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Neuropsychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230386/does-the-cerebellum-contribute-to-human-navigation-by-processing-sequential-information
#1
Anna M Tedesco, Filippo Bianchini, Laura Piccardi, Silvia Clausi, Alain Berthoz, Marco Molinari, Cecilia Guariglia, Maria Leggio
OBJECTIVE: Several authors have proposed that the cerebellum has an important role in functions of higher order as a general mode of sequence detection, independently from the nature of the information. The aim of this study was to verify whether the cerebellum mediates the processing of navigational sequential information and to determine whether it is influenced by the modality of the stimuli presentation. METHOD: We tested 12 cerebellar patients and 12 healthy age-matched participants in 2 comparable navigational tasks (Walking Corsi Test and the Magic Carpet) requiring to memorizing a sequence of spatial locations...
February 23, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206782/process-dissociation-analyses-of-memory-changes-in-healthy-aging-preclinical-and-very-mild-alzheimer-disease-evidence-for-isolated-recollection-deficits
#2
Peter R Millar, David A Balota, Geoffrey B Maddox, Janet M Duchek, Andrew J Aschenbrenner, Anne M Fagan, Tammie L S Benzinger, John C Morris
OBJECTIVE: Recollection and familiarity are independent processes that contribute to memory performance. Recollection is dependent on attentional control, which has been shown to be disrupted in early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD), whereas familiarity is independent of attention. The present longitudinal study examines the sensitivity of recollection estimates based on Jacoby's (1991) process dissociation procedure to AD-related biomarkers in a large sample of well-characterized cognitively normal middle-aged and older adults (N = 519) and the extent to which recollection discriminates these individuals from individuals with very mild symptomatic AD (N = 64)...
February 16, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206781/cognitive-control-and-associated-neural-correlates-in-adults-with-spina-bifida-myelomeningocele
#3
Ashley L Ware, Paulina A Kulesz, Jenifer Juranek, Paul T Cirino, Jack M Fletcher
OBJECTIVE: Accelerated aging can occur in adult survivors of neurodevelopmental disorders, but has been narrowly studied in spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM). Since discrete aspects of cognitive control and related neural network macrostructure deteriorate in normal aging, the specificity and trajectory of cognition and neuropathology incurred across adulthood in SBM were examined. METHOD: Adults (N = 120) with and without SBM completed working memory span and manipulation tasks, and an inhibitory control task...
February 16, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150964/is-longer-treatment-better-a-comparison-study-of-3-versus-6-months-cognitive-remediation-in-schizophrenia
#4
Mariachiara Buonocore, Marta Bosia, Margherita Bechi, Marco Spangaro, Silvia Cavedoni, Federica Cocchi, Carmelo Guglielmino, Laura Bianchi, Antonella Rita Mastromatteo, Roberto Cavallaro
OBJECTIVE: Despite its extensive use for treating cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, computer-assisted cognitive remediation (CACR) currently lacks a standardized protocol. Duration is an important feature to be defined, as it may contribute to heterogeneous outcome. This study compares 2 treatment durations, 3 versus 6 months, to analyze their effects on both cognition and daily functioning. METHOD: Fifty-seven outpatients with schizophrenia received 3 months of CACR and 41 received 6 months of CACR...
February 2, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150963/a-specific-implicit-sequence-learning-deficit-as-an-underlying-cause-of-dyslexia-investigating-the-role-of-attention-in-implicit-learning-tasks
#5
Eva Staels, Wim Van den Broeck
OBJECTIVE: Recently, a general implicit sequence learning deficit was proposed as an underlying cause of dyslexia. This new hypothesis was investigated in the present study by including a number of methodological improvements, for example, the inclusion of appropriate control conditions. The second goal of the study was to explore the role of attentional functioning in implicit and explicit learning tasks. METHOD: In a 2 × 2 within-subjects design 4 tasks were administered in 30 dyslexic and 38 control children: an implicit and explicit serial reaction time (RT) task and an implicit and explicit contextual cueing task...
February 2, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114784/long-term-brain-injury-specific-effects-following-preschool-mild-tbi-a-study-of-theory-of-mind
#6
Jenny Bellerose, Annie Bernier, Cindy Beaudoin, Jocelyn Gravel, Miriam H Beauchamp
OBJECTIVE: A previous study conducted by our group found theory of mind (ToM) differences in preschool children who sustained mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) compared with typically developing peers, 6 months postinjury. The goals of the current longitudinal study were to determine whether these findings are the result of a brain-injury-specific effect or rather a general-injury effect, to examine the long-term evolution of ToM skills following preschool mTBI, as well as to investigate the links between ToM abilities and general social functioning...
