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Neuropsychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30211612/executive-impairment-is-associated-with-unawareness-of-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in-premanifest-and-early-huntington-s-disease
#1
Sophie C Andrews, David Craufurd, Alexandra Durr, Blair R Leavitt, Raymund A Roos, Sarah J Tabrizi, Julie C Stout
OBJECTIVE: Unawareness of neuropsychiatric symptoms appears to be common in Huntington's disease (HD), but the clinical correlates of unawareness are unclear. Identifying predictors of unawareness is important for improving diagnosis of neuropsychiatric symptoms, and cognitive impairment, specifically executive impairment, may be a potential important predictor of unawareness. The authors examined whether unawareness of neuropsychiatric symptoms is more common in early HD compared to premanifest HD, and whether executive task performance was associated with awareness, independent of demographic, motor or mood variables...
September 13, 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30211611/hearing-loss-and-verbal-memory-assessment-among-older-adults
#2
Christina G Wong, Lisa J Rapport, Brooke A Billings, Virginia Ramachandran, Brad A Stach
OBJECTIVE: Research has found that adults with hearing loss perform worse on cognitive testing than adults without hearing loss; however, heavy emphasis on tests involving auditory stimuli may overdiagnose cognitive impairment among individuals with hearing loss. This study compared visual- and auditory-verbal memory tests among adults with and without hearing loss. METHOD: Forty-one adults with hearing loss (HL) and 41 age-matched adults with normal hearing (NH) completed a neuropsychological battery that included auditory and visual versions of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Testing-Revised (HVLT-R)...
September 13, 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30211610/intraindividual-variability-in-neuropsychological-performance-predicts-cognitive-decline-and-death-in-hiv
#3
Ariana E Anderson, Jacob D Jones, Nicholas S Thaler, Taylor P Kuhn, Elyse J Singer, Charles H Hinkin
OBJECTIVE: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) occurs in a significant percentage of HIV-infected (HIV+) adults. Increased intraindividual variability (IIV) in cognitive function may be an early marker of emerging neurocognitive disorder, which suggests that IIV may be a sensitive measure of neurologic compromise in HIV. In the current study, we hypothesize that increased IIV may predict impending morbidity, including future cognitive decline and death. METHOD: In 708 HIV+ participants followed longitudinally for up to 14 years, we assessed the role of dispersion in forecasting death and cognitive decline...
September 13, 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30211609/dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-volume-as-a-mediator-between-socioeconomic-status-and-executive-function
#4
Danielle Shaked, Leslie I Katzel, Stephen L Seliger, Rao P Gullapalli, Christos Davatzikos, Guray Erus, Michele K Evans, Alan B Zonderman, Shari R Waldstein
OBJECTIVE: Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is related to poorer cognitive performance, but the neural underpinnings of this relation are not fully understood. This study examined whether SES-linked decrements in executive function were mediated by smaller dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) volumes. Given the literature demonstrating that SES-brain relations differ by race, we examined whether race moderated these mediations. METHOD: Participants were 190 socioeconomically diverse, self-identified African American (AA) and White adults from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) SCAN study...
September 13, 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30211608/electrophysiological-correlates-of-empathic-processing-and-its-relation-to-psychopathic-meanness
#5
Josanne D M van Dongen, Inti A Brazil, Freddy M van der Veen, Ingmar H A Franken
OBJECTIVE: A lack of empathy and the presence of predatory tendencies are considered key features of psychopathic meanness. Previous electrophysiological studies on empathy in relation to psychopathic traits have focused mainly on empathy for pain; therefore, little is known about the electrophysiological correlates of empathy in aggressive situations that are particularly relevant for psychopathic meanness. METHOD: We employed electroencephalography in a community sample ( n = 70), the majority of whom had attained a higher level of education...
September 13, 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30160502/what-s-left-for-balanced-bilinguals-language-proficiency-and-item-familiarity-affect-left-hemisphere-specialization-in-metaphor-processing
#6
Dorit Segal, Tamar H Gollan
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the hemispheric processing of metaphors in bilinguals compared with monolinguals and to determine the role of language proficiency in hemispheric lateralization. METHOD: Fifty-seven English-dominant Spanish-English bilinguals and 57 English speaking monolinguals participated in a divided visual field study. The two groups performed a semantic judgment task with metaphorical, literal, and unrelated word pairs presented either to the right visual field/left hemisphere or to the left visual field/right hemisphere...
August 30, 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30124313/differences-in-working-memory-as-a-function-of-physical-activity-in-children
#7
Shu-Shih Hsieh, Dennis Fung, Heng Tsai, Yu-Kai Chang, Chung-Ju Huang, Tsung-Min Hung
OBJECTIVE: Given previous research examining the relationship between physical activity (PA) and working memory in children has not taken into account of potentially confounders, this study specifically controlled for the effects of intelligence and fitness-related factors (i.e., aerobic and motor fitness) on this relationship. METHOD: Thirty-two children were assigned to either the higher PA group (HP) (n = 16) or lower PA group (LP) (n = 16) based on their amount of PA as measured by an accelerometer...
