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Journal of Internal Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421634/vagus-nerve-stimulation-a-new-promising-therapeutic-tool-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#1
B Bonaz, V Sinniger, S Pellissier
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), that is Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis, affects about 1.5 million persons in the USA and 2.2 million in Europe. The pathophysiology of IBD involves immunological, genetic and environmental factors. The treatment is medico-surgical but suspensive. Anti-TNFα agents have revolutionized the treatment of IBD but have side effects. In addition, a non-negligible percentage of patients with IBD stop or take episodically their treatment. Consequently, a nondrug therapy targeting TNFα through a physiological pathway, devoid of major side effects and with a good cost-effectiveness ratio, would be of interest...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419590/cracking-the-neural-code-treating-paralysis-and-the-future-of-bioelectronic-medicine
#2
C Bouton
The human nervous system is a vast network carrying not only sensory and movement information, but also information to and from our organs, intimately linking it to our overall health. Scientists and engineers have been working for decades to tap into this network and 'crack the neural code' by decoding neural signals and learning how to 'speak' the language of the nervous system. Progress has been made in developing neural decoding methods to decipher brain activity and bioelectronic technologies to treat rheumatoid arthritis, paralysis, epilepsy and for diagnosing brain-related diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease...
April 16, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407377/biomarkers-of-microvascular-endothelial-dysfunction-predict-incident-dementia-a-population-based-prospective-study
#3
H Holm, K Nägga, E D Nilsson, F Ricci, O Melander, O Hansson, E Bachus, M Magnusson, A Fedorowski
BACKGROUND: Cerebral endothelial dysfunction occurs in a spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases. Whether biomarkers of microvascular endothelial dysfunction can predict dementia is largely unknown. We explored the longitudinal association of midregional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), C-terminal endothelin-1 (CT-proET-1) and midregional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) with dementia and subtypes among community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: A population-based cohort of 5,347 individuals (men, 70%; age, 69±6 years) without prevalent dementia provided plasma for determination of MR-proANP, CT-proET-1 and MR-proADM...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393441/intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-at-the-crossroad-of-intestinal-health-and-disease-a-putative-role-in-type-1-diabetes
#4
M I Lassenius, C L Fogarty, M Blaut, K Haimila, L Riittinen, A Paju, J Kirveskari, J Järvelä, A J Ahola, D Gordin, M-A Härma, A Kumar, S R Hamarneh, R A Hodin, T Sorsa, T Tervahartiala, S Hörkkö, P J Pussinen, C Forsblom, M Jauhiainen, M-R Taskinen, P-H Groop, M Lehto
BACKGROUND: Patients with type 1 diabetes have shown an increase in circulating cytokines, altered lipoprotein metabolism and signs of vascular dysfunction in response to high-fat meals. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) regulates lipid transport and inflammatory responses in the gastrointestinal tract. We therefore hypothesized that changes in IAP activity could have profound effects on gut metabolic homeostasis in patients with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Faecal samples of 41 nondiabetic controls and 46 patients with type 1 diabetes were analysed for IAP activity, calprotectin, immunoglobulins and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393412/early-stages-in-the-ontogeny-of-small-b-cell-lymphomas-genetics-and-microenvironment
#5
P Ghia, B Nadel, B Sander, K Stamatopoulos, F K Stevenson
In this review, we focus on the mechanisms underlying lymphomagenesis in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, follicular lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma and splenic marginal zone lymphoma. The cells of origin of these small B-cell lymphomas are distinct, as are the characteristic chromosomal lesions and clinical courses. One shared feature is retention of expression of surface immunoglobulin. Analysis of this critical receptor reveals the point of differentiation reached by the cell of origin. Additionally, the sequence patterns of the immunoglobulin-variable domains can indicate a role for stimulants of the B-cell receptor before, during and after malignant transformation...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370601/heparin-binding-protein-a-key-player-in-the-pathophysiology-of-organ-dysfunction-in-sepsis
#6
REVIEW
J Fisher, A Linder
Infectious diseases remain a major health problem, and sepsis and other severe infectious diseases are common causes of morbidity and mortality. There is a need for clinical and laboratory tools to identify patients with severe infections early and to distinguish between bacterial and nonbacterial conditions. Heparin-binding protein (HBP), also known as azurocidin or cationic antimicrobial protein of 37 KDa, is a promising biomarker to distinguish between patients with these conditions. It is biologically plausible that HBP is an early and predictive biomarker because it is prefabricated and rapidly mobilized from migrating neutrophils in response to bacterial infections...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345259/the-role-of-complement-inhibitors-beyond-controlling-inflammation
#7
REVIEW
A M Blom
The complement system is an arm of innate immunity that aids in the removal of pathogens and dying cells. Due to its harmful, pro-inflammatory potential, complement is controlled by several soluble and membrane-bound inhibitors. This family of complement regulators has been recently extended by the discovery of several new members, and it is becoming apparent that these proteins harbour additional functions. In this review, the current state of knowledge of the physiological functions of four complement regulators will be described: cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), CUB and sushi multiple domains 1 (CSMD1), sushi domain-containing protein 4 (SUSD4) and CD59...
