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Neuropsychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869457/autosomal-dominant-cerebellar-ataxia-deafness-and-narcolepsy-adca-dn-associated-with-progressive-cognitive-and-behavioral-deterioration
#1
Lisa A S Walker, Pierre Bourque, Andra M Smith, Jodi Warman Chardon
Objective: Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia with deafness and narcolepsy (ADCA-DN) is an emerging syndrome caused by mutations in the C-terminus end of the TS domain of the DNMT1 gene. ADCA-DN is also associated with sensorimotor polyneuropathy, extrapyramidal, and dysautonomic signs, as well as dementia. Little has been reported about the progressive cognitive impairment associated with ADCA-DN. Our objective is to provide a detailed characterization of the cognitive profile of ADCA-DN. Method: Three members of a kindred with ADCA-DN underwent comprehensive neuropsychological testing and neuroimaging...
November 21, 2016: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869456/evaluation-of-relational-reasoning-by-a-transitive-inference-task-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#2
Emiliano Brunamonti, Floriana Costanzo, Anna Mammì, Cristina Rufini, Diletta Veneziani, Pierpaolo Pani, Stefano Vicari, Stefano Ferraina, Deny Menghini
Objective: Here we explored whether children with ADHD have a deficit in relational reasoning, a skill subtending the acquisition of many cognitive abilities and social rules. Method: We analyzed the performance of a group of children with ADHD during a transitive inference task, a task requiring first to learn the reciprocal relationship between adjacent items of a rank ordered series (e.g., A>B; B>C; C>D; D>E; E>F), and second, to deduct the relationship between novel pairs of items never matched during the learning (e...
November 21, 2016: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854445/correction-to-john-et-al-2016
#3
(no author information available yet)
: Reports an error in "The effectiveness and unique contribution of neuropsychological tests and the δ latent phenotype in the differential diagnosis of dementia in the uniform data set" by Samantha E. John, Ashita S. Gurnani, Cara Bussell, Jessica L. Saurman, Jason W. Griffin and Brandon E. Gavett (Neuropsychology, 2016[Nov], Vol 30[8], 946-960). The first sentence in the note to Table 6 should read "Odds ratios (OR) greater than 1 mean that better scores on a test are associated with greater odds of the first diagnosis shown in the Comparison column, whereas OR less than 1 mean that better scores on a test are associated with lower odds of the first diagnosis shown in that column...
November 17, 2016: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841458/cognitive-processing-speed-mediates-the-effects-of-cardiovascular-disease-on-executive-functioning
#4
Spencer W Liebel, Erin C Jones, Assaf Oshri, Emily S Hallowell, Beth A Jerskey, John Gunstad, Lawrence H Sweet
Objective: The goal of this study was to examine the hypothesized mediating role of cognitive processing speed (CPS) in the relationship between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and executive functioning (EF). We investigated whether the processing-speed hypothesis in aging also explains the unique contribution that CPS may have to EF deficits in CVD patients. Method: A neuropsychological assessment, including multiple measures of CPS and EF, was administered to 21 older adults with a history of CVD and 73 older adults with no history of CVD...
November 14, 2016: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841457/effects-of-drinking-patterns-on-prospective-memory-performance-in-college-students
#5
Marta Zamroziewicz, Sarah A Raskin, Howard Tennen, Carol S Austad, Rebecca M Wood, Carolyn R Fallahi, Alecia D Dager, Broderick Sawyer, Samantha Leen, Godfrey D Pearlson
Objective: Traditional college students are at a critical juncture in the development of prospective memory (PM). Their brains are vulnerable to the effects of alcohol. Method: There were 123 third and fourth year college students, 19-23 years old, who completed the Self-Rating Effects of Alcohol (SREA), Modified Timeline Follow-back (TFLB), Brief Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Scale (BYAACS), and Alcohol Effects Questionnaire (AEQ) once per month on a secure online database, as reported elsewhere (Dager et al...
November 14, 2016: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831696/neuropsychological-functioning-in-college-students-with-and-without-adhd
#6
Lisa L Weyandt, Danielle R Oster, Bergljot Gyda Gudmundsdottir, George J DuPaul, Arthur D Anastopoulos
Objective: Increasing numbers of students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are attending college; however, little empirical information is available concerning the functional impairment experienced by these students. Although preliminary studies suggest that college students with ADHD are more likely to experience a variety of psychosocial and academic difficulties compared to their peers without the disorder, findings regarding neuropsychological functioning have been inconsistent with some studies reporting that college students with ADHD perform more poorly on various cognitive and neuropsychological tasks while others report no differences compared to their peers without ADHD...
