by lowering the mutant prevention concentration (MPC) for L+R combinations (MPCL+R) compared to the MPCs of L and R alone (MPCL and MPCR) and thereby the longer times above MPCL+R (73-100% of the dosing interval for L and 42-58% for R) compared to the times above MPCL (0-44%) and MPCR (0%)...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Chemotherapy
Poonam Verma, Surabhi Dayal, V K Jain, Ashish Amrani
Pegylated interferon α and ribavirin therapy is associated with increased incidence of various systemic and cutaneous side effects. Among the side effects of this therapy, alopecia universalis is a rarely reported side effect which causes significant cosmetic concern to the patient. We report a rare case of alopecia universalis which developed eight weeks after discontinuation of this antiviral combination therapy. This gains importance because it is essential to sensitize the treating gastroenterologist and the dermatologist regarding this rare side effect...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Chemotherapy
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2016: Journal of Chemotherapy
Natalia Frączek, Iwona Bronisz, Magdalena Pietryka, Dorota Kępińska, Patrycja Strzała, Kamila Mielnicka, Agnieszka Korga, Jaroslaw Dudka
Drug resistance in cancer therapy is a multifactorial phenomenon that determines remission or progression. It is known that resistance to used anticancer drugs may be the consequence of drug transport to the cell or intracellular distribution. It may also be the result of its molecular target structural change, apoptosis inhibition or increase in some enzymes activity, e.g. pentose phosphate pathway enzymes. Intrinsic (pre-existed) drug resistance is related to the phenotype of cancer as well as normal cells...
August 20, 2016: Journal of Chemotherapy
Johanne Daupin, Pascal Paubel, Julie Fillon, Isabelle Debrix, Daniele G Soares, Jean-Pierre Lotz
INTRODUCTION: The active clinical research programme of trabectedin continues to improve knowledge on the therapeutic activity and toxicity of the drug in the treatment of soft tissue sarcomas (STS). In contrast, limited number of data is available on its use outside of clinical trials. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analysed efficacy and safety of trabectedin when given in daily practice to patients with advanced/recurrent STS. Outcomes were compared with previously published works including clinical and retrospective studies...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Chemotherapy
Andrea Camerini, Antonio Chella, Francesca Mazzoni, Cheti Puccetti, Sara Donati, Alice Lunghi, Paolo Petreni, Gianna Tartarelli, Massimiliano Serradori, Francesco Di Costanzo, Domenico Amoroso
BACKGROUND: We aimed to explore the use of platinum plus bevacizumab in a real world NSCLC population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from patients affected by NS-NSCLC treated with platinum plus bevacizumab across Tuscany. RESULTS: We evaluated 62 (median age: 63.5 [30-77] years) pts. All but one presented with adenocarcinoma and the majority had ECOG PS of 0/1. 17.7% presented with central lesion, 11.3% with brain metastasis, 38...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Chemotherapy
Shohreh Alipour, Hashem Montaseri, Azadeh Khalili, Mohsen Tafaghodi
Aerosolized chemotherapeutics leads to higher, localized and continuous concentrations of active agents in lung tissue with lower side effects for other organs. The present study was performed on jugular vein cannulated rats which endothracheally received 4 mg/kg of free paclitaxel powder (Free-PTX), paclitaxel-loaded alginate microparticles (PTX-ALG-MPs) and i.v. paclitaxel (Anzatax(®)). Pharmacokinetic parameters for Free-PTX and PTX-ALG-MPs contain higher AUC, mean residence time (MRT),half-life and bioavailability, with lower elimination constant (ke)...
October 2016: Journal of Chemotherapy
Beatrice Detti, Giulio Francolini, Carlotta Becherini, Emanuela Olmetto, Irene Giacomelli, Daniele Scartoni, Daniela Greto, Valentina Baldazzi, Gabriele Simontacchi, Icro Meattini, Lorenzo Livi
We report the case of a man affected by renal cell carcinoma with vertebral metastases, who presented a radiological complete response after systemic treatment with everolimus.
