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Phytotherapy Research: PTR

Hemavathy Harikrishnan, Ibrahim Jantan, Md Areeful Haque, Endang Kumolosasi
Phyllanthin, a lignan from Phyllanthus species, has been reported to possess potent immunosuppressive properties on immune cells and on adaptive and innate immune responses in animal models. Herein, we investigated the inhibitory effects of phyllanthin isolated from Phyllanthus amarus on nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and PI3K-Akt signal transducing pathways in LPS-activated U937 cells. The lipopolysaccharide-stimulated excess production of prostaglandin was significantly suppressed by phyllanthin via the mechanisms linked to the modulatory effects of cyclooxygenase 2 protein and gene expression...
September 20, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Yuan Li, Suming Fu, Enlai Li, Xianchao Sun, Haie Xu, Yu Meng, Xiaoqian Wang, Yue Chen, Chunfeng Xie, Shanshan Geng, Jieshu Wu, Caiyun Zhong, Ping Xu
Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is capable of inducing pulmonary oxidative injury. Autophagy maintains basal cellular homeostasis and plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of lung diseases. Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol, is an effective antioxidant agent against particulate matter (PM)-induced injuries. The current study was designed to investigate whether resveratrol can regulate autophagy in the process of PM2.5-mediated pulmonary oxidative injury. In the mice model of PM2.5 exposure, we found that PM2...
September 20, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Dur-Han Kwon, Jeong-Hun Ji, Soon-Ho Yim, Byoung-Soo Kim, Hwa-Jung Choi
This study aimed to investigate in vitro the anti-influenza B/Lee/40 virus effect of sakuranetin and mode of its action. The sakuranetin exhibited potent antiviral activity against influenza B/Lee/40 virus, reducing the formation of a visible cytopathic effect, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) of 7.21 μg/ml and no cytotoxicity at a concentration of 100 μg/ml, and the derived therapeutic index (TI) was >13.87. Oseltamivir showed weak anti-influenza B/Lee/40 virus activity with IC50 of 80.74 μg/ml, 50% cytotoxicity concentration of >100 μg/ml, and TI of >1...
September 5, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Yue Chen, Yuan Li, Xiao-Qian Wang, Yu Meng, Qi Zhang, Jian-Yun Zhu, Jia-Qi Chen, Wan-Shuang Cao, Xue-Qi Wang, Chun-Feng Xie, Xiao-Ting Li, Shan-Shan Geng, Jie-Shu Wu, Cai-Yun Zhong, Hong-Yu Han
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered to play essential roles in the process of origination, proliferation, migration, and invasion of cancer, and their properties are regulated by Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) is a natural product obtained from cruciferous vegetables with anticancer activities. The present study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect and the underlying mechanisms of PEITC on colorectal CSCs. In this study, we found that PEITC can significantly reduce the size and number of colorectal cancer cell spheroids in serum-free medium...
August 30, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Zhanbin Feng, Xiaofei Yang, Long Zhang, Irfan A Ansari, M Salman Khan, Shuyi Han, Yaoyu Feng
The current study was undertaken to delineate the protective effect of Ginkgolide B, a phyto-constituent from Ginkgo biloba, on oxidized (ox)-LDL-induced endothelial dysfunction via targeting Lectin-like ox-LDL-receptor-1 (LOX-1), NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX-4), and other inflammatory proteins. Our results have shown that Ginkgolide B downregulated the expression of LOX-1 in ox-LDL-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and RAW246.7 murine macrophages which ultimately resulted in decreased cholesterol deposits in HUVECs and RAW264...
August 22, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Sheila Leone, Lucia Recinella, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Giustino Orlando, Claudio Ferrante, Lidia Leporini, Luigi Brunetti, Luigi Menghini
Crocus sativus L. (Saffron) has long been known for multiple target therapeutic uses. The plant metabolism is well investigated and the main metabolites related to saffron organoleptic qualities are crocin, crocetin, picrocrocin, and safranal. Particularly, the most abundant of them, such as crocin and safranal, are investigated for their multiple biological activities and known as potential drugs. We aimed to review the constituent features of the plant, along with its potential therapeutic effects in depression, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, cancer, and sexual dysfunction...