November 10, 2016: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831695/intraindividual-variability-and-falls-in-older-adults
#7
Sarah Bauermeister, Graham Sutton, Mark Mon-Williams, Richard Wilkie, Jack Graveson, Alison Cracknell, Charles Wilkinson, Raymond Holt, David Bunce
Objective: We investigated whether a simple measure of reaction time (RT) intraindividual variability (IIV) was associated with falls in older adults. Falls and fall-related injuries represent a major cost to health care systems, it is therefore critically important to find measures that can readily identify older adults at greater risk of falling. Method: Cognitive and motor function were investigated in 108 adults aged 53 to 93 years (M = 73.49) recruited across the local community and hospital outpatient department...
November 10, 2016: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819451/visual-perceptual-load-reduces-auditory-detection-in-typically-developing-individuals-but-not-in-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#8
Julian Tillmann, John Swettenham
Objective: Previous studies examining selective attention in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have yielded conflicting results, some suggesting superior focused attention (e.g., on visual search tasks), others demonstrating greater distractibility. This pattern could be accounted for by the proposal (derived by applying the Load theory of attention, e.g., Lavie, 2005) that ASD is characterized by an increased perceptual capacity (Remington, Swettenham, Campbell, & Coleman, 2009). Recent studies in the visual domain support this proposal...
November 7, 2016: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808539/shared-and-unique-influences-on-age-related-cognitive-change
#9
Timothy A Salthouse
Objective: Decompose cognitive change into influences unique to particular cognitive domains, and influences shared across different cognitive domains. Method: A total of 2,546 adults between 18 and 95 years of age performed a battery of 12 cognitive tests on 2 occasions separated by an average of 3 years. An estimate of general cognitive functioning based on the first principal factor was regressed from the observed cognitive scores to derive an estimate of specific influences on each measure, and this value was subtracted from the observed score to provide an estimate of general influences on the measure...
November 3, 2016: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808538/n400-effects-of-semantic-richness-can-be-modulated-by-task-demands
#10
Rocío A López Zunini, Louis Renoult, Vanessa Taler
Semantic richness is a multidimensional construct that can be defined as the amount of semantic information associated with a concept. Objective: To investigate neurophysiological correlates of semantic richness information associated with words and its interaction with task demands. Method: Two different dimensions of semantic richness (number of associates and number of semantic neighbors) were investigated using event-related potentials (ERPs) in lexical decision (LDT) and semantic categorization tasks (SCT) using the same stimuli in 2 groups of participants (24 in each group)...
November 3, 2016: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808537/the-effect-of-positive-symptoms-on-social-cognition-in-first-episode-schizophrenia-is-modified-by-the-presence-of-negative-symptoms
#11
Vibeke Bliksted, Poul Videbech, Birgitte Fagerlund, Chris Frith
Objective: There is considerable evidence that patients with schizophrenia have neurocognitive and social-cognitive deficits. It is unclear how such deficits in first-episode schizophrenia relate to current clinical symptoms. Method: Fifty-nine patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) were tested using the Danish version of NART (premorbid IQ), subtests from WAIS-III (current IQ), and global cognition using Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrena (BACS), a neurocognitive test battery. Social perception was tested using film clips of everyday interactions (TASIT)...
November 3, 2016: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775400/dynamic-functional-connectivity-in-bipolar-disorder-is-associated-with-executive-function-and-processing-speed-a-preliminary-study
#12
Tanya T Nguyen, Sanja Kovacevic, Sheena I Dev, Kun Lu, Thomas T Liu, Lisa T Eyler
Objective: Disturbances in functional connectivity have been suggested to contribute to cognitive and emotion processing deficits observed in bipolar disorder (BD). Functional connectivity between medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and other brain regions may be particularly abnormal. The goal of the present study was to characterize the temporal dynamics of the default mode network (DMN) connectivity in BD and examine its association with cognition. Method: In a preliminary study, euthymic BD (n = 15) and healthy comparison (HC, n = 19) participants underwent resting-state functional MRI, using high-resolution sequences adapted from the Human Connectome Project, and completed neuropsychological measures of processing speed and executive function...
October 24, 2016: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732041/leveraging-the-test-effect-to-improve-maintenance-of-the-gains-achieved-through-cognitive-rehabilitation
#13
Rhonda B Friedman, Kelli L Sullivan, Sarah F Snider, George Luta, Kevin T Jones
Objective: An important aspect of the rehabilitation of cognitive and linguistic function subsequent to brain injury is the maintenance of learning beyond the time of initial treatment. Such maintenance is often not satisfactorily achieved. Additional practice, or overtraining, may play a key role in long-term maintenance. In particular, the literature on learning in cognitively intact persons has suggested that it is testing, and not studying, that contributes to maintenance of learning. The present study investigates the hypothesis that continuing to test relearned words in persons with anomia will lead to significantly greater maintenance compared with continuing to study relearned words...
October 10, 2016: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732040/understanding-perceptual-judgment-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-using-the-drift-diffusion-model
#14
Angelo Pirrone, Abigail Dickinson, Rosanna Gomez, Tom Stafford, Elizabeth Milne
Objective: Two-alternative forced-choice tasks are widely used to gain insight into specific areas of enhancement or impairment in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Data arising from these tasks have been used to support myriad theories regarding the integrity, or otherwise, of particular brain areas or cognitive processes in ASD. The drift diffusion model (DDM) provides an account of the underlying processes which give rise to accuracy and reaction time (RT) distributions, and parameterizes these processes in terms which have direct psychological interpretation...
