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Journal of Chemotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336224/treatment-of-a-klebsiella-pneumoniae-kpc-cellulitis-and-gut-decolonization-with-ceftazidime-avibactam-in-a-migrant-from-libya
#1
Novella Carannante, Carlo Pallotto, Mariano Bernardo, Giovanni Di Caprio, Carlo Tascini
KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) is nowadays a global concern. Ceftazidime/avibactam is the most promising novel antibiotic combination available at the moment. We describe the case of a migrant with no risk factors for an infection due to multidrug resistant bacteria. He suffered from a KPC-Kp cellulitis and was treated with a ceftazidime/avibactam-meropenem-fosfomycin combination that not only eradicated the infection but also decontaminated his gut. Ceftazidime/avibactam-based treatment can be useful also in decontamination procedures...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304717/analysis-of-the-spectrum-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-uropathogens-in-outpatients-at-a-tertiary-hospital
#2
Bo Yang, Fujia Yang, Shanmei Wang, Qian Wang, Zhirui Liu, Wei Feng, Fengjun Sun, Peiyuan Xia
The objective of this study was to analyse the distribution and antimicrobial resistance of bacterial uropathogens isolated from outpatients at Henan Provincial People's Hospital. A total of 1419 samples from 823 newly diagnosed and 596 recurrent UTI outpatients culture positive. Escherichia coli was the most common uropathogen. Compared with the recurrent group, the newly diagnosed group had a higher isolation rate of E. coli and Enterobacter cloacae but a lower isolation rate of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278102/hepatic-veno-occlusive-disease-during-isavuconazole-administration
#3
Alessio Mesini, Giuliana Cangemi, Elena Palmisani, Carlo Dufour, Elio Castagnola
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 26, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191131/efficacy-of-ceftazidime-avibactam-in-a-rat-intra-abdominal-abscess-model-against-a-ceftazidime-and-meropenem-resistant-isolate-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-carrying-blakpc-2
#4
Taryn Sleger, Eric Gangl, Petar Pop-Damkov, Kevin M Krause, Peter J Laud, Andrew M Slee, Wright W Nichols
Efficacies of ceftazidime-avibactam (4:1 w/w) and ceftazidime were tested against ceftazidime-susceptible (blaKPC-2-negative), and meropenem- and ceftazidime-resistant (blaKPC-2-positive), Klebsiella pneumoniae in a 52-h, multiple dose, abdominal abscess model in the rat. Efficacies corresponded to minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) measured in vitro and were consistent with drug exposures modelled from pharmacokinetics in infected animals. The ceftazidime, ceftazidime-avibactam and meropenem control treatments were effective in the rat abscess model against the susceptible strain, whereas only ceftazidime-avibactam was effective against K...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182058/prevalence-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-ureaplasma-species-and-mycoplasma-hominis-in-greek-female-outpatients-2012-2016
#5
Sofia Maraki, Viktoria Eirini Mavromanolaki, Eleni Nioti, Dimitra Stafylaki, George Minadakis
Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma species are opportunistic pathogens associated with urogenital infections, complications during pregnancy and postpartum infections. Appropriate empirical antimicrobial treatment is necessary to achieve an optimal therapeutic outcome. This study evaluated the prevalence and the antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma spp. isolated from 1,008 endocervical samples of outpatients in Crete, Greece, during a five-year period (2012-2016), using the commercially available Mycoview kit (Zeakon diagnostics, France)...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168673/the-role-of-dalbavancin-in-the-multi-disciplinary-management-of-wound-infections-in-orthopaedic-surgery
#6
Fabio Arena, Emilio Romanini, Elia Rosi, Carlo Salomone, Gabriele Tucci, Ciro Pempinello, Massimo Fantoni
Antimicrobial resistance is continuously increasing among bacterial clinical isolates (especially methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA), negatively impacting on outcomes of patients with Surgical Site Infections (SSIs). A multi-disciplinary team work is essential for SSIs prevention and for the choice of antibiotic therapy of orthopaedic SSIs. In particular, an Antibiotic Stewardship (AS) approach is recommended for preserving the activity of old and new antimicrobials. Dalbavancin is a novel antimicrobial agent, belonging to the lipoglycopeptides family, recently approved by FDA for the treatment of ABSSSIs (Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections) and can be considered as a candidate for the treatment of orthopaedic superficial SSIs...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125052/prevalence-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-and-carbapenemase-producing-bloodstream-isolates-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#7
Henrietta Abodakpi, Kai-Tai Chang, Ana María Sánchez Díaz, Rafael Cantón, Todd M Lasco, Katrina Chan, Amelia K Sofjan, Vincent H Tam
To improve prescribing of empiric therapy, the local molecular epidemiology of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) in bloodstream isolates of K. pneumoniae were evaluated. Isolates resistant to third generation cephalosporins were screened phenotypically for ESBLs and carbapenemases, and subsequently confirmed by PCR for the presence of ESBL (blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M) and carbapenemase (blaKPC, blaVIM, blaNDM and blaOXA-48) genes. Hydrolytic activity (functional gene expression) was quantified using a nitrocefin degradation assay and correlated to ceftazidime or meropenem MIC...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108486/role-of-insertion-sequence-aba-1-and-ades-in-reduced-tigecycline-susceptibility-in-mdr-acinetobacter-baumannii-clinical-isolates-from-cairo-egypt
#8
Reem Hassan, Ahmed Mukhtar, Ahmed Hasanin, Doaa Ghaith
