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Robert P Fellows, Maureen Schmitter-Edgecombe
OBJECTIVE: This study compared functional abilities in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) with normal cognition (PD-CN) and mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) using multiple assessment methods. Cognitive and physical correlates were also examined. METHOD: Participants were 42 nondemented individuals with PD (24 PD-CN, 18 PD-MCI) and 42 age-matched healthy controls. Functional abilities were assessed through direct observation and self- and informant-report questionnaires...
November 19, 2018: Neuropsychology
Amy E Margolis, David Pagliaccio, Lauren Thomas, Sarah Banker, Rachel Marsh
OBJECTIVE: Nonverbal learning disability (NVLD) is a putative neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by spatial processing deficits as well as social deficits similar to those characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Nonetheless, NVLD may be a distinct disorder that is differentially associated with the functioning and connectivity of the salience (SN) and default mode (DMN) networks that support social processing. Thus, we sought to assess and compare connectivity across these networks in children with NVLD, ASD, and typically developing children...
November 8, 2018: Neuropsychology
Niklas Löfgren, David Conradsson, Linda Rennie, Rolf Moe-Nilssen, Erika Franzén
OBJECTIVE: People with Parkinson's disease (PwPD) demonstrate impaired automaticity of motor and cognitive tasks, with unclear prioritization strategies when exposed to dual-task situations. However, no randomized trials have investigated the effects of training on automaticity and prioritization strategies in this population. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of training on the automaticity of gait and cognitive processing in PwPD and the allocation of attention between gait and a cognitive task...
November 8, 2018: Neuropsychology
Anja Vaskinn, Ahmad Abu-Akel
OBJECTIVE: Autism and schizophrenia are characterized by impairments in social cognition and functioning. They can co-occur at both the trait/symptom and diagnostic levels. We investigated the concurrent effect of autism and psychotic symptom severity on social cognition and functioning in schizophrenia. METHOD: Individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were included (N = 81; 32 women). Symptoms were measured with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale using the Positive subscale (PANSSpos; Kay, Fiszbein, & Opler, 1987) and the PANSS Autism Severity Score (PAUSS; Kästner et al...
October 22, 2018: Neuropsychology
Irene C Mammarella, Ramona Cardillo, Leonardo Zoccante
OBJECTIVE: Although previous reports produced converging empirical evidence of a core deficit on visuospatial processing in children with a nonverbal learning disability (NLD), few studies compared the visuospatial profile of individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or NLD in visuoconstructive and visuospatial working memory tasks. Nor did any of these studies investigate the role of the local bias, typically observed in ASD, when comparing these clinical groups. The present study aimed to analyze whether NLD and ASD share any characteristics...
October 18, 2018: Neuropsychology
Andrew J Petkus, J Vincent Filoteo, Dawn M Schiehser, Megan E Gomez, Giselle Petzinger
OBJECTIVE: Symptoms of anxiety, depression commonly co-occur with cognitive decline in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The directionality of this association is unclear, however, in that poor cognitive performance may lead to increased symptoms of anxiety and depression or higher anxiety and depressive symptoms may lead to cognitive decline. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the directionality of the association between symptoms of anxiety and depression with cognitive performance in newly diagnosed patients with PD...
October 18, 2018: Neuropsychology
Maria Shendyapina, Ekaterina Kuzmina, Sergey Kazymaev, Anna Petrova, Nele Demeyere, Brendan S Weekes
OBJECTIVE: The Oxford Cognitive Screen (OCS) is a screening tool for the assessment of poststroke deficits in attention, memory, praxis, language, and number processing. The goal of the present study was to develop a Russian version of the OCS (Rus-OCS) via translation of the original battery, its cultural and linguistic adaptations, and reporting preliminary findings on its psychometric properties. METHOD: All parts of OCS were translated by native Russian-speaking neuropsychologists...
