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Allison R Kaup, Feng Xia, Lenore J Launer, Stephen Sidney, Ilya Nasrallah, Guray Erus, Norrina Allen, Kristine Yaffe
OBJECTIVE: In line with cognitive reserve theory, higher occupational cognitive complexity is associated with reduced cognitive decline in older adulthood. How and when occupational cognitive complexity first exerts protective effects during the life span remains unclear. We investigated associations between occupational cognitive complexity during early to midadulthood and brain structure and cognition in midlife. METHOD: Participants were 669 adults from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study (aged 18-30 years at baseline, 52% female, 38% Black)...
July 9, 2018: Neuropsychology
Diana M Mosquera, Damon G Lamb, Amanda M Garcia, Julio A Rodriguez, Lauren N Correa, Liliana Salazar, Zared J Schwartz, Ronald A Cohen, Adam D Falchook, Kenneth M Heilman
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Compound horizontal lines are composed of 2 segments of unequal length and width. Line bisection requires that the participants attend to the entire line (global attention). The longer segment often distracts participants, suggesting that attention directed to this segment (focal attention) disrupts the allocation of global attention. This study attempted to learn whether the allocation of focal attention to a line segment is distracted by global attention allocated to the entire line and whether there are right-left distraction asymmetries when allocating focal or global attention...
July 9, 2018: Neuropsychology
Marco Pitteri, Peii Chen, Laura Passarini, Silvia Albanese, Francesca Meneghello, A M Barrett
OBJECTIVE: Spatial neglect (SN) constitutes a substantial barrier to functional recovery after acquired brain injury. However, because of its multimodal nature, no single test can capture all the signs of SN. To provide a clinically feasible solution, we used conventional neuropsychological tests as well as the Catherine Bergego Scale (CBS) via the Kessler Foundation Neglect Assessment Process (KF-NAP). The goal was to add evidence that a global approach should detect better even subtle signs of SN...
July 5, 2018: Neuropsychology
Sarah Barton, Caroline Nadebaum, Vicki A Anderson, Frank Vajda, David C Reutens, Amanda G Wood
OBJECTIVE: Prenatal exposure to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and in particular valproate (VPA) has been shown to impair intellectual and language development in children, but the impact on memory functioning has not been thoroughly investigated. This study aimed to evaluate memory skills in school-age children who were exposed to AEDs prenatally. METHOD: The sample comprised of 105 children aged 6 to 8 years. Information on AED exposure, maternal epilepsy, pregnancy, and medical history was prospectively obtained...
July 5, 2018: Neuropsychology
Agnieszka Niedźwieńska, Lia Kvavilashvili
OBJECTIVE: Research on early cognitive markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is primarily focused on declarative episodic memory tests that involve deliberate and effortful/strategic processes at retrieval. The present study tested the spontaneous retrieval deficit hypothesis, which predicts that people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), who are at increased risk of developing AD, are particularly impaired on tasks that rely on spontaneous retrieval processes. METHOD: Twenty-three participants with aMCI and 25 healthy controls (HC) completed an easy vigilance task and thought probes (reporting what was going through their mind), which were categorized as spontaneous thoughts about the past (i...
June 28, 2018: Neuropsychology
Sébastien Hélie, Madison Fansher
OBJECTIVE: Numerous studies documenting cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD) revealed impairment in a variety of tasks related to memory, learning, and attention. One ubiquitous task that has not received much attention, is categorization system-switching. Categorization system-switching is a form of task-switching requiring participants to switch between different categorization systems. In this article, we explore whether older adults and people with PD show deficits in categorization system-switching...
June 28, 2018: Neuropsychology
Alexandra K Roth, Douglas R Denney, Jeffrey M Burns, Sharon G Lynch
OBJECTIVE: Progress in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) has resulted in larger numbers of patients living to an advanced age, but little is known about the cognitive status of these individuals. The primary purpose of this study was to identify differences in the cognitive performance between elderly individuals with MS and those with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). METHOD: Three groups ranging in age from 60 to 80 were compared: patients with MS (n = 64), patients with aMCI (n = 58), and healthy adults (n = 70)...
