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Journal of Internal Medicine

A Kautzky-Willer, S Thurner, P Klimek
AIM: There is firm evidence of a relation between type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and increased risks of cancer at various sites, but it is still unclear how different antihyperglycaemic therapies modify site-specific cancer risks. The aim of this study was to provide a complete characterization of all possible associations between individual T2DM therapies, statin use and site-specific cancers in the Austrian population. METHODS: Medical claims data of 1 847 051 patients with hospital stays during 2006-2007 were used to estimate age- and sex-dependent co-occurrences of site-specific cancer diagnoses and treatment with specific glucose-lowering drugs and statins...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
E M Ribe, S Lovestone
As populations across the world both age and become more obese, the numbers of individuals with Alzheimer's disease and diabetes are increasing; posing enormous challenges for society and consequently becoming priorities for governments and global organizations. These issues, an ageing population at risk of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and an increasingly obese population at risk of metabolic alterations such as type 2 diabetes, are usually considered as independent conditions, but increasing evidence from both epidemiological and molecular studies link these disorders...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
E D Rosen
Insulin resistance is one of the defining features of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome and accompanies many other clinical conditions, ranging from obesity to lipodystrophy to glucocorticoid excess. Extraordinary efforts have gone into defining the mechanisms that underlie insulin resistance, with most attention focused on altered signalling as well as mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Here, nuclear mechanisms of insulin resistance, including transcriptional and epigenomic effects, will be discussed...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
J C Cohen
Genetic variation arises through multiple different alleles that vary in frequency and severity of effect. Mutations that give rise to Mendelian disorders, such as the LDL receptor (LDLR) mutations that result in familial hypercholesterolaemia, are efficiently winnowed from the population by purifying selection and are almost inevitably rare. Conversely, alleles that are common in the population (such that homozygotes for the minor allele are present even in modest sample sizes) typically have very modest phenotypic effects...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
M Chondronikola, L L S Harris, S Klein
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major worldwide public health concern. Despite a large armamentarium of T2D medications, a large proportion of patients fail to achieve recommended treatment goals for glycemic control. Weight loss has profound beneficial effects on the metabolic abnormalities involved in the pathogenesis of T2D. Accordingly, bariatric surgery, which is the most effective available weight loss therapy, is also the most effective therapy for treating patients with T2D. Surgical procedures that bypass the upper gastrointestinal (UGI) tract are particularly effective in achieving partial and even complete remission of T2D, suggesting that UGI bypass has weight loss-independent effects on glycemic control...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
L Ozcan, I Tabas
The burden of type 2 diabetes and its major complication cardiovascular disease is rapidly increasing worldwide. Understanding the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of these diseases is crucial to develop novel therapeutics. Recent work using genetic and biochemical methods in mouse models and human samples have identified disturbed calcium signalling and endoplasmic reticulum stress as emerging factors involved in the pathogenesis of many metabolic diseases. In this review, we will highlight the specific roles of calcium signalling and endoplasmic reticulum stress response in the development of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
S N Cox, F Pesce, J S El-Sayed Moustafa, F Sallustio, G Serino, C Kkoufou, A Giampetruzzi, N Ancona, M Falchi, F P Schena
BACKGROUND: IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is a common complex disease with a strong genetic involvement. We aimed to identify novel, rare, highly penetrant risk variants combining family-based linkage analysis with whole-exome sequencing (WES). METHODS: Linkage analysis of 16 kindreds of South Italian ancestry was performed using an 'affected-only' strategy. Eight most informative trios composed of two familial cases and an intrafamilial control were selected for WES. High-priority variants in linked regions were identified and validated using Sanger sequencing...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
Diana Karpman, Sebastian Loos, Ramesh Tati, Ida Arvidsson
Haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) is defined by the simultaneous occurrence of nonimmune haemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopenia and acute renal failure. This leads to the pathological lesion termed thrombotic microangiopathy, which mainly affects the kidney, as well as other organs. HUS is associated with endothelial cell injury and platelet activation, although the underlying cause may differ. Most cases of HUS are associated with gastrointestinal infection with Shiga toxin-producing enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
U Smith, B B Kahn
Obesity, the major cause of the current global epidemic of type 2 diabetes (T2D), induces insulin resistance in peripheral insulin target tissues. Several mechanisms have been identified related to cross-talk between adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver. These mechanisms involve both increased free fatty acid release and altered secretion of adipokines from adipose tissue. A major determinant of metabolic health is the ability of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) to store excess fat rather than allowing it to accumulate in ectopic depots including liver (i...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
M E Roerink, J W M Lenders, I C Schmits, A M A Pistorius, J W Smit, H Knoop, J W M van der Meer
BACKGROUND: Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is considered a diagnostic marker for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to (i) compare POTS prevalence in a CFS cohort with fatigued patients not meeting CFS criteria, and (ii) assess activity, impairment and response to cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in CFS patients with POTS (POTS-CFS) and without POTS (non-POTS-CFS). METHODS: Prospective cohort study at the Radboud University Medical Centre in the Netherlands...
