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Journal of Internal Medicine

Mark Hamer, Nikhil Sharma, G David Batty
BACKGROUND: Physical activity may be beneficial for cognition but mechanisms are unclear. We examined the association between objectively assessed physical activity and brain volume, with a focus on the hippocampus region. METHODS: We used data from UK Biobank (n=5,272; aged 55.4±7.5 yrs; 45.6% men) collected through 2013-2016. Participants wore the Axivity AX3 wrist-worn triaxial accelerometer for seven days to assess habitual physical activity. Structural magnetic resonance imaging was performed using a standard Siemens Skyra 3T running VD13A SP4 to obtain images of the brain...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
Harvey J Alter
The hepatitis C story evolved from prospective studies of post-transfusion hepatitis wherein it was observed in the early 1970s that most cases of transfusion-associated hepatitis were serologically (and later molecularly) unrelated to either the hepatitis A (HAV) or hepatitis B (HBV) viruses.[1] This new clinical entity defined only by ALT elevations and serologic exclusion of HAV and HBV was then designated non-A, non-B hepatitis (NANBH). This awkward nomenclature, rather than hepatitis C, was chosen because, at the time, the presumed agent had not yet been proven to be a transmissible virus, nor were the number of potential NANBH agents known...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
P J Stover, W P T James, A Krook, C Garza
Understanding the physiological and metabolic underpinnings that confer individual differences in responses to diet and diet-related chronic disease is essential to advance the field of nutrition. This includes elucidating the differences in gene expression that are mediated through programming of the genome through epigenetic chromatin modifications. Epigenetic landscapes are influenced by age, genetics, toxins and other environmental factors, including dietary exposures and nutritional status. Epigenetic modifications influence transcription and genome stability, are established during development with life-long consequences...
April 29, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
Amsalu Bekele, Nebiat Gebreselassie, Senait Ashenafi, Endale Kassa, Getachew Aseffa, Wondwossen Amogne, Meron Tefera, Abraham Aseffa, Alemayehu Worku, Rubhana Raqib, Birgitta Agerberth, Ulf Hammar, Peter Bergman, Getachew Aderaye, Jan Andersson, Susanna Brighenti
OBJECTIVE: Immunotherapy using vitamin D (vitD3 ) and phenylbutyrate (PBA), may support standard drug regimens used to treat infectious diseases. We investigated if vitD3 +PBA enhanced clinical recovery from pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Patients with smear-positive or smear-negative TB received daily oral supplementation with 5000IU vitD3 and 2×500mg PBA or placebo for 16 weeks, together with 6-months chemotherapy...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
Juha Rannikko, Tapio Seiskari, Reetta Huttunen, Iina Tarkiainen, Juulia Jylhävä, Mikko Hurme, Jaana Syrjänen, Janne Aittoniemi
BACKGROUND: A few studies have shown that both quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) score and cell-free DNA (cfDNA) have potential use as a prognostic marker in patients with infection. We studied these two markers alone and in combination to identify those emergency department (ED) patients with the highest risk of death. METHODS: Plasma cfDNA level was studied on days 0 to 4 after admittance to the ED from 481 culture-positive bloodstream infection cases...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
C Magnussen, S Blankenberg
Heart failure (HF) is a rising epidemic due to the ageing population and progress in all areas of medicine. Thus, research efforts are made to ensure a timely diagnosis, to improve prognosis and treatment of the disease and to facilitate risk prediction at the population level. Because of their noninvasive determination with mostly high sensitivity and accuracy, circulating blood biomarkers are becoming increasingly important for daily clinical practice. Natriuretic peptides, especially B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (Nt-proBNP) and midregional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP) and cardiac troponins are established blood biomarkers in HF diagnosis and prognosis of HF-related outcomes...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
J C Kaski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
E Fernström, K Minta, U Andreasson, Å Sandelius, P Wasling, A Brinkmalm, K Höglund, K Blennow, J Nyman, H Zetterberg, M Kalm
BACKGROUND: Advances in the treatment of brain tumors have increased the number of long-term survivors, but at the cost of side effects following cranial radiotherapy ranging from neurocognitive deficits to outright tissue necrosis. At present, there are no tools reflecting the molecular mechanisms underlying such side effects, and thus no means to evaluate interventional effects after cranial radiotherapy. Therefore, fluid biomarkers is of great clinical interest. OBJECTIVE: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of proteins involved in inflammatory signaling, synaptic plasticity and extracellular matrix (ECM) integrity were investigated following radiotherapy to the brain...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
A Eckart, P Hausfater, D Amin, A Amin, S Haubitz, M Bernard, A Baumgartner, T Struja, A Kutz, M Christ-Crain, A Huber, B Mueller, P Schuetz
