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Neuropsychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661174/profiles-of-cognitive-impairments-in-an-older-age-community-sample-a-latent-class-analysis
#1
Junhong Yu, Tatia M C Lee
OBJECTIVE: Person-centered studies that could describe the different patterns of cognitive impairments among older people are lacking. To this end, the current study utilized a person-centered approach to examine the different profiles of cognitive impairment in an older age Chinese community sample. Additionally, the current study also examined whether functional impairments differ across the different profiles. METHOD: A total of 220 older people (Mage = 70.9 years) who were assessed to have an objective impairment in any of 7 domains (immediate memory, delayed memory, attention, inhibition, verbal fluency, working memory, and processing speed) were entered in a latent class analysis...
June 29, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661173/reduced-parahippocampal-theta-activity-during-spatial-navigation-in-low-but-not-in-high-elderly-performers
#2
Ségolène Lithfous, André Dufour, Cloé Bouix, Thierry Pebayle, Olivier Després
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive aging varies widely among individuals. Whereas optimal cognitive agers show highly preserved cognitive functions throughout life, other subjects experience cognitive deficits in various cognitive domains. Among them, elderly individuals frequently report difficulties in spatial navigation. In this study, we aimed to determine whether elderly participants with different cognitive profiles would perform differently at a navigation task, and explore underlying medial hippocampal activity...
June 29, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661172/visual-complexity-accentuates-picture-description-deficit-in-amnesia
#3
Michaela Dewar, Maria Adriana Neroni, Adam Zeman, Nicoletta Beschin, Sergio Della Sala
OBJECTIVE: A recent study indicated that amnesic patients have difficulties not only in describing past and imagined scenarios, but also in describing pictures that are in full view. This finding suggests that impaired memory hampers descriptions of scenarios more broadly. However, no such impairment in picture description in amnesic patients was observed in a related study. One key methodological difference between these studies was the complexity of the pictures to be described, hinting that group differences might be marked only if pictures are sufficiently complex to tax aspects of memory...
June 29, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639808/a-quarter-century-of-advances-in-the-statistical-analysis-of-longitudinal-neuropsychological-data
#4
John L Woodard
OBJECTIVE: Over the last 25 years, there has been an unprecedented increase in federal funding for large-scale longitudinal studies, many of which collect neuropsychological or neuroimaging outcome measures. These studies have collected data from thousands of study participants across multiple waves of data collection over many years. With the increased availability of longitudinal data, data sharing policies have become more liberal, thereby offering significant opportunities for interested researchers to carry out their own longitudinal research with these data...
June 22, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639807/the-impact-of-time-and-repeated-exposure-on-famous-person-knowledge-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Sophie Benoit, Isabelle Rouleau, Roxane Langlois, Valérie Dostie, Marie-Jeanne Kergoat, Sven Joubert
OBJECTIVE: Famous people knowledge has been shown to be impaired early in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). However, the question of whether recently acquired knowledge is more impaired than remotely acquired knowledge remains a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of semantic memory impairment in aMCI and AD by investigating 2 factors that may influence the retrieval of such knowledge, namely remoteness and frequency of repetition of information over time...
June 22, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627905/mind-wandering-in-healthy-aging-and-early-stage-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Mate Gyurkovics, David A Balota, Jonathan D Jackson
OBJECTIVE: The frequency of mind-wandering (MW) decreases as a function of age in healthy individuals. One possible explanation is that MW is a resource-dependent process, and cognitive resources decline with age. The present study provides the first investigation of MW in the earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to further examine the resource model and discontinuities between healthy aging and AD. METHOD: Three large cohorts completed the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART): a healthy middle-aged group (mean age = 61...
June 19, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604016/triglycerides-are-negatively-correlated-with-cognitive-function-in-nondemented-aging-adults
#7
Vishnu Parthasarathy, Darvis T Frazier, Brianne M Bettcher, Laura Jastrzab, Linda Chao, Bruce Reed, Dan Mungas, Michael Weiner, Charles DeCarli, Helena Chui, Joel H Kramer
OBJECTIVE: Vascular risk factors like hyperlipidemia may adversely affect brain function. We hypothesized that increased serum triglycerides are associated with decreased executive function and memory in nondemented elderly subjects. We also researched possible vascular mediators and white matter microstructure as assessed with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). DESIGN/METHOD: Participants were 251 nondemented elderly adults (54% male) with a mean age of 78 (SD = 6...
June 12, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581310/patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-display-a-dopamine-therapy-related-negative-bias-and-an-enlarged-range-in-emotional-responses-to-facial-emotional-stimuli
#8
Daniel Lundqvist, Joakim Svärd, Åsa Michelgård Palmquist, Håkan Fischer, Per Svenningsson
OBJECTIVE: The literature on emotional processing in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients shows mixed results. This may be because of various methodological and/or patient-related differences, such as failing to adjust for cognitive functioning, depression, and/or mood. METHOD: In the current study, we tested PD patients and healthy controls (HCs) using emotional stimuli across a variety of tasks, including visual search, short-term memory (STM), categorical perception, and emotional stimulus rating...