October 2016: Journal of Chemotherapy
Emanuele Cencini, Susanna Guerrini, Maria Antonietta Mazzei, Annalisa Chiappella, Alberto Fabbri
Relapsed mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) usually represents a hard challenge, especially after the failure of high-dose therapy or in elderly patients, and although new agents have been investigated, responses are often short and a significant proportion of patients finally die from progressive disease. Here, we report a case of a relapsed MCL patient that achieved durable response with bortezomib and rituximab. Treatment regimen consisted of bortezomib 1.6 mg/m(2) and rituximab 375 mg/m(2) intravenously on days 1-8-15-22 for the 1st course, followed by 2 courses of bortezomib with the same schedule...
October 2016: Journal of Chemotherapy
Sara Sollai, Jessica Iacopelli, Mattia Giovannini, Manuela Prato, Luisa Galli, Maurizio de Martino, Elena Chiappini
INTRODUCTION: Accidental needle injury is a common but still discussed problem. OBJECTIVE: We discuss possible options to optimize the management of injured children in light of the available literature findings. RESULTS: The risk of viral infection is low. However, blood investigations are mandatory, as well as appropriate counselling. Anti-HBV immunoglobulins are recommended in all unvaccinated subjects exposed to a HBsAg-positive source; however, there is no agreement regarding their administration in unvaccinated children...
October 2016: Journal of Chemotherapy
Lorenzo Drago, Monica Bortolin, Elena De Vecchi, Serse Agrappi, Roberto L Weinstein, Roberto Mattina, Luca Francetti
Infections due to biofilm-producing microorganisms are one of the main causes for the failure of dental implants. Increasing efforts have been made in order to develop new strategies to prevent biofilm formation. In this study, the biofilm development on a newly designed laser-modified titanium implant surface was evaluated and compared to that on conventional sandblasted titanium used in implant dentistry. The amount of biofilm produced by Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Porphyromonas gingivalis isolated from peri-implantitis was assessed by a semi-quantitative spectrophotometric method and by confocal laser scanning microscopy...
October 2016: Journal of Chemotherapy
Sebastiano Barco, Elio Castagnola, Iulian Gennai, Laura Barbagallo, Anna Loy, Gino Tripodi, Giuliana Cangemi
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is necessary for effective and safetherapy. The aim of the this paper was to develop a specific and robust ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for vancomycin quantification starting from low plasma volumes to be applied for the routine TDM in children. METHODS: Samples from children receiving intravenous vancomycin were analysed using a TSQ Quantum Access MAX Triple Quadrupole system coupled with an Accela 1250 UHPLC system after a rapid protein precipitation...
October 2016: Journal of Chemotherapy
S Zelenitsky, J Nash, Z Weber, H Iacovides, R Ariano
Given the inconsistent clinical findings, our goal was to characterize the pharmacodynamics (PDs) of prolonged-infusion piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP) in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Specifically, the study was designed to investigate the influence of MIC on the activity of prolonged-infusion TZP using pharmacokinetics (PKs) consistent with a non-critically ill patient population. There was no benefit with prolonged- compared with standard-infusion TZP against isolates with susceptible MICs of 8 or 16 mg/L...
October 2016: Journal of Chemotherapy
Hirohiko Yasui, Yoshinori Imura, Hidetatsu Outani, Ken-Ichiro Hamada, Takaaki Nakai, Shutaro Yamada, Satoshi Takenaka, Satoru Sasagawa, Nobuhito Araki, Kazuyuki Itoh, Akira Myoui, Hideki Yoshikawa, Norifumi Naka
Synovial sarcoma (SS) is an aggressive soft tissue tumour with poor prognosis. Using five human SS cell lines, we examined the cytotoxic effects of trabectedin (ET-743; Yondelis(®)), a novel marine natural product, which was approved in Europe for the treatment of soft tissue sarcomas (STS). The significant growth inhibitory effects were observed in all SS cell lines below nanomolar concentration of trabectedin. Furthermore, trabectedin significantly suppressed the tumour growth in xenograft models. Flow cytometer analysis in vitro and immunohistochemical analysis in vivo revealed its effect of cell cycle inhibition and apoptosis induction...
