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Cellular Signalling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438638/adenosine-a2a-receptor-modulates-neuroimmune-function-through-th17-retinoid-related-orphan-receptor-gamma-t-ror%C3%AE-t-signaling-in-a-btbr-t-itpr3-tf-j-mouse-model-of-autism
#1
Mushtaq A Ansari, Ahmed Nadeem, Sabry M Attia, Saleh A Bakheet, Raish Mohammad, Sheikh F Ahmad
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by abnormal social interactions, repetitive behaviors that impair social communication, and circumscribed interests. BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) inbred mice are generally used as a model for ASD, as they show repetitive behaviors and social deficits that resemble signs of ADS in humans. Adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) are considered as potential targets in the treatment of immune, inflammatory, and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of the A2A adenosine receptor (A2AR) antagonist SCH 5826 (SCH) and agonist CGS 21680 (CGS) on behavior (self-grooming), hot plate test results, and expression levels of IL-17A(+), RORγt(+), Foxp3(+), and IL-10(+) in CD4(+) T spleen cells in BTBR and C57BL/6 (B6) mice...
April 21, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435089/cobalt-chloride-induces-rhoa-rock-activation-and-remodeling-effect-in-h9c2-cardiomyoblasts-involvement-of-pi3k-akt-and-mapk-pathways
#2
Cheng-I Cheng, Yueh-Hong Lee, Po-Han Chen, Yu-Chun Lin, Ming-Huei Chou, Ying-Hsien Kao
Chronic heart failure is a serious complication of myocardial infarction, one of the major causes of death worldwide that often leads to adverse cardiac hypertrophy and poor prognosis. Hypoxia-induced cardiac tissue remodeling is considered an important underlying etiology. This study aimed to delineate the signaling profile of RhoA/ROCK, PI3K/Akt, and MAPK and their involvement in regulation of remodeling events in cultured H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells. In addition to its growth-suppressive effect, the hypoxia-mimetic chemical, cobalt chloride (CoCl2) significantly induced RhoA kinase activation as revealed by increased MBS phosphorylation and ROCK1/2 expression in H9c2 cells...
April 20, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431986/ninj2-a-novel-regulator-of-endothelial-inflammation-and-activation
#3
Jingjing Wang, Jingjing Fa, Pengyun Wang, Xinzhen Jia, Huixin Peng, Jing Chen, Yifan Wang, Chenhui Wang, Qiuyun Chen, Xin Tu, Qing K Wang, Chengqi Xu
Previous genetic studies suggested that variants in NINJ2 (encode ninjurin2) confer risk to ischemic stroke or large artery atherosclerotic stroke. However, the underlying mechanisms of NINJ2 in ischemic stroke or atherosclerosis are still unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that NINJ2 may play a role in endothelial inflammation and activation, and regulate the process of atherosclerosis. Here, we demonstrated that NINJ2 can regulate the expression of a panel of genes that are associated with inflammation and atherosclerosis (e...
April 18, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428083/the-roles-of-subcellularly-located-egfr-in-autophagy
#4
REVIEW
Hongsen Li, Liangkun You, Jiansheng Xie, Hongming Pan, Weidong Han
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a well-studied receptor-tyrosine kinase that serves vital roles in regulation of organ development and cancer progression. EGFR not only exists on the plasma membrane, but also widely expressed in the nucleus, endosomes, and mitochondria. Most recently, several lines of evidences indicated that autophagy is regulated by EGFR in kinase-active and -independent manners. In this review, we summarized recent advances in our understanding of the functions of different subcellularly located EGFR on autophagy...
April 18, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428082/calcitonin-receptor-increases-invasion-of-prostate-cancer-cells-by-recruiting-zonula-occludens-1-and-promoting-pka-mediated-tj-disassembly
#5
Ahmed Aljamilee, Arvind Thakkar, Girish Shah
Almost all primary prostate cancers (PCs) and PC cell lines express calcitonin (CT) and/or its receptor (CTR), and their co-expression positively correlates with their invasiveness. Activation of the CT-CTR axis in non-invasive LNCaP cells induces an invasive phenotype. In contrast, silencing of CT/CTR expression in highly metastatic PC-3M cells markedly reduces their tumorigenicity and abolishes their ability to form distant metastases in nude mice. Our recent studies suggest that CTR interacts with zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1) through PDZ interaction to destabilize tight junctions and increase invasion of PC cells...
