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Journal of Internal Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345303/arterial-ageing-from-endothelial-dysfunction-to-vascular-calcification
#1
M Tesauro, A Mauriello, V Rovella, M Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, C Cardillo, G Melino, N Di Daniele
Complex structural and functional changes occur in the arterial system with advancing age. The aged artery is characterized by changes in microRNA expression patterns, autophagy, smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, and arterial calcification with progressively increased mechanical vessel rigidity and stiffness. With age the vascular smooth muscle cells modify their phenotype from contractile to 'synthetic' determining the development of intimal thickening as early as the second decade of life as an adaptive response to forces acting on the arterial wall...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345259/the-role-of-complement-inhibitors-beyond-controlling-inflammation
#2
REVIEW
A M Blom
The complement system is an arm of innate immunity that aids in the removal of pathogens and dying cells. Due to its harmful, pro-inflammatory potential, complement is controlled by several soluble and membrane-bound inhibitors. This family of complement regulators has been recently extended by the discovery of several new members, and it is becoming apparent that these proteins harbour additional functions. In this review, the current state of knowledge of the physiological functions of four complement regulators will be described: cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), CUB and sushi multiple domains 1 (CSMD1), sushi domain-containing protein 4 (SUSD4) and CD59...
March 26, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334474/are-low-sun-exposure-habits-a-genuine-strong-risk-factor-for-all-cause-mortality-or-the-result-of-bias
#3
LETTER
Pelle G Lindqvist, Håkan Olsson
I would like to thank Professors Hoffmann and Sobotzki for their interest in our paper on sun exposure and all-cause mortality. In it we demonstrate that women with the greatest sun exposure habits had a lower all-cause death rate from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and non-cancer/non-CVD than women who avoided sun exposure.(1,2) This resulted in a prolonged life expectancy that, in turn, as might be expected, resulted in an increased prevalence of cancer mortality. Non-smokers who avoid sun exposure were at a similar risk for all-cause deaths as smokers who had the greatest sun exposure habits...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334454/response-to-avoidance-of-sun-exposure-as-a-risk-factor-for-major-causes-of-death-a-competing-risk-analysis-of-the-melanoma-in-southern-sweden-cohort
#4
LETTER
S Hoffmann, C Sobotzki
Lindqvist et al. [1] recently published a mortality analysis in a prospective cohort of 29 518 Sweden-born women. Using a competing risk framework, the authors observed an increased mortality by cardiovascular disease (CVD) and noncancer/non-CVD for women who avoided sun exposure. A. Torres, the president of the American Academy of Dermatology, already addressed a number of limitations which are important in the interpretation of this study [2]. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
March 23, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317295/two-year-follow-up-of-patients-with-septic-shock-presenting-with-low-hdl-the-effect-upon-acute-kidney-injury-death-and-estimated-glomerular-filtration-rate
#5
K Roveran Genga, C Lo, M Cirstea, G Zhou, K R Walley, J A Russell, A Levin, J H Boyd
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is associated with decreased levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. HDL has anti-inflammatory properties, and the use of Apo A-I mimetic peptides is associated with renal function improvement in animal models of sepsis. However, it is not known whether decreased HDL level results in impaired renal function in human sepsis. We investigated whether low levels of HDL conferred an increased risk of sepsis-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) or long-term decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) after sepsis...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295777/can-ldl-cholesterol-be-too-low-possible-risks-of-extremely-low-levels
#6
Anders G Olsson, Bo Angelin, Gerd Assmann, Christoph J Binder, Ingemar Björkhem, Angel Cedazo-Minguez, Jonathan Cohen, Arnold von Eckardstein, Eduardo Farinaro, Dirk Müller-Wieland, Klaus G Parhofer, Paolo Parini, Robert S Rosenson, Jakob Starup-Linde, Matti J Tikkanen, Laurent Yvan-Charvet
Following the continuous accumulation of evidence supporting the beneficial role of reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in the treatment and prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and its complications, therapeutic possibilities now exist to lower LDL-C to very low levels, similar to or even lower than those seen in newborns and nonhuman species. In addition to the important task of evaluating potential side-effects of such treatments, the question arises whether extremely low LDL-C levels per se may provoke adverse effects in humans...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295729/targeting-of-b-cell-receptor-signalling-in-b-cell-malignancies
