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Tobias Luck, Alexander Pabst, Francisca S Rodriguez, Matthias L Schroeter, Veronica Witte, Andreas Hinz, Anja Mehnert, Christoph Engel, Markus Loeffler, Joachim Thiery, Arno Villringer, Steffi G Riedel-Heller
OBJECTIVE: To provide new age-, sex-, and education-specific reference values for an extended version of the well-established Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (CERAD-NAB) that additionally includes the Trail Making Test and the Verbal Fluency Test-S-Words. METHOD: Norms were calculated based on the cognitive performances of n = 1,888 dementia-free participants (60-79 years) from the population-based German LIFE-Adult-Study...
March 8, 2018: Neuropsychology
Norma Kabuba, J Anitha Menon, Donald R Franklin, Stian Lydersen, Robert K Heaton, Knut A Hestad
OBJECTIVE: Older age and lower education levels are known to be associated with worse neurocognitive (NC) performance in healthy adults, and individuals with HIV infection may experience accelerated brain/cognition aging. However, higher education may possibly protect against HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The aim of the current cross-sectional study was to assess the effect of age and education in an HIV-1 clade C infected adult population in urban Zambia. METHOD: Demographically corrected Zambian norms on a neuropsychological (NP) test battery were used to correct for normal age and education effects...
March 5, 2018: Neuropsychology
Evan Fletcher, Brandon Gavett, Danielle Harvey, Sarah Tomaszewski Farias, John Olichney, Laurel Beckett, Charles DeCarli, Dan Mungas
OBJECTIVE: Examine how longitudinal cognitive trajectories relate to brain baseline measures and change in lobar volumes in a racially/ethnically and cognitively diverse sample of older adults. METHOD: Participants were 460 older adults enrolled in a longitudinal aging study. Cognitive outcomes were measures of episodic memory, semantic memory, executive function, and spatial ability derived from the Spanish and English Neuropsychological Assessment Scales (SENAS)...
March 1, 2018: Neuropsychology
Anita D'Anselmo, Felice Giuliani, Federica Campopiano, Emanuele Carta, Alfredo Brancucci
Musical setticlavio (literally, seven clefs) reading refers to the ability to read (i.e., to say aloud, without to sing) the musical note labels in the 7 musical clefs. The present research report aims to investigate hemispheric asymmetries in such a basic musical ability, very poorly investigated in the domain of cognitive neurosciences. Sixty-three musicians underwent lateralized tachistoscopic presentation of musical notes on staves, 50% in the left and 50% in the right visual field, associated with each of the 7 musical clefs...
February 22, 2018: Neuropsychology
Giulia Prete, Paolo Capotosto, Filippo Zappasodi, Luca Tommasi
OBJECTIVE: Four main theories concerning hemispheric asymmetries for emotional processing have been proposed: the right hemisphere hypothesis (RHH; the right hemisphere is specialized in processing all emotions), the valence hypothesis (VH; the left and the right hemispheres are superior in positive and negative emotion processing, respectively), the modified VH (the right-hemispheric superiority at posterior sites is followed by a valence-specific activity at frontal sites), and the motivational model (the left and the right hemispheres are superior in approaching-related and avoidance-related emotions, respectively)...
February 22, 2018: Neuropsychology
Jeff Schaffert, Christian LoBue, Charles L White, Hsueh-Sheng Chiang, Nyaz Didehbani, Laura Lacritz, Heidi Rossetti, Marisara Dieppa, John Hart, C Munro Cullum
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) with reported loss of consciousness (LOC) is a risk factor for earlier onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in an autopsy-confirmed sample. METHOD: Data from 2,133 participants with autopsy-confirmed AD (i.e., at least Braak neurofibrillary tangle stages III to VI and CERAD neuritic plaque score moderate to frequent) were obtained from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC). Participants were categorized by presence/absence of self-reported remote (i...
