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Neuropsychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080075/cognitive-outcomes-in-early-treated-adults-with-phenylketonuria-pku-a-comprehensive-picture-across-domains
#1
Liana Palermo, Tarekegn Geberhiwot, Anita MacDonald, Ellie Limback, S Kate Hall, Cristina Romani
OBJECTIVE: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inherited metabolic disease which affects cognitive functions due to an inability to metabolize phenylalanine which leads to the accumulation of toxic by-products (Phe) in the brain. PKU can be effectively treated with a low phenylalanine diet, but some cognitive deficits remain. Studies have reported impairments, especially for processing speed and executive functions, but there is a lack of comprehensive assessment across cognitive domains. Moreover, it is important to establish outcomes in early treated adults with PKU (AwPKU) who have better metabolic control than groups previously reported in the literature...
January 12, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054825/the-relationship-between-premorbid-iq-and-neurocognitive-functioning-in-individuals-with-cocaine-use-disorders
#2
James J Mahoney, Ari D Kalechstein, Anthony P De Marco, Thomas F Newton, Richard De La Garza
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether premorbid IQ mediates performance on neurocognitive tests in individuals diagnosed with cocaine use disorder (CUD). METHOD: Recently abstinent cocaine users (N = 113) completed measures sensitive to the effects of cocaine on cognition: Conners' Continuous Performance Task-II (CPT-II), n-back working memory test, and Hopkins Verbal Learning Task-Revised (HVLT-R). Premorbid IQ was calculated using the Oklahoma Premorbid Intelligence Estimate, which integrates scores from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and demographic variables...
January 5, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054824/beyond-binary-exploring-the-merits-of-three-depression-groups-in-multiple-sclerosis
#3
Margaret H Cadden, Jessica E Meyer, Peter A Arnett
OBJECTIVE: Depression has been traditionally explored in the context of multiple sclerosis (MS) as a binary construct (depressed, not depressed). However, given the 50% lifetime prevalence rate of depression in MS, it may be useful to consider not only currently depressed versus nondepressed patients, but to evaluate groups that better characterize the complexity of MS depression. The objective of the current study was to examine demographic, cognitive, illness, and psychosocial variables thought to associate with depression in MS across 3 groups: currently depressed, remitted depression, and never been depressed...
January 5, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054823/estradiol-related-variations-in-top-down-and-bottom-up-processes-of-cerebral-lateralization
#4
Sophie Hodgetts, Susanne Weis, Markus Hausmann
OBJECTIVE: Natural fluctuations of sex hormones have been shown to modulate cerebral lateralization in dichotic listening tasks. Two recent studies presented contradictory notions regarding the mechanism of this effect. Specifically, whereas Hjelmervik et al. (2012) suggested that estradiol affects lateralization by enhancing top-down processes, such as cognitive control, Hodgetts, Weis, and Hausmann, (2015) suggested that the effect was attributable to estradiol-related variations in bottom-up aspects of lateralization...
January 5, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054822/episodic-future-thinking-following-vmpfc-damage-impaired-event-construction-maintenance-or-narration
#5
Elena Bertossi, Vanessa Candela, Flavia De Luca, Elisa Ciaramelli
OBJECTIVE: Functional neuroimaging and lesion studies show that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is implicated in episodic future thinking (EFT), yet its role remains unclear. In this study, we sought to (a) confirm recent findings of impaired EFT in patients with lesions to the vmPFC (vmPFC patients) using a new task, and (b) investigate the influence of nonepisodic mechanisms, namely, narrative construction and working memory maintenance, on vmPFC patients' EFT performance...
January 5, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054821/multimodal-emotion-processing-deficits-are-present-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#6
Sophie C Andrews, Mathew Staios, Jim Howe, Katrina Reardon, Fiona Fisher
OBJECTIVE: Emotion processing abilities might be reduced in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Previous studies of emotion processing in ALS have inconsistent results, and are limited by variations in task difficulty, modalities examined, and participants' cognitive status. The current study used a battery of emotion processing tasks at differing levels of difficulty and across different modalities (facial affect and voice prosody) to assess the extent of emotion processing deficits in nondemented ALS...
January 5, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869457/autosomal-dominant-cerebellar-ataxia-deafness-and-narcolepsy-adca-dn-associated-with-progressive-cognitive-and-behavioral-deterioration
#7
Lisa A S Walker, Pierre Bourque, Andra M Smith, Jodi Warman Chardon
Objective: Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia with deafness and narcolepsy (ADCA-DN) is an emerging syndrome caused by mutations in the C-terminus end of the TS domain of the DNMT1 gene. ADCA-DN is also associated with sensorimotor polyneuropathy, extrapyramidal, and dysautonomic signs, as well as dementia. Little has been reported about the progressive cognitive impairment associated with ADCA-DN. Our objective is to provide a detailed characterization of the cognitive profile of ADCA-DN. Method: Three members of a kindred with ADCA-DN underwent comprehensive neuropsychological testing and neuroimaging...
