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Somatosensory & Motor Research

T D Dissanayaka, M Farrell, M Zoghi, G F Egan, S Jaberzadeh
BACKGROUND: Supra-threshold scaling of multiple pressure-pain sensations involves delivery of varied stimulus intensities, either via stimulus-dependent or response-dependent manner, and recording of subjective pain ratings by participants. The focus of this study was to determine the intra- and inter-session reliability of pain intensity and pain unpleasantness ratings related to pressure-pain thresholds (PPTs) of just noticeable pain (JNP), weak pain (WP) and moderate pain (MP) among healthy individuals...
October 9, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
David Silva, Ronaldo Gabriel, Maria Moreira, João Abrantes, Aurélio Faria
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the foot contact time differences between obese and non-obese subjects during walking when crossing obstacles. METHODS: Ninety-eight postmenopausal women were assigned to four groups, and their plantar pressure temporal data were collected using a two-step protocol during walking when crossing an obstacle set at 30% height of lower limb length of each subject. The initial, final, and duration of contact of 10 foot areas were measured...
October 9, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Roy La Touche, Alberto Pérez-González, Luis Suso-Martí, Alba Paris-Alemany, Ferran Cuenca-Martínez
The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of the sympathetic-excitatory nervous system in patients with chronic neck pain compared with a control group of asymptomatic subjects who underwent an intervention of watching activities involving movements in the neck region. Thirty participants were divided into two groups: patients with chronic neck pain (n = 15) and the control group (n = 15). The patients' neck disability, fear of movement and catastrophism were assessed with a self-report...
October 9, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Hao Chen, Hengyu Li, Yuncheng Li, Jia Jing, Hafiz Khuram Raza, Zuohui Zhang, Liguo Dong, Xinchun Ye, Fang Hua, Guiyun Cui
PURPOSE: To report five cases of subacute combined degeneration (SCD) with brain involvement and explore its clinical and imaging characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on the clinical data and brain MRI of five patients with subacute combined degeneration with brain involvement (out of 107 cases with SCD in total). White matter lesions (WML) assessment was performed qualitatively using Fazekas scale score. RESULTS: The main symptoms in four patients were weakness in both lower extremities and unstable walking (limb weakness in three patients, dizziness in three patients, and blurred vision in one patient)...
August 15, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Hye-Kyoung Kim, Mee-Eun Kim
Purpose/Aim: To gain a better understanding of the psychophysics of thermal pain perception in a clinical setting, this study investigated whether thermal thresholds of unpleasantness are different from pain thresholds of cold and heat stimuli. Of particular interest was the relationship between unpleasantness and pain thresholds for cold vs heat stimuli. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty healthy male volunteers (mean age 26.1 years, range 23 to 32 years) participated. Thermal detection, cold pain (CPT) and heat pain (HPT) thresholds were measured at 5 trigeminal sites by the method of limits using quantitative sensory testing (QST), followed by cold unpleasant (CUT) and heat unpleasant (HUT) thresholds...
August 14, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Narjes Soltani, Ali Roohbakhsh, Mohammad Allahtavakoli, Elham Salari, Vahid Sheibani, Iman Fatemi, Ali Shamsizadeh
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is one of the most studied neuropeptides in the brain. In this study, we investigated the effects of CCK-8s and LY225910 (CCK2 receptor antagonist) on properties of neuronal response to natural stimuli (whisker deflection) in deep layers of rat barrel cortex. This study was done on 20 male Wistar rats, weighing 230-260 g. CCK-8s (300 nmol/rat) and LY225910 (1 µmol/rat) were administered intracerebroventricularly (ICV). Neuronal responses to deflection of principal (PW) and adjacent (AW) whiskers were recorded in the barrel cortex using tungsten microelectrodes...
August 14, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Cláudia F Silva, Soraia Pereira, Cláudia C Silva, Sílvia Ferreira, Nuno Oliveira, Rubim Santos
After a stroke in middle cerebral artery territory, there is a high probability of dysfunction of the ventromedial pathways, mainly related with postural control mechanisms such as the anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). According to neuroanatomical knowledge, these pathways have a predominant ipsilesional disposition, which justifies a bilateral postural control dysfunction, often neglected in rehabilitation. In order to assess this bilateral postural control dysfunction, electromyography activity was assessed in eight post-stroke and 10 healthy individuals in the anterior deltoids, the superior and lower trapezius, and the latissimus dorsi as they reached for a bottle with both upper limbs separately at a self-selected velocity and fast velocity while standing associated with trunk kinematics analysis...
July 16, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Priscila Oliveira Silva, Arthur Sá Ferreira, Carla Martins de Araujo Lima, Fernando Silva Guimarães, Agnaldo José Lopes
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal involvement and cerebrovascular disease are common in sickle cell anaemia (SCA). These changes are potentially important factors that modify the control of balance in this population. OBJECTIVE: To assess balance control in adults with SCA and investigate the associations among balance, posture and muscle function. METHODS: Twenty neurologically intact (i.e. without previous episodes of overt stroke or transient ischaemic attack) adults with SCA and 18 controls were evaluated...
July 16, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Joana Pacheco, João Raimundo, Filipe Santos, Mário Ferreira, Tiago Lopes, Luis Ramos, Anabela G Silva
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study are to investigate the association between: (i) forward head posture (FHP) and pressure pain thresholds (PPTs); (ii) FHP and maladaptive cognitive processes; and (iii) FHP and neck pain characteristics in university students with subclinical neck pain. MATERIALS/METHODS: A total of 140 university students, 90 asymptomatic and 50 with subclinical neck pain, entered the study. Demographic data, anthropometric data, FHP, and PPTs were collected for both groups...