August 20, 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30124312/effects-of-extreme-prematurity-and-kindergarten-neuropsychological-skills-on-early-academic-progress
#8
H Gerry Taylor, Nancy Klein, Kimberly A Espy, Mark Schluchter, Nori Minich, Rebecca Stilp, Maureen Hack
OBJECTIVE: The study was designed to investigate the effect of extreme prematurity on growth in academic achievement across the early school years and the validity of kindergarten neuropsychological skills as predictors of achievement. METHOD: A 2001-2003 birth cohort of 145 extremely preterm/extremely low birth weight (EPT/ELBW) children from a single medical center, along with 111 normal birth weight (NBW) classmate controls, were recruited during their first year in kindergarten and followed annually across the next 2 years in school...
August 20, 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30080078/multimodal-face-and-voice-recognition-disorders-in-a-case-with-unilateral-right-anterior-temporal-lobe-atrophy
#9
Maura Cosseddu, Stefano Gazzina, Barbara Borroni, Alessandro Padovani, Guido Gainotti
OBJECTIVE: Familiar face recognition disorders are often observed in patients with lesions of the right anterior temporal lobe (ATL). It is not clear, however, if this defect must be considered as a form of associative prosopagnosia, or as a multimodal (face and voice) people recognition disorder, because voice recognition is rarely examined in these patients. The most appropriate manner of solving this problem could consist in evaluating, in one or more patients with right ATL lesions, recognition disorders through face and voice of the same well known people...
August 6, 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30080077/pedometer-assessed-steps-per-day-as-a-predictor-of-cognitive-performance-in-older-adults
#10
Matthew Calamia, Alyssa De Vito, John P K Bernstein, Daniel S Weitzner, Owen T Carmichael, Jeffrey N Keller
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between pedometer-assessed daily steps and several domains of cognitive functioning in cognitive healthy older adults. METHOD: A total of 582 cognitively healthy older adults enrolled in a longitudinal aging study completed the Uniform Data Set (UDS) neuropsychological battery ( n = 374) or the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS; n = 208) and were asked to wear a pedometer for 1 week. RESULTS: Bivariate correlations revealed associations between average daily steps and attention, executive functioning, language, and memory on one or both cognitive batteries...
August 6, 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047758/the-life-span-distribution-of-autobiographical-memory-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Marie Kirk, Dorthe Berntsen
OBJECTIVE: The literature on the temporal distribution of autobiographical memory in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by mixed findings concerning the presence of a temporal gradient in the loss of autobiographical memory. Some studies show a gradient, implying better access to more remote autobiographical memories, whereas others do not. These conflicting results likely reflect differences in the test methodologies, accentuating the need for replications and extensions. METHOD: Forty-five older adults diagnosed with AD (via Mini-Mental State Examination, M = 19...
July 26, 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047757/musical-emotions-in-congenital-amusia-impaired-recognition-but-preserved-emotional-intensity
#12
Yohana Lévêque, Perrine Teyssier, Patrick Bouchet, Emmanuel Bigand, Anne Caclin, Barbara Tillmann
OBJECTIVE: To further our understanding of the role of perceptual processes in musical emotions, we investigated individuals with congenital amusia, a neurodevelopmental disorder that alters pitch processing. METHOD: Amusic and matched control participants were studied for emotion recognition and emotion intensity ratings of both musical excerpts and faces. RESULTS: Emotion recognition was found to be impaired in amusic participants relative to controls for the musical stimuli only...
July 26, 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047756/antecedents-and-consequences-of-unawareness-of-memory-impairment-in-dementia
#13
Robert S Wilson, Lisa L Barnes, Kumar B Rajan, Patricia A Boyle, Joel Sytsma, Jennifer Weuve, Denis A Evans
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence, antecedents, and consequences of unawareness of memory impairment in dementia. METHOD: Persons ( n = 1,862) from a geographically defined community without dementia at enrollment subsequently underwent clinical classification (248 with dementia, 611 with mild cognitive impairment, 1,003 with no cognitive impairment), memory testing, and self-appraisal of memory. Memory performance was regressed on self-appraised memory, and the residuals served as an index of memory awareness...
July 26, 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30035554/naturalistic-assessment-of-task-interruption-in-individuals-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#14
Alyssa Weakley, Maureen Schmitter-Edgecombe
OBJECTIVE: Interruptions are ubiquitous in everyday life, and recovering from interruptions requires several cognitive processes working in tandem. In this study, we assessed the effects of an interruption on the performance of older individuals with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI) completing everyday tasks in a naturalistic apartment setting. METHOD: Thirty-two persons with MCI and 64 cognitively healthy older adults (HOA) completed two different sets of everyday activities, of which one received an interruption...
