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Neuropsychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891655/longitudinal-intra-individual-variability-in-neuropsychological-performance-relates-to-white-matter-changes-in-hiv
#1
Jacob D Jones, Taylor Kuhn, Zanjbeel Mahmood, Elyse J Singer, Charles H Hinkin, April D Thames
OBJECTIVES: Recent studies suggest that intraindividual variability (IIV) of neuropsychological performance may be sensitive to HIV-associated neurologic compromise. IIV may be particularly dependent upon the integrity of frontal-subcortical systems, and therefore may be a meaningful phenotype in HIV. We examined the relationship between change in IIV and white matter integrity among HIV seropositive (HIV+) and HIV seronegative (HIV-) individuals. METHOD: The sample consisted of 38 HIV+ participants and 26 HIV- control participants who underwent neuroimaging and a neuropsychological evaluation at baseline and at 2-year follow-up evaluation...
September 11, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857602/the-role-of-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-in-the-generalization-of-conditioned-fear
#2
Kelsey N Spalding
OBJECTIVE: Fear generalization, the generalization of fear to innocuous stimuli, is a characteristic component of pathological anxiety. Neural models of fear generalization suggest the involvement of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). However, conflicting empirical findings complicate our understanding of the role of the mPFC in pathological anxiety. To address important unanswered questions in this area, a detailed review and synthesis of results from human and nonhuman animal investigations of conditioned fear generalization was conducted...
August 31, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857601/phonological-ambiguity-modulates-resolution-of-semantic-ambiguity-during-reading-an-fmri-study-of-hebrew
#3
Tali Bitan, Asaf Kaftory, Adi Meiri-Leib, Zohar Eviatar, Orna Peleg
OBJECTIVES: The current fMRI study examined the role of phonology in the extraction of meaning from print in each hemisphere by comparing homophonic and heterophonic homographs (ambiguous words in which both meanings have the same or different sounds respectively, e.g., bank or tear). The analysis distinguished between the first phase, in which participants read ambiguous words without context, and the second phase in which the context resolves the ambiguity. METHOD: Native Hebrew readers were scanned during semantic relatedness judgments on pairs of words in which the first word was either a homophone or a heterophone and the second word was related to its dominant or subordinate meaning...
August 31, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857600/advances-in-neurocognitive-rehabilitation-research-from-1992-to-2017-the-ascension-of-neural-plasticity
#4
Bruce Crosson, Benjamin M Hampstead, Lisa C Krishnamurthy, Venkatagiri Krishnamurthy, Keith M McGregor, Joe R Nocera, Simone Roberts, Amy D Rodriguez, Stella M Tran
OBJECTIVE: The last 25 years have seen profound changes in neurocognitive rehabilitation that continue to motivate its evolution. Although the concept of nervous system plasticity was discussed by William James (1890), the foundation for experience-based plasticity had not reached the critical empirical mass to seriously impact rehabilitation research until after 1992. The objective of this review is to describe how the emergence of neural plasticity has changed neurocognitive rehabilitation research...
August 31, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857599/genetic-and-environmental-architecture-of-executive-functions-in-midlife
#5
Daniel E Gustavson, Matthew S Panizzon, Carol E Franz, Naomi P Friedman, Chandra A Reynolds, Kristen C Jacobson, Hong Xian, Michael J Lyons, William S Kremen
OBJECTIVE: Research on executive functions (EFs) has revealed evidence for general abilities that underlie performance across multiple EF tasks and domains. This Common EF factor is highly stable in adolescence through young adulthood, correlates with other important cognitive abilities, and is explained largely by genetic influences. However, little is known about Common EF beyond young adulthood. This study examines 3 hypotheses regarding the latent structure, genetic/environmental etiology, and cognitive correlates of Common EF in middle age...
August 31, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857598/suicide-attempt-clinical-correlates-and-bdnf-val66met-polymorphism-in-chronic-patients-with-schizophrenia
#6
Haisen Xia, Guangya Zhang, Xiangdong Du, Yingyang Zhang, Guangzhong Yin, Jing Dai, Man-Xi He, Jair C Soares, Xiaosi Li, Xiang Yang Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence suggests the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior. Because schizophrenia patients usually have high suicide rates and numerous studies have suggested that BDNF may contribute to the psychopathology of schizophrenia, we hypothesized that the functional polymorphism of BDNF (Val66Met) was associated with suicide attempts in patients with schizophrenia in a Chinese Han population. METHOD: This polymorphism was genotyped in 825 chronic schizophrenia patients with (n = 123) and without (n = 702) suicide attempts and 445 healthy controls without a history of suicide attempts using a case-control design...
