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Rhonda B Friedman, Kelli L Sullivan, Sarah F Snider, George Luta, Kevin T Jones
Objective: An important aspect of the rehabilitation of cognitive and linguistic function subsequent to brain injury is the maintenance of learning beyond the time of initial treatment. Such maintenance is often not satisfactorily achieved. Additional practice, or overtraining, may play a key role in long-term maintenance. In particular, the literature on learning in cognitively intact persons has suggested that it is testing, and not studying, that contributes to maintenance of learning. The present study investigates the hypothesis that continuing to test relearned words in persons with anomia will lead to significantly greater maintenance compared with continuing to study relearned words...
October 10, 2016: Neuropsychology
Angelo Pirrone, Abigail Dickinson, Rosanna Gomez, Tom Stafford, Elizabeth Milne
Objective: Two-alternative forced-choice tasks are widely used to gain insight into specific areas of enhancement or impairment in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Data arising from these tasks have been used to support myriad theories regarding the integrity, or otherwise, of particular brain areas or cognitive processes in ASD. The drift diffusion model (DDM) provides an account of the underlying processes which give rise to accuracy and reaction time (RT) distributions, and parameterizes these processes in terms which have direct psychological interpretation...
October 10, 2016: Neuropsychology
Elayne Ahern, Maria Semkovska
Objective: Cognitive deficits are frequently observed in major depression. Yet, when these deficits emerge and how they relate to the depressed state is unclear. The aim of this 2-part systematic review and meta-analysis is to determine the pattern and extent of cognitive deficits during a first-episode of depression (FED) and their persistence following FED remission. Method: Published, peer-reviewed articles on cognitive function in FED patients through October 2015 were searched. Meta-analyses with random-effects modeling were conducted...
October 10, 2016: Neuropsychology
Sarah L Martindale, Sandra B Morissette, Jared A Rowland, Sara L Dolan
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine how sleep quality affects cognitive functioning in returning combat veterans after accounting for effects of combat exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) history. Method: This was a cross-sectional assessment study evaluating combat exposure, PTSD, mTBI history, sleep quality, and neuropsychological functioning. One hundred and nine eligible male Iraq/Afghanistan combat veterans completed an assessment consisting of a structured clinical interview, neuropsychological battery, and self-report measures...
October 3, 2016: Neuropsychology
Marsh Königs, Wouter D Weeda, L W Ernest van Heurn, R Jeroen Vermeulen, J Carel Goslings, Jan S K Luitse, Bwee Tien Poll-The, Anita Beelen, Marleen van der Wees, Rachèl J J K Kemps, Coriene E Catsman-Berrevoets, Jaap Oosterlaan
Objective: To investigate the impact of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) on multisensory integration in relation to general neurocognitive functioning. Method: Children with a hospital admission for TBI aged between 6 and 13 years (n = 94) were compared with children with trauma control (TC) injuries (n = 39), while differentiating between mild TBI without risk factors for complicated TBI (mildRF-; n = 19), mild TBI with ≥1 risk factor (mildRF+; n = 45), and moderate/severe TBI (n = 30). We measured set-shifting performance based on visual information (visual shift condition) and set-shifting performance based on audiovisual information, requiring multisensory integration (audiovisual shift condition)...
September 29, 2016: Neuropsychology
Kristina M Gicas, Chantelle J Giesbrecht, William J Panenka, Donna J Lang, Geoffrey N Smith, Fidel Vila-Rodriguez, Olga Leonova, Andrea A Jones, Alasdair M Barr, Ric M Procyshyn, Tari Buchanan, G William MacEwan, Wayne Su, A Talia Vertinsky, Alexander Rauscher, William G Honer, Allen E Thornton
Objective: The authors examined associations between complementary fronto-temporal structural brain measures (gyrification, cortical thickness) and neurocognitive profiles in a multimorbid, socially marginalized sample. Method: Participants were recruited from single-room occupancy hotels and a downtown community courthouse (N = 299) and grouped on multiple neurocognitive domains using cluster analysis. Subsequently, the authors evaluated whether the fronto-temporal brain indices, and proxy measures of neurodevelopment and acquired brain insult/risk exposure differentiated members of the 3 distinct neurocognitive clusters...