June 25, 2018: Neuropsychology
Pamela M Greenwood, Kevin Schmidt, Ming-Kuan Lin, Robert Lipsky, Raja Parasuraman, Ryan Jankord
OBJECTIVE: The central role of working memory in IQ and the high heritability of working memory performance motivated interest in identifying the specific genes underlying this heritability. The FTCD (formimidoyltransferase cyclodeaminase) gene was identified as a candidate gene for allelic association with working memory in part from genetic mapping studies of mouse Morris water maze performance. METHOD: The present study tested variants of this gene for effects on a delayed match-to-sample task of a large sample of younger and older participants...
June 21, 2018: Neuropsychology
Dana A Kelly, Michael Seidenberg, Katherine Reiter, Kristy A Nielson, John L Woodard, J Carson Smith, Sally Durgerian, Stephen M Rao
OBJECTIVE: The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is the most important genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Many ε4 carriers, however, never develop Alzheimer's disease. The purpose of this study is to characterize the variability in phenotypic expression of the ε4 allele, as measured by the longitudinal trajectory of cognitive test scores and MRI brain volumes, in cognitively intact elders. METHOD: Healthy older adults, ages 65-85, participated in a 5-year longitudinal study that included structural MRI and cognitive testing administered at baseline and at 1...
June 18, 2018: Neuropsychology
Margherita Bechi, Marta Bosia, Giulia Agostoni, Marco Spangaro, Mariachiara Buonocore, Laura Bianchi, Federica Cocchi, Carmelo Guglielmino, Antonella Rita Mastromatteo, Roberto Cavallaro
OBJECTIVE: Theory of Mind (ToM) is a multifaceted construct that involves mental states attribution in social interactions. Patients with schizophrenia are impaired in ToM abilities, but recent studies showed that a non-negligible number of patients perform within normal ranges or close to normal, whereas other patients are very impaired in ToM tasks. The present study aims to comprehensively analyze differences between patients with "poor" and "fair" mentalizing abilities, as identified through a median-split procedure on mental state attribution task, and healthy controls, as well as to explore the role of clinical, demographical, and neurocognitive predictors of ToM performance within groups...
June 7, 2018: Neuropsychology
Ramona Cardillo, Cristina Menazza, Irene C Mammarella
OBJECTIVE: Visuospatial processing in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) without intellectual disability remains only partly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate global versus local visuospatial processing in individuals with ASD, comparing them with typically developing (TD) controls in visuoconstructive and visuospatial memory tasks. METHOD: There were 21 participants with ASD without intellectual disability, and 21 TD controls matched for chronological age (M = 161...
June 7, 2018: Neuropsychology
Marlon O Pflueger, Rolf-Dieter Stieglitz, Patrick Lemoine, Thomas Leyhe
OBJECTIVES: Since the advent of imaging techniques, the role of the neuropsychological assessment has changed. Questions concerning everyday functionality became primarily important and, thus, ecologically valid neuropsychological assessments are mandatory. Virtual reality (VR) environments might provide a way of implementing immersive cognitive assessments with a higher degree of everyday-life-related cognitive demands. METHOD: We report on a VR-based episodic memory examination in N = 30 young and N = 18 healthy older adults (HOA) using a kitchen scene...
June 7, 2018: Neuropsychology
Elodie Bertrand, Martina Azar, Batool Rizvi, Adam M Brickman, Edward D Huey, Christian Habeck, J Landeira-Fernandez, Daniel C Mograbi, Stephanie Cosentino
OBJECTIVE: Metacognition, or the ability to accurately identify, appraise, and monitor one's deficits, is commonly impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Poor metacognition prevents correct appraisal of a range of physical, cognitive, and emotional symptoms and facilitates anosognosia, which has important clinical implications for individuals (e.g., diminished treatment adherence, increased engagement in high-risk situations) and caregivers (e.g., higher burden). However, the neural correlates of metacognitive disturbance are still debated in the literature, partly because of the subjective nature of traditional awareness measures...