October 2, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
K Michaëlsson, A Wolk, L Byberg, A Mitchell, H Mallmin, H Melhus
BACKGROUND: The impact of season when determining a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25OHD) cut-off level for optimal bone health is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relative importance of S-25OHD for bone mineral density (BMD) by season. METHODS: A subcohort of 5002 Swedish women (mean age 68 years), randomly selected from a large population-based longitudinal cohort study with repeat dietary and lifestyle information, was enrolled during 2003-2009 for a clinical examination, which included dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and collection of fasting blood samples...
September 25, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
N J Brunskill
Kidney disease is a serious development in diabetes mellitus and poses an increasing clinical problem. Despite increasing incidence and prevalence of diabetic kidney disease, there have been no new therapies for this condition in the last 20 years. Mounting evidence supports a biological role for C-peptide, and findings from multiple studies now suggest that C-peptide may beneficially affect the disturbed metabolic and pathophysiological pathways leading to the development of diabetic nephropathy. Studies of C-peptide in animal models and in humans with type 1 diabetes all suggest a renoprotective effect for this peptide...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
A Bellavia, S C Larsson, A Wolk
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies of fish consumption and all-cause mortality have provided inconsistent results. OBJECTIVE: We examined the dose-response association between fish consumption and mortality from all causes in a large population-based cohort of Swedish men and women. METHODS: The study included 72 522 participants (33 973 women and 38 549 men), aged 45-83 years, from the Swedish Mammography Cohort and the Cohort of Swedish Men...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
A Wolk
Red meat (beef, veal, pork, lamb and mutton) consumption contributes several important nutrients to the diet, for example essential amino acids, vitamins (including B12) and minerals (including iron and zinc). Processed red meat (ham, sausages, bacon, frankfurters, salami, etc.) undergoes treatment (curing, smoking, salting or the use of chemical preservatives and additives) to improve its shelf life and/or taste. During recent decades, consumption of red meat has been increasing globally, especially in developing countries...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
S Bell, G Mehta, K Moore, A Britton
BACKGROUND: Moderate alcohol consumption is thought to confer cardiometabolic protective effects. Inflammatory pathways are hypothesized to partly underlie this association. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the association between typologies of alcohol consumption and markers of inflammation, and their rate of change over time. METHODS: Data were collected from 8209 participants [69% men; mean age, 50 years (SD 6.1)] of the British Whitehall II study...
August 3, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
B Winzeler, S Lengsfeld, N Nigro, I Suter-Widmer, P Schütz, B Arici, M Bally, C Blum, A Bock, A Huber, B Müller, M Christ-Crain
BACKGROUND: Fluid restriction (FR), the first-line treatment for hyponatraemia due to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD), often does not lead to successful correction of hyponatraemia. Therefore, predictive markers of treatment response are desirable. We evaluated routinely measured serum (s) and urine (u) parameters, s-copeptin and s-mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (s-MR-proANP), as possible predictors of FR response. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, we included patients with profound hyponatraemia (s-sodium <125 mmol L(-1) ) due to SIAD...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
O Grönlund, E Herweijer, K Sundström, L Arnheim-Dahlström
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether quadrivalent human papillomavirus (qHPV) vaccination is associated with increased incidence of new-onset autoimmune disease in girls and women with pre-existing autoimmune disease. METHODS: This register-based open cohort study included all girls and women between 10 and 30 years of age in Sweden in 2006-2012 diagnosed with at least one of 49 prespecified autoimmune diseases (n = 70 265). Incidence rate ratios were estimated for new-onset autoimmune disease within 180 days of qHPV vaccination using Poisson regression adjusting for, country of birth, parental country of birth, parental income and parental education...
July 31, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
U Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
G M Reaven
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
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