June 5, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541082/correction-to-christodoulou-et-al-2016
#9
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Relation of White-Matter Microstructure to Reading Ability and Disability in Beginning Readers" by Joanna A. Christodoulou, Jack Murtagh, Abigail Cyr, Tyler K. Perrachione, Patricia Chang, Kelly Halverson, Pamela Hook, Anastasia Yendiki, Satrajit Ghosh and John D. E. Gabrieli (Neuropsychology, Advanced Online Publication, Mar 7, 2016, np). In the original article, errors in the dataset owing to two incorrect scores have skewed results. Corrections to the Results section, Table 1, and Figure three are provided...
May 25, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471211/arithmetical-calculation-and-related-neuropsychological-skills-in-subjects-with-isolated-oral-clefts
#10
Jon W Goodwin, Amy L Conrad, Timothy Ansley, Peg Nopoulos
OBJECTIVE: The current study examined whether the arithmetical calculation skills of children, adolescents, and young adults with isolated cleft of the lip and/or palate (iCL/P) differ significantly from unaffected control participants. Comparisons of potential neuropsychological predictors of arithmetical calculation were also conducted to determine whether these variables differ significantly for participants with iCL/P. METHOD: Participants (N = 176; 93 iCL/P and 83 Control) ranged in age from 7 to 26 years old...
May 4, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459255/the-nature-of-the-relationship-between-neurocognition-and-theory-of-mind-impairments-in-stroke-patients
#11
Agnieszka Pluta, Natalia Gawron, Marta Sobańska, Adrian Dominik Wójcik, Emilia Łojek
OBJECTIVE: Theory of mind (ToM) is a complex, high-level cognitive function that allows people to infer the cognitive and affective mental states of others. Previous studies have produced limited and frequently contradictory findings on the neuropsychological underpinnings of ToM performance in patients with stroke. The aim of the present study is to investigate neuropsychological mechanisms of cognitive and affective theory of mind dysfunctions in patients with stroke. METHOD: Fifty-eight patients with stroke and 22 healthy controls matched in age, gender, and education level underwent robust neuropsychological examination of their pragmatic abilities, executive functions, attention, memory, psychomotor speed, and visuospatial abilities as well as a cognitive and affective ToM assessment...
May 1, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627915/long-term-classroom-functioning-and-its-association-with-neuropsychological-and-academic-performance-following-traumatic-brain-injury-during-early-childhood
#12
Amery Treble-Barna, Hanna Schultz, Nori Minich, H Gerry Taylor, Keith Owen Yeates, Terry Stancin, Shari L Wade
OBJECTIVE: The present study utilized ecobehavioral assessment to examine classroom functioning several years following early childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) or orthopedic injury (OI) and its association with injury factors, neuropsychological abilities, and academic performance. METHOD: Participants included 39 children with moderate to severe TBI and 51 children with OI sustained between ages 3 and 7 years. At 7.2 (± 1.3) years post injury, ecobehavioral assessment was used to examine classroom functioning...
July 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541084/the-feasibility-of-automated-eye-tracking-with-the-early-childhood-vigilance-test-of-attention-in-younger-hiv-exposed-ugandan-children
#13
Michael J Boivin, Jonathan Weiss, Ronak Chhaya, Victoria Seffren, Jorem Awadu, Alla Sikorskii, Bruno Giordani
OBJECTIVE: Tobii eye tracking was compared with webcam-based observer scoring on an animation viewing measure of attention (Early Childhood Vigilance Test; ECVT) to evaluate the feasibility of automating measurement and scoring. Outcomes from both scoring approaches were compared with the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL), Color-Object Association Test (COAT), and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function for preschool children (BRIEF-P). METHOD: A total of 44 children 44 to 65 months of age were evaluated with the ECVT, COAT, MSEL, and BRIEF-P...
July 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541083/the-family-environment-predicts-long-term-academic-achievement-and-classroom-behavior-following-traumatic-brain-injury-in-early-childhood
#14
Chelsea M Durber, Keith Owen Yeates, H Gerry Taylor, Nicolay Chertkoff Walz, Terry Stancin, Shari L Wade
OBJECTIVE: This study examined how the family environment predicts long-term academic and behavioral functioning in school following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in early childhood. METHOD: Using a concurrent cohort, prospective design, 15 children with severe TBI, 39 with moderate TBI, and 70 with orthopedic injury (OI) who were injured when they were 3-7 years of age were compared on tests of academic achievement and parent and teacher ratings of school performance and behavior on average 6...