#7
M Jerkeman, M Hallek, M Dreyling, C Thieblemont, E Kimby, L Staudt
Pharmacological agents that inhibit enzymes of the B-cell receptor (BCR) pathway are of increasing importance in the treatment of B-cell malignancies. These include inhibitors of Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), splenic tyrosine kinase and protein kinase Cβ. Two agents are already approved in the USA and Europe: ibrutinib, a BTK inhibitor, for the treatment of chronic lymphatic leukaemia (CLL), mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and Waldenström's macroglobulinemia; and idelalisib, a PI3Kδ inhibitor, for the treatment of CLL and follicular lymphoma...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294432/should-we-treat-severe-vasovagal-syncope-with-a-pacemaker
#8
REVIEW
R Sutton
Cardiac pacing for vasovagal syncope (VVS) addresses the cardioinhibitory component of the reflex but cannot directly affect vasodepression, which occurs in every reflex even when hidden by dominant cardioinhibition. The randomized controlled trials of pacing in VVS have, after almost 2 decades, determined that a small number of patients can benefit because their vasodepressor component is not severe. Early studies compared pacing with no therapy yielding highly significant benefits. Subsequently, all study patients had implanted devices with half being switched off...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295767/response-to-hpv-vaccine-and-autoimmunity-incidence-of-new-onset-autoimmune-disease-in-girls-and-women-with-pre-existing-autoimmune-disease-after-quadrivalent-human-papillomavirus-vaccination-a-cohort-study
#9
LETTER
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261926/acute-caloric-restriction-counteracts-hepatic-bile-acid-and-cholesterol-deficiency-in-morbid-obesity
#10
S Straniero, F Rosqvist, D Edholm, H Ahlström, J Kullberg, M Sundbom, U Risérus, M Rudling
BACKGROUND: Bile acid (BA) synthesis is regulated by BA signalling in the liver and by fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), synthesized and released from the intestine. In morbid obesity, faecal excretion and hepatic synthesis of BAs and cholesterol are strongly induced and caloric restriction reduces their faecal excretion considerably. We hypothesized that the high intestinal food mass in morbidly obese subjects promotes faecal excretion of BAs and cholesterol, thereby creating a shortage of both BAs and cholesterol in the liver...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229496/comment-on-jim-16-0640-r1-mortality-from-aortic-stenosis-prospective-study-of-serum-calcium-and-phosphate-by-d-wald
#11
L Lind
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 22, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205262/modern-multiple-myeloma-therapy-deep-sustained-treatment-response-and-good-clinical-outcomes
#12
REVIEW
O Landgren, K Iskander
In the USA at the beginning of this century, the average overall survival in patients with multiple myeloma was about 3 years. Around that time, three drugs (bortezomib, lenalidomide and thalidomide) were introduced for the treatment of multiple myeloma and, in 2012, carfilzomib received accelerated approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Driven by access to better drugs, median overall survival in younger patients (aged <50 years) was >10 years by 2014. The FDA approved 14 new drugs for the treatment of cancer in 2015; four of these were approved for the treatment of myeloma (panobinostat, daratumumab, elotuzumab and ixazomib)...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194913/vaccination-against-t-cell-epitopes-of-native-apob100-reduces-vascular-inflammation-and-disease-in-a-humanized-mouse-model-of-atherosclerosis
#13
A Gisterå, A Hermansson, D Strodthoff, M L Klement, U Hedin, G N Fredrikson, J Nilsson, G K Hansson, D F J Ketelhuth
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The T-cell response to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in the vessel wall plays a critical role in atherosclerotic plaque formation and stability. In this study, we used a new translational approach to investigate epitopes from human apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB100), the protein component of LDL, which triggers T-cell activation. We also evaluated the potential of two selected native ApoB100 epitopes to modulate atherosclerosis in human ApoB100-transgenic Ldlr(-/-) (HuBL) mice...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181720/organic-bioelectronics-in-medicine
#14
S Löffler, K Melican, K P R Nilsson, A Richter-Dahlfors