Infections caused by multidrug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) especially in intensive care units have limited therapeutic options. Overexpression of the adeABC efflux pump may be caused either by the ISAba-1 insertion or by specific point mutations in adeR and adeS, therefore, plays a major role in conferring MDR-A. baumannii. We aimed in our study to monitor the tigecycline (TGC) susceptibility and to study the role of ISAba-1 and the adeS regulator within the AdeABC efflux pump among MDR-A...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098953/efficacy-of-clara-in-recurrent-refractory-acute-myeloid-leukaemia-patients-unresponsive-to-flag-chemotherapy
#9
Ali Hakan Kaya, Emre Tekgündüz, Kadir Ilkkiliç, Mehmet Sinan Dal, Alparslan Merdin, Abdullah Karakus, Sibel Kabukcu Hacioglu, Filiz Bekdemir, Merih Kızıl Çakar, Mehmet Hilmi Dogu, Mehmet Orhan Ayyildiz, Serdal Korkmaz, Fevzi Altuntaş
We hereby report our multicentre, retrospective experience with CLARA in patients with fludarabine/cytarabine/G-CSF (FLAG) refractory AML. The study included all consecutive R/R AML patients, who received CLARA salvage during October 2010-October 2015 period. All patients were unresponsive to FLAG salvage chemotherapy regimen and did not undergo previous allo-HCT. A total of 40 patients were included. Following CLARA 5 (12.5%) patients experienced induction mortality and 10 (25%) patients achieved CR. 25 (62...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078739/effects-of-a-new%C3%A2-combination-of%C3%A2-plant-extracts-plus-d-mannose-for-the-management-of-uncomplicated-recurrent-urinary-tract-infections
#10
Carlo Genovese, Sergio Davinelli, Katia Mangano, Gianna Tempera, Daria Nicolosi, Salvatore Corsello, Franca Vergalito, Edoardo Tartaglia, Giovanni Scapagnini, Roberto Di Marco
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are an economic burden for public health. The increasing prevalence of resistant bacteria which cause UTIs may be related to the inappropriate prescription of antibiotics. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate whether three different combinations of plant extracts plus d-mannose are effective in preventing the recurrence of UTIs. Three groups of patients received three combinations of plant extracts in conjunction with d-mannose. These were: berberine, arbutin and birch (group A); berberine, arbutin, birch and forskolin (group B); and proanthocyanidins (group C)...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065784/effect-of-vancomycin-initial-dosing-on-time-to-systemic-inflammatory-response-syndrome-resolution-in-patients-with-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia
#11
Jessica Lynn Wesolek, Kelly McNorton, George Delgado, Christopher Alan Giuliano
Current guidelines suggest using vancomycin-loading doses for complicated infections despite a lack of evidence to support this practice. To address this gap, we performed a single-centre cohort study of 124 patients with sepsis due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Patients were allocated into two groups based on initial dose of vancomycin, <20 mg/kg or ≥20 mg/kg, and evaluated for time to resolution of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Among a cohort of 124 patients, 87 received vancomycin initial doses <20 mg/kg and 37 received ≥20 mg/kg...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063819/investigation-of-the-effects-of-various-antibiotics-against-klebsiella-pneumoniae-biofilms-on-in-vitro-catheter-model
#12
Emel Mataraci Kara, Berna Ozbek Celik
Klebsiella pneumoniae continues to be an important cause of community-acquired and nosocomial infection. This bacterium can cause catheter related infections by forming biofilm on the surface of catheter. The aim of our study is to determine the in vitro stability and efficacy of colistin, ciprofloxacin, tobramycin, doripenem and tigecycline alone, or in combination with clarithromycin or esomeprazole, as 24-h lock solutions against biofilm-embedded K. pneumoniae strains. The efficacy of antibiotic lock solutions was tested in an in vitro catheter biofilm model against K...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063811/emergence-of-colistin-resistance-in-enterobacter-aerogenes-from-croatia
#13
Branka Bedenić, Mirna Vranić-Ladavac, Carolina Venditti, Arjana Tambić-Andrašević, Nada Barišić, Marija Gužvinec, Natalie Karčić, Nicola Petrosillo, Ranko Ladavac, Antonino di Caro
A colistin-resistant Enterobacter aerogenes [study code 12264] was isolated from the tracheal aspirate of a 71-year-old male patient in the General Hospital [GH] in Pula, Croatia. The patient was previously treated in University Hospital Centre in Rijeka with colistin in order to eradicate Acinetobacter baumannii isolate, susceptible only to colistin and tigecycline. Genes encoding ESBLs [blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M, blaPER-1] were screened by PCR. The strain was shown to possess blaCTX-M-15 and blaTEM-1 genes...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29271737/actual-role-of-older-oral-antibiotics-in-the-treatment-of-resistant-urinary-tract-infections-utis
#14
Ercole Concia, Giuseppe Cornaglia, Andrea Novelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29271736/multi-drug-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria-causing-urinary-tract-infections-a-review
#15
Annarita Mazzariol, Alda Bazaj, Giuseppe Cornaglia
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most frequent infectious diseases affecting humans, and represent an important public health problem with a substantial economic burden. Due to the high empiric use of antibiotics for the treatment of UTI, antibacterial resistance of Enterobacteriaceae, specifically the main uropathogens Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, has significantly increased worldwide. In this article the worldwide epidemiology of resistant Gram-negative bacteria causing UTIs, with a special focus on extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) positive pathogens, as well as new threats such as multi-drug-resistant (MDR) clones (e...
