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Neuropsychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781630/mental-orientation-a-new-approach-to-assessing-patients-across-the-alzheimer-s-disease-spectrum
#1
Gregory Peters-Founshtein, Michael Peer, Yanai Rein, Shlomzion Kahana Merhavi, Zeev Meiner, Shahar Arzy
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the role of mental-orientation in the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease using a novel task. METHOD: A behavioral study (Experiment 1) compared the mental-orientation task to standard neuropsychological tests in patients across the Alzheimer's disease spectrum. A functional MRI study (Experiment 2) in young adults compared activations evoked by the mental-orientation and standard-orientation tasks as well as their overlap with brain regions susceptible to Alzheimer's disease pathology...
May 21, 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745708/a-meta-analysis-of-inhibitory-control-deficits-in-patients-diagnosed-with-alzheimer-s-dementia
#2
Anna Kaiser, Beatrice G Kuhlmann, Michael Bosnjak
OBJECTIVE: The authors conducted meta-analyses to determine the magnitude of performance impairments in patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's dementia (AD) compared with healthy aging (HA) controls on eight tasks commonly used to measure inhibitory control. METHOD: Response time (RT) and error rates from a total of 64 studies were analyzed with random-effects models (overall effects) and mixed-effects models (moderator analyses). RESULTS: Large differences between AD patients and HA controls emerged in the basic inhibition conditions of many of the tasks with AD patients often performing slower, overall d = 1...
May 10, 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733624/external-modulation-of-the-sustained-attention-network-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Nadine M Richard, Charlene O'Connor, Ayan Dey, Ian H Robertson, Brian Levine
OBJECTIVE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with impairments in processing speed as well as higher-level cognitive functions that depend on distributed neural networks, such as regulating and sustaining attention. Although exogenous alerting cues have been shown to support patients in sustaining attentive, goal-directed behavior, the neural correlates of this rehabilitative effect are unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of moderate to severe TBI on activity and functional connectivity in the well-documented right-lateralized frontal-subcortical-parietal sustained attention network, and to assess the effects of alerting cues...
May 7, 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697994/affective-traits-of-psychopathy-are-linked-to-white-matter-abnormalities-in-impulsive-male-offenders
#4
Anouk Vermeij, Maaike M Kempes, Maaike J Cima, Rogier B Mars, Inti A Brazil
OBJECTIVE: Psychopathy is a personality disorder typified by lack of empathy and impulsive antisocial behavior. Psychopathic traits may partly relate to disrupted connections between brain regions. The aim of the present study was to link abnormalities in microstructural integrity of white-matter tracts to the severity of different psychopathic traits in 15 male offenders with impulse control problems and 10 without impulse control problems. METHOD: Psychopathic traits were assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist-revised (PCL-R)...
April 26, 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697993/improving-everyday-memory-performance-after-acquired-brain-injury-an-rct-on-recollection-and-working-memory-training
#5
Kim Merle Richter, Claudia Mödden, Paul Eling, Helmut Hildebrandt
OBJECTIVE: To show the effectiveness of a combined recognition and working memory training on everyday memory performance in patients suffering from organic memory disorders. METHOD: In this double-blind, randomized controlled Study 36 patients with organic memory impairments, mainly attributable to stroke, were assigned to either the experimental or the active control group. In the experimental group a working memory training was combined with a recollection training based on the repetition-lag procedure...
April 26, 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672072/reduced-awareness-for-apraxic-deficits-in-left-hemisphere-stroke
#6
Mona Kusch, Sarah Gillessen, Jochen Saliger, Hans Karbe, Ellen Binder, Gereon R Fink, Simone Vossel, Peter H Weiss
OBJECTIVE: Reduced awareness for motor or cognitive impairments has mainly been studied in relation to right-hemispheric deficits such as left-sided hemiparesis. However, recent studies suggest that also left hemisphere (LH) stroke can lead to reduced awareness for neurological/neuropsychological deficits, for example, aphasia. The aim of the current study was to characterize reduced awareness for apraxic as well as aphasic deficits in patients suffering from LH stroke. METHOD: After the assessment of apraxia and aphasia, patients (n = 32) were asked to rate their performance on a 1- to 5-point rating scale...
April 19, 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658724/sustaining-prospective-memory-functioning-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-lifespan-approach-to-the-critical-role-of-encoding
#7
Antonina Pereira, Mareike Altgassen, Lesley Atchison, Alexandre de Mendonça, Judi Ellis
OBJECTIVE: Prospective memory (PM), the ability to remember to perform future activities, is a fundamental requirement for independent living. PM tasks pervade our daily lives, and PM failures represent one of the most prominent memory concerns across the entire life span. This study aimed to address this issue by exploring the potential benefits of specific encoding strategies on memory for intentions across healthy adulthood and in the early stages of cognitive impairment. METHOD: PM performance was explored through an experimental paradigm in 96 participants: 32 amnestic mild cognitively impaired patients aged 64-87 years (M = 6...
