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Journal of Chemotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619901/inflammatory-biomarkers-to-guide-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-decisions-in-children-presenting-with-fever-without-apparent-source
#1
Giulia Trippella, Luisa Galli, Maurizio de Martino, Elena Chiappini
A systematic review of literature from 2011 to 2016 was performed, in order to evaluate the diagnostic performance of inflammatory biomarkers in children with fever without apparent source and their usefulness in clinical decision-making. Data source was the Pubmed database. Thirteen studies were included, analysing the following biomarkers: erythrocyte sedimentation rate, white blood count, absolute neutrophil count, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the Lab-score (a combination of CRP, PCT and urine dipstick)...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595094/paediatric-hiv-1-infection-updated-strategies-of-prevention-mother-to-child-transmission
#2
Alessandra Lumaca, Luisa Galli, Maurizio de Martino, Elena Chiappini
INTRODUCTION: HIV-1 epidemiology is changing and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) strategies have been continuously optimized over time. However, the correct management of infected women during pregnancy is crucial for PMTCT and cases of vertical transmission continue to occur. OBJECTIVE: To review the most recent evidence regarding the prevention of MTCT in resource-rich and resource-limited settings, focalizing on new possible approaches. RESULTS: New issues regard the optimal antiretroviral therapy regimen for pregnant women with good immunological control, the use of intrapartum zidovudine (ZDV) in pregnant women with low viral load, the optimization of prophylaxis in the settings where breastfeeding is recommended and use of combined neonatal prophylaxis (CNP) in infants at high-risk for MTCT...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565228/impact-of-tigecycline-versus-imipenem-cilastatin-on-fibrinogen-levels-following-cytoreductive-surgery-crs-and-hyperthermic-intraperitoneal-chemotherapy-hipec-a-randomized-controlled-study
#3
Hakeam A Hakeam, Zainab Al Duhailib, Nawal Salahuddin, Tarek Amin
The aim of this prospective, randomized study was to compare the effects of tigecycline and imipenem-cilastatin on fibrinogen levels in patients undergoing cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). Patients were empirically randomized to receive tigecycline or imipenem-cilastatin. Fibrinogen levels were measured in both patient groups on days 1, 3, 5 and 8 of antibiotic therapy and 3 days after antibiotic therapy completion. Twenty patients received tigecycline and 22 patients received imipenem-cilastatin ...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557289/susceptibility-of-escherichia-coli-to-nitroxoline-an-option-for-uncomplicated-urinary-tract-infections-the-first-report-from-croatia
#4
Ivana Mareković, Zrinka Bošnjak, Karla Jurić, Mario Ćorić, Sanja Popović-Grle
Nitroxoline (NTX), 5-nitro-8-hydroxyquinoline is an oral antibiotic with mechanism of bacteriostatic activity that is based on chelation of divalent cations required for bacterial RNA polymerase. Susceptibility to NTX of 100 Escherichia coli urine isolates was determined at the Department of Clinical and Molecular Microbiology, University Hospital Centre Zagreb during September and October 2017. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by disc diffusion and the results were interpreted according to the European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) standards...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557272/early-abdominal-aortic-graft-infection-due-to-propionibacterium-acnes-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
Carlo Pallotto, Gioele Simonte, Fabio Verzini, Massimo Lenti, Franco Baldelli, Daniela Francisci, Maurizio Fiorio
Propionibacterium acnes is a member of the human microbiota that has been recently associated with late-onset infections of indwelling devices, especially shoulder prosthesis. Aortic graft infection are rare events with significant morbidity and mortality. Here, we describe the case of an abdominal aortic graft infection due to P. acnes with an unusual early onset. A review of the recent English language literature has been added.
March 20, 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304717/analysis-of-the-spectrum-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-uropathogens-in-outpatients-at-a-tertiary-hospital
#6
Bo Yang, Fujia Yang, Shanmei Wang, Qian Wang, Zhirui Liu, Wei Feng, Fengjun Sun, Peiyuan Xia
The objective of this study was to analyse the distribution and antimicrobial resistance of bacterial uropathogens isolated from outpatients at Henan Provincial People's Hospital. A total of 1419 samples from 823 newly diagnosed and 596 recurrent UTI outpatients culture positive. Escherichia coli was the most common uropathogen. Compared with the recurrent group, the newly diagnosed group had a higher isolation rate of E. coli and Enterobacter cloacae but a lower isolation rate of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp...
May 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078739/effects-of-a-new-combination-of-plant-extracts-plus-d-mannose-for-the-management-of-uncomplicated-recurrent-urinary-tract-infections
#7
Carlo Genovese, Sergio Davinelli, Katia Mangano, Gianna Tempera, Daria Nicolosi, Salvatore Corsello, Franca Vergalito, Edoardo Tartaglia, Giovanni Scapagnini, Roberto Di Marco
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are an economic burden for public health. The increasing prevalence of resistant bacteria which cause UTIs may be related to the inappropriate prescription of antibiotics. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate whether three different combinations of plant extracts plus d-mannose are effective in preventing the recurrence of UTIs. Three groups of patients received three combinations of plant extracts in conjunction with d-mannose. These were: berberine, arbutin and birch (group A); berberine, arbutin, birch and forskolin (group B); and proanthocyanidins (group C)...