BACKGROUND: Hyponatremia is a common feature of acute illness and associated with increased mortality. This may be explained by a stress-mediated activation of the vasopressin system with an increase in free-water reabsorption. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the association between hyponatremia and mortality could be explained by activation of the vasopressin system. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled adult, medical patients seeking emergency care in three centres in Switzerland, France and the United States...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
M Leggio, A Fusco, S D'Emidio, P Severi, M Lombardi, E Caldarone, M Armeni, D Mereu, M G Bendini, A Mazza
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 15, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
T Sugiyama
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 15, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
Gustaf Edgren, Henrik Hjalgrim, Klaus Rostgaard, Viktor Dahl, Kjell Titlestad, Christian Erikstrup, Agneta Wikman, Rut Norda, Ammar Majeed
BACKGROUND: Both hepatitis B and C viruses were transmitted through blood transfusion before implementation of donor screening. The existence of additional, yet unknown transfusion transmittable agents causing liver disease could have important public health implications. METHODS: Analyses were based on the Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions (SCANDAT2) database. Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of developing chronic liver disease in recipients of blood from donors who later developed any chronic liver disease compared to recipients who received blood transfusion from healthy donors...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
Anquan Liu, Johan Frostegård
BACKGROUND: Activated T cells and dendritic cells (DCs) occur in atherosclerotic plaques. Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 (PCSK9) targets the LDL-receptor (LDLR), and results in increased LDL-levels. We here investigate immune effects of PCSK9 on OxLDL induced DC maturation and T cell activation. METHODS: T cells were isolated from carotid specimens of patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy, or from peripheral blood of healthy individuals. Human peripheral blood monocytes were differentiated into DCs...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
R M van Dam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
Raúl Loera-Valencia, Antonio Piras, Muhammad Al Mustafa Ismail, Shaffi Manchanda, Helga Eyjolfsdottir, Takaomi C Saido, Jan Johansson, Maria Eriksdotter, Bengt Winblad, Per Nilsson
Alzheimer’ s disease (AD) causes dementia in both young and old people affecting more than 40 million people worldwide. The two neuropathological hallmarks of the disease, amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles consisting of protein tau are considered the major contributors to the disease. However, a more complete picture reveals significant neurodegeneration and decreased cell survival, neuroinflammation, changes in protein homeostasis and alterations in lipid and cholesterol metabolism...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
H Zuo, O Nygård, P M Ueland, S E Vollset, G F T Svingen, E R Pedersen, Ø Midttun, K Meyer, J E Nordrehaug, D W T Nilsen, G S Tell
BACKGROUND: Link between inflammation and atrial fibrillation (AF) has been increasingly recognized. Neopterin, a biomarker of cellular immune activation, may be associated with incident AF. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between plasma neopterin levels and risk of an inpatient hospital diagnosis of AF, and to evaluate a joint association of neopterin and a nonspecific inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) in two prospective cohorts. METHODS: We performed a prospective analysis from a community-based cohort (the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK), n = 6891), and validated the findings in a cohort of patients with suspected stable angina pectoris (the Western Norway Coronary Angiography Cohort (WECAC), n = 2022)...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
J F Ludvigsson, H O Adami
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
J Luis Espinoza
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
Helle Km Bergholdt, Morten K Larsen, Anette Varbo, Børge G Nordestgaard, Christina Ellervik
BACKGROUND: Whether a causal relationship exists between milk intake and reduced risk of fractures is unclear. OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that genetically determined milk intake reduces the risk of fractures and increases bone mineral density(BMD). METHODS: We investigated the association between milk intake, LCT-13910 C/T (rs4988235) which is associated with lactase persistence (TT/TC) in Northern Europeans, and hip fractures in three Danish prospective studies(N=97,811,age ≥20 years)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
J M Kindblom, M Bygdell, A Sondén, J Célind, A Rosengren, C Ohlsson
AIM: Hospitalization for heart failure amongst younger men has increased. The reason for this is unknown but it coincides with the obesity epidemic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between childhood BMI (Body Mass Index) and BMI change during puberty for risk of adult heart failure in men. METHODS: Using the BMI Epidemiology Study (BEST), a population-based study in Gothenburg, Sweden, we collected information on childhood BMI at age 8 years and BMI change during puberty (BMI at age 20 - BMI at 8) for men born 1945-1961, followed until December 2013 (n = 37 670)...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
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