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Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099241/fmri-with-central-vision-loss-effects-of-fixation-locus-and-stimulus-type
#1
Tina Plank, Jozef Frolo, Sabine Brandl-Rühle, Agnes B Renner, Herbert Jägle, Mark W Greenlee
PURPOSE: In patients with central visual field scotomata, a large part of visual cortex is not adequately stimulated. Patients often use a new eccentric fixation area on intact peripheral retina ("preferred retinal locus"-PRL) that functions as a pseudo-fovea. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine whether stimulating this pseudo-fovea leads to increased activation or altered activation patterns in visual cortex in comparison to stimulating a comparable peripheral area in the opposite hemifield (OppPRL)...
January 19, 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195933/mucin-balls-influence-corneal-infiltrative-events
#2
Loretta B Szczotka-Flynn, Ying Jiang, Mary Jo Stiegemeier, Donald O Mutti, Jeffrey Walline, Tawnya Wilson, Sara Debanne
PURPOSE: To determine whether mucin ball (MB) formation is protective against corneal infiltrative events (CIEs) as previously reported. METHODS: Two hundred eighty-two eligible participants were enrolled at three sites in the USA. Participants began a 1-month continuous wear run-in period with high modulus lotrafilcon A lenses to assess their ability to form MBs (phase 1). Subsequently, they were stratified by this characteristic and randomized to balafilcon A or comfilcon A lenses for 7-day extended wear and followed for 1 year (phase 2)...
January 18, 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099240/inter-relationship-of-soft-contact-lens-diameter-base-curve-radius-and-fit
#3
Graeme Young, Lee Hall, Anna Sulley, Kathrine Osborn-Lorenz, James S Wolffsohn
PURPOSE: To evaluate the inter-relationship of soft contact lens base curve radius (BC), diameter, and lens fit using a mathematical model. METHODS: A spreadsheet mathematical model was used to evaluate theoretical fitting characteristics for various combinations of soft lens BC and diameter. The designs were evaluated using ocular topography data collected from 163 UK subjects. The model evaluated lens tightness (edge strain) and on-eye diameter (horizontal corneal overlap) and assumed that acceptable values fell within the range 0 to 6% and 0...
January 18, 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079738/vision-problems-and-reduced-reading-outcomes-in-queensland-schoolchildren
#4
Shelley Hopkins, Geoff P Sampson, Peter L Hendicott, Joanne M Wood
PURPOSE: To assess the relationship between vision and reading outcomes in Indigenous and non-Indigenous schoolchildren to determine whether vision problems are associated with lower reading outcomes in these populations. METHODS: Vision testing and reading assessments were performed on 508 Indigenous and non-Indigenous schoolchildren in Queensland, Australia divided into two age groups: Grades 1 and 2 (6-7 years of age) and Grades 6 and 7 (12-13 years of age). Vision parameters measured included cycloplegic refraction, near point of convergence, heterophoria, fusional vergence range, rapid automatized naming, and visual motor integration...
January 12, 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182590/lens-opacity-and-hydrogen-sulfide-in-a-new-zealand-geothermal-area
#5
Michael N Bates, Ian L Bailey, Robert B DiMartino, Karl Pope, Julian Crane, Nick Garrett
PURPOSE: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a highly toxic gas with well-established, acute irritation effects on the eye. The population of Rotorua, New Zealand, sited on an active geothermal field, has some of the highest ambient H2S exposures in the world. Evidence from ecological studies in Rotorua has suggested that H2S is associated with cataract. The purpose of the present study was, using more detailed exposure characterization, clinical examinations, and anterior eye photography, to more directly investigate this previously reported association...
January 11, 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027274/effect-of-accommodation-on-peripheral-eye-lengths-of-emmetropes-and-myopes
#6
Hussain Aldossari, Marwan Suheimat, David A Atchison, Katrina L Schmid
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of accommodation on central and peripheral axial lengths in young adult emmetropes and myopes. METHODS: On-axis and peripheral axial lengths were measured with the Haag-Streit Lenstar in 83 young adult participants for 0D and 6D accommodation demands. A Badal system was used to both correct refractive errors and induce accommodation. Participants were emmetropes (n = 29, mean spherical equivalent refraction +0.35 ± 0.35D), low myopes (32, -1...