April 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065784/effect-of-vancomycin-initial-dosing-on-time-to-systemic-inflammatory-response-syndrome-resolution-in-patients-with-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia
#8
Jessica Lynn Wesolek, Kelly McNorton, George Delgado, Christopher Alan Giuliano
Current guidelines suggest using vancomycin-loading doses for complicated infections despite a lack of evidence to support this practice. To address this gap, we performed a single-centre cohort study of 124 patients with sepsis due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Patients were allocated into two groups based on initial dose of vancomycin, <20 mg/kg or ≥20 mg/kg, and evaluated for time to resolution of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Among a cohort of 124 patients, 87 received vancomycin initial doses <20 mg/kg and 37 received ≥20 mg/kg...
April 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697650/ceftaroline-for-the-treatment-of-osteomyelitis-caused-by-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-a-case-series
#9
Karineh Lalikian, Rita Parsiani, Regina Won, Eric Chang, R Brigg Turner
Despite limited clinical data, ceftaroline is commonly used for treatment of complicated, invasive infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A retrospective chart review was conducted of adult patients receiving ceftaroline for MRSA osteomyelitis admitted between April 2011 and March 2016 at a five-hospital system. Twelve patients met the inclusion criteria. All patients received prior antimicrobial therapy with a median time to switch to ceftaroline of 45.5 days. Five of the 12 patients (41...
April 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466931/comparative-in-vitro-activity-of-ceftaroline-and-comparator-agents-against-nosocomial-gram-negative-and-gram-positive-clinically-significant-bacterial-isolates-from-patients-in-a-teaching-hospital-in-kuwait
#10
Wafaa Jamal, Hayfaa Abdulkareem, Vincent O Rotimi
The objective was to test the in vitro activities of ceftaroline and comparator agents against clinical isolates of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Isolates were identified with VITEK II. Susceptibility testing was with E test. A total of 1264 isolates were tested. Compared to other cephalosporins, ceftaroline demonstrated excellent in vitro activities (MIC90 , ≤0.5 mg/L) against Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Haemophilus influenzae. When matched with the comparator cephalosporins, ceftaroline demonstrated the greatest activity against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), with MIC90 of 0...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431031/impact-of-cephalosporin-restriction-on-incidence-of-infections-with-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-an-endemic-setting
#11
Kristina Nadrah, Mateja Pirs, Samo Kreft, Manica Mueller Premru, Bojana Beovic
Decreasing cephalosporin use was described as an effective intervention in decreasing the incidence of infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae harbouring extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBLKP). Due to sustained increased levels of infections caused by ESBLKP, a multifaceted antibiotic stewardship intervention aimed to decrease cephalosporin use was carried out at a large medical unit of a teaching hospital. All cephalosporins except the first-generation were restricted and could only be prescribed after authorization by an infectious disease physician...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405898/efficacy-and-safety-of-tigecycline-monotherapy-versus-combination-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-hap-a-meta-analysis-of-cohort-studies
#12
Xiang-Rong Bai, Jia-Ming Liu, De-Chun Jiang, Su-Ying Yan
The broad spectrum antibiotic tigecycline shows promising efficacy against many multiple drug resistant (MDR) pathogens. However, its clinical efficacy in the treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is unclear. Several studies have reported on the treatment failures of tigecycline monotherapy, suggesting that it may not be sufficient to control severe infections. Combination therapy has become an option to treat MDR bacterial infections. We conducted a literature search using PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Elsevier and the Web of Knowledge databases up to 29 February 2017 to identify relevant published studies...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385908/the-calm-before-the-storm-clinical-observations-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-mers-patients
#13
Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Kareem Hinedi
BACKGROUND: Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection emerged in 2012. The majority of cases occurred in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the disease carries a high case fatality rate. METHODS: We present three MERS-CoV cases and highlight the salient clinical features and laboratory, and radiographic characteristics. RESULTS: Although all nasopharyngeal samples were negative, MERS CoV infection was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of the E gene (UpE) and open reading frame (ORF1b) on sputum samples...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278102/hepatic-veno-occlusive-disease-during-isavuconazole-administration
#14
Alessio Mesini, Giuliana Cangemi, Elena Palmisani, Carlo Dufour, Elio Castagnola
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098953/efficacy-of-clara-in-recurrent-refractory-acute-myeloid-leukaemia-patients-unresponsive-to-flag-chemotherapy
#15
Ali Hakan Kaya, Emre Tekgündüz, Kadir Ilkkiliç, Mehmet Sinan Dal, Alparslan Merdin, Abdullah Karakus, Sibel Kabukcu Hacioglu, Filiz Bekdemir, Merih Kızıl Çakar, Mehmet Hilmi Dogu, Mehmet Orhan Ayyildiz, Serdal Korkmaz, Fevzi Altuntaş
We hereby report our multicentre, retrospective experience with CLARA in patients with fludarabine/cytarabine/G-CSF (FLAG) refractory AML. The study included all consecutive R/R AML patients, who received CLARA salvage during October 2010-October 2015 period. All patients were unresponsive to FLAG salvage chemotherapy regimen and did not undergo previous allo-HCT. A total of 40 patients were included. Following CLARA 5 (12.5%) patients experienced induction mortality and 10 (25%) patients achieved CR. 25 (62...