April 16, 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658723/when-fruits-lose-to-animals-disorganized-search-of-semantic-memory-in-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Sofia Tagini, Shima Seyed-Allaei, Federica Scarpina, Alessio Toraldo, Alessandro Mauro, Paolo Cherubini, Carlo Reverberi
OBJECTIVE: The semantic fluency task is widely used in both clinical and research settings to assess both the integrity of the semantic store and the effectiveness of the search through it. Our aim was to investigate whether nondemented Parkinson's disease (PD) patients show an impairment in the strategic exploration of the semantic store and whether the tested semantic category has an impact on multiple measures of performance. METHOD: We compared 74 nondemented PD patients with 254 healthy subjects in a semantic fluency test using relatively small (fruits) and large (animals) semantic categories...
April 16, 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648842/ethnoracial-differences-in-brain-structure-change-and-cognitive-change
#9
Brandon E Gavett, Evan Fletcher, Danielle Harvey, Sarah Tomaszewski Farias, John Olichney, Laurel Beckett, Charles DeCarli, Dan Mungas
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinal associations between structural MRI and cognition in a diverse sample. METHOD: Older adults (n = 444; Mage = 74.5)-121 African Americans, 212 Whites, and 111 Hispanics-underwent an average of 5.3 annual study visits. Approximately half were cognitively normal at baseline (global Clinical Dementia Rating M = 0.5). Of the patients with dementia, most (79%) were diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
April 12, 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517259/age-sex-and-education-specific-norms-for-an-extended-cerad-neuropsychological-assessment-battery-results-from-the-population-based-life-adult-study
#10
Tobias Luck, Alexander Pabst, Francisca S Rodriguez, Matthias L Schroeter, Veronica Witte, Andreas Hinz, Anja Mehnert, Christoph Engel, Markus Loeffler, Joachim Thiery, Arno Villringer, Steffi G Riedel-Heller
OBJECTIVE: To provide new age-, sex-, and education-specific reference values for an extended version of the well-established Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (CERAD-NAB) that additionally includes the Trail Making Test and the Verbal Fluency Test-S-Words. METHOD: Norms were calculated based on the cognitive performances of n = 1,888 dementia-free participants (60-79 years) from the population-based German LIFE-Adult-Study...
March 8, 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504779/effect-of-age-and-level-of-education-on-neurocognitive-impairment-in-hiv-positive-zambian-adults
#11
Norma Kabuba, J Anitha Menon, Donald R Franklin, Stian Lydersen, Robert K Heaton, Knut A Hestad
OBJECTIVE: Older age and lower education levels are known to be associated with worse neurocognitive (NC) performance in healthy adults, and individuals with HIV infection may experience accelerated brain/cognition aging. However, higher education may possibly protect against HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The aim of the current cross-sectional study was to assess the effect of age and education in an HIV-1 clade C infected adult population in urban Zambia. METHOD: Demographically corrected Zambian norms on a neuropsychological (NP) test battery were used to correct for normal age and education effects...
March 5, 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494196/brain-volume-change-and-cognitive-trajectories-in-aging
#12
Evan Fletcher, Brandon Gavett, Danielle Harvey, Sarah Tomaszewski Farias, John Olichney, Laurel Beckett, Charles DeCarli, Dan Mungas
OBJECTIVE: Examine how longitudinal cognitive trajectories relate to brain baseline measures and change in lobar volumes in a racially/ethnically and cognitively diverse sample of older adults. METHOD: Participants were 460 older adults enrolled in a longitudinal aging study. Cognitive outcomes were measures of episodic memory, semantic memory, executive function, and spatial ability derived from the Spanish and English Neuropsychological Assessment Scales (SENAS)...
March 1, 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620406/visual-scanning-of-the-eye-region-of-human-faces-predicts-emotion-recognition-performance-in-huntington-s-disease
#13
Catarina C Kordsachia, Izelle Labuschagne, Julie C Stout
OBJECTIVE: Previous research has consistently shown that the ability to recognize emotions from facial expressions is impaired in Huntington's disease (HD). The aim of this study was to examine whether people with the gene expansion for HD visually scan the most emotionally informative features of human faces less than unaffected individuals, and whether altered visual scanning predicts emotion recognition in HD beyond general disease-related decline. METHOD: We recorded eye movements of 25 participants either in the late premanifest or early stage of HD and 25 age-matched healthy control participants during a face-viewing task...
