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Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902771/attention-and-visual-motor-integration-in-young-children-with-uncorrected-hyperopia
#1
Marjean Taylor Kulp, Elise Ciner, Maureen Maguire, Maxwell Pistilli, T Rowan Candy, Gui-Shuang Ying, Graham Quinn, Lynn Cyert, Bruce Moore
SIGNIFICANCE: Among 4- and 5-year-old children, deficits in measures of attention, visual-motor integration (VMI) and visual perception (VP) are associated with moderate, uncorrected hyperopia (3 to 6 diopters [D]) accompanied by reduced near visual function (near visual acuity worse than 20/40 or stereoacuity worse than 240 seconds of arc). PURPOSE: To compare attention, visual motor, and visual perceptual skills in uncorrected hyperopes and emmetropes attending preschool or kindergarten and evaluate their associations with visual function...
September 11, 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902008/fibrous-catalyst-enhanced-acanthamoeba-disinfection-by-hydrogen-peroxide
#2
Simon Kilvington, Lynn Winterton
SIGNIFICANCE: Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) disinfection systems are contact-lens-patient problem solvers. The current one-step, criterion-standard version has been widely used since the mid-1980s, without any significant improvement. This work identifies a potential next-generation, one-step H2O2, not based on the solution formulation but rather on a case-based peroxide catalyst. PURPOSE: One-step H2O2 systems are widely used for contact lens disinfection. However, antimicrobial efficacy can be limited because of the rapid neutralization of the peroxide from the catalytic component of the systems...
September 9, 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858005/preinflammatory-signs-in-established-reusable-and-disposable-contact-lens-wearers
#3
Cecilia Chao, Fiona Stapleton, Mark D P Willcox, Blanka Golebiowski, Kathryn Richdale
SIGNIFICANCE: Established reusable contact lens (CL) wearers show higher tear inflammatory cytokine concentrations and greater conjunctival metaplasia in the region covered by standard soft CLs. The balance of proinflammatory to anti-inflammatory cytokines, but not individual tear cytokine concentrations, was associated with self-reported CL discomfort. PURPOSE: Daily disposable (DD) lenses are often used to improve CL discomfort, but the effect on ocular inflammatory responses has not been fully investigated...
August 29, 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858004/accommodative-behavior-of-eyes-wearing-aspheric-single-vision-contact-lenses
#4
Basal H Altoaimi, Meznah S Almutairi, Pete Kollbaum, Arthur Bradley
SIGNIFICANCE: Wearing aspheric contact lenses adds significant amounts of negative spherical aberration (SA). Also, when accommodated and converged to near targets, pupil size shrinks and SA shift from positive to more negative direction. Interestingly, in this study, pupil miosis was fully or partially able to compensate for the additional accommodation-induced negative SA. PURPOSE: The present study aims to examine the accommodative response characteristics of young eyes fit with aspheric single vision contact lenses (SVCLs) that add significant negative SA to the eye responding to a wide range of accommodation stimuli...
August 29, 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858003/refractive-status-in-nepalese-pre-term-and-full-term-infants-early-in-life
#5
Samir Uprety, Priya Morjaria, Jyoti B Shrestha, Gauri S Shrestha, Safal Khanal
SIGNIFICANCE: This study suggests that pre-term infants, even without retinopathy of prematurity, are at risk for abnormal refractive development and informs the need for close monitoring of refractive error in such infants, regardless of their retinopathy of prematurity status. PURPOSE: The present study aims to investigate the refractive error trend in Nepalese pre-term infants without retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in the first 6 months of life and explore the association of refractive error with birth weight (BW) and gestational age (GA)...
August 29, 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858050/multicolor-scanning-laser-imaging-in-diabetic-retinopathy
#6
Mohammad S Z Ahmad, Zia Iqbal Carrim
SIGNIFICANCE: Diabetic retinopathy is a common cause of blindness in individuals younger than 60 years. Screening for retinopathy is undertaken using conventional color fundus photography and relies on the identification of hemorrhages, vascular abnormalities, exudates, and cotton-wool spots. These can sometimes be difficult to identify. PURPOSE: Multicolor scanning laser imaging, a new imaging modality, may have a role in improving screening outcomes, as well as facilitating treatment decisions...