September 19, 2016: Neuropsychology
Gillian M Clark, Jarrad A G Lum
Objective: A core claim of the procedural deficit hypothesis of specific language impairment (SLI) is that the disorder is associated with poor implicit sequence learning. This study investigated whether implicit sequence learning problems in SLI are present for first-order conditional (FOC) and higher order conditional (HOC) sequences. Method: Twenty-five children with SLI and 27 age-matched, nonlanguage-impaired children completed 2 serial reaction time tasks. On 1 version, the sequence to be implicitly learnt comprised a FOC sequence and on the other a HOC sequence...
September 19, 2016: Neuropsychology
Bruno Biagianti, Melissa Fisher, Torsten B Neilands, Rachel Loewy, Sophia Vinogradov
Background: Individuals with schizophrenia who engage in targeted cognitive training (TCT) of the auditory system show generalized cognitive improvements. The high degree of variability in cognitive gains maybe due to individual differences in the level of engagement of the underlying neural system target. Method: 131 individuals with schizophrenia underwent 40 hours of TCT. We identified target engagement of auditory system processing efficiency by modeling subject-specific trajectories of auditory processing speed (APS) over time...
September 12, 2016: Neuropsychology
Xiaoyuan Guo, Shannon L Edmed, Vicki Anderson, Justin Kenardy
Objective: Various neurocognitive mechanisms have been proposed to explain the development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms. However, the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying comorbid PTSD following Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) have not been fully investigated, especially among children. This study prospectively examined the influence of theorized neurocognitive deficits at 3 months post pediatric TBI on the development of PTSD symptoms 6 months postinjury. Method: One hundred sixty-six children aged between 6 and 14 years were recruited after sustaining a TBI...
September 12, 2016: Neuropsychology
Klajdi Puka, Mary Lou Smith, Elysa Widjaja
Objective: To evaluate whether family factors were associated with intellectual functioning among children with medically refractory epilepsy, and whether family factors moderate the relationship between patient/epilepsy-related variables and intellectual functioning. Method: Children aged 4 to 18 years with medically refractory epilepsy who were evaluated for surgical candidacy were recruited. The authors assessed the association of intellectual quotient (IQ) with patient, epilepsy, and family factors. Family factors included parental education, household income, and validated parent-report measures of family functioning, family mastery and social support, and family demands...
September 5, 2016: Neuropsychology
Stefan Reinhart, Alexander Schunck, Anna Katharina Schaadt, Michaela Adams, Alexandra Simon, Georg Kerkhoff
OBJECTIVE: The neglect syndrome is frequently associated with neglect dyslexia (ND), which is characterized by omissions or misread initial letters of single words. ND is usually assessed with standardized reading texts in clinical settings. However, particularly in the chronic phase of ND, patients often report reading deficits in everyday situations but show (nearly) normal performances in test situations that are commonly well-structured. To date, sensitive and standardized tests to assess the severity and characteristics of ND are lacking, although reading is of high relevance for daily life and vocational settings...
October 2016: Neuropsychology
Shira Segev, Maayan Shorer, Yuri Rassovsky, Tammy Pilowsky Peleg, Alan Apter, Silvana Fennig
OBJECTIVE: Persistent postconcussive symptoms (PPCS) are a set of physical, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral symptoms that often follow mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Some of these symptoms also occur in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The current study examined the unique contribution of mTBI and PTSD to PPCS. The roles of neurocognitive and motivational factors were also addressed. METHOD: Sixty one children and adolescents (ages 6-18), at least 3 months post motor vehicle accident (MVA), participated in the study...
October 2016: Neuropsychology
(no author information available yet)
UNLABELLED: Reports an error in "Cognitive, emotion control, and motor performance of adolescents in the NCANDA study: Contributions from alcohol consumption, age, sex, ethnicity, and family history of addiction" by Edith V. Sullivan, Ty Brumback, Susan F. Tapert, Rosemary Fama, Devin Prouty, Sandra A. Brown, Kevin Cummins, Wesley K. Thompson, Ian M. Colrain, Fiona C. Baker, Michael D. De Bellis, Stephen R. Hooper, Duncan B. Clark, Tammy Chung, Bonnie J. Nagel, B. Nolan Nichols, Torsten Rohlfing, Weiwei Chu, Kilian M...