March 26, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334474/are-low-sun-exposure-habits-a-genuine-strong-risk-factor-for-all-cause-mortality-or-the-result-of-bias
#8
LETTER
Pelle G Lindqvist, Håkan Olsson
I would like to thank Professors Hoffmann and Sobotzki for their interest in our paper on sun exposure and all-cause mortality. In it we demonstrate that women with the greatest sun exposure habits had a lower all-cause death rate from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and non-cancer/non-CVD than women who avoided sun exposure.(1,2) This resulted in a prolonged life expectancy that, in turn, as might be expected, resulted in an increased prevalence of cancer mortality. Non-smokers who avoid sun exposure were at a similar risk for all-cause deaths as smokers who had the greatest sun exposure habits...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334454/response-to-avoidance-of-sun-exposure-as-a-risk-factor-for-major-causes-of-death-a-competing-risk-analysis-of-the-melanoma-in-southern-sweden-cohort
#9
LETTER
S Hoffmann, C Sobotzki
Lindqvist et al. [1] recently published a mortality analysis in a prospective cohort of 29 518 Sweden-born women. Using a competing risk framework, the authors observed an increased mortality by cardiovascular disease (CVD) and noncancer/non-CVD for women who avoided sun exposure. A. Torres, the president of the American Academy of Dermatology, already addressed a number of limitations which are important in the interpretation of this study [2]. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
March 23, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295777/can-ldl-cholesterol-be-too-low-possible-risks-of-extremely-low-levels
#10
Anders G Olsson, Bo Angelin, Gerd Assmann, Christoph J Binder, Ingemar Björkhem, Angel Cedazo-Minguez, Jonathan Cohen, Arnold von Eckardstein, Eduardo Farinaro, Dirk Müller-Wieland, Klaus G Parhofer, Paolo Parini, Robert S Rosenson, Jakob Starup-Linde, Matti J Tikkanen, Laurent Yvan-Charvet
Following the continuous accumulation of evidence supporting the beneficial role of reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in the treatment and prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and its complications, therapeutic possibilities now exist to lower LDL-C to very low levels, similar to or even lower than those seen in newborns and nonhuman species. In addition to the important task of evaluating potential side-effects of such treatments, the question arises whether extremely low LDL-C levels per se may provoke adverse effects in humans...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295729/targeting-of-b-cell-receptor-signalling-in-b-cell-malignancies
#11
M Jerkeman, M Hallek, M Dreyling, C Thieblemont, E Kimby, L Staudt
Pharmacological agents that inhibit enzymes of the B-cell receptor (BCR) pathway are of increasing importance in the treatment of B-cell malignancies. These include inhibitors of Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), splenic tyrosine kinase and protein kinase Cβ. Two agents are already approved in the USA and Europe: ibrutinib, a BTK inhibitor, for the treatment of chronic lymphatic leukaemia (CLL), mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and Waldenström's macroglobulinemia; and idelalisib, a PI3Kδ inhibitor, for the treatment of CLL and follicular lymphoma...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294432/should-we-treat-severe-vasovagal-syncope-with-a-pacemaker
#12
REVIEW
R Sutton
Cardiac pacing for vasovagal syncope (VVS) addresses the cardioinhibitory component of the reflex but cannot directly affect vasodepression, which occurs in every reflex even when hidden by dominant cardioinhibition. The randomized controlled trials of pacing in VVS have, after almost 2 decades, determined that a small number of patients can benefit because their vasodepressor component is not severe. Early studies compared pacing with no therapy yielding highly significant benefits. Subsequently, all study patients had implanted devices with half being switched off...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229496/comment-on-jim-16-0640-r1-mortality-from-aortic-stenosis-prospective-study-of-serum-calcium-and-phosphate-by-d-wald
#13
L Lind
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 22, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205262/modern-multiple-myeloma-therapy-deep-sustained-treatment-response-and-good-clinical-outcomes
#14
REVIEW
O Landgren, K Iskander