November 21, 2016: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869456/evaluation-of-relational-reasoning-by-a-transitive-inference-task-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#8
Emiliano Brunamonti, Floriana Costanzo, Anna Mammì, Cristina Rufini, Diletta Veneziani, Pierpaolo Pani, Stefano Vicari, Stefano Ferraina, Deny Menghini
Objective: Here we explored whether children with ADHD have a deficit in relational reasoning, a skill subtending the acquisition of many cognitive abilities and social rules. Method: We analyzed the performance of a group of children with ADHD during a transitive inference task, a task requiring first to learn the reciprocal relationship between adjacent items of a rank ordered series (e.g., A>B; B>C; C>D; D>E; E>F), and second, to deduct the relationship between novel pairs of items never matched during the learning (e...
November 21, 2016: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841457/effects-of-drinking-patterns-on-prospective-memory-performance-in-college-students
#9
Marta Zamroziewicz, Sarah A Raskin, Howard Tennen, Carol S Austad, Rebecca M Wood, Carolyn R Fallahi, Alecia D Dager, Broderick Sawyer, Samantha Leen, Godfrey D Pearlson
Objective: Traditional college students are at a critical juncture in the development of prospective memory (PM). Their brains are vulnerable to the effects of alcohol. Method: There were 123 third and fourth year college students, 19-23 years old, who completed the Self-Rating Effects of Alcohol (SREA), Modified Timeline Follow-back (TFLB), Brief Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Scale (BYAACS), and Alcohol Effects Questionnaire (AEQ) once per month on a secure online database, as reported elsewhere (Dager et al...
November 14, 2016: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831696/neuropsychological-functioning-in-college-students-with-and-without-adhd
#10
Lisa L Weyandt, Danielle R Oster, Bergljot Gyda Gudmundsdottir, George J DuPaul, Arthur D Anastopoulos
Objective: Increasing numbers of students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are attending college; however, little empirical information is available concerning the functional impairment experienced by these students. Although preliminary studies suggest that college students with ADHD are more likely to experience a variety of psychosocial and academic difficulties compared to their peers without the disorder, findings regarding neuropsychological functioning have been inconsistent with some studies reporting that college students with ADHD perform more poorly on various cognitive and neuropsychological tasks while others report no differences compared to their peers without ADHD...
November 10, 2016: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819451/visual-perceptual-load-reduces-auditory-detection-in-typically-developing-individuals-but-not-in-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#11
Julian Tillmann, John Swettenham
Objective: Previous studies examining selective attention in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have yielded conflicting results, some suggesting superior focused attention (e.g., on visual search tasks), others demonstrating greater distractibility. This pattern could be accounted for by the proposal (derived by applying the Load theory of attention, e.g., Lavie, 2005) that ASD is characterized by an increased perceptual capacity (Remington, Swettenham, Campbell, & Coleman, 2009). Recent studies in the visual domain support this proposal...
November 7, 2016: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808538/n400-effects-of-semantic-richness-can-be-modulated-by-task-demands
#12
Rocío A López Zunini, Louis Renoult, Vanessa Taler
Semantic richness is a multidimensional construct that can be defined as the amount of semantic information associated with a concept. Objective: To investigate neurophysiological correlates of semantic richness information associated with words and its interaction with task demands. Method: Two different dimensions of semantic richness (number of associates and number of semantic neighbors) were investigated using event-related potentials (ERPs) in lexical decision (LDT) and semantic categorization tasks (SCT) using the same stimuli in 2 groups of participants (24 in each group)...
November 3, 2016: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808537/the-effect-of-positive-symptoms-on-social-cognition-in-first-episode-schizophrenia-is-modified-by-the-presence-of-negative-symptoms
#13
Vibeke Bliksted, Poul Videbech, Birgitte Fagerlund, Chris Frith
Objective: There is considerable evidence that patients with schizophrenia have neurocognitive and social-cognitive deficits. It is unclear how such deficits in first-episode schizophrenia relate to current clinical symptoms. Method: Fifty-nine patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) were tested using the Danish version of NART (premorbid IQ), subtests from WAIS-III (current IQ), and global cognition using Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrena (BACS), a neurocognitive test battery. Social perception was tested using film clips of everyday interactions (TASIT)...