August 25, 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858049/centration-and-decentration-of-contact-lenses-during-peripheral-gaze
#7
Nevin W El-Nimri, Jeffrey J Walline
SIGNIFICANCE: Varying amounts of peripheral defocus reported in previous studies are likely due to whether peripheral defocus is measured while turning the eyes or the head. Contact lenses (CLs) lag when viewing objects in peripheral gaze, so future studies ought to measure peripheral defocus while turning the head to measure defocus through the peripheral add power. PURPOSE: Soft multifocal CL peripheral defocus studies report varying results. To determine whether soft multifocal CL lag when turning the eyes could affect the measurement of peripheral defocus, we measured how much CLs move when looking in different gazes...
August 25, 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858048/2016-glenn-a-fry-award-lecture-mechanisms-and-potential-treatments-of-early-age-related-macular-degeneration
#8
Erica Lucy Fletcher
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible vision loss in those older than 80 years. Understanding the mechanisms that cause this condition or its progression is critical for developing novel treatments. Here we summarize our studies evaluating the role of purine, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), in early AMD as well as photoreceptor loss and have also provided some insights to our investigations of a new laser treatment for those with early AMD. One of the receptors that are activated by ATP, P2X7, is expressed by neurons and immune cells and has a different function in each cell type...
August 25, 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858047/an-assessment-of-stereovision-acquired-in-adulthood
#9
Susan R Barry, Bruce Bridgeman
SIGNIFICANCE: Increasing evidence indicates that childhood binocular vision disorders that lead to stereodeficiency may be treated in adulthood. Reports of patients who gain stereopsis as adults indicate that this achievement provides for a qualitatively different and dramatically improved sense of space and depth. PURPOSE: Increasing evidence suggests that stereopsis can be achieved in adult patients despite long-standing binocular disorders. We polled individuals who gained stereopsis as adults to ascertain their initial binocular disorders, the length of time they were stereodeficient, effective treatments, and the nature of their recovered stereovision...
August 25, 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858046/the-charles-f-prentice-award-lecture-2015-neural-organization-of-binocular-vision
#10
Ralph D Freeman
During a Research Career Development Award from the National Eye Institute, I spent a year at the University of Cambridge doing research with John Robson. The goal was to use a visual stimulation approach that had not been previously attempted, with the intention of exploring fundamental organization principles of the neural basis of binocular vision. The idea was to use sinusoidal gratings that drifted before both eyes such that the relative phase for one eye was fixed while that of the other was varied. This provided binocular stimuli of variable relative phase, i...
August 25, 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858045/corneal-hysteresis-is-reduced-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome
#11
Suchitra Nadarajah, Amir Samsudin, Norlina Ramli, Chong Tin Tan, Zahari Mimiwati
SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, this is the first time a study looking at the association between corneal hysteresis (CH) and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) severity has been reported. We provide evidence that CH is lower in OSAS and speculate on the possible causes. PURPOSE: The present study aims to look at the association between CH and severity of OSAS, and whether CH could be another link between OSAS and the development of glaucoma. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, observational study at the University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur...
August 25, 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858044/tonometry-after-intrastromal-corneal-ring-segments-for-keratoconus
#12
Paula Arribas-Pardo, Carmen Mendez-Hernandez, Ricardo Cuiña-Sardiña, José Manuel Benitez-Del-Castillo, Julian Garcia-Feijoo
SIGNIFICANCE: Reliable intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement after intrastromal corneal ring segments (ICRS) implantation is a challenge because of altered corneal morphology. In this study, IOP is measured with four tonometers, compared with Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) values and the influence of corneal parameters is established. PURPOSE: This study compares IOP measurements made using different tonometers in patients implanted with ICRS and assesses the effects of central corneal thickness (CCT), corneal curvature, and corneal astigmatism on the IOP measurements obtained...
August 25, 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858991/yes-virginia-there-is-a-future-in-science
#13
Michael D Twa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816868/comparison-of-refractive-measures-of-three-autorefractors-in-children-and-adolescents
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Shuyu Xiong, Minzhi Lv, Haidong Zou, Jianfeng Zhu, Lina Lu, Bo Zhang, Junjie Deng, Chunxia Yao, Xiangui He, Xun Xu
SIGNIFICANCE: Our study found a good agreement between three autorefractors. Not only will readers benefit as they can now compare data measured with either device in different studies but the three devices can be used in the same study to generate one pool of data, which can be analyzed together. PURPOSE: The present study aims to evaluate the agreement of three commonly used autorefractors in children and adolescents, and the potential for their interchangeable application in a large-scale study...