February 1, 2018: Neuropsychology
Anne Brandes-Aitken, Joaquin A Anguera, Camarin E Rolle, Shivani S Desai, Carly Demopoulos, Sasha N Skinner, Adam Gazzaley, Elysa J Marco
OBJECTIVE: Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and sensory processing dysfunction (SPD) are reported to show difficulties involving cognitive and visuomotor control. We sought to determine whether performance on computerized, behavioral measures of cognitive control aimed at assessing selective attention, as well as visuomotor abilities differentiated children with ASD (n = 14), SPD (n = 14) and typically developing controls (TDC; n = 28). METHOD: Cognitive control differences were measured by assessing selective attention-based abilities both with and without distracting stimuli, and visuomotor differences were measured by characterizing visuomotor tracking and tracing skills...
January 29, 2018: Neuropsychology
Kelsey R Thomas, Joel Eppig, Emily C Edmonds, Diane M Jacobs, David J Libon, Rhoda Au, David P Salmon, Mark W Bondi
OBJECTIVE: Preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) defined by a positive AD biomarker in the presence of normal cognition is presumed to precede mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Subtle cognitive deficits and cognitive inefficiencies in preclinical AD may be detected through process and error scores on neuropsychological tests in those at risk for progression to MCI. METHOD: Cognitively normal participants (n = 525) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative were followed for up to 5 years and classified as either stable normal (n = 305) or progressed to MCI (n = 220)...
February 2018: Neuropsychology
Yarden Gliksman, Avishai Henik
OBJECTIVE: People suffering from developmental dyscalculia (DD) are known to have impairment in numerical abilities and have been found to have weaker processing of countable magnitudes. However, not much research was done on their abilities to process noncountable magnitudes. An example of noncountable magnitude is conceptual size (e.g., mouse is small and elephant is big). Recently, we found that adults process conceptual size automatically. The current study examined automatic processing of conceptual size in students with DD and developmental dyslexia...
February 2018: Neuropsychology
Paul T Cirino, Yusra Ahmed, Jeremy Miciak, W Pat Taylor, Elyssa H Gerst, Marcia A Barnes
OBJECTIVE: Executive function (EF) is a commonly used but difficult to operationalize construct. In this study, we considered EF and related components as they are commonly presented in the neuropsychological literature, as well as the literatures of developmental, educational, and cognitive psychology. These components have not previously been examined simultaneously, particularly with this level of comprehensiveness, and/or at this age range or with this sample size. We expected that the EF components would be separate but related, and that a bifactor model would best represent the data relative to alternative models...
February 2018: Neuropsychology
Jesse T Fischer, H Julia Hannay, Candice A Alfano, Paul R Swank, Linda Ewing-Cobbs
OBJECTIVE: This prospective longitudinal study investigated sleep disturbance (SD) and internalizing problems after traumatic injury, including traumatic brain injury (TBI) or extracranial/bodily injury (EI) in children and adolescents, relative to typically developing (TD) children. We also examined longitudinal relations between SD and internalizing problems postinjury. METHOD: Participants (N = 87) ages 8-15 included youth with TBI, EI, and TD children. Injury groups were recruited from a Level 1 trauma center after sustaining vehicle-related injuries...
February 2018: Neuropsychology
Randi Starrfelt, Solja K Klargaard, Anders Petersen, Christian Gerlach
OBJECTIVE: Recent models suggest that face and word recognition may rely on overlapping cognitive processes and neural regions. In support of this notion, face recognition deficits have been demonstrated in developmental dyslexia. Here we test whether the opposite association can also be found, that is, impaired reading in developmental prosopagnosia. METHOD: We tested 10 adults with developmental prosopagnosia and 20 matched controls. All participants completed the Cambridge Face Memory Test, the Cambridge Face Perception test and a Face recognition questionnaire used to quantify everyday face recognition experience...
February 2018: Neuropsychology
Manuela Malaspina, Andrea Albonico, Junpeng Lao, Roberto Caldara, Roberta Daini
OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence showed that individuals with congenital face processing impairment (congenital prosopagnosia [CP]) are highly accurate when they have to recognize their own face (self-face advantage) in an implicit matching task, with a preference for the right-half of the self-face (right perceptual bias). Yet the perceptual strategies underlying this advantage are unclear. Here, we aimed to verify whether both the self-face advantage and the right perceptual bias emerge in an explicit task, and whether those effects are linked to a different scanning strategy between the self-face and unfamiliar faces...
