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Journal of Internal Medicine

Tarec Christoffer El-Galaly, Diego Villa, Lars Christian Gormsen, Joachim Baech, Andrea Lo, Chan Yoon Cheah
FDG-PET/CT is the current state-of-the-art imaging in lymphoma and plays a central role in treatment decisions. At diagnosis, accurate staging is crucial for appropriate therapy selection: FDG-PET/CT can identify areas of lymphoma missed by CT alone and avoid under-treatment of patients with advanced disease stage who would have been misclassified as having limited stage disease by CT. Particularly in Hodgkin lymphoma, positive interim FDG-PET/CT scans are adversely prognostic for clinical outcomes and can inform PET-adapted treatment strategies, but such data are less consistent in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
Peter Benedek, Mats Eriksson, Kristina Duvefelt, Anna Freyschuss, Mats Frick, Pia Lundman, Lotta Nylund, Karolina Szummer
BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolemia could be prevalent among acute coronary syndrome patients. OBJECTIVE: To investigate both the frequency of causative mutations for familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and the optimal selection of patients for genetic testing among patients with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS: 116 patients with an ACS during 2009-2015 were identified through the SWEDEHEART registry. Patients who had either a high total cholesterol level ≥7 mmol/L combined with a triglyceride level ≤2...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
A-M Teeriniemi, T Salonurmi, T Jokelainen, H Vähänikkilä, T Alahäivälä, P Karppinen, H Enwald, M-L Huotari, J Laitinen, H Oinas-Kukkonen, M J Savolainen
BACKGROUND: Weight loss can prevent and treat obesity-related diseases. However, lost weight is usually regained, returning to the initial or even higher levels in the long term. New counselling methods for maintaining lifestyle changes are urgently needed. OBJECTIVES: An information and communication technology-based health behaviour change support system (HBCSS) that utilizes persuasive design and methods of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) was developed with the aim of helping individuals to maintain body weight...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
N Üçeyler, J Böttger, L Henkel, M Langjahr, C Mayer, P Nordbeck, C Wanner, C Sommer
BACKGROUND: The X-linked Fabry disease (FD) is a multiorgan disorder due to alpha-galactosidase A (α-GAL) deficiency with consequent lysosomal accumulation of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3). We established the immunocytochemical detection of Gb3 in blood cells of FD patients as a new method for FD diagnostics, follow-up and treatment control. METHODS: We enrolled 67 FD patients (37 men, 30 women) and 52 healthy controls (26 men, 26 women). PBMC were isolated from whole venous blood and 3x105 cells were immunoreacted with antibodies against CD77 as a marker for Gb3...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
S Brighenti, M Lerm
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 3, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
Amani Al-Khaifi, Sara Straniero, Veronika Voronova, Dina Chernikova, Victor Sokolov, Chanchal Kumar, Bo Angelin, Mats Rudling
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bile acids (BAs) traversing the enterohepatic circulation (EHC) influence important metabolic pathways. By determining individual serum BAs in relation to markers of metabolic activity, we explored how diurnal variations in their EHC relate to hepatic metabolism in normal humans. METHODS: Serum BAs, fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), lipoproteins, glucose/insulin, and markers of cholesterol and BA syntheses were monitored for 32 hours in 8 healthy males...
July 2, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
Anna G Nilsson, Daniel Sundh, Fredrik Bäckhed, Mattias Lorentzon
The importance of the gut microbiome for bone metabolism in mice has recently been demonstrated, but no studies are available in humans. Lactobacillus reuteri ATCCPTA 6475 (L. reuteri 6475) has been reported to increase bone mineral density (BMD) in mice but its effect on the human skeleton is unknown. The objective of this trial was to investigate if L. reuteri 6475 affects bone loss in older women with low BMD. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, women from the population who were 75 to 80 years old and had low BMD were randomized to orally receive 1010 colony-forming units of L...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
A Rosengren
Type 2 diabetes is a major and accelerating public health challenge. Between 1980 and 2014, a period of just 35 years, the number of adults with diabetes globally is estimated to have increased from 108 million to 422 million, due not only to sharply rising obesity rates, but also to increasing population size, and longer life expectancy. The increase in numbers is due to an increasing prevalence of diabetes worldwide, increasing population size, and longer life expectancy. Overall, worldwide age-standardized adult diabetes prevalence doubled from 4...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
Francesc Villarroya, Rubén Cereijo, Aleix Gavaldà-Navarro, Joan Villarroya, Marta Giralt
Many of the comorbidities of obesity, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases are related to the low-grade chronic inflammation of white adipose tissue. Under white adipocyte stress, local infiltration of immune cells and enhanced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines together reduce metabolic flexibility and lead to insulin resistance in obesity. Whereas white adipocytes act in energy storage, brown and beige adipocytes specialize in energy expenditure. Brown and beige activity protects against obesity and associated metabolic disorders, such as hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
Signe Borgquist, Olöf Bjarnadottir, Siker Kimbung, Thomas P Ahern
Statin drugs have been used for more than two decades to treat hypercholesterolemia and as cardio-preventive drugs, resulting in a marked decrease in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide. Statins halt hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis by inhibiting the rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR). The mevalonate pathway regulates a host of biochemical processes in addition to cholesterol production. Attenuation of these pathways is likely responsible for the myriad benefits of statin therapy beyond cholesterol reduction-the so-called pleiotropic effects of statins...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