February 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956738/comparison-of-antibiotics-use-urinary-tract-infection-uti-causative-bacteria-and-their-antibiotic-susceptibilities-among-4-hospitals-with-different-backgrounds-and-regions-in-japan
#16
Katsumi Shigemura, Koichi Kitagawa, Kayo Osawa, Fukashi Yamamichi, Issei Tokimatsu, Masashi Nomi, Kei Takaba, Masato Fujisawa
In this study, we compared the antibiotic use, urinary tract infection-causative bacteria and their antibiotic susceptibilities among four hospitals with different backgrounds and regions in Japan in 2014. Frequency of antibiotic use (antibiotic use density: AUD/all AUD) were: ampicillin: 0.21-20.3 (median: 1.6) and cefazolin: 0.8-34.2 (2.5), representatively. The antibiotic resistant rates of Escherichia coli were ampicillin: 1.1-52.3% (median: 51.8%), piperacillin: 47.9-49.1% (48.0%), cefazolin: 23.2-34.1% (28...
February 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956494/in-vitro-effect-of-subminimal-inhibitory-concentrations-of-antibiotics-on-the-biofilm-formation-ability-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-clinical-isolates
#17
Maja Bogdan, Domagoj Drenjancevic, Ivana Harsanji Drenjancevic, Branka Bedenic, Vlasta Zujic Atalic, Jasminka Talapko, Dubravka Vukovic
The ability of A cinetobacter baumannii strains to form biofilm is one of the most important virulence factor which enables bacterial survival in a harsh environment and decreases antibiotic concentration as well. Subminimal inhibitory concentrations (subMICs) of antibiotics may change bacterial ultrastructure or have an influence on some different molecular mechanisms resulting in morphological or physiological changes in bacteria itself. The aim of this study was to determine effects of 1/2, 1/4, 1/8 and 1/16 minimal inhibitory concentrationsof imipenem, ampicillin-sulbactam, azithromycin, rifampicin and colistin on biofilm formation ability of 22 biofilm non-producing and 46 biofilm producing A...
February 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950787/estimation-of-once-daily-amikacin-dose-in-critically-ill-adults
#18
Martin Šíma, Jan Hartinger, Tereza Cikánková, Ondřej Slanař
This study aimed at investigating variables affecting amikacin pharmacokinetics in order to propose optimal initial dosing in critically ill adult patients treated with once-daily amikacin regimen. Amikacin pharmacokinetics was calculated based on plasma concentrations using one compartmental analysis. Relationships between pharmacokinetic parameters and demographic/clinical data were explored in linear regression models. Simulated dose and dosing intervals were derived from body size descriptors and estimated creatinine clearances for each patient...
February 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949279/surveillance-of-antimicrobial-susceptibility-patterns-among-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-isolated-in-china-during-the-10-year-period-of-2005-2014
#19
Li-Fen Hu, Xi-Hai Xu, Hong-Ru Li, Li-Ping Gao, Xi Chen, Nian Sun, Yan-Yan Liu, Hua-Fa Ying, Jia-Bin Li
The antimicrobial resistance pattern was studied among 300 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates collected from 300 nonduplicated inpatients. The average age of the patients was 73.5 ± 14.6 years old. Isolates nonsusceptible to levofloxacin, chloramphenicol, minocycline or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT) were more prevalent in the 99 patients aged over 81 years than in the other patients (p < 0.05). Multidrug resistance was found to be significantly associated with isolates recovered from the blood (72...
February 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651480/news-on-therapeutic-management-of-mdr-tuberculosis-a-literature-review
#20
Lucie Barthod, Jean-Guillaume Lopez, Christophe Curti, Charléric Bornet, Manon Roche, Marc Montana, Patrice Vanelle
In 2015, the World Health Organization registered 10.4 million people who developed tuberculosis worldwide and 480,000 new cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis were identified. The care of multi and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis is based on a combination of pyrazinamide and second-line drugs. These regimens are lengthy, partially effective and poorly tolerated. The challenge is to re-evaluate the use of existing molecules and to develop new agents more effective against resistant strains with shorter treatment duration...
February 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
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