June 7, 2018: Neuropsychology
Emilie Johansson Nolaker, Kim Murray, Francesca Happé, Rebecca A Charlton
OBJECTIVES: Many studies have demonstrated that theory of mind (ToM) ability declines with increasing age. Research has found that ToM-age associations are often mediated by other cognitive abilities particularly executive function. However, older adults rarely complain about real-world ToM difficulties. It has been suggested that older adults may perform better in real-world situations compared with experimental settings. METHOD: We examined performance on the Strange Stories Film Task (SSFT) which has been designed to assess ToM using naturalistic, video scenarios...
May 24, 2018: Neuropsychology
Gregory Peters-Founshtein, Michael Peer, Yanai Rein, Shlomzion Kahana Merhavi, Zeev Meiner, Shahar Arzy
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the role of mental-orientation in the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease using a novel task. METHOD: A behavioral study (Experiment 1) compared the mental-orientation task to standard neuropsychological tests in patients across the Alzheimer's disease spectrum. A functional MRI study (Experiment 2) in young adults compared activations evoked by the mental-orientation and standard-orientation tasks as well as their overlap with brain regions susceptible to Alzheimer's disease pathology...
May 21, 2018: Neuropsychology
Anna Kaiser, Beatrice G Kuhlmann, Michael Bosnjak
OBJECTIVE: The authors conducted meta-analyses to determine the magnitude of performance impairments in patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's dementia (AD) compared with healthy aging (HA) controls on eight tasks commonly used to measure inhibitory control. METHOD: Response time (RT) and error rates from a total of 64 studies were analyzed with random-effects models (overall effects) and mixed-effects models (moderator analyses). RESULTS: Large differences between AD patients and HA controls emerged in the basic inhibition conditions of many of the tasks with AD patients often performing slower, overall d = 1...
May 10, 2018: Neuropsychology
Nadine M Richard, Charlene O'Connor, Ayan Dey, Ian H Robertson, Brian Levine
OBJECTIVE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with impairments in processing speed as well as higher-level cognitive functions that depend on distributed neural networks, such as regulating and sustaining attention. Although exogenous alerting cues have been shown to support patients in sustaining attentive, goal-directed behavior, the neural correlates of this rehabilitative effect are unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of moderate to severe TBI on activity and functional connectivity in the well-documented right-lateralized frontal-subcortical-parietal sustained attention network, and to assess the effects of alerting cues...
May 7, 2018: Neuropsychology
Anouk Vermeij, Maaike M Kempes, Maaike J Cima, Rogier B Mars, Inti A Brazil
OBJECTIVE: Psychopathy is a personality disorder typified by lack of empathy and impulsive antisocial behavior. Psychopathic traits may partly relate to disrupted connections between brain regions. The aim of the present study was to link abnormalities in microstructural integrity of white-matter tracts to the severity of different psychopathic traits in 15 male offenders with impulse control problems and 10 without impulse control problems. METHOD: Psychopathic traits were assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist-revised (PCL-R)...
April 26, 2018: Neuropsychology
Kim Merle Richter, Claudia Mödden, Paul Eling, Helmut Hildebrandt
OBJECTIVE: To show the effectiveness of a combined recognition and working memory training on everyday memory performance in patients suffering from organic memory disorders. METHOD: In this double-blind, randomized controlled Study 36 patients with organic memory impairments, mainly attributable to stroke, were assigned to either the experimental or the active control group. In the experimental group a working memory training was combined with a recollection training based on the repetition-lag procedure...
April 26, 2018: Neuropsychology
Bianca Bier, Émilie Ouellet, Sylvie Belleville
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to assess whether computerized attentional training improves dual-tasking abilities in older adults and whether its effect and transfer are modulated by age and the type of training provided. This study also used virtual reality (VR) as a proxy to measure transfer in a real life related context. METHOD: Sixty participants (30 older and 30 younger adults) were randomized to either: (a) single-task training (two tasks practiced in focused attention; visual detection and alphanumeric equation task); or (b) divided attention variable-priority training (varying the amount of attention to put on each task when performed concurrently)...
July 2018: Neuropsychology
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