April 17, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414100/cytidine-monophosphate-kinase-is-inhibited-by-the-tgf-%C3%AE-signalling-pathway-through-the-upregulation-of-mir-130b-3p-in-human-epithelial-ovarian-cancer
#6
Daibing Zhou, Lingyun Zhang, Wenwen Sun, Wencai Guan, Qunbo Lin, Weimin Ren, Jihong Zhang, Guoxiong Xu
Cytidine monophosphate kinase (CMPK), a member of the nucleoside monophosphate kinase family, plays an important role in the biosynthesis of nucleoside metabolism, DNA repair and tumour development. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that CMPK was overexpressed in human ovarian epithelial borderline and malignant tumours using tissue microarray. Knockdown of CMPK significantly inhibited epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Furthermore, CMPK-shRNA inhibited PCNA, MMP-2, MMP-9 and vimentin expression, increased E-cadherin expression and arrested cell cycle at the G2/M phase...
April 14, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412414/endothelin-1-promotes-hypertrophic-remodelling-of-cardiac-myocytes-by-activating-sustained-signalling-and-transcription-downstream-of-endothelin-type-a-receptors
#7
Caroline R Archer, Emma L Robinson, Faye M Drawnel, H Llewelyn Roderick
G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) mediated activation of the MAPK signalling cascade is a key pathway in the induction of hypertrophic remodelling of the heart - a response to pathological cues including hypertension and myocardial infarction. While levels of pro-hypertrophic hormone agonists of GPCRs increase during periods of greater workload to enhance cardiac output, hypertrophy does not necessarily result. Here we investigated the relationship between the duration of exposure to the pro-hypertrophic GPCR agonist endothelin-1 (ET-1) and the induction of hypertrophic remodelling in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM) and in the adult rat heart in vivo...
April 13, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412413/activation-of-muscarinic-receptors-prevents-tnf-%C3%AE-mediated-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-disruption-through-p38-mapk
#8
Junsuke Uwada, Takashi Yazawa, Md Tariqul Islam, Md Rafiqul Islam Khan, Susanne M Krug, Michael Fromm, Shin-Ichiro Karaki, Yuichi Suzuki, Atsukazu Kuwahara, Hatsumi Yoshiki, Kiyonao Sada, Ikunobu Muramatsu, Takanobu Taniguchi
Intestinal epithelial cells form a tight barrier to act as selective physical barriers, repelling hostile substances. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a well characterized pro-inflammatory cytokine which can compromise intestinal barrier function and the suppression of TNF-α function is important for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this study, we investigated the contribution of G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-induced signalling pathways to the maintenance of epithelial barrier function...
April 12, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412412/autophagy-regulatory-molecule-tmem74-interacts-with-bik-and-inhibits-bik-induced-apoptosis
#9
Yizhe Sun, Qi Li, Jingyu Zhang, Zhongjiang Chen, Qihua He, Xi Liu, Ning Zhao, Ang Yin, He Huang, Minwei He, Lulu Cao, Lu Wang
TMEM74 (Transmembrane protein 74), a lysosome transmembrane protein, induces cell autophagy. Knockdown of TMEM74 abolished EBSS-induced autophagy. BIK, belonging to BOP (BH3-only protein) protein family, has been reported to induce cell apoptosis. Autophagy and apoptosis, as different pathways regulated by extra- or intra-cellular signals precisely, both play a crucial role in processes of intra-cellular substrates degradation, energy metabolism and cell survival. However, the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis still remains elusive...
April 12, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411124/m3-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptor-facilitates-the-endocytosis-of-mu-opioid-receptor-mediated-by-morphine-independently-of-the-formation-of-heteromeric-complexes
#10
Juan F Lopez-Gimenez, Elisa Alvarez-Curto, Graeme Milligan
Morphine inefficiency to induce the internalization of mu opioid (MOP) receptors observed in numerous experimental models constitutes a paradigm of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) functional selectivity. We recently described that activation of Gαq/11 proteins through 5-HT2A serotonin receptors co-expressed in the same cells facilitates MOP receptor endocytosis promoted by morphine. In order to explore whether a different Gαq/11 coupled GPCR would emulate this effect, a double stable Flp-In T-REx HEK293 cell line permanently expressing MOP-YFP receptors along with FLAG-M3-Cerulean receptors expressed in an inducible manner was generated...