September 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816867/peripheral-refraction-and-aberration-profiles-with-multifocal-lenses
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Cathleen Fedtke, Klaus Ehrmann, Varghese Thomas, Ravi C Bakaraju
SIGNIFICANCE: The amount of central or peripheral myopic shift, as induced by different multifocal contact lenses when viewing objects at distance or near, may provide insights on the potential efficacy for slowing eye growth. PURPOSE: The present study aims to compare peripheral refraction and higher-order aberration profiles of four multifocal contact lenses with a single vision control lens. METHODS: Thirty-five myopes (age 21.2 ± 2.1 years) completed the trial, of whom 16 wore Air Optix Aqua and Proclear Multifocal Distance and Near (Group 1, spherical equivalent: -2...
September 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816866/differences-in-tear-film-biochemistry-of-symptomatic-and-asymptomatic-lens-wearers
#16
Simin Masoudi, Fiona J Stapleton, Mark D P Willcox
SIGNIFICANCE: The concentration of selected proteins and inflammatory mediators in tears of symptomatic and asymptomatic contact lens wearers were quantified. The level of leukotriene B4 was higher in the symptomatic group. This may suggest that inflammation can be the cause of discomfort sensation at the end of day. PURPOSE: The present study aims to quantify the concentration of selected tear lipids and proteins in symptomatic and asymptomatic contact lens wearers...
September 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816865/liquid-crystal-spatial-light-modulators-for-simulating-zonal-multifocal-lenses
#17
Yiyu Li, Arthur Bradley, Renfeng Xu, Pete S Kollbaum
SIGNIFICANCE: To maximize efficiency of the normally lengthy and costly multizone lens design and testing process, it is advantageous to evaluate the potential efficacy of a design as thoroughly as possible prior to lens fabrication and on-eye testing. The current work describes an ex vivo approach of optical design testing. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe a system capable of examining the optical characteristics of multizone bifocal and multifocal optics by subaperture stitching using liquid crystal technologies...
September 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816728/lipid-deposition-on-contact-lenses-when-using-contemporary-care-solutions
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Negar Babaei Omali, Mark Lada, Carol Lakkis, Philip B Morgan, Jason J Nichols, Lakshman N Subbaraman, Lyndon W Jones
SIGNIFICANCE: There remains only a small amount of data from human studies demonstrating the effect of contact lens/lens care solution combinations on the deposition of lipids. Therefore, information on the degree to which modern materials deposit lipids when used with contemporary care solutions would be valuable. PURPOSE: The present study aims to determine the effect of lens care system combinations on levels of total lipid, cholesterol, and cholesteryl esters extracted from three different contact lenses (CLs) when used with four contemporary care systems...
September 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816727/effect-of-time-on-scleral-lens-settling-and-change-in-corneal-clearance
#19
Heinz Otchere, Lyndon W Jones, Luigina Sorbara
SIGNIFICANCE: With the increase in the use of scleral contact lenses among practitioners, questions regarding lens settling are gradually gaining attention. This is because current studies support the notion that scleral lenses settle back over time. More research is needed to understand the exact cause and the factors that underpin such phenomenon. PURPOSE: The present study aims to assess the effect of time on topographic corneal clearance of three scleral contact lenses of varying sagittal depths...
September 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742623/prediction-of-orthokeratology-lens-decentration-with-corneal-elevation
#20
Zhi Chen, Feng Xue, Jiaqi Zhou, Xiaomei Qu, Xingtao Zhou
SIGNIFICANCE: Lens decentration is common and unavoidable to some extent during ortho-k treatment. By using a simplified method, we are able to predict the magnitude and direction of ortho-k lens decentration, which provides useful insights in screening for ideal ortho-k candidates and to make a quick decision when decentration happens. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of corneal elevation asymmetry on ortho-k lens decentration. METHODS: Thirty-six eyes of 36 subjects were fitted with four-curve reverse geometry ortho-k contact lenses...
September 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
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