January 23, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094999/specificity-of-executive-functioning-and-processing-speed-problems-in-common-psychopathology
#7
Joel T Nigg, Jennifer M Jester, Gillian M Stavro, Ka I Ip, Leon I Puttler, Robert A Zucker
OBJECTIVE: Interest continues in neuropsychological measures as cross-disorder intermediate phenotypes in understanding psychopathology. A central question concerns their specificity versus generalizability to particular forms of psychopathology, particularly for executive functioning (EF) and response speed. Three conceptual models examining these relationships were tested to clarify this picture at different levels in the diagnostic hierarchy. METHOD: Participants (total n = 641, age 18-60) yielded complete structured diagnostic interviews and a neuropsychological test battery comprising measures of executive function, processing speed, and IQ...
January 16, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080075/cognitive-outcomes-in-early-treated-adults-with-phenylketonuria-pku-a-comprehensive-picture-across-domains
#8
Liana Palermo, Tarekegn Geberhiwot, Anita MacDonald, Ellie Limback, S Kate Hall, Cristina Romani
OBJECTIVE: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inherited metabolic disease which affects cognitive functions due to an inability to metabolize phenylalanine which leads to the accumulation of toxic by-products (Phe) in the brain. PKU can be effectively treated with a low phenylalanine diet, but some cognitive deficits remain. Studies have reported impairments, especially for processing speed and executive functions, but there is a lack of comprehensive assessment across cognitive domains. Moreover, it is important to establish outcomes in early treated adults with PKU (AwPKU) who have better metabolic control than groups previously reported in the literature...
January 12, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054825/the-relationship-between-premorbid-iq-and-neurocognitive-functioning-in-individuals-with-cocaine-use-disorders
#9
James J Mahoney, Ari D Kalechstein, Anthony P De Marco, Thomas F Newton, Richard De La Garza
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether premorbid IQ mediates performance on neurocognitive tests in individuals diagnosed with cocaine use disorder (CUD). METHOD: Recently abstinent cocaine users (N = 113) completed measures sensitive to the effects of cocaine on cognition: Conners' Continuous Performance Task-II (CPT-II), n-back working memory test, and Hopkins Verbal Learning Task-Revised (HVLT-R). Premorbid IQ was calculated using the Oklahoma Premorbid Intelligence Estimate, which integrates scores from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and demographic variables...
January 5, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054824/beyond-binary-exploring-the-merits-of-three-depression-groups-in-multiple-sclerosis
#10
Margaret H Cadden, Jessica E Meyer, Peter A Arnett
OBJECTIVE: Depression has been traditionally explored in the context of multiple sclerosis (MS) as a binary construct (depressed, not depressed). However, given the 50% lifetime prevalence rate of depression in MS, it may be useful to consider not only currently depressed versus nondepressed patients, but to evaluate groups that better characterize the complexity of MS depression. The objective of the current study was to examine demographic, cognitive, illness, and psychosocial variables thought to associate with depression in MS across 3 groups: currently depressed, remitted depression, and never been depressed...
January 5, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054823/estradiol-related-variations-in-top-down-and-bottom-up-processes-of-cerebral-lateralization
#11
Sophie Hodgetts, Susanne Weis, Markus Hausmann
OBJECTIVE: Natural fluctuations of sex hormones have been shown to modulate cerebral lateralization in dichotic listening tasks. Two recent studies presented contradictory notions regarding the mechanism of this effect. Specifically, whereas Hjelmervik et al. (2012) suggested that estradiol affects lateralization by enhancing top-down processes, such as cognitive control, Hodgetts, Weis, and Hausmann, (2015) suggested that the effect was attributable to estradiol-related variations in bottom-up aspects of lateralization...
January 5, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054822/episodic-future-thinking-following-vmpfc-damage-impaired-event-construction-maintenance-or-narration
#12
Elena Bertossi, Vanessa Candela, Flavia De Luca, Elisa Ciaramelli
OBJECTIVE: Functional neuroimaging and lesion studies show that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is implicated in episodic future thinking (EFT), yet its role remains unclear. In this study, we sought to (a) confirm recent findings of impaired EFT in patients with lesions to the vmPFC (vmPFC patients) using a new task, and (b) investigate the influence of nonepisodic mechanisms, namely, narrative construction and working memory maintenance, on vmPFC patients' EFT performance...
January 5, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054821/multimodal-emotion-processing-deficits-are-present-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#13
Sophie C Andrews, Mathew Staios, Jim Howe, Katrina Reardon, Fiona Fisher
OBJECTIVE: Emotion processing abilities might be reduced in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Previous studies of emotion processing in ALS have inconsistent results, and are limited by variations in task difficulty, modalities examined, and participants' cognitive status. The current study used a battery of emotion processing tasks at differing levels of difficulty and across different modalities (facial affect and voice prosody) to assess the extent of emotion processing deficits in nondemented ALS...