January 3, 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033161/relative-difficulties-of-daily-living-tasks-with-retinitis-pigmentosa
#7
Keziah Latham, Mohammad Baranian, Matthew A Timmis, Andy Fisher, Shahina Pardhan
PURPOSE: To determine the relative difficulty of activity of daily living tasks for people with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). METHODS: Participants with RP (n = 166) rated the difficulty of tasks (n = 43) underpinning the Dutch Activity Inventory goals of mobility indoors and outdoors, shopping, and using public transport. Demographic characteristics were also determined. Responses were Rasch analyzed to determine properties of the scale, derive unidimensional subscales, and consider differential item functioning (DIF)...
December 29, 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033160/substance-p-in-flush-tears-and-schirmer-strips-of-healthy-participants
#8
Maria Markoulli, Moneisha Gokhale, Jingjing You
PURPOSE: To determine the repeatability of the flush tear collection technique and the Schirmer strip for Substance P tear analysis. METHODS: The tears of 10 healthy non-contact-lens wearers were collected via Schirmer strip and microcapillary following instillation of either 20 μL (F-20) or 60 μL (F-60) of saline. Each technique was conducted on two occasions and in a randomized order. Total protein content (TPC) and Substance P concentrations were determined...
December 29, 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027276/accommodation-and-phoria-in-children-wearing-multifocal-contact-lenses
#9
Celia R Gong, David Troilo, Kathryn Richdale
PURPOSE: To determine the effect of multifocal contact lenses on accommodation and phoria in children. METHODS: This was a prospective, non-dispensing, randomized, crossover, single-visit study. Myopic children with normal accommodation and binocularity and no history of myopia control treatment were enrolled and fitted with CooperVision Biofinity single vision (SV) and multifocal (MF, +2.50D center distance add) contact lenses. Accommodative responses (photorefraction) and phorias (modified Thorington) were measured at four distances (>3 m, 100 cm, 40 cm, 25 cm)...
December 23, 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027275/development-of-a-keratoconus-specific-questionnaire-using-rasch-analysis
#10
Jyoti Khadka, Paul G Schoneveld, Konrad Pesudovs
PURPOSE: To develop and validate a keratoconus-specific quality of life (QoL) questionnaire: the Keratoconus Outcomes Research Questionnaire (KORQ). METHODS: The study was carried out in three phases. Phase I: content identifications: items were identified based on an extensive literature review, open-ended patient mail survey, and expert consultations. Each item was scored on a visual analog scale (VAS). Phase II: pilot testing using Rasch analysis. Phase III: testing psychometric properties of the final version of the KORQ...
December 23, 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027273/oxygen-tension-beneath-scleral-lenses-of-different-clearances
#11
Claude J Giasson, Jeanne Morency, Marc Melillo, Langis Michaud
PURPOSE: To evaluate the relative partial pressure in oxygen (pO2) at the corneal surface under Boston XO2 scleral lenses (SL) fitted with targeted clearances of 200 and 400 μm (SL200 and SL400). METHODS: During this prospective study, the right eyes of eight normal subjects were fitted with SL200 and SL400. Clearance, validated after 5 minutes of wear with an optical coherence tomograph, was used with lens thicknesses to calculate transmissibility and estimate pO2...
December 23, 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009794/ocular-straylight-with-different-multifocal-contact-lenses
#12
Grzegorz Łabuz, Norberto López-Gil, Thomas J T P van den Berg, Fernando Vargas-Martín
PURPOSE: Multifocal contact lenses have been growing in popularity as a modality to correct presbyopic eyes, although visual side effects such as disability glare have been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of multifocal contact lenses on disability glare by means of ocular straylight. METHODS: A prospective randomized, comparative study was performed that included 16 subjects free of ocular pathology. Straylight was measured using a commercial straylight meter with the natural and dilated pupil...
December 22, 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009793/measurement-duration-and-frequency-impact-objective-light-exposure-measures
#13
Sekar Ulaganathan, Scott A Read, Michael J Collins, Stephen J Vincent
PURPOSE: To determine the measurement duration and frequency required to reliably quantify the typical personal light exposure patterns of children and young adults. METHODS: Ambient light exposure data were obtained from 31 young adults and 30 children using a wrist-worn light sensor configured to measure ambient light exposure every 30 seconds for 14 days. To examine the influence of measurement duration upon light exposure, the daily time exposed to outdoor light levels (>1000 lux) was initially calculated based upon data from all 14 days and then recalculated from 12, 10, 8, 6, 4, and 2 randomly selected days...