August 31, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661174/profiles-of-cognitive-impairments-in-an-older-age-community-sample-a-latent-class-analysis
#7
Junhong Yu, Tatia M C Lee
OBJECTIVE: Person-centered studies that could describe the different patterns of cognitive impairments among older people are lacking. To this end, the current study utilized a person-centered approach to examine the different profiles of cognitive impairment in an older age Chinese community sample. Additionally, the current study also examined whether functional impairments differ across the different profiles. METHOD: A total of 220 older people (Mage = 70.9 years) who were assessed to have an objective impairment in any of 7 domains (immediate memory, delayed memory, attention, inhibition, verbal fluency, working memory, and processing speed) were entered in a latent class analysis...
June 29, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661173/reduced-parahippocampal-theta-activity-during-spatial-navigation-in-low-but-not-in-high-elderly-performers
#8
Ségolène Lithfous, André Dufour, Cloé Bouix, Thierry Pebayle, Olivier Després
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive aging varies widely among individuals. Whereas optimal cognitive agers show highly preserved cognitive functions throughout life, other subjects experience cognitive deficits in various cognitive domains. Among them, elderly individuals frequently report difficulties in spatial navigation. In this study, we aimed to determine whether elderly participants with different cognitive profiles would perform differently at a navigation task, and explore underlying medial hippocampal activity...
June 29, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661172/visual-complexity-accentuates-picture-description-deficit-in-amnesia
#9
Michaela Dewar, Maria Adriana Neroni, Adam Zeman, Nicoletta Beschin, Sergio Della Sala
OBJECTIVE: A recent study indicated that amnesic patients have difficulties not only in describing past and imagined scenarios, but also in describing pictures that are in full view. This finding suggests that impaired memory hampers descriptions of scenarios more broadly. However, no such impairment in picture description in amnesic patients was observed in a related study. One key methodological difference between these studies was the complexity of the pictures to be described, hinting that group differences might be marked only if pictures are sufficiently complex to tax aspects of memory...
June 29, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639808/a-quarter-century-of-advances-in-the-statistical-analysis-of-longitudinal-neuropsychological-data
#10
John L Woodard
OBJECTIVE: Over the last 25 years, there has been an unprecedented increase in federal funding for large-scale longitudinal studies, many of which collect neuropsychological or neuroimaging outcome measures. These studies have collected data from thousands of study participants across multiple waves of data collection over many years. With the increased availability of longitudinal data, data sharing policies have become more liberal, thereby offering significant opportunities for interested researchers to carry out their own longitudinal research with these data...
June 22, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639807/the-impact-of-time-and-repeated-exposure-on-famous-person-knowledge-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Sophie Benoit, Isabelle Rouleau, Roxane Langlois, Valérie Dostie, Marie-Jeanne Kergoat, Sven Joubert
OBJECTIVE: Famous people knowledge has been shown to be impaired early in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). However, the question of whether recently acquired knowledge is more impaired than remotely acquired knowledge remains a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of semantic memory impairment in aMCI and AD by investigating 2 factors that may influence the retrieval of such knowledge, namely remoteness and frequency of repetition of information over time...
June 22, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604016/triglycerides-are-negatively-correlated-with-cognitive-function-in-nondemented-aging-adults
#12
Vishnu Parthasarathy, Darvis T Frazier, Brianne M Bettcher, Laura Jastrzab, Linda Chao, Bruce Reed, Dan Mungas, Michael Weiner, Charles DeCarli, Helena Chui, Joel H Kramer
OBJECTIVE: Vascular risk factors like hyperlipidemia may adversely affect brain function. We hypothesized that increased serum triglycerides are associated with decreased executive function and memory in nondemented elderly subjects. We also researched possible vascular mediators and white matter microstructure as assessed with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). DESIGN/METHOD: Participants were 251 nondemented elderly adults (54% male) with a mean age of 78 (SD = 6...
September 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425730/the-relation-of-anxiety-and-cognition-in-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Gretchen O Reynolds, Kristine K Hanna, Sandy Neargarder, Alice Cronin-Golomb
OBJECTIVE: Parkinson's disease (PD) has long been conceptualized as a motor disorder, but nonmotor symptoms also manifest in the disease and significantly reduce quality of life. Anxiety and cognitive dysfunction are prevalent nonmotor symptoms, even in early disease stages, but the relation between these symptoms remains poorly understood. We examined self-reported anxiety and neurocognitive function, indexed by measures of executive function (set-shifting and phonemic fluency), categorical fluency, and attention/working memory...
September 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414497/dual-tasking-in-parkinson-s-disease-cognitive-consequences-while-walking
#14
Robert D Salazar, Xiaolin Ren, Terry D Ellis, Noor Toraif, Olivier J Barthelemy, Sandy Neargarder, Alice Cronin-Golomb
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive deficits are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and exacerbate the functional limitations imposed by PD's hallmark motor symptoms, including impairments in walking. Though much research has addressed the effect of dual cognitive-locomotor tasks on walking, less is known about their effect on cognition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between gait and executive function, with the hypothesis that dual tasking would exacerbate cognitive vulnerabilities in PD as well as being associated with gait disturbances...
