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Journal of Internal Medicine

Á D Rossi, F R Faucz, A Melo, P Pezzuto, G S de Azevedo, B L F Schamber-Reis, J S Tavares, J J Mattapallil, A Tanuri, R S Aguiar, C C Cardoso, C A Stratakis
BACKGROUND: Vertical transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) is associated with congenital malformations but the mechanism of pathogenesis remains unclear. Although host genetics appear to play a role, no genetic association study has yet been performed to evaluate this question. In order to investigate if maternal genetic variation is associated with Congenital Zika Syndrome (CZS), we conducted a case-control study in a cohort of Brazilian women infected with ZIKV during pregnancy. METHODS: A total of 100 women who reported symptoms of zika during pregnancy were enrolled and tested for ZIKV...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
J Kaluza, N Håkansson, H R Harris, N Orsini, K Michaëlsson, A Wolk
BACKGROUND: The associations between an anti-inflammatory diet and both all-cause and cause-specific mortality have been studied previously; however, the influence of an anti-inflammatory diet on survival time has not been investigated. Moreover, the potential modification of these associations by smoking status remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to examine the associations between an anti-inflammatory diet index (AIDI) and all-cause and cause-specific mortality, to determine the association between the AIDI and differences in survival time and to assess effect modification by smoking status...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
Kamila Borowczyk, Justyna Piechocka, Rafał Głowacki, Indu Dhar, Øivind Midtun, Grethe S Tell, Per Magne Ueland, Ottar Nygård, Hieronim Jakubowski
OBJECTIVES: No individual homocysteine (Hcy) metabolite has been studied as a risk marker for coronary artery disease (CAD). Our objective was to examine Hcy-thiolactone, a chemically reactive metabolite generated by methionyl-tRNA synthetase and cleared by the kidney, as a risk predictor of incident acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the Western Norway B-Vitamin Intervention Trial. DESIGN: Single center, prospective double-blind clinical intervention study, randomized in a 2x2 factorial design...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
Hanny Al-Samkari, Athena Kritharis, Josanna M Rodriguez-Lopez, David J Kuter
BACKGROUND: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a rare hereditary multisystem vascular disorder causing visceral arteriovenous malformations and mucocutaneous bleeding. Chronic gastrointestinal bleeding and epistaxis often produce profound anemia refractory to conventional treatment. Bevacizumab, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor monoclonal antibody, may be effective in treatment of bleeding in HHT. METHODS: All HHT patients treated with systemic bevacizumab for chronic bleeding were selected for retrospective analysis...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
S Holm Nielsen, C Tengryd, A Edsfeldt, S Brix, F Genovese, E Bengtsson, M Karsdal, D J Leeming, J Nilsson, I Goncalves
OBJECTIVE: Atherosclerosis is characterized by accumulation of lipids, cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the arterial wall. Collagen type I (COL1), a component of the arterial ECM, is cleaved by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and known to be remodelled in atherosclerosis. We explored whether the MMP-mediated COL1 biomarker, C1M, was associated with cardiovascular events, cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality in a large prospective cohort of patients with known atherosclerosis...
August 28, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
A Mahdi, O Kövamees, A Checa, C E Wheelock, M von Heijne, M Alvarsson, J Pernow
BACKGROUND: Arginase is implicated in the pathogenesis behind endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by its inhibition of nitric oxide formation. Strict glycaemic control is not sufficient to improve endothelial function or cardiovascular outcomes in patients with T2DM, thus other treatment strategies are needed. We hypothesized that arginase inhibition improves endothelial function beyond glucose-lowering therapy following glucose optimization in patients with poorly controlled T2DM...
August 27, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
Ruth J F Loos, Tuomas O Kilpeläinen
Obesity prevalence continues to rise worldwide, posing a substantial burden on people's health. However, up to 45% of obese individuals do not suffer from cardiometabolic complications, also called the metabolically healthy obese (MHO). Concurrently, up to 30% of normal weight individuals demonstrate cardiometabolic risk factors that are generally observed in obese individuals; the metabolically obese normal weight (MONW). Besides lifestyle, environmental factors and demographic factors, innate biological mechanisms are known to contribute to the etiology of the MHO and MONW phenotypes, as well...