August 22, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Zahra Gholamnezhad, Vahideh Ghorani, Saeideh Saadat, Farzaneh Shakeri, Mohammad Hossein Boskabady
Pharmacological agents that can affect muscarinic receptors are commonly used to treat or manage various diseases. Medicinal plants have been used from ancient time to treat cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and urogenital disorders, which may related to their muscarinic receptors effects. Several pharmacological studies revealed the inhibitory or stimulatory effect of some herbal plants on muscarinic receptors. Medline, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, and Google Scholar as online database were searched from the beginning of 1983 to March 2018 using following keywords: muscarinic receptor, medicinal plant, herbal medicine, and smooth muscle, animal, human, in vivo, and in vitro...
August 22, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Wenshuang Wu, Yang Liu, Haoyu Ye, Zhihui Li
Millepachine (MIL), a bioactive natural chalcone from Chinese herbal medicine Millettia pachycarpa Benth, exhibits strong antitumor effects against many human cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we found that MIL significantly inhibited the proliferation of cisplatin-resistant A2780CP cells via inducing obvious G2/M arrest and apoptosis and down-regulating the activity of topoisomerase II protein. We further found that the mechanism by which MIL showed good antitumor effects in cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer was associated with inhibiting the expression of ATP-binding cassette transporters in cisplatin-resistant A2780CP cells...
August 19, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Xiaoli Wang, Chengu Niu, Xiaojie Zhang, Miaoxian Dong
The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that emodin inhibits extracellular matrix (ECM)-related gene expression in activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) by blocking canonical or/and noncanonical components of transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) intracellular signaling. Here, we demonstrate that emodin suppressed the gene expression of HSCs activation markers type I collagen, fibronectin, and α-smooth muscle actin, as well as HSCs proliferation. Mechanistically, emodin suppresses TGFβ1, TGFβ receptor II, TGFβ receptor I, and Smad4 gene expression, as well as Smad luciferase activity...
August 17, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Giulia Pastorino, Laura Cornara, Sónia Soares, Francisca Rodrigues, M Beatriz P P Oliveira
In the last years, consumers are paying much more attention to natural medicines and principles, mainly due to the general sense that natural compounds are safe. On the other hand, there is a growing demand by industry for plants used in traditional medicine that could be incorporated in foods, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, or even pharmaceuticals. Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. belongs to the Fabaceae family and has been recognized since ancient times for its ethnopharmacological values. This plant contains different phytocompounds, such as glycyrrhizin, 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid, glabrin A and B, and isoflavones, that have demonstrated various pharmacological activities...
August 17, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Maryam Rameshrad, Mohsen Imenshahidi, Bibi Marjan Razavi, Mehrdad Iranshahi, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
The underlying mechanism of Bisphenol A (BPA)-induced vascular toxicity and the protective role of grape seed extract (GSE) and resveratrol were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to different concentrations of GSE and resveratrol. Then, BPA was added to the cells and cell viability and effects on the protein level of cell adhesion molecules were measured through MTT and western blotting. Animals were randomly divided into control, GSE (3 and 12 mg·kg-1 ·day-1 ip), resveratrol (100 mg·kg-1 ·day-1 ip), BPA (35 mg·kg-1 ·day-1 , gavage), BPA plus GSE (3, 6, and 12 mg·kg-1 ·day-1 ip), BPA plus resveratrol (25, 50, and 100 mg·kg-1 ·day-1 ip), and BPA plus vitamin E (200 IU/kg per every other day ip)...
August 16, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Ivana Šušaníková, Jana Balleková, Milan Štefek, Jan Hošek, Pavel Mučaji
In the previous study, the artichoke leaf extract showed effective inhibition of AKR1B1, the first enzyme of polyol pathway, which reduces high level of glucose to osmotically active sorbitol, important for development of chronic diabetic complications. In the present study, the effect of artichoke leaf extract and of several participating phenols (caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, quinic acid, and luteolin) was tested on sorbitol level in rat lenses exposed to high glucose ex vivo, on cytotoxicity as well as on oxidative stress in C2C12 muscle cell line induced by high glucose in vitro...
August 15, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Pattreeya Tungcharoen, Chatchai Wattanapiromsakul, Pimpimon Tansakul, Seikou Nakamura, Hisashi Matsuda, Supinya Tewtrakul
Curcuma zedoaroides, a Zingiberaceae species, has been used for snake bite antidote and wound care in Thailand. Seven compounds were isolated from the bioactive chloroform extract consisted of one new guaiane sesquiterpene lactone, 5-epiphaeocaulisin A (4) and one new diarylheptanoid, 1,2,3,5-tetrahydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-7-(4-hydroxyphenyl) heptane (7), together with five known guaiane-type sesquiterpene lactones including gweicurculactone (1), zedoalactone B (2), phaeocaulisin C (3), zedoalactone H (5), and zedoalactone E (6)...