In the USA at the beginning of this century, the average overall survival in patients with multiple myeloma was about 3 years. Around that time, three drugs (bortezomib, lenalidomide and thalidomide) were introduced for the treatment of multiple myeloma and, in 2012, carfilzomib received accelerated approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Driven by access to better drugs, median overall survival in younger patients (aged <50 years) was >10 years by 2014. The FDA approved 14 new drugs for the treatment of cancer in 2015; four of these were approved for the treatment of myeloma (panobinostat, daratumumab, elotuzumab and ixazomib)...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194913/vaccination-against-t-cell-epitopes-of-native-apob100-reduces-vascular-inflammation-and-disease-in-a-humanized-mouse-model-of-atherosclerosis
#15
A Gisterå, A Hermansson, D Strodthoff, M L Klement, U Hedin, G N Fredrikson, J Nilsson, G K Hansson, D F J Ketelhuth
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The T-cell response to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in the vessel wall plays a critical role in atherosclerotic plaque formation and stability. In this study, we used a new translational approach to investigate epitopes from human apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB100), the protein component of LDL, which triggers T-cell activation. We also evaluated the potential of two selected native ApoB100 epitopes to modulate atherosclerosis in human ApoB100-transgenic Ldlr(-/-) (HuBL) mice...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181720/organic-bioelectronics-in-medicine
#16
S Löffler, K Melican, K P R Nilsson, A Richter-Dahlfors
A major challenge in the growing field of bioelectronic medicine is the development of tissue interface technologies promoting device integration with biological tissues. Materials based on organic bioelectronics show great promise due to a unique combination of electronic and ionic conductivity properties. In this review, we outline exciting developments in the field of organic bioelectronics and demonstrate the medical importance of these active, electronically controllable materials. Importantly, organic bioelectronics offer a means to control cell-surface attachment as required for many device-tissue applications...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164394/smokeless-tobacco-snus-is-associated-with-an-increased-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-results-from-five-pooled-cohorts
#17
S Carlsson, T Andersson, M Araghi, R Galanti, A Lager, M Lundberg, P Nilsson, M Norberg, N L Pedersen, Y Trolle-Lagerros, C Magnusson
BACKGROUND: Smoking and nicotine exposure increase insulin resistance and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Swedish smokeless tobacco (snus) is high in nicotine, and its use is prevalent in Scandinavian countries, but few studies have investigated snus use in relation to diabetes risk. OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between snus use and risk of type 2 diabetes using pooled data from five cohorts. METHODS: Analyses were based on prospective studies conducted between 1990 and 2013 including 54 531 never-smoking men and 2441 incident cases of type 2 diabetes identified through screening, self-reporting and hospital and prescription registries...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155242/sensory-neuron-regulation-of-gastrointestinal-inflammation-and-bacterial-host-defence
#18
N Y Lai, K Mills, I M Chiu
Sensory neurons in the gastrointestinal tract have multifaceted roles in maintaining homeostasis, detecting danger and initiating protective responses. The gastrointestinal tract is innervated by three types of sensory neurons: dorsal root ganglia, nodose/jugular ganglia and intrinsic primary afferent neurons. Here, we examine how these distinct sensory neurons and their signal transducers participate in regulating gastrointestinal inflammation and host defence. Sensory neurons are equipped with molecular sensors that enable neuronal detection of diverse environmental signals including thermal and mechanical stimuli, inflammatory mediators and tissue damage...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145001/treatment-with-the-natural-fxr-agonist-chenodeoxycholic-acid-reduces-clearance-of-plasma-ldl-whilst-decreasing-circulating-pcsk9-lipoprotein-a-and-apolipoprotein-c-iii
#19
M Ghosh Laskar, M Eriksson, M Rudling, B Angelin
BACKGROUND: The natural farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) suppresses hepatic cholesterol and bile acid synthesis and reduces biliary cholesterol secretion and triglyceride production. Animal studies have shown that bile acids downregulate hepatic LDL receptors (LDLRs); however, information on LDL metabolism in humans is limited. METHODS: Kinetics of autologous (125) I-LDL were determined in 12 male subjects at baseline and during treatment with CDCA (15 mg kg(-1) day(-1) )...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425586/introduction-to-nobel-conference-the-cell-cycle-and-cell-death-in-disease
#20
K G Wiman, B Zhivotovsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
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