June 8, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Augusta Silva, Julie Vaughan-Graham, Claudia Silva, Andreia Sousa, Christine Cunha, Rosália Ferreira, Pedro Maciel Barbosa
A cerebrovascular accident, otherwise known as stroke, has the potential to damage multiple areas within the brain affecting descending motor control via a multitude of pathways resulting in a wide variety of movement problems. The cortico-reticulospinal system, one of the largest motor systems, is frequently affected, compromising its output, resulting in postural control deficits. The identification of clinically relevant instruments and scales to document and evaluate recovery in post-stroke patients is vital...
June 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Koichi Hiraoka, Atsushi Kinoshita, Hiroshi Kunimura, Masakazu Matsuoka
This study investigated whether the variability of the sequence length of the go trials preceding a stop trial enhanced or interfered with inhibitory control. The hypotheses tested were either inhibitory control improves when the sequence length of the go trials varies as a consequence of increased preparatory effort or it degrades as a consequence of the switching cost from the go trial to the stop trial. The right-handed participants abducted the left or right index finger in response to a go cue during the go trials...
May 31, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Parisa Gazerani, Brian Edwin Cairns
Previous research findings have suggested an important role for acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) in muscle pain mechanisms. This study was conducted to determine if masticatory muscle afferent fibres express ASICs, if there are sex differences in this expression, and to compare the effects of low pH and hypertonic saline on afferent fibres that innervate the masticatory muscle in vivo. Immunohistochemistry methods were applied to examine the expression of ASICs in trigeminal ganglion neurons, while in vivo electrophysiology techniques were employed to examine changes in masticatory muscle afferent fibre excitability...
May 30, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Akiyoshi Matsugi
PURPOSE: The present study aimed to investigate whether spinal reflex excitability is influenced by the site of cerebellar transcranial magnetic stimulation (C-TMS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen healthy volunteers (mean age: 24.6 ± 6.6 years [11 men]) participated. Participants lay on a bed in the prone position, with both ankle joints fixed to prevent unwanted movement. Right tibial nerve stimulation was provided to elicit the H-reflex in the right soleus muscle...
May 6, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
George A Gescheider, John H Wright
Observers judged the tactile dissimilarities of raised-dot surfaces presented in pairs. The role of the SA I channel in determining these tactile dissimilarities was investigated by examining the dissimilarity judgments when this channel was adapted and when it was not. In an earlier study, the role of the PC channel in determining tactile dissimilarity was examined using the same stimulus materials when the PC channel was adapted and when it was not. Three orthogonal perceptual dimensions identified as blur, pattern roughness, and clarity were found using ALSCAL multidimensional analysis to account for the judged dissimilarities...
April 29, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Yekta Ansari, Anthony Remaud, François Tremblay
PURPOSE: This study investigated the effects of thermal stimulation on corticomotor excitability with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Participants consisted of healthy young adults (n = 20) and seniors (n = 15). Each experimental session consisted of a baseline (BL) assessment, followed by a warming and a cooling protocol. At BL, recordings of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and skin temperature were performed with the index finger covered with a 'neutral' gel pack (24 °C)...
April 13, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Hyeyoung Shin, Malamati Bitzidou, Fernando Palaguachi, Joshua C Brumberg
The Barrels meeting annually brings together researchers focused on the rodent whisker to cortical barrel system prior to the Society for Neuroscience meeting. The 2017 meeting focused on the classification of cortical interneurons, the role interneurons have in shaping brain dynamics, and finally on the circuitry underlying oral sensations. The meeting highlighted the latest advancements in this rapidly advancing field.
March 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Joshua L Haworth, Adam J Strang, Mathias Hieronymus, Mark S Walsh
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Many people use balance training as a rehabilitation or habilitation modality. Although the time course of changes to temporal and spatial aspects of postural sway over the initial weeks of such training is as yet unclear. Particularly, we sought to explore the effects of training on sway during a dynamic task of stance on an ultra-compliant surface. Such a task provides different mechanical, and thus sensorimotor, constraints compared to stance on a solid surface...
March 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Robert Steger, Lauren Blachorsky, Qizong Yang, Joshua C Brumberg
The properties of specific cortical cell types enable greater understanding of how cortical microcircuits process and transmit sensory, motor, and cognitive information. Previous reports have characterized the intrinsic properties of the inverted pyramidal cell (IPC) where the most prominent dendrite is orientated towards the cortical white matter. Using whole cell patch clamp recordings from rat and mouse somatosensory cortex in conjunction with electric microstimulation of the white matter we characterized the synaptic inputs onto IPCs and the more common upright pyramidal cell (UPC) in the infragranular layers...
March 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Ayhan Aşkın, Emel Atar, Hikmet Koçyiğit, Aliye Tosun
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic benefits of Kinect-based virtual reality (VR) game training in rehabilitation encourage its use to improve motor function. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of Kinect-based VR training on motor recovery of the upper extremity and functional outcomes in patients with chronic stroke. METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, group A received 20 sessions of physical therapy (PT) + 20 sessions of Kinect-based VR training and group B received only 20 sessions of PT...
March 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Hidefumi Sasaki, Yukio Urabe, Noriaki Maeda, Toshiaki Suzuki
PURPOSE: This study aimed to validate the preliminary steps of motor image voluntary training in patients who are prone to falling as toe flexion muscle strength decreases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recorded the F-wave in 30 healthy subjects (20 men, 10 women; mean age, 22.5 ± 2.1 years). First, in a resting condition, the muscle was relaxed during the F-wave recording. Subsequently, the motion of the left flexor hallucis brevis muscle is photographed. F-waves were recorded immediately and at 5, 10, and 15 min after motor imagery...
March 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
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