April 11, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392425/t-cadherin-promotes-autophagy-and-survival-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-through-mek1-2-erk1-2-axis-activation
#11
Emmanouil Kyriakakis, Agne Frismantiene, Boris Dasen, Dennis Pfaff, Olga Rivero, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Paul Erne, Therese J Resink, Maria Philippova
Autophagy is an evolutionary conserved intracellular catabolic process of vital importance to cell and tissue homeostasis. Autophagy is implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis but participating cells, molecular mechanisms and functional outcomes have not been fully elucidated. T-cadherin, an atypical glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored member of the cadherin superfamily of adhesion molecules, is upregulated on smooth muscle cells (SMCs)(1) in atherosclerotic lesions. Here, using rat and murine aortic SMCs as experimental models, we surveyed the ability of T-cadherin to regulate autophagy in SMCs during serum-starvation stress...
April 6, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389416/cell-surface-grp78-facilitates-hepatoma-cells-proliferation-and-migration-by-activating-igf-ir
#12
Yancun Yin, Chen Chen, Jinliang Chen, Renhui Zhan, Qiang Zhang, Xiaoyan Xu, Defang Li, Minjing Li
The 78kDa glucose regulated protein (GRP78) is a multifunctional chaperone that is involved in a variety of cellular processes. Insulin like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) often aberrant expresses in many types of tumor cells. The IGF-IR signaling plays key roles in carcinogenesis and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. The crosstalk between GRP78 and IGF-IR molecules has not well been illuminated. Here, we demonstrated a reciprocal regulation of GRP78 expression and IGF-IR pathway activation. IGF-I induced GRP78 expression in hepatoma cells...
April 4, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389415/g-protein-coupled-receptor-kinase-2-grk2-as-an-integrative-signalling-node-in-the-regulation-of-cardiovascular-function-and-metabolic-homeostasis
#13
REVIEW
Federico Mayor, Marta Cruces-Sande, Alba C Arcones, Rocío Vila-Bedmar, Ana M Briones, Mercedes Salaices, Cristina Murga
G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is emerging as a pivotal signalling hub able to integrate different transduction cascades. This ability appears to underlie its central role in different physiological and pathological conditions. Key mediators of cardiovascular function (such as catecholamines or angiotensin II) and components of the systemic milieu altered in insulin resistance conditions converge in increasing GRK2 levels in diverse cardiovascular cell types. In turn, GRK2 would simultaneously modulate several cardiovascular regulatory pathways, including GPCR and insulin signalling cascades, NO bioavailability and mitochondrial function...
April 4, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389414/niclosamide-beyond-an-antihelminthic-drug
#14
REVIEW
Wei Chen, Robert A Mook, Richard T Premont, Jiangbo Wang
Niclosamide is an oral antihelminthic drug used to treat parasitic infections in millions of people worldwide. However recent studies have indicated that niclosamide may have broad clinical applications for the treatment of diseases other than those caused by parasites. These diseases and symptoms may include cancer, bacterial and viral infection, metabolic diseases such as Type II diabetes, NASH and NAFLD, artery constriction, endometriosis, neuropathic pain, rheumatoid arthritis, sclerodermatous graft-versus-host disease, systemic sclerosis...
April 4, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389413/influence-of-cell-confluence-on-the-camp-signalling-pathway-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#15
M Belacel-Ouari, L Zhang, F Hubert, R Assaly, R Gerbier, R Jockers, F Dauphin, P Lechêne, R Fischmeister, B Manoury, V Leblais
The influence of cell confluence on the β-adrenoceptor (β-AR)/cAMP/phosphodiesterase (PDE) pathway was investigated in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs). Cells were plated either at low density (LD: 3·10(3)cells/cm(2)) or high density (HD: 3·10(4)cells/cm(2)) corresponding to non-confluent or confluent cells, respectively, on the day of experiment. β-AR-stimulated cAMP was monitored in real-time using the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based cAMP sensor, Epac2-camps. A brief application (15s) of the β-AR agonist isoprenaline (Iso) induced a typical transient FRET signal, reflecting cAMP production followed by its rapid degradation...