October 2016: Journal of Chemotherapy
Periklis Panagopoulos, Anestis Ganitis, Nikolaos Papanas, Georgia Iosifidou, Tzelal Maltsan, Serif Kioutsouk, Evi Christakidou, Efstratios Maltezos
Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease difficult to diagnose both to the clinic and the laboratory. Many risk factors have been involved, such as planting, hunting, harvesting and butchering or sports, such as rafting. We reported our experience through a period of 20  months and we tried to investigate prognostic factors predicting clinical outcomes. Five male patients were admitted to our Department with a median age of 40  years. Overall, three out of five patients presented to other hospital and were transferred to ours with a wrong or delayed diagnosis...
October 2016: Journal of Chemotherapy
Jing Dong, Yuan-Cheng Chen, Wei Xiong, Yun-Feng Zhao, Ye-Bin Sun, Yang Lu, Yan-Hui Liu, Wen-Yan Li, Xi-Jing Chen
The present study evaluated the efficacy and safety of biapenem in elderly Chinese patients with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) and proposed optimal dosage regimen on the basis of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) analysis. The clinical efficacy, bacterial eradication and comprehensive therapeutic effect rates of biapenem were 70.3 (78/111), 68.5 (37/54) and 61.1% (33/54), respectively. Drug-related adverse reactions were seen in 12.6% of patients (14/111). The total protein level, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, %fT>MIC, fAUC24/MIC and fCmax/MIC values of patients had significant impacts (P < 0...
October 2016: Journal of Chemotherapy
Doaa Ghaith, Mohammad Elzahry, Gehan Mostafa, Sally Mostafa, Rasha Elsherif, Iman Ramzy
BACKGROUND: Clarithromycin is a main component of the recommended first-line triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori in Egypt. We aimed in our study to investigate the prevalence of clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori strains due to the point mutations at domain V of the H. pylori 23S rRNA among the Egyptian population using the polymerase chain reaction/restricted fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP) assay. METHODS: Gastric biopsies obtained from 100 dyspeptic patients who consecutively attended at Cairo University Hospital during the period from January to November 2013 were subjected to PCR/RFLP in order to detect the point mutations at domain V of the H...
October 2016: Journal of Chemotherapy
Branka Bedenić, Natasa Beader, Karmen Godič-Torkar, Esmina Prahin, Ljiljana Mihaljević, Marko Ćačić, Jasmina Vraneš
Previous studies found short postantibiotic effect of colistin on Acinetobacter baumannii. Many studies have evaluated the potential for synergy between colistin and other antibiotics against A. baumannii. The aim of this study was to determine in vitro synergy and postantibiotic effect (PAE) of colistin alone and combined with other antibiotics (vancomycin or meropenem) against eight carbapenem-non-susceptible Acinetobacter spp. strains with defined resistance mechanisms. It was hypothesised that vancomycin or meropenem would prologue the PAE of colistin since it was previously found that they exert synergism with colistin in time-kill kinetics and chequerboard analysis...
October 2016: Journal of Chemotherapy
Ramesh Nachimuthu, Ramkumar Subramani, Suresh Maray, K M Gothandam, Karthikeyan Sivamangala, Prasanth Manohar, Bülent Bozdogan
Carbapenem resistance is disseminating worldwide among Gram-negative bacteria. The aim of this study was to identify carbapenem-resistance level and to determine the mechanism of carbapenem resistance among clinical isolates from two centres in Tamil Nadu. In the present study, a total of 93 Gram-negative isolates, which is found to be resistant to carbapenem by disk diffusion test in two centres, were included. All isolates are identified at species level by 16S rRNA sequencing. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of isolates for Meropenem were tested by agar dilution method...
October 2016: Journal of Chemotherapy
Burke A Cunha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Chemotherapy
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