January 5, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841457/effects-of-drinking-patterns-on-prospective-memory-performance-in-college-students
#14
Marta Zamroziewicz, Sarah A Raskin, Howard Tennen, Carol S Austad, Rebecca M Wood, Carolyn R Fallahi, Alecia D Dager, Broderick Sawyer, Samantha Leen, Godfrey D Pearlson
OBJECTIVE: Traditional college students are at a critical juncture in the development of prospective memory (PM). Their brains are vulnerable to the effects of alcohol. METHOD: There were 123 third and fourth year college students, 19-23 years old, who completed the Self-Rating Effects of Alcohol (SREA), Modified Timeline Follow-back (TFLB), Brief Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Scale (BYAACS), and Alcohol Effects Questionnaire (AEQ) once per month on a secure online database, as reported elsewhere (Dager et al...
February 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831696/neuropsychological-functioning-in-college-students-with-and-without-adhd
#15
Lisa L Weyandt, Danielle R Oster, Bergljot Gyda Gudmundsdottir, George J DuPaul, Arthur D Anastopoulos
OBJECTIVE: Increasing numbers of students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are attending college; however, little empirical information is available concerning the functional impairment experienced by these students. Although preliminary studies suggest that college students with ADHD are more likely to experience a variety of psychosocial and academic difficulties compared to their peers without the disorder, findings regarding neuropsychological functioning have been inconsistent with some studies reporting that college students with ADHD perform more poorly on various cognitive and neuropsychological tasks while others report no differences compared to their peers without ADHD...
February 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026197/what-paint-can-tell-us-a-fractal-analysis-of-neurological-changes-in-seven-artists
#16
Alex Forsythe, Tamsin Williams, Ronan G Reilly
OBJECTIVE: The notion that artistic capability increases with dementia is both novel and largely unsupported by available literature. Recent research has suggested an emergence of artistic capabilities to be a by-product of involuntary behaviour seen with dementia, as opposed to a progression in original thinking (de Souza, et al., 2010). A far more complementary explanation comes from Hannemann (2006), who suggests that art offers an outlet for dementia patients to refine and sharpen their cognitive abilities...
January 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854445/-the-effectiveness-and-unique-contribution-of-neuropsychological-tests-and-the-%C3%AE-latent-phenotype-in-the-differential-diagnosis-of-dementia-in-the-uniform-data-set-correction-to-john-et-al-2016
#17
(no author information available yet)
: Reports an error in "The effectiveness and unique contribution of neuropsychological tests and the δ latent phenotype in the differential diagnosis of dementia in the uniform data set" by Samantha E. John, Ashita S. Gurnani, Cara Bussell, Jessica L. Saurman, Jason W. Griffin and Brandon E. Gavett (Neuropsychology, 2016[Nov], Vol 30[8], 946-960). In the article, the first sentence in the note to Table 6 should read "Odds ratios (OR) greater than 1 mean that better scores on a test are associated with greater odds of the first diagnosis shown in the Comparison column, whereas OR less than 1 mean that better scores on a test are associated with lower odds of the first diagnosis shown in that column...
January 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841458/cognitive-processing-speed-mediates-the-effects-of-cardiovascular-disease-on-executive-functioning
#18
Spencer W Liebel, Erin C Jones, Assaf Oshri, Emily S Hallowell, Beth A Jerskey, John Gunstad, Lawrence H Sweet
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to examine the hypothesized mediating role of cognitive processing speed (CPS) in the relationship between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and executive functioning (EF). We investigated whether the processing-speed hypothesis in aging also explains the unique contribution that CPS may have to EF deficits in CVD patients. METHOD: A neuropsychological assessment, including multiple measures of CPS and EF, was administered to 21 older adults with a history of CVD and 73 older adults with no history of CVD...
January 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831695/intraindividual-variability-and-falls-in-older-adults
#19
Sarah Bauermeister, Graham Sutton, Mark Mon-Williams, Richard Wilkie, Jack Graveson, Alison Cracknell, Charles Wilkinson, Raymond Holt, David Bunce
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether a simple measure of reaction time (RT) intraindividual variability (IIV) was associated with falls in older adults. Falls and fall-related injuries represent a major cost to health care systems, it is therefore critically important to find measures that can readily identify older adults at greater risk of falling. METHOD: Cognitive and motor function were investigated in 108 adults aged 53 to 93 years (M = 73.49) recruited across the local community and hospital outpatient department...
January 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808539/shared-and-unique-influences-on-age-related-cognitive-change
#20
Timothy A Salthouse
OBJECTIVE: Decompose cognitive change into influences unique to particular cognitive domains, and influences shared across different cognitive domains. METHOD: A total of 2,546 adults between 18 and 95 years of age performed a battery of 12 cognitive tests on 2 occasions separated by an average of 3 years. An estimate of general cognitive functioning based on the first principal factor was regressed from the observed cognitive scores to derive an estimate of specific influences on each measure, and this value was subtracted from the observed score to provide an estimate of general influences on the measure...
January 2017: Neuropsychology
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