April 4, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366813/mita-modulated-autophagy-flux-promotes-cell-death-in-breast-cancer-cells
#16
Khyati Bhatelia, Kritarth Singh, Paresh Prajapati, Lakshmi Sripada, Milton Roy, Rajesh Singh
The crosstalk between inflammation and autophagy is an emerging phenomenon observed during tumorigenesis. Activation of NF-κB and IRF3 plays a key role in the regulation of cytokines that are involved in tumor growth and progression. The genes of innate immunity are known to regulate the master transcription factors like NF-κB and IRF3. Innate immunity pathways at the same time regulate the genes of the autophagy pathway which are essential for tumor cell metabolism. In the current study, we studied the role of MITA (Mediator of IRF3 Activation), a regulator of innate immunity, in the regulation of autophagy and its implication in cell death of breast cancer cells...
March 31, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366812/dishevelled-stability-is-positively-regulated-by-pkc%C3%AE-mediated-phosphorylation-induced-by-wnt-agonists
#17
Dora M Velázquez, M Cristina Castañeda-Patlán, Martha Robles-Flores
Dishevelled (Dvl) proteins are central mediators of both canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling. It is well known that, upon Wnt stimulation, Dvl becomes phosphorylated. However, how Wnt-induced phosphorylation of Dvl is regulated and its consequences are poorly understood. Here we found that Dvl proteins are overexpressed in colon cancer cells. In addition, we found that Wnt3a treatment rapidly induces hyperphosphorylation and stabilization of Dvl2 and Dvl3. The latter can be blocked by inhibition of Protein Kinase C (PKC)α, PKCδ, and PKCζ isoforms...
March 31, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365441/the-multi-site-docking-protein-gab1-is-constitutively-phosphorylated-independent-from-its-recruitment-to-the-plasma-membrane-in-jak2-v617f-positive-cells-and-mediates-proliferation-of-human-erythroleukaemia-cells
#18
Hannes Bongartz, Wiebke Hessenkemper, Christian Müller, Melissa Fensky, Johannes Fritsch, Katharina Mandel, Iris Behrmann, Claude Haan, Thomas Fischer, Stephan M Feller, Fred Schaper
The constitutively active Janus kinase 2 mutant Jak2-V617F is responsible for cytokine-independent growth of hematopoietic cells and the development of myeloproliferative neoplasms, such as polycythaemia vera and essential thrombocythaemia. Cells expressing Jak2-V617F exhibit constitutive STAT, MAPK, and PI3K signalling, and constitutive association of the multi-site docking protein Gab1 to PIP3 at the plasma membrane. Here, we demonstrate the crucial role of Gab1 for the proliferation of Jak2-V617F-positive human erythroleukaemia (HEL) cells...
March 30, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365442/loss-of-cln3-impacts-protein-secretion-in-the-social-amoeba-dictyostelium
#19
Robert J Huber
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), also referred to as Batten disease, is the most common form of childhood neurodegeneration. Mutations in CLN3 cause the most prevalent subtype of the disease, which manifests during early childhood and is currently untreatable. The precise function of the CLN3 protein is still not known, which has inhibited the development of targeted therapies. In the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, loss of the CLN3 homolog, Cln3, reduces adhesion during early development, which delays streaming and aggregation...
March 29, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359774/trpv4-regulates-insulin-mrna-expression-and-ins-1e-cell-death-via-erk1-2-and-no-dependent-mechanisms
#20
M Billert, M Skrzypski, M Sassek, D Szczepankiewicz, T Wojciechowicz, S Mergler, M Z Strowski, K W Nowak
TRPV4 is a Ca(2+)-permeable, nonselective cation channel. Recently, TRPV4 was implicated in controlling peripheral insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and apoptosis of pancreatic beta cells. Here, we characterize the role and potential mechanisms of TRPV4 in regulating insulin mRNA expression and cell death in insulin producing INS-1E cells and rat pancreatic islets. TRPV4 protein production was downregulated by siRNA. Intracellular calcium level was measured using Fluo-3 AM. Gene expression was studied by real-time PCR...
March 27, 2017: Cellular Signalling
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