A major challenge in the growing field of bioelectronic medicine is the development of tissue interface technologies promoting device integration with biological tissues. Materials based on organic bioelectronics show great promise due to a unique combination of electronic and ionic conductivity properties. In this review, we outline exciting developments in the field of organic bioelectronics and demonstrate the medical importance of these active, electronically controllable materials. Importantly, organic bioelectronics offer a means to control cell-surface attachment as required for many device-tissue applications...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164394/smokeless-tobacco-snus-is-associated-with-an-increased-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-results-from-five-pooled-cohorts
#15
S Carlsson, T Andersson, M Araghi, R Galanti, A Lager, M Lundberg, P Nilsson, M Norberg, N L Pedersen, Y Trolle-Lagerros, C Magnusson
BACKGROUND: Smoking and nicotine exposure increase insulin resistance and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Swedish smokeless tobacco (snus) is high in nicotine, and its use is prevalent in Scandinavian countries, but few studies have investigated snus use in relation to diabetes risk. OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between snus use and risk of type 2 diabetes using pooled data from five cohorts. METHODS: Analyses were based on prospective studies conducted between 1990 and 2013 including 54 531 never-smoking men and 2441 incident cases of type 2 diabetes identified through screening, self-reporting and hospital and prescription registries...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158912/mortality-from-aortic-stenosis-prospective-study-of-serum-calcium-and-phosphate
#16
D S Wald, F A Bangash, J K Morris, N J Wald
PURPOSE: To investigate the associations between levels of serum calcium and phosphate and subsequent death from aortic stenosis, and the implications for prevention. METHODS: A prospective (nested case-control) analysis of serum calcium and phosphate levels was performed in stored samples from the British United Provident Association prospective study of 21 520 men aged 35-64, followed for up to 32 years. There were 49 men without baseline valvular heart disease who subsequently died of aortic stenosis...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155242/sensory-neuron-regulation-of-gastrointestinal-inflammation-and-bacterial-host-defence
#17
N Y Lai, K Mills, I M Chiu
Sensory neurons in the gastrointestinal tract have multifaceted roles in maintaining homeostasis, detecting danger and initiating protective responses. The gastrointestinal tract is innervated by three types of sensory neurons: dorsal root ganglia, nodose/jugular ganglia and intrinsic primary afferent neurons. Here, we examine how these distinct sensory neurons and their signal transducers participate in regulating gastrointestinal inflammation and host defence. Sensory neurons are equipped with molecular sensors that enable neuronal detection of diverse environmental signals including thermal and mechanical stimuli, inflammatory mediators and tissue damage...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145001/treatment-with-the-natural-fxr-agonist-chenodeoxycholic-acid-reduces-clearance-of-plasma-ldl-whilst-decreasing-circulating-pcsk9-lipoprotein-a-and-apolipoprotein-c-iii
#18
M Ghosh Laskar, M Eriksson, M Rudling, B Angelin
BACKGROUND: The natural farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) suppresses hepatic cholesterol and bile acid synthesis and reduces biliary cholesterol secretion and triglyceride production. Animal studies have shown that bile acids downregulate hepatic LDL receptors (LDLRs); however, information on LDL metabolism in humans is limited. METHODS: Kinetics of autologous (125) I-LDL were determined in 12 male subjects at baseline and during treatment with CDCA (15 mg kg(-1) day(-1) )...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139864/role-of-autophagy-in-hiv-infection-and-pathogenesis
#19
R Nardacci, F Ciccosanti, C Marsella, G Ippolito, M Piacentini, G M Fimia
The aim of autophagy is to re-establish homeostasis in response to a variety of stress conditions. By forming double-membrane vesicles, autophagy engulfs damaged or superfluous cytoplasmic material and recycles degradation products for new synthesis or energy production. Of note, the same mechanism is used to capture pathogens and has important implications in both innate and adaptive immunity. To establish a chronic infection, pathogens have therefore evolved multiple mechanisms to evade autophagy-mediated degradation...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097725/increased-cortical-porosity-in-women-with-hip-fracture
#20
D Sundh, A G Nilsson, M Nilsson, L Johansson, D Mellström, M Lorentzon
BACKGROUND: Hip fractures cause increased mortality and disability and consume enormous healthcare resources. Only 46% of hip fracture patients have osteoporosis at the total hip according to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurement. Cortical porosity increases with ageing and is believed to be important for bone strength. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether older women with hip fracture have higher cortical porosity than controls, and if so whether this difference is independent of clinical risk factors and areal bone mineral density (aBMD)...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
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