November 3, 2016: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026197/what-paint-can-tell-us-a-fractal-analysis-of-neurological-changes-in-seven-artists
#14
Alex Forsythe, Tamsin Williams, Ronan G Reilly
OBJECTIVE: The notion that artistic capability increases with dementia is both novel and largely unsupported by available literature. Recent research has suggested an emergence of artistic capabilities to be a by-product of involuntary behaviour seen with dementia, as opposed to a progression in original thinking (de Souza, et al., 2010). A far more complementary explanation comes from Hannemann (2006), who suggests that art offers an outlet for dementia patients to refine and sharpen their cognitive abilities...
January 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854445/-the-effectiveness-and-unique-contribution-of-neuropsychological-tests-and-the-%C3%AE-latent-phenotype-in-the-differential-diagnosis-of-dementia-in-the-uniform-data-set-correction-to-john-et-al-2016
#15
(no author information available yet)
: Reports an error in "The effectiveness and unique contribution of neuropsychological tests and the δ latent phenotype in the differential diagnosis of dementia in the uniform data set" by Samantha E. John, Ashita S. Gurnani, Cara Bussell, Jessica L. Saurman, Jason W. Griffin and Brandon E. Gavett (Neuropsychology, 2016[Nov], Vol 30[8], 946-960). In the article, the first sentence in the note to Table 6 should read "Odds ratios (OR) greater than 1 mean that better scores on a test are associated with greater odds of the first diagnosis shown in the Comparison column, whereas OR less than 1 mean that better scores on a test are associated with lower odds of the first diagnosis shown in that column...
January 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841458/cognitive-processing-speed-mediates-the-effects-of-cardiovascular-disease-on-executive-functioning
#16
Spencer W Liebel, Erin C Jones, Assaf Oshri, Emily S Hallowell, Beth A Jerskey, John Gunstad, Lawrence H Sweet
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to examine the hypothesized mediating role of cognitive processing speed (CPS) in the relationship between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and executive functioning (EF). We investigated whether the processing-speed hypothesis in aging also explains the unique contribution that CPS may have to EF deficits in CVD patients. METHOD: A neuropsychological assessment, including multiple measures of CPS and EF, was administered to 21 older adults with a history of CVD and 73 older adults with no history of CVD...
January 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831695/intraindividual-variability-and-falls-in-older-adults
#17
Sarah Bauermeister, Graham Sutton, Mark Mon-Williams, Richard Wilkie, Jack Graveson, Alison Cracknell, Charles Wilkinson, Raymond Holt, David Bunce
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether a simple measure of reaction time (RT) intraindividual variability (IIV) was associated with falls in older adults. Falls and fall-related injuries represent a major cost to health care systems, it is therefore critically important to find measures that can readily identify older adults at greater risk of falling. METHOD: Cognitive and motor function were investigated in 108 adults aged 53 to 93 years (M = 73.49) recruited across the local community and hospital outpatient department...
January 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808539/shared-and-unique-influences-on-age-related-cognitive-change
#18
Timothy A Salthouse
OBJECTIVE: Decompose cognitive change into influences unique to particular cognitive domains, and influences shared across different cognitive domains. METHOD: A total of 2,546 adults between 18 and 95 years of age performed a battery of 12 cognitive tests on 2 occasions separated by an average of 3 years. An estimate of general cognitive functioning based on the first principal factor was regressed from the observed cognitive scores to derive an estimate of specific influences on each measure, and this value was subtracted from the observed score to provide an estimate of general influences on the measure...
January 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775400/dynamic-functional-connectivity-in-bipolar-disorder-is-associated-with-executive-function-and-processing-speed-a-preliminary-study
#19
Tanya T Nguyen, Sanja Kovacevic, Sheena I Dev, Kun Lu, Thomas T Liu, Lisa T Eyler
OBJECTIVE: Disturbances in functional connectivity have been suggested to contribute to cognitive and emotion processing deficits observed in bipolar disorder (BD). Functional connectivity between medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and other brain regions may be particularly abnormal. The goal of the present study was to characterize the temporal dynamics of the default mode network (DMN) connectivity in BD and examine its association with cognition. METHOD: In a preliminary study, euthymic BD (n = 15) and healthy comparison (HC, n = 19) participants underwent resting-state functional MRI, using high-resolution sequences adapted from the Human Connectome Project, and completed neuropsychological measures of processing speed and executive function...
January 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732039/cognitive-functioning-in-the-first-episode-of-major-depressive-disorder-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Elayne Ahern, Maria Semkovska
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive deficits are frequently observed in major depression. Yet, when these deficits emerge and how they relate to the depressed state is unclear. The aim of this 2-part systematic review and meta-analysis is to determine the pattern and extent of cognitive deficits during a first-episode of depression (FED) and their persistence following FED remission. METHOD: Published, peer-reviewed articles on cognitive function in FED patients through October 2015 were searched...
January 2017: Neuropsychology
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