December 22, 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009792/clinical-features-in-children-with-posterior-polymorphous-corneal-dystrophy
#14
Ye Jin Ahn, Soon Il Choi, Hae Ri Yum, Sun Young Shin, Shin Hae Park
PURPOSE: To describe clinical features in children diagnosed with posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD) in their first or second decade of life. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed with the medical records of seven unrelated Korean pediatric patients who were diagnosed with PPCD and were followed up for a minimum of 3 years. Thorough ocular examinations were performed, including best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, refractive and keratometric measurements, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, and specular microscopy at all visits...
December 22, 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005683/association-of-body-length-with-ocular-parameters-in-mice
#15
Ranjay Chakraborty, Han Na Park, Christopher C Tan, Paul Weiss, Megan C Prunty, Machelle T Pardue
PURPOSE: To determine the association between changes in body length with ocular refraction, corneal radii, axial length, and lens thickness in two different mouse strains. METHODS: Body length, ocular refraction, corneal radii, axial length, and lens thickness were measured for two inbred mouse strains: 129S1/SvJ (n = 7) and C57BL/6 J (n = 10) from 4 to 12 weeks of age. Body length, from tip of nose to base of tail, was obtained using a digital camera. Biometric parameters, corneal radii, and refractions were measured using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, automated keratometry, and infrared photorefraction, respectively...
December 21, 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002097/associations-between-spatial-and-temporal-contrast-sensitivity-and-reading
#16
Tamara Brussee, Thomas J T P van den Berg, Ruth M A van Nispen, Ger H M B van Rens
PURPOSE: To gain insight into the association between optical and neural components of contrast sensitivity (CS), operationalized as spatial CS (optical and neural) or temporal CS (solely neural), and reading speed in a clinical sample of healthy adults of various ages. Furthermore, precision and agreement of the two methods were assessed. METHODS: The Mars test and the temporal CS implementation of the C-Quant device were used to measure spatial CS and temporal CS, respectively...
December 20, 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984505/relationship-between-corneal-thickness-and-radius-to-body-height
#17
Sven Jonuscheit, Michael J Doughty, Raúl Martín, Ana Rio-Cristobal
PURPOSE: To investigate the possible association between body stature (height) and corneal thickness and radius in younger-adult Caucasians, especially within the context of previously published literature. METHODS: Body height and weight were measured in 109 healthy subjects, with an average age of 24 ± 6 years (mean ± SD). Subjects underwent an ophthalmic assessment including anterior segment imaging by Scheimpflug topography and specular microscopy. Central and peripheral corneal thickness and corneal radius were analyzed...
December 15, 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922924/fixation-stability-recording-how-long-for-eyes-with-central-vision-loss
#18
Luminita Tarita-Nistor, Ishrat Gill, Esther G González, Martin J Steinbach
PURPOSE: Fixation examination with the MP-1 microperimeter (Nidek Technologies Srl., Vigonza, PD, Italy) determines the preferred retinal loci and fixation stability in patients with central vision loss. It is typically done for periods of 15 to 30 s as per the manual's recommendations, which are arbitrary. In this study, we examined (1) whether fixation stability depends on the duration of recording and (2) whether fixation stability changes over time. METHODS: Raw eye-position data from 76 patients with bilateral central vision loss (mean age = 80 ± 9...
December 5, 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906862/correlational-study-of-diabetic-retinopathy-and-hearing-loss
#19
Caroline Ooley, Weon Jun, Kim Le, Allen Kim, Nathan Rock, Molly Cardenal, Rebecca Kline, Drew Aldrich, John Hayes
PURPOSE: Our research goal was to complete a retrospective chart review to determine if there is a correlation between the level of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic neurosensory hearing loss. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 175 Department of Veterans Affairs Computerized Patient Record System charts was completed at the VA Portland Health Care System. Subjects were classified by degree of diabetic retinopathy as follows: no diabetic retinopathy (n = 80), mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (n = 51), moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (n = 25), and combined severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) (n = 17)...
November 30, 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225373/outer-retinal-tubulation-a-case-series
#20
Leticia A Rousso, Julie A Rodman, Brad Sutton, Diana L Shechtman
PURPOSE: The advent of spectral domain optical coherence tomography has led to superb imaging capabilities in addition to enhanced visualization of the retinal layers. Such advancements have led to the identification of a variety of new retinal conditions, including outer retinal tubulations (ORTs). ORTs are ovoid hyporeflective spaces located in the outer retina. The pathogenesis is unclear but seems to involve sublethal injury to the photoreceptors leading to a compensatory reorganization of the photoreceptor layer with the neighboring ellipsoid zone resulting in a hyperreflective border surrounding a central lumen...
March 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
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