December 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29271735/clinical-evaluation-of-guidelines-and-therapeutic-approaches-in-multi-drug-resistant-urinary-tract-infections
#16
Ercole Concia, Damiano Bragantini, Fulvia Mazzaferri
Antibiotic resistance represents a real health emergency worldwide, mostly due to the lack of new antibiotics active against multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Considering the global epidemiological situation in several infections, including urinary tract infections (UTIs), some antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, can no longer be used for empiric treatment due to high resistance rates. However, some old antibiotics maintain high microbiological activity against UTI pathogens: according to many recent guidelines, fosfomycin trometamol, nitrofurantoin and pivmecillinam are recommended for the first-line treatment of uncomplicated UTIs...
December 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29271734/pharmacological-properties-of-oral-antibiotics-for-the-treatment-of-uncomplicated-urinary-tract-infections
#17
Andrea Novelli, Elia Rosi
The therapeutic management of uncomplicated bacterial urinary tract infections (UTIs) is based on short-term courses of oral antibiotics. The preferred drugs are nitrofurantoin trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, fosfomycin trometamol, fluoroquinolones and β-lactam agents. The choice of agent for treating uncomplicated UTIs should be based on the pharmacokinetic characteristics of the molecule so that clinical benefit is optimized and the risk of antibacterial resistance is minimized. This article discusses the general pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) aspects of antimicrobial chemotherapy, the PK/PD characteristics of oral antimicrobial agents for the treatment of uncomplicated UTIs and the pharmacological and therapeutic strategies for limiting or preventing bacterial resistance...
December 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728477/increased-rate-of-penicillin-non-susceptible-strains-of-n-meningitidis-in-naples-italy
#18
Giovanni Di Caprio, Novella Carannante, Mariano Bernardo, Susanna Cuccurullo, Carlo Pallotto, Carlo Tascini
Neisseria meningitidis is a causative agent of community-acquired sepsis and meningitis in humans. These diseases are associated with high mortality and morbidity if treatment is not started promptly. The empiric antibiotic treatment depends on patient factors and local epidemiology. In the past years, an increased number meningococcal strain with reduced susceptibility to penicillin has also been described. We analysed the susceptibility pattern of 11 N. meningitidis strains isolated between 2013 and 2016...
December 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697647/antimetabolites-in-the-treatment-of-advanced-pleural-mesothelioma-a-network-meta-analysis-of-randomized-clinical-trials
#19
Davide Tassinari, Chiara Cherubini, Emiliano Tamburini, Fabrizio Drudi, Maximilian Papi, Manuela Fantini, Luigi Lazzari-Agli, Sergio Sartori
An indirect comparison of cisplatin-pemetrexed (CP) and cisplatin-raltitrexed (CR) was performed. The Odds Ratios of 10, 15 and 20 month survival rate and response rate were assumed as indexes of efficacy; the Odds Ratio of grade III-IV side effects, and the absolute risk of overall, hematologic and non-hematologic toxicity, were assumed as indexes of safety. The outcomes of 352 patients were analysed. The Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) of 10, 15 and 20 months survival rate and response rate were 1...
December 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622734/epidemiology-of-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-strains-in-iran-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Abed Zahedi Bialvaei, Ebrahim Kouhsari, Amin Salehi-Abargouei, Nour Amirmozafari, Rashid Ramazanzadeh, Ali Ghadimi-Daresajini, Mansour Sedighi
Acinetobacter baumannii is an important opportunistic pathogen that causes major public health concern especially in hospitalized patients due to the acquisition of multidrug resistance (MDR). The aim of this study was to systematically review published data about the prevalence rate of MDR-A. baumannii (MDR-AB) from different parts of Iran and provide an overall relative frequency (RF) using meta-analysis. All available national and international databanks were searched to find published studies up to June 2016...
December 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
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