July 23, 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29985017/occupational-cognitive-complexity-in-earlier-adulthood-is-associated-with-brain-structure-and-cognitive-health-in-midlife-the-cardia-study
#15
Allison R Kaup, Feng Xia, Lenore J Launer, Stephen Sidney, Ilya Nasrallah, Guray Erus, Norrina Allen, Kristine Yaffe
OBJECTIVE: In line with cognitive reserve theory, higher occupational cognitive complexity is associated with reduced cognitive decline in older adulthood. How and when occupational cognitive complexity first exerts protective effects during the life span remains unclear. We investigated associations between occupational cognitive complexity during early to midadulthood and brain structure and cognition in midlife. METHOD: Participants were 669 adults from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study (aged 18-30 years at baseline, 52% female, 38% Black)...
July 9, 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29985016/asymmetrical-distractibility-of-global-and-focal-visuospatial-attention-during-segmental-and-total-compound-line-bisections
#16
Diana M Mosquera, Damon G Lamb, Amanda M Garcia, Julio A Rodriguez, Lauren N Correa, Liliana Salazar, Zared J Schwartz, Ronald A Cohen, Adam D Falchook, Kenneth M Heilman
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Compound horizontal lines are composed of 2 segments of unequal length and width. Line bisection requires that the participants attend to the entire line (global attention). The longer segment often distracts participants, suggesting that attention directed to this segment (focal attention) disrupts the allocation of global attention. This study attempted to learn whether the allocation of focal attention to a line segment is distracted by global attention allocated to the entire line and whether there are right-left distraction asymmetries when allocating focal or global attention...
July 9, 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29975073/conventional-and-functional-assessment-of-spatial-neglect-clinical-practice-suggestions
#17
Marco Pitteri, Peii Chen, Laura Passarini, Silvia Albanese, Francesca Meneghello, A M Barrett
OBJECTIVE: Spatial neglect (SN) constitutes a substantial barrier to functional recovery after acquired brain injury. However, because of its multimodal nature, no single test can capture all the signs of SN. To provide a clinically feasible solution, we used conventional neuropsychological tests as well as the Catherine Bergego Scale (CBS) via the Kessler Foundation Neglect Assessment Process (KF-NAP). The goal was to add evidence that a global approach should detect better even subtle signs of SN...
July 5, 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29975072/memory-dysfunction-in-school-aged-children-exposed-prenatally-to-antiepileptic-drugs
#18
Sarah Barton, Caroline Nadebaum, Vicki A Anderson, Frank Vajda, David C Reutens, Amanda G Wood
OBJECTIVE: Prenatal exposure to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and in particular valproate (VPA) has been shown to impair intellectual and language development in children, but the impact on memory functioning has not been thoroughly investigated. This study aimed to evaluate memory skills in school-age children who were exposed to AEDs prenatally. METHOD: The sample comprised of 105 children aged 6 to 8 years. Information on AED exposure, maternal epilepsy, pregnancy, and medical history was prospectively obtained...
July 5, 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30080079/differential-effects-of-cognition-focused-interventions-for-people-with-alzheimer-s-disease-a-meta-analysis
#19
Javier Oltra-Cucarella, Rosario Ferrer-Cascales, Linda Clare, Scott B Morris, Raul Espert, Javier Tirapu, Miriam Sánchez-SanSegundo
OBJECTIVE: The efficacy of cognition-focused interventions (CFIs) for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been questioned recently. To date, the specific effects of cognitive rehabilitation (CR), cognitive training (CT), and cognitive stimulation [CS] have not been analyzed due to inconsistencies in the use of the comparison groups. This work aims to analyze the differential effects of CFIs by removing the influence of the comparison group from the estimates of the effects. METHOD: a literature search performed in Pubmed, Proquest, and Embase databases yielded 65 potential studies, of which 33 studies with a sample size of 1,225 individuals were meta-analyzed...
September 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047755/improving-motivation-through-real-time-fmri-based-self-regulation-of-the-nucleus-accumbens
#20
Zhi Li, Chen-Yuan Zhang, Jia Huang, Yi Wang, Chao Yan, Ke Li, Ya-Wei Zeng, Zhen Jin, Eric F C Cheung, Li Su, Raymond C K Chan
OBJECTIVE: Impaired nucleus accumbens (NAcc) activation is associated with amotivation and anhedonia, which are resistant to treatment with antipsychotics and antidepressants in schizophrenia. In this study, healthy participants were trained to self-regulate the activation of their NAcc, a brain region that plays an important role in motivation, using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neurofeedback. METHOD: The experimental group ( N = 19) received feedback from the NAcc, whereas the control group ( N = 5) received "sham" feedback from the posterior parahippocampal gyrus, a control brain region not normally related to motivation...
September 2018: Neuropsychology
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