September 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627915/long-term-classroom-functioning-and-its-association-with-neuropsychological-and-academic-performance-following-traumatic-brain-injury-during-early-childhood
#15
Amery Treble-Barna, Hanna Schultz, Nori Minich, H Gerry Taylor, Keith Owen Yeates, Terry Stancin, Shari L Wade
OBJECTIVE: The present study utilized ecobehavioral assessment to examine classroom functioning several years following early childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) or orthopedic injury (OI) and its association with injury factors, neuropsychological abilities, and academic performance. METHOD: Participants included 39 children with moderate to severe TBI and 51 children with OI sustained between ages 3 and 7 years. At 7.2 (± 1.3) years post injury, ecobehavioral assessment was used to examine classroom functioning...
July 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541084/the-feasibility-of-automated-eye-tracking-with-the-early-childhood-vigilance-test-of-attention-in-younger-hiv-exposed-ugandan-children
#16
Michael J Boivin, Jonathan Weiss, Ronak Chhaya, Victoria Seffren, Jorem Awadu, Alla Sikorskii, Bruno Giordani
OBJECTIVE: Tobii eye tracking was compared with webcam-based observer scoring on an animation viewing measure of attention (Early Childhood Vigilance Test; ECVT) to evaluate the feasibility of automating measurement and scoring. Outcomes from both scoring approaches were compared with the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL), Color-Object Association Test (COAT), and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function for preschool children (BRIEF-P). METHOD: A total of 44 children 44 to 65 months of age were evaluated with the ECVT, COAT, MSEL, and BRIEF-P...
July 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541083/the-family-environment-predicts-long-term-academic-achievement-and-classroom-behavior-following-traumatic-brain-injury-in-early-childhood
#17
Chelsea M Durber, Keith Owen Yeates, H Gerry Taylor, Nicolay Chertkoff Walz, Terry Stancin, Shari L Wade
OBJECTIVE: This study examined how the family environment predicts long-term academic and behavioral functioning in school following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in early childhood. METHOD: Using a concurrent cohort, prospective design, 15 children with severe TBI, 39 with moderate TBI, and 70 with orthopedic injury (OI) who were injured when they were 3-7 years of age were compared on tests of academic achievement and parent and teacher ratings of school performance and behavior on average 6...
July 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383968/body-schema-and-corporeal-self-recognition-in-the-alien-hand-syndrome
#18
Elena Olgiati, Angelo Maravita, Viviana Spandri, Roberta Casati, Francesco Ferraro, Lucia Tedesco, Elio Clemente Agostoni, Nadia Bolognini
OBJECTIVE: The alien hand syndrome (AHS) is a rare neuropsychological disorder characterized by involuntary, yet purposeful, hand movements. Patients with the AHS typically complain about a loss of agency associated with a feeling of estrangement for actions performed by the affected limb. The present study explores the integrity of the body representation in AHS, focusing on 2 main processes: multisensory integration and visual self-recognition of body parts. Three patients affected by AHS following a right-hemisphere stroke, with clinical symptoms akin to the posterior variant of AHS, were tested and their performance was compared with that of 18 age-matched healthy controls...
July 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368140/what-do-eye-movements-tell-us-about-the-visual-perception-of-individuals-with-congenital-prosopagnosia
#19
Manuela Malaspina, Andrea Albonico, Carlo Toneatto, Roberta Daini
OBJECTIVE: The lack of inversion effect for face recognition in congenital prosopagnosia (CP) is consistent with the hypothesis of a failure in holistic processing. However, although CPs' abnormal gaze behavior for upright faces has already been demonstrated, neither their scanning strategy for inverted faces, nor the possibility that their abnormal gaze behavior with upright faces is because of reasons other than the holistic deficit have been investigated yet. METHOD: We recorded the eye movements of a congenital prosopagnosic and a control group during the encoding of unknown faces, objects, and flowers...
July 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230386/does-the-cerebellum-contribute-to-human-navigation-by-processing-sequential-information
#20
Anna M Tedesco, Filippo Bianchini, Laura Piccardi, Silvia Clausi, Alain Berthoz, Marco Molinari, Cecilia Guariglia, Maria Leggio
OBJECTIVE: Several authors have proposed that the cerebellum has an important role in functions of higher order as a general mode of sequence detection, independently from the nature of the information. The aim of this study was to verify whether the cerebellum mediates the processing of navigational sequential information and to determine whether it is influenced by the modality of the stimuli presentation. METHOD: We tested 12 cerebellar patients and 12 healthy age-matched participants in 2 comparable navigational tasks (Walking Corsi Test and the Magic Carpet) requiring to memorizing a sequence of spatial locations...
July 2017: Neuropsychology
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