August 15, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
José Ignacio Erices, Ángelo Torres, Ignacio Niechi, Isabel Bernales, Claudia Quezada
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive brain tumor, which causes the highest number of deaths worldwide. It is a highly vascularized tumor, infiltrative, and its tumorigenic capacity is exacerbated. All these hallmarks are therapeutic targets in GBM treatment, including surgical removal followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Current therapies have not been sufficient for the effective patient's management, so the classic therapies have had to expand and incorporate new alternative treatments, including natural compounds...
August 15, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Enzo R Russo, Inalda Facincani, Katia C Nakazato, Terezila M Coimbra, Eduardo J Crevelin, Ana Maria S Pereira, Fabio Carmona
Curcumin is a polyphenol present in the rhizomes of the species Curcuma longa L. ("turmeric," Zingiberaceae), which has been used for centuries as an anti-inflammatory. We aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of C. longa in renal injury induced by doxorubicin (DOX, 3.5 IV). We studied four groups of Wistar rats: two groups with DOX-induced kidney injury, one fed with standard food and another with standard food mixed with C. longa (5 mg.g-1 ). Two other control groups without kidney injury were fed with the same foods...
August 15, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Mariana Klein, Juliane de Quadros De Bortolli, Francisco Silveira Guimarães, Fernanda Gonçalves Salum, Karen Cherubini, Maria Antonia Zancanaro de Figueiredo
The effects of cannabidiol (CBD), the main non-psychotropic component of Cannabis sativa, were assessed on oral wound healing in an in vivo model. Standardized ulcers were induced in 60 Wistar rats using a 5-mm biopsy punch on the midline of the ventral tongue. Animals received intraperitoneal injections of CBD at doses of 0 (control), 5, and 10 mg/kg daily. Animals were weighed daily, and wound healing was clinically and histologically evaluated after 3 and 7 days of treatment. CBD treatment did not influence the wound area of ulcerative lesions at either observation time...
August 8, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Amir Hadi, Hamed Mohammadi, Zohreh Hadi, Neda Roshanravan, Marzieh Kafeshani
We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of cumin supplementation on plasma lipid concentration in adult population. The search included PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane library (up to January 2018) to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effects of cumin supplementation on serum lipid parameters. Mean difference (MD) was pooled using a random-effects model. Meta-analysis of data from six eligible RCTs with 376 participants showed a significant reduction in plasma concentration of total cholesterol (MD [95% CI] -10...
August 8, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Siqi Zhang, Chong Chen, Wenxi Lu, Li Wei
Panax notoginseng is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine, and dried flower buds of P. notoginseng (FBP) have also been used as a medicine or tea for a long time. The pharmacological effects of FBP include antihypertensive, anticancer, hepatoprotective, and cardiovascular protective effects. The compounds in FBP include saponins, flavonoids, volatile oils, and polysaccharides. The total saponins are the principal bioactive components. In modern applications, FBP is used to treat hypertension and tinnitus...
August 8, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Jamshid Tabeshpour, Soghra Mehri, Fatemeh Shaebani Behbahani, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Vitis vinifera (grape) is one of the "most-produced fruit" in the world. Grape seeds are a valuable source of phenolic compounds including resveratrol (RSV). Grape and one of its biologically active constituents, RSV, exert their protective effects against different natural or chemical toxins which could alter physiological homeostasis through a variety of mechanisms. Some of these mechanisms of actions include increase in superoxide dismutase, hemeoxygenase-1, and glutathione peroxidase activities and reduced glutathione content and decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and activation of the nuclear erythroid2-related factor2/ARE pathway...
August 8, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Ludovico Abenavoli, Angelo A Izzo, Natasa Milić, Carla Cicala, Antonello Santini, Raffaele Capasso
Milk thistle (MT; Silybum marianum), a member of the Asteraceae family, is a therapeutic herb with a 2,000-year history of use. MT fruits contain a mixture of flavonolignans collectively known as silymarin, being silybin (also named silibinin) the main component. This article reviews the chemistry of MT, the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability, the pharmacologically relevant actions for liver diseases (e.g., anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating, antifibrotic, antioxidant, and liver-regenerating properties) as well as the clinical potential in patients with alcoholic liver disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, viral hepatitis, drug-induced liver injury, and mushroom poisoning...
August 6, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
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