February 2018: Neuropsychology
Shouhang Yin, Gedeon Deák, Antao Chen
OBJECTIVE: The ability to flexibly switch between tasks is considered an important component of cognitive control that involves frontal and parietal cortical areas. The present study was designed to characterize network dynamics across multiple brain regions during task switching. METHOD: Functional magnetic resonance images (fMRI) were captured during a standard rule-switching task to identify switching-related brain regions. Multiregional psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis was used to examine effective connectivity between these regions...
January 2018: Neuropsychology
Jason Brandt, Arnold Bakker
OBJECTIVE: Mnemonists, memory champions, and persons with highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) are apparently rare breeds, with no more than a few dozen cases of each described in the neuroscientific literature. This report describes a newly discovered HSAM case who has extraordinary memory for a wider range of material than has heretofore been described. METHOD: Subject MM was interviewed about his personal life and administered standard clinical tests of cognition and personality, as well as experimental tasks assessing personal and generic episodic and semantic memory...
December 21, 2017: Neuropsychology
Alexandrine Faye, Sophie Jacquin-Courtois, François Osiurak
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to deepen our understanding of the cognitive bases of human tool use based on the technical reasoning hypothesis (i.e., the reasoning-based approach). This approach assumes that tool use is supported by the ability to reason about an object's physical properties (e.g., length, weight, strength, etc.) to perform mechanical actions (e.g., lever). In this framework, an important issue is to understand whether left-brain-damaged (LBD) individuals with tool-use deficits are still able to estimate the physical object's properties necessary to use the tool...
December 7, 2017: Neuropsychology
Romina Manoli, Laurence Chartaux-Danjou, Halima Mecheri, Hélène Delecroix, Marion Noulhiane, Christine Moroni
OBJECTIVE: Although impairments of long-term recall affect everyday life, they may be missed by standard delayed recall tests, which typically assess the ability to retain new information within a few minutes, without encompassing the consolidation process. We adapted a verbal memory test to evaluate long-term memory consolidation in healthy volunteers. METHOD: A sample of 238 participants (M = 42.23 years old, SD = 16.45) was administered an adapted version of the French RL/RI-16 (Van der Linden & the members of GREMEM, 2004), the One-Week Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test-word version, in which special feature relies on a 30-min and a 1-week-delayed recall after encoding...
November 30, 2017: Neuropsychology
Carrie E Bearden, David C Glahn
OBJECTIVE: Human cognition has long been known to be under substantial genetic control. With the complete mapping of the human genome, genome-wide association studies for many complex traits have proliferated; however, the highly polygenic nature of intelligence has made the identification of the precise genes that influence both global and specific cognitive abilities more difficult than anticipated. METHOD: Here, we review the latest developments in the genomics of cognition, including a discussion of methodological advances in the genetic analysis of complex traits, and shared genetic contributions to cognitive abilities and neuropsychiatric disorders...
November 2017: Neuropsychology
Miriam H Beauchamp
Looking back 25 years into neuropsychology's past coincides almost perfectly with the birth of social neuroscience as a discipline. Social neuroscience aims to identify the biological bases of social behavior through multilevel analyses of neural, cognitive, and social processes. Neuropsychology, on the other hand, aspires to understand brain-behavior relationships more generally. Given that much of human behavior comprises social interactions, the goals, theories, methods, and findings derived from social neuroscience are likely to have bearing on the issues and interests of neuropsychologists...
November 2017: Neuropsychology
David R Roalf, Ruben C Gur
OBJECTIVE: Outline effects of functional neuroimaging on neuropsychology over the past 25 years. METHOD: Functional neuroimaging methods and studies will be described that provide a historical context, offer examples of the utility of neuroimaging in specific domains, and discuss the limitations and future directions of neuroimaging in neuropsychology. RESULTS: Tracking the history of publications on functional neuroimaging related to neuropsychology indicates early involvement of neuropsychologists in the development of these methodologies...
November 2017: Neuropsychology
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