October 10, 2016: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732039/cognitive-functioning-in-the-first-episode-of-major-depressive-disorder-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Elayne Ahern, Maria Semkovska
Objective: Cognitive deficits are frequently observed in major depression. Yet, when these deficits emerge and how they relate to the depressed state is unclear. The aim of this 2-part systematic review and meta-analysis is to determine the pattern and extent of cognitive deficits during a first-episode of depression (FED) and their persistence following FED remission. Method: Published, peer-reviewed articles on cognitive function in FED patients through October 2015 were searched. Meta-analyses with random-effects modeling were conducted...
October 10, 2016: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690479/sleep-quality-affects-cognitive-functioning-in-returning-combat-veterans-beyond-combat-exposure-ptsd-and-mild-tbi-history
#16
Sarah L Martindale, Sandra B Morissette, Jared A Rowland, Sara L Dolan
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine how sleep quality affects cognitive functioning in returning combat veterans after accounting for effects of combat exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) history. Method: This was a cross-sectional assessment study evaluating combat exposure, PTSD, mTBI history, sleep quality, and neuropsychological functioning. One hundred and nine eligible male Iraq/Afghanistan combat veterans completed an assessment consisting of a structured clinical interview, neuropsychological battery, and self-report measures...
October 3, 2016: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683950/pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-affects-multisensory-integration
#17
Marsh Königs, Wouter D Weeda, L W Ernest van Heurn, R Jeroen Vermeulen, J Carel Goslings, Jan S K Luitse, Bwee Tien Poll-The, Anita Beelen, Marleen van der Wees, Rachèl J J K Kemps, Coriene E Catsman-Berrevoets, Jaap Oosterlaan
Objective: To investigate the impact of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) on multisensory integration in relation to general neurocognitive functioning. Method: Children with a hospital admission for TBI aged between 6 and 13 years (n = 94) were compared with children with trauma control (TC) injuries (n = 39), while differentiating between mild TBI without risk factors for complicated TBI (mildRF-; n = 19), mild TBI with ≥1 risk factor (mildRF+; n = 45), and moderate/severe TBI (n = 30). We measured set-shifting performance based on visual information (visual shift condition) and set-shifting performance based on audiovisual information, requiring multisensory integration (audiovisual shift condition)...
September 29, 2016: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643510/structural-brain-markers-are-differentially-associated-with-neurocognitive-profiles-in-socially-marginalized-people-with-multimorbid-illness
#18
Kristina M Gicas, Chantelle J Giesbrecht, William J Panenka, Donna J Lang, Geoffrey N Smith, Fidel Vila-Rodriguez, Olga Leonova, Andrea A Jones, Alasdair M Barr, Ric M Procyshyn, Tari Buchanan, G William MacEwan, Wayne Su, A Talia Vertinsky, Alexander Rauscher, William G Honer, Allen E Thornton
Objective: The authors examined associations between complementary fronto-temporal structural brain measures (gyrification, cortical thickness) and neurocognitive profiles in a multimorbid, socially marginalized sample. Method: Participants were recruited from single-room occupancy hotels and a downtown community courthouse (N = 299) and grouped on multiple neurocognitive domains using cluster analysis. Subsequently, the authors evaluated whether the fronto-temporal brain indices, and proxy measures of neurodevelopment and acquired brain insult/risk exposure differentiated members of the 3 distinct neurocognitive clusters...
September 19, 2016: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643509/first-order-and-higher-order-sequence-learning-in-specific-language-impairment
#19
Gillian M Clark, Jarrad A G Lum
Objective: A core claim of the procedural deficit hypothesis of specific language impairment (SLI) is that the disorder is associated with poor implicit sequence learning. This study investigated whether implicit sequence learning problems in SLI are present for first-order conditional (FOC) and higher order conditional (HOC) sequences. Method: Twenty-five children with SLI and 27 age-matched, nonlanguage-impaired children completed 2 serial reaction time tasks. On 1 version, the sequence to be implicitly learnt comprised a FOC sequence and on the other a HOC sequence...
September 19, 2016: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617636/neurocognitive-predictors-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-in-children-6-months-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-prospective-study
#20
Xiaoyuan Guo, Shannon L Edmed, Vicki Anderson, Justin Kenardy
Objective: Various neurocognitive mechanisms have been proposed to explain the development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms. However, the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying comorbid PTSD following Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) have not been fully investigated, especially among children. This study prospectively examined the influence of theorized neurocognitive deficits at 3 months post pediatric TBI on the development of PTSD symptoms 6 months postinjury. Method: One hundred sixty-six children aged between 6 and 14 years were recruited after sustaining a TBI...
September 12, 2016: Neuropsychology
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