October 2016: Neuropsychology
Darren L Dunning, Briony Westgate, Anna-Lynne R Adlam
OBJECTIVES: To establish the magnitude of deficits in working memory (WM) and short-term memory (STM) in those with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) relative to age-matched, healthy controls and to explore the moderating effects of time since injury and age at injury on these impairments. METHOD: Twenty-one studies that compared the WM and/or STM abilities of individuals with at least a moderate TBI relative to healthy controls were included in a random effects meta-analysis...
October 2016: Neuropsychology
Emily L Shultz, Kristen R Hoskinson, Madelaine C Keim, Maureen Dennis, H Gerry Taylor, Erin D Bigler, Kenneth H Rubin, Kathryn Vannatta, Cynthia A Gerhardt, Terry Stancin, Keith Owen Yeates
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) may affect children's ability to perform everyday tasks (i.e., adaptive functioning). Guided by the American Association for Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD) model, we explored the association between TBI and adaptive functioning at increasing levels of specificity (global, AAIDD domains, and subscales). We also examined the contributions of executive function and processing speed as mediators of TBI's effects on adaptive functioning...
October 2016: Neuropsychology
Katherine Osborne-Crowley, Skye McDonald
OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to determine whether 2 variables associated with orbitofrontal damage, hyposmia and emotion perception deficits, are associated with socially disinhibited behavior and psychosocial outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: The Brief Smell Identification Test (BSIT), an emotion labeling task, an emotion intensity rating task, and an observational measure of social disinhibition were completed by 23 individuals with severe TBI...
October 2016: Neuropsychology
Adam R Cassidy, Matthew T White, David R DeMaso, Jane W Newburger, David C Bellinger
OBJECTIVE: To establish executive function (EF) structure/organization and test a longitudinal developmental cascade model linking processing speed (PS) and EF skills at 8-years of age to academic achievement outcomes, both at 8- and 16-years, in a large sample of children/adolescents with surgically repaired dextro-transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA). METHOD: Data for this study come from the 8- (n = 155) and 16-year (n = 139) time points of the Boston Circulatory Arrest Study and included WISC-III, Trail Making Test, Test of Variables of Attention, and WIAT/WIAT-II tasks...
October 2016: Neuropsychology
Simon Fischer-Baum, Michele Miozzo, Marcella Laiacona, Erminio Capitani
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies of verbal fluency have reported higher rates of perseverative responses in both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) relative to control groups. These perseverations could arise from a number of impairments-for example, failures in working memory, inhibitory control, or word retrieval-and different clinical populations may show an increase in perseveration because of different underlying deficits. The objective of the current report is to investigate the cause of perseveration in verbal fluency in individuals with TBI and compare those results to a recent study of individuals with AD...
October 2016: Neuropsychology
Christine R Padgett, Mathew J Summers, Clive E Skilbeck
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive impairment is a common sequelae of traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, predicting who will experience poorer outcomes remains challenging. A potential risk factor that has gained attention is the APOE gene, with the ε4 allele hypothesized to have a detrimental effect on post-TBI cognitive outcome. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of APOE ε4 both in terms of general cognitive function and within specific domains known to be prone to impairment following TBI (executive function, working memory, verbal memory and visual memory)...
October 2016: Neuropsychology
Isabelle Simoes Loureiro, Laurent Lefebvre
OBJECTIVE: Semantic memory is the result of progressive development during childhood. During the construction of the lexico-semantic network, the features of the objects are progressively stored to build our knowledge. Alzheimer's disease (AD) disrupts conceptual links that support semantic memory. Individuals suffering from AD lose access to words as well as to meaning. Some researchers have made the assumption that cognitive retrogenesis leads to a cognitive decline that reverses acquisition steps in childhood...
October 2016: Neuropsychology
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