August 24, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
Antonio Vidal-Puig, Sven Enerback
Obesity is worldwide and is increasing in incidence and prevalence at an alarming rate. Despite the investment of financial resources researching its causes, programmes to educate the population, and implementing governmental policies aiming to contain, control and reverse its development, the sad truth is that the results have been disappointing. A priori the requirements for decreasing body weight are simple, it suffices to ensure that energy intake is less than energy dissipation. This article is protected by copyright...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
Shamim Dadvar, Duarte M S Ferreira, Igor Cervenka, Jorge L Ruas
Obesity ultimately results from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. However, in addition to their bioenergetic value, nutrients and their metabolites can function as important signaling molecules in energy homeostasis. Indeed, macronutrients and their metabolites can be direct regulators of metabolism through their actions on different organs. In turn, target organs can decide to use, store, or transform the incoming nutrients depending on their physiological context and in coordination with other cell types...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
Daniel P Andersson, Ingrid Dahlman, Daniel Eriksson Hogling, Jesper Bäckdahl, Eva Toft, Veronica Qvisth, Erik Näslund, Anders Thorell, Mikael Rydén, Peter Arner
BACKGROUND: The cardiometabolic risk profile improves following bariatric surgery. However, the degree of improvement in relation to weight-stable control subjects is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To study the differences in cardiometabolic risk profile between formerly obese patients following Roux-en-Y gastric by-pass (RYGB) surgery and control subjects. METHODS: Subjects undergoing RYGB and reaching a BMI <30 kg/m2 2 years post-surgery were matched with control subjects regarding age, sex and BMI...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
A Tran-Duy, N J Connell, F H Vanmolkot, P C Souverein, N J de Wit, C D A Stehouwer, A W Hoes, F de Vries, A de Boer
BACKGROUND: Hypochlorhydric states are an important cause of iron deficiency (ID). Nevertheless, the association between therapy with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and ID has long been a subject of debate. This case-control study aimed to investigate the risk of ID associated with the use of PPIs using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) database. METHODS: Cases were patients aged 19 years or older with first-time diagnosis of ID between 2005 and 2015 (n = 26,806)...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
Lynette M Smith, J Christopher Gallagher, Martin Kaufmann, Glenville Jones
There are few systematic studies of the effect of different doses of vitamin D3 on BMD. We conducted a randomized placebo-controlled trial in 163 Caucasian and 31 African American women with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) ≤50 nmol/L (by Diasorin). They were randomly assigned to placebo, vitamin D3 400, 800, 1600, 2400, 3200, 4000, or 4800 IU/day; calcium supplements, average 600mg, were given to provide a total calcium intake of 1200 mg/d. The primary outcome was 12-month serum 25OHD level. This is an analysis of secondary outcome BMD to see if there is an association between percent change in BMD and dose of vitamin D3...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
G S Handelman, H K Kok, R V Chandra, A H Razavi, M J Lee, H Asadi
Machine learning (ML) is a burgeoning field of medicine with huge resources being applied to fuse computer science and statistics to medical problems. Proponents of ML extol its ability to deal with large, complex and disparate data, often found within medicine and feel that ML is the future for biomedical research, personalized medicine, computer-aided diagnosis to significantly advance global health care. However, the concepts of ML are unfamiliar to many medical professionals and there is untapped potential in the use of ML as a research tool...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
M R de Vries, L Parma, H A B Peters, A Schepers, J F Hamming, J W Jukema, M J T H Goumans, L Guo, A V Finn, R Virmani, C K Ozaki, P H A Quax
BACKGROUND: Plaque angiogenesis is associated with atherosclerotic lesion growth, plaque instability and negative clinical outcome. Plaque angiogenesis is a natural occurring process to fulfil the increasing demand of oxygen and nourishment of the vessel wall. However, inadequate formed, immature plaque neovessels are leaky and cause intraplaque haemorrhage. OBJECTIVE: Blockade of VEGFR2 normalizes the unbridled process of plaque neovessel formation and induces maturation of nascent vessels resulting in prevention of intraplaque haemorrhage and influx of inflammatory cells into the plaque and subsequently increases plaque stability...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