October 15, 2018: Neuropsychology
Andreas Ihle, Delphine Fagot, Fanny Vallet, Nicola Ballhausen, Nathalie Mella, Marie Baeriswyl, Julia Sauter, Michel Oris, Jürgen Maurer, Matthias Kliegel
OBJECTIVE: We investigated cross-lagged relations between leisure activity participation and Trail Making Test (TMT) performance over 6 years and whether those reciprocal associations differed between individuals. METHOD: We analyzed data from 232 participants tested on performance in TMT Parts A and B as well as interviewed on leisure activity participation in 2 waves 6 years apart. Mean age in the Wave 1 was 73.42 years. Participants were also tested on vocabulary (Mill Hill scale) as a proxy indicator of crystallized intelligence and reported information on early and midlife cognitive reserve markers (education and occupation)...
October 4, 2018: Neuropsychology
Erminio Capitani, Marcella Laiacona, Rita Capasso, Maddalena Costanzo, Chiara Gasperoni, Chiara Rosci, Nadia Allamano, Lorena Lorenzi, Gabriele Miceli
OBJECTIVE: Two aspects of aphasic picture naming were examined: response consistency, that is, the extent to which the accuracy of the response to the same stimulus is replicated in a successive examination, and response predictability , that is, the extent to which accuracy depends on the characteristics of each stimulus. METHODS: Thirty-eight aphasic participants were examined twice. The response pattern was the same across the 2 presentations (response stability) for 36 participants, who were classified into 3 groups according to the prevailing error-type (lexical-semantic, phonological, or a balance between the two error-types): Their item-consistency was quantified with Cohen's kappa...
October 4, 2018: Neuropsychology
Kaylena A Ehgoetz Martens, Carolina R A Silveira, Brittany N Intzandt, Quincy J Almeida
OBJECTIVE: Anxiety is common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and frequently a comorbidity that appears alongside nonmotor symptoms such as cognitive deficits; however, the relationship between anxiety and cognition in PD remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between anxiety and specific cognitive domains (e.g., attention/working memory, executive functions, memory, language, and visuospatial function). METHOD: A total of 48 individuals with PD and 18 healthy controls were assessed using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory along with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery...
October 4, 2018: Neuropsychology
Cornelia van Scherpenberg, Nora Fieder, Sharon Savage, Lyndsey Nickels
OBJECTIVE: The progressive loss of stored knowledge about word meanings in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA) has been attributed to an amodal "storage" deficit of the semantic system. Performance consistency has been proposed to be a key characteristic of storage deficits but has not been examined in close detail and larger participant cohorts. METHOD: We assessed whether 10 people with svPPA showed consistency in picture naming across 3 closely consecutive sessions...
October 4, 2018: Neuropsychology
Sophie C Andrews, David Craufurd, Alexandra Durr, Blair R Leavitt, Raymund A Roos, Sarah J Tabrizi, Julie C Stout
OBJECTIVE: Unawareness of neuropsychiatric symptoms appears to be common in Huntington's disease (HD), but the clinical correlates of unawareness are unclear. Identifying predictors of unawareness is important for improving diagnosis of neuropsychiatric symptoms, and cognitive impairment, specifically executive impairment, may be a potential important predictor of unawareness. The authors examined whether unawareness of neuropsychiatric symptoms is more common in early HD compared to premanifest HD, and whether executive task performance was associated with awareness, independent of demographic, motor or mood variables...
September 13, 2018: Neuropsychology
Christina G Wong, Lisa J Rapport, Brooke A Billings, Virginia Ramachandran, Brad A Stach
OBJECTIVE: Research has found that adults with hearing loss perform worse on cognitive testing than adults without hearing loss; however, heavy emphasis on tests involving auditory stimuli may overdiagnose cognitive impairment among individuals with hearing loss. This study compared visual- and auditory-verbal memory tests among adults with and without hearing loss. METHOD: Forty-one adults with hearing loss (HL) and 41 age-matched adults with normal hearing (NH) completed a neuropsychological battery that included auditory and visual versions of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Testing-Revised (HVLT-R)...
September 13, 2018: Neuropsychology
Josanne D M van Dongen, Inti A Brazil, Freddy M van der Veen, Ingmar H A Franken
OBJECTIVE: A lack of empathy and the presence of predatory tendencies are considered key features of psychopathic meanness. Previous electrophysiological studies on empathy in relation to psychopathic traits have focused mainly on empathy for pain; therefore, little is known about the electrophysiological correlates of empathy in aggressive situations that are particularly relevant for psychopathic meanness. METHOD: We employed electroencephalography in a community sample ( n = 70), the majority of whom had attained a higher level of education...