March 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620405/neurocognitive-and-behavioral-predictors-of-social-problems-in-adhd-a-bayesian-framework
#14
Michael J Kofler, Sherelle L Harmon, Paula A Aduen, Taylor N Day, Kristin E Austin, Jamie A Spiegel, Lauren Irwin, Dustin E Sarver
OBJECTIVE: Social problems are a key area of functional impairment for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and converging evidence points to executive dysfunction as a potential mechanism underlying ADHD-related social dysfunction. The evidence is mixed, however, with regard to which neurocognitive abilities account for these relations. METHOD: A well-characterized group of 117 children ages 8-13 (M = 10.45, SD = 1.53; 43 girls; 69.5% Caucasian/Non-Hispanic) with ADHD (n = 77) and without ADHD (n = 40) were administered multiple, counterbalanced tests of neurocognitive functioning and assessed for social skills via multi-informant reports...
March 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620404/neural-correlates-of-audiovisual-sensory-integration
#15
Jia Huang, Antje A T S Reinders, Ya Wang, Ting Xu, Ya-Wei Zeng, Ke Li, Rowena Handley, Eric F C Cheung, Raymond C K Chan, Paola Dazzan
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to investigate the neural basis of information matching during sensory integration using a spatial-temporal matching task in healthy individuals. METHOD: A total of 37 healthy participants were recruited to match spatial dots with an auditory tone sequence in a 3T GE Discovery MR750 scanner. In addition, they were examined with the sensory integration subscale of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory. RESULTS: We found that the bilateral occipital-parietal conjunction cortex and the precentral frontal gyrus were activated during the matching condition rather than in the nonmatching condition...
March 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620403/choosing-spouses-and-houses-impaired-congruence-between-preference-and-choice-following-damage-to-the-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex
#16
Mark D Bowren, Katie E Croft, Justin Reber, Daniel Tranel
OBJECTIVE: A well-documented effect of focal ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) damage is a deficit in real-world decision making. An important aspect of this deficit may be a deficiency in "internal consistency" during social decision making-that is, impaired congruence between expressed preferences versus actual behavioral choices. An example of low internal consistency would be if one expressed the desire to marry someone with impeccable moral character, yet proceeded to marry someone convicted of multiple felonies...
March 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620402/personal-neglect-a-comprehensive-theoretical-and-anatomo-clinical-review
#17
Giorgia Committeri, Claudia Piervincenzi, Luigi Pizzamiglio
Personal neglect (PN) is the hemi-inattention toward the contralesional bodily space that follows a cerebral lesion, usually to the right hemisphere. OBJECTIVE: To provide a historical, comprehensive review of the different theoretical accounts, of the available diagnostic measures, of the relationship with different body representation disorders, and of recovery-related issues. Moreover, to review the anatomo-functional correlates of PN, focusing on group studies that used modern voxel-based lesion-symptoms mapping...
March 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470093/hemispheric-asymmetries-in-setticlavio-reading
#18
Anita D'Anselmo, Felice Giuliani, Federica Campopiano, Emanuele Carta, Alfredo Brancucci
Musical setticlavio (literally, seven clefs) reading refers to the ability to read (i.e., to say aloud, without to sing) the musical note labels in the 7 musical clefs. The present research report aims to investigate hemispheric asymmetries in such a basic musical ability, very poorly investigated in the domain of cognitive neurosciences. Sixty-three musicians underwent lateralized tachistoscopic presentation of musical notes on staves, 50% in the left and 50% in the right visual field, associated with each of the 7 musical clefs...
March 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469582/contrasting-hemispheric-asymmetries-for-emotional-processing-from-event-related-potentials-and-behavioral-responses
#19
Giulia Prete, Paolo Capotosto, Filippo Zappasodi, Luca Tommasi
OBJECTIVE: Four main theories concerning hemispheric asymmetries for emotional processing have been proposed: the right hemisphere hypothesis (RHH; the right hemisphere is specialized in processing all emotions), the valence hypothesis (VH; the left and the right hemispheres are superior in positive and negative emotion processing, respectively), the modified VH (the right-hemispheric superiority at posterior sites is followed by a valence-specific activity at frontal sites), and the motivational model (the left and the right hemispheres are superior in approaching-related and avoidance-related emotions, respectively)...
March 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528684/word-list-intrusion-errors-predict-progression-to-mild-cognitive-impairment
#20
Kelsey R Thomas, Joel Eppig, Emily C Edmonds, Diane M Jacobs, David J Libon, Rhoda Au, David P Salmon, Mark W Bondi
OBJECTIVE: Preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) defined by a positive AD biomarker in the presence of normal cognition is presumed to precede mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Subtle cognitive deficits and cognitive inefficiencies in preclinical AD may be detected through process and error scores on neuropsychological tests in those at risk for progression to MCI. METHOD: Cognitively normal participants (n = 525) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative were followed for up to 5 years and classified as either stable normal (n = 305) or progressed to MCI (n = 220)...
February 2018: Neuropsychology
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