Ronald F van Vollenhoven
The autoimmune rheumatological diseases rheumatoid arthritis (RA), spondyloarthritis (SpA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are treated with conventional immunosuppressive agents and with modern biological immunomodulators. The latter group of medications have brought about a major change in our ability to control RA and SpA, with more modest results for SLE. The biologicals are very specific in their mechanisms of action, targeting one specific cytokine or one particular cellular marker. Because of this, their efficacy can readily be linked to a single immunomodulatory mechanism...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
Christian Wejse
The role of vitamin D in tuberculosis (TB) has been a hot topic for decades, and it is still an unresolved matter. Vitamin D deficiency and other micronutrient deficiencies have been considered as important risk factors for TB and malnutrition is overall a highly important risk factor for TB. In fact with the highest population attributable fraction (PAF) for TB at 27% (1), which means the fraction of all TB cases that would NOT have occurred if exposure (to e.g. malnutrition) was not there. This article is protected by copyright...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
C Fernandez, J Rysä, P Almgren, J Nilsson, G Engström, M Orho-Melander, H Ruskoaho, O Melander
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is linked to premature mortality of virtually all causes. Furin is a proprotein convertase broadly involved in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis, however little is known about its role in the development of diabetes mellitus and risk of premature mortality. OBJECTIVES: To test if fasting plasma concentration of furin is associated with development of diabetes mellitus and mortality. METHODS: Overnight fasted plasma furin levels were measured at baseline examination in 4678 individuals from the population-based prospective Malmö Diet and Cancer Study...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
T Bjarnsholt, K Buhlin, Y F Dufrêne, M Gomelsky, A Moroni, M Ramstedt, K P Rumbaugh, T Schulte, L Sun, B Åkerlund, U Römling
Although biofilms have been observed early in the history of microbial research, their impact has only recently been fully recognized. Biofilm infections, which contribute to up to 80% of human microbial infections, are associated with common human disorders, such as diabetes mellitus and poor dental hygiene, but also with medical implants. The associated chronic infections such as wound infections, dental caries and periodontitis significantly enhance morbidity, affect quality of life and can aid development of follow-up diseases such as cancer...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
T Sugiyama
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 28, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
Christoph Lange, Wael A Alghamdi, Mohammad H Al-Shaer, Susanna Brighenti, Andreas H Diacon, Andrew R DiNardo, Hans Peter Grobbel, Matthias I Gröschel, Florian von Groote-Bidlingmaier, Matthias Hauptmann, Jan Heyckendorf, Niklas Köhler, Thomas A Kohl, Matthias Merker, Stefan Niemann, Charles A Peloquin, Maja Reimann, Ulrich E Schaible, Dagmar Schaub, Viola Schleusener, Thorsten Thye, Thomas Schön
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), tuberculosis is the leading cause of death attributed to a single microbial pathogen worldwide. In addition to the large number of patients affected by tuberculosis, the emergence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug-resistance is complicating tuberculosis control in many high-burden countries. During the past five years, the global number of patients identified with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), defined as bacillary resistance at least against rifampicin and isoniazid, the two most active drugs in a treatment regimen, has increased by more than 20 percent annually...
May 28, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
H K M Bergholdt, C Ellervik, B G Nordestgaard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 27, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
M Lerm, H M Dockrell
Tuberculosis is a complex disease, which can affect many organs other than the lungs. Initial infection may be cleared without inducing immunological memory, or progress directly to primary disease. Alternatively, the infection may be controlled as latent TB infection, that may progress to active tuberculosis at a later stage. There is now a greater understanding that these infection states are part of a continuum, and studies using PET/CT imaging have shown that individual lung granulomas may respond to infection independently, in an un-synchronized manner...
May 27, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
S Brighenti, P Bergman, A R Martineau
Tuberculosis (TB) has troubled mankind for millennia, but current treatment strategies are long and complicated and the disease remains a major global health problem. The risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection or progression of active TB disease is elevated in individuals with vitamin D deficiency. High-dose vitamin D was used to treat TB in the preantibiotic era, and in vitro experimental data show that vitamin D supports innate immune responses that restrict growth of Mtb. Several randomized controlled trials have tested whether adjunctive vitamin D supplementation enhances the clinical and microbiological response to standard antimicrobial chemotherapy for pulmonary TB...
May 27, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
S Brighenti, S A Joosten
Protective immunity in tuberculosis (TB) is subject of debate in the TB research community, as this is key to fully understand TB pathogenesis and to develop new promising tools for TB diagnosis and prognosis as well as a more efficient TB vaccine. IFN-γ producing CD4+ T cells are key in TB control, but may not be sufficient to provide protection. Additional subsets have been identified that contribute to protection such as multifunctional and cytolytic T-cell subsets, including classical and nonclassical T cells as well as novel innate immune cell subsets resulting from trained immunity...
May 27, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
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