September 13, 2018: Neuropsychology
Ariana E Anderson, Jacob D Jones, Nicholas S Thaler, Taylor P Kuhn, Elyse J Singer, Charles H Hinkin
OBJECTIVE: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) occurs in a significant percentage of HIV-infected (HIV+) adults. Increased intraindividual variability (IIV) in cognitive function may be an early marker of emerging neurocognitive disorder, which suggests that IIV may be a sensitive measure of neurologic compromise in HIV. In the current study, we hypothesize that increased IIV may predict impending morbidity, including future cognitive decline and death. METHOD: In 708 HIV+ participants followed longitudinally for up to 14 years, we assessed the role of dispersion in forecasting death and cognitive decline...
November 2018: Neuropsychology
Danielle Shaked, Leslie I Katzel, Stephen L Seliger, Rao P Gullapalli, Christos Davatzikos, Guray Erus, Michele K Evans, Alan B Zonderman, Shari R Waldstein
OBJECTIVE: Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is related to poorer cognitive performance, but the neural underpinnings of this relation are not fully understood. This study examined whether SES-linked decrements in executive function were mediated by smaller dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) volumes. Given the literature demonstrating that SES-brain relations differ by race, we examined whether race moderated these mediations. METHOD: Participants were 190 socioeconomically diverse, self-identified African American (AA) and White adults from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) SCAN study...
November 2018: Neuropsychology
Robert S Wilson, Lisa L Barnes, Kumar B Rajan, Patricia A Boyle, Joel Sytsma, Jennifer Weuve, Denis A Evans
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence, antecedents, and consequences of unawareness of memory impairment in dementia. METHOD: Persons ( n = 1,862) from a geographically defined community without dementia at enrollment subsequently underwent clinical classification (248 with dementia, 611 with mild cognitive impairment, 1,003 with no cognitive impairment), memory testing, and self-appraisal of memory. Memory performance was regressed on self-appraised memory, and the residuals served as an index of memory awareness...
November 2018: Neuropsychology
Allison R Kaup, Feng Xia, Lenore J Launer, Stephen Sidney, Ilya Nasrallah, Guray Erus, Norrina Allen, Kristine Yaffe
OBJECTIVE: In line with cognitive reserve theory, higher occupational cognitive complexity is associated with reduced cognitive decline in older adulthood. How and when occupational cognitive complexity first exerts protective effects during the life span remains unclear. We investigated associations between occupational cognitive complexity during early to midadulthood and brain structure and cognition in midlife. METHOD: Participants were 669 adults from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study (aged 18-30 years at baseline, 52% female, 38% Black)...
November 2018: Neuropsychology
Björn Machner, Inga Könemund, Janina von der Gablentz, Paul M Bays, Andreas Sprenger
OBJECTIVE: Right-hemisphere stroke may cause an ipsilesional attention bias and left hemispatial neglect. Computerized time-limited tasks are more sensitive than conventional paper-pencil tests in detecting these spatial attention deficits. However, their frequency in the acute stage of stroke, the neuroanatomical basis and functional relevance for patients' everyday life are unclear. METHOD: A realistic visual search task is introduced, in which eye movements are recorded while the patient searches for paperclips among different everyday objects on a computer display...
October 2018: Neuropsychology
Natacha Akshoomoff, Timothy T Brown, Roger Bakeman, Donald J Hagler
OBJECTIVE: The NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NTCB) is a brief computerized method for evaluating neuropsychological functions in children, adolescents, and adults. We examined how performance on the 2 executive function measures of cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control was related to performance on the other NTCB measures across development. METHOD: Participants were 1,020 typically developing individuals between the ages of 3 and 21 from the Pediatric Imaging, Neurocognition, and Genetics Study who were divided into 5 age groups (3-6, 7-9, 10-13, 14-17, and 18-21)...
October 2018: Neuropsychology
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