July 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26949926/relation-of-white-matter-microstructure-to-reading-ability-and-disability-in-beginning-readers
#15
Joanna A Christodoulou, Jack Murtagh, Abigail Cyr, Tyler K Perrachione, Patricia Chang, Kelly Halverson, Pamela Hook, Anastasia Yendiki, Satrajit Ghosh, John D E Gabrieli
[Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 31(5) of Neuropsychology (see record 2017-22816-001). Errors in the dataset owing to two incorrect scores have skewed results. In the 2nd paragraph of the Results section, the 2nd sentence should read: "Within the typical reader group, FA in the left AF correlated negatively with pseudoword reading (WRMT-III Word Attack: rs = .37, p = .064), but not real-word reading (WRMT-III Word Identification: rs = .07, p = .75)." The 4th sentence of the 3rd paragraph should read: "The negative correlation between FA and Word Attack in the typical reader group was driven by Daxial (Dradial: rs = ...
July 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447851/-understanding-the-role-of-speech-production-in-reading-evidence-for-a-print-to-speech-neural-network-using-graphical-analysis-correction-to-cummine-et-al-2016
#16
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Understanding the role of speech production in reading: Evidence for a print-to-speech neural network using graphical analysis" by Jacqueline Cummine, Ivor Cribben, Connie Luu, Esther Kim, Reyhaneh Bahktiari, George Georgiou and Carol A. Boliek (Neuropsychology, 2016[May], Vol 30[4], 385-397). In the article, the fifth author's name [Bakhtiari] was misspelled. The online version of this article has been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-49069-001...
May 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318283/cognitive-profile-and-mental-health-in-adult-phenylketonuria-a-pku-cobeso-study
#17
Rianne Jahja, Stephan C J Huijbregts, Leo M J de Sonneville, Jaap J van der Meere, Amanda M Legemaat, Annet M Bosch, Carla E M Hollak, M Estela Rubio-Gozalbo, Martijn C G J Brouwers, Floris C Hofstede, Maaike C de Vries, Mirian C H Janssen, Ans T van der Ploeg, Janneke G Langendonk, Francjan J van Spronsen
OBJECTIVE: Despite early dietary treatment phenylketonuria patients have lower IQ and poorer executive functions compared to healthy controls. Cognitive problems in phenylketonuria have often been associated with phenylalanine levels. The present study examined the cognitive profile and mental health in adult phenylketonuria, in relation to phenylalanine levels and tetrahydrobiopterin treatment. METHOD: Fifty-seven early treated adult patients with phenylketonuria and 57 healthy matched controls (18-40 years) performed IQ subtests and executive function tests from the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks...
May 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206781/cognitive-control-and-associated-neural-correlates-in-adults-with-spina-bifida-myelomeningocele
#18
Ashley L Ware, Paulina A Kulesz, Jenifer Juranek, Paul T Cirino, Jack M Fletcher
OBJECTIVE: Accelerated aging can occur in adult survivors of neurodevelopmental disorders, but has been narrowly studied in spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM). Since discrete aspects of cognitive control and related neural network macrostructure deteriorate in normal aging, the specificity and trajectory of cognition and neuropathology incurred across adulthood in SBM were examined. METHOD: Adults (N = 120) with and without SBM completed working memory span and manipulation tasks, and an inhibitory control task...
May 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094999/specificity-of-executive-functioning-and-processing-speed-problems-in-common-psychopathology
#19
Joel T Nigg, Jennifer M Jester, Gillian M Stavro, Ka I Ip, Leon I Puttler, Robert A Zucker
OBJECTIVE: Interest continues in neuropsychological measures as cross-disorder intermediate phenotypes in understanding psychopathology. A central question concerns their specificity versus generalizability to particular forms of psychopathology, particularly for executive functioning (EF) and response speed. Three conceptual models examining these relationships were tested to clarify this picture at different levels in the diagnostic hierarchy. METHOD: Participants (total n = 641, age 18-60) yielded complete structured diagnostic interviews and a neuropsychological test battery comprising measures of executive function, processing speed, and IQ...
May 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425730/the-relation-of-anxiety-and-cognition-in-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Gretchen O Reynolds, Kristine K Hanna, Sandy Neargarder, Alice Cronin-Golomb
OBJECTIVE: Parkinson's disease (PD) has long been conceptualized as a motor disorder, but nonmotor symptoms also manifest in the disease and significantly reduce quality of life. Anxiety and cognitive dysfunction are prevalent nonmotor symptoms, even in early disease stages, but the relation between these symptoms remains poorly understood. We examined self-reported anxiety and neurocognitive function, indexed by measures of executive function (set-shifting and phonemic fluency), categorical fluency, and attention/working memory...
April 20, 2017: Neuropsychology
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