M K Andersen, T Hansen
In this review, we describe the extraordinary population of Greenland, which differs from large outbred populations of Europe and Asia, both in terms of population history and living conditions. Many years in isolation, small population size and an extreme environment have shaped the genetic composition of the Greenlandic population. The unique genetic background combined with the transition from a traditional Inuit lifestyle and diet, to a more Westernized lifestyle, has led to an increase in the prevalence of metabolic conditions like obesity, where the prevalence from 1993 to 2010 has increased from 16...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
I Hernández-Neuta, F Neumann, J Brightmeyer, T Ba Tis, N Madaboosi, Q Wei, A Ozcan, M Nilsson
Recent advancements in bioanalytical techniques have led to the development of novel and robust diagnostic approaches that hold promise for providing optimal patient treatment, guiding prevention programs and widening the scope of personalized medicine. However, these advanced diagnostic techniques are still complex, expensive and limited to centralized healthcare facilities or research laboratories. This significantly hinders the use of evidence-based diagnostics for resource-limited settings and the primary care, thus creating a gap between healthcare providers and patients, leaving these populations without access to precision and quality medicine...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
K Blennow, H Zetterberg
Accumulating data from the clinical research support that the core Alzheimer's disease (AD) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers amyloid-β (Aβ42), total tau (T-tau), and phosphorylated tau (P-tau) reflect key elements of AD pathophysiology. Importantly, a large number of clinical studies very consistently show that these biomarkers contribute with diagnostically relevant information, also in the early disease stages. Recent technical developments have made it possible to measure these biomarkers using fully automated assays with high precision and stability...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
M Carlstrom, M F Montenegro
Cardiovascular disorders including hypertension and associated renal disease are major health problems affecting more than 1.5 billion people worldwide. Apart from nonmodifiable factors such as ageing, family history and gender, both sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy dietary habits are considered as major risk factors. The disorders are interrelated suggesting common pathological pathways. Mechanistically, oxidative stress and compromised function of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) system leading to endothelial dysfunction and reduction in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability have been widely implicated and associated with development and progression of disease...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
J O Lagerstedt, J Dalla-Riva, G Marinkovic, R Del Giudice, D Engelbertsen, J Burlin, J Petrlova, M Lindahl, K Bernfur, O Melander, J Nilsson, A Schiopu
OBJECTIVE: IgG antibodies against apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) have been found to be elevated in subjects from the general population with clinically manifest cardiovascular disease and in myocardial infarction patients with an adverse prognosis. Here, we investigated whether these antibodies are prospectively associated with carotid artery disease progression and with the risk for first-time cardiovascular events in individuals with no previous history of cardiovascular disease. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We selected 383 subjects from the cardiovascular cohort of Malmö Diet and Cancer study who suffered a coronary event during a median follow-up period of 15...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
A Alpár, T Harkany
The mammalian hypothalamus contains an astounding heterogeneity of neurons to achieve its role in coordinating central responses to virtually any environmental stressor over the life-span of an individual. Therefore, while core features of intrahypothalamic neuronal modalities and wiring patterns are stable during vertebrate evolution, integration of the hypothalamus into hierarchical brain-wide networks evolved to coordinate its output with emotionality, cognition and conscious decision-making. The advent of single-cell technologies represents a recent milestone in the study of hypothalamic organization by allowing the dissection of cellular heterogeneity and establishing causality between opto- and chemogenetic activity modulation of molecularly-resolved neuronal contingents and specific behaviours...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
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