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Somatosensory & Motor Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892762/functional-inter-cortical-connectivity-among-motor-related-cortices-during-motor-imagery-a-magnetoencephalographic-study
#1
Yota Obayashi, Jun-Ichi Uemura, Minoru Hoshiyama
Neural connectivity was measured during motor imagery (MI) and motor execution (ME) using magnetoencephalography in nine healthy subjects, MI, and at rest. Lower coherence values during ME and MI between sensorimotor areas than at rest, and lower values during MI between the left supplementary motor area and inferior frontal gyrus than ME suggested the sensorimotor network of MI functioned with similar connectivity to ME and that the inhibitory activity functioned continuously during MI, respectively.
November 28, 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855526/morphometric-properties-and-innervation-of-muscle-compartments-in-rat-medial-gastrocnemius
#2
Malwina Taborowska, Dorota Bukowska, Hanna Drzymała-Celichowska, Barbara Mierzejewska-Krzyżowska, Jan Celichowski
The rat medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle is composed of the proximal and distal compartments. In this study, morphometric properties of the compartments and their muscle fibres at five levels of the muscle length and the innervation pattern of these compartments from lumbar segments were investigated. The size and number of muscle fibres in the compartments were different. The proximal compartment at the largest cross section (25% of the muscle length) had 34% smaller cross-sectional area but contained a slightly higher number of muscle fibres (max...
September 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838950/back-extension-exercises-decompress-the-spinal-root-and-improve-standing-mobility-in-patients-with-sub-acute-lumbosacral-radiculopathy
#3
Sami Al-Abdulwahab
PURPOSE: Repeated back extension exercises (RBEEs) have been reported to cause changes in the distribution and intensity of radicular symptoms. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of RBEEs on the neurophysiology of the compromised nerve root and on standing mobility and pain intensity in patients with sub-acute and chronic lumbosacral radiculopathy (LSR). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 40 patients with unilateral sub-acute/chronic LSR voluntarily participated in the study; the patients performed three sets of 10 RBEEs in the prone position with 1 min of rest between the sets...
September 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756190/comparison-of-sensory-tests-and-neuronal-quantity-of-peripheral-nerves-between-streptozotocin-stz-induced-diabetic-rats-and-paclitaxel-pac-treated-rats
#4
Heung Yong Jin, Na Young Lee, Hyun A Ko, Kyung Ae Lee, Tae Sun Park
Although diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) are different disease entities, they share similar neuropathic symptoms that impede quality of life for these patients. Despite having very similar downstream effects, there have been no direct comparisons between DPN and CIPN with respect to symptom severity and therapeutic responses. We compared peripheral nerve damage due to hyperglycemia with that caused by paclitaxel (PAC) treatment as represented by biochemical parameters, diverse sensory tests, and immunohistochemistry of cutaneous and sciatic nerves...
September 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666529/effect-of-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-on-motor-cortex-excitability-upon-release-of-tonic-muscle-contraction
#5
Kenichi Sugawara, Shigeo Tanabe, Tomotaka Suzuki, Toshio Higashi
The aim of the present study was to investigate the neurophysiological triggers underlying muscle relaxation from the contracted state, and to examine the mechanisms involved in this process and their subsequent modification by neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES). Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to produce motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) and short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) in 23 healthy participants, wherein motor cortex excitability was examined at the onset of voluntary muscle relaxation following a period of voluntary tonic muscle contraction...
September 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650216/comparing-test-retest-reliability-and-magnitude-of-conditioned-pain-modulation-using-different-combinations-of-test-and-conditioning-stimuli
#6
Y Imai, K K Petersen, C D Mørch, L Arendt Nielsen
This study aimed to compare the reliability and magnitude of conditioned pain modulation (CPM) by applying different test stimuli (TS) and conditioning stimuli (CS). Twenty-six healthy male participants were recruited in the study of two identical sessions. In each session, four TS (electrical, heat, handheld, and cuff pressure algometry) were applied before and during CS (cold pressor test (CPT) or cuff algometry). The same procedure was repeated with 45-min intervals, but with the other CS. Five thresholds were measured including four pain detection thresholds from four TS and pain tolerance threshold from cuff TS (cuff PTT)...
September 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650127/cortical-plasticity-in-patients-with-median-nerve-lesions-studied-with-meg
#7
Lotta Fornander, Tom Brismar, Thomas Hansson, Heidi Wikström
We have previously shown age- and time-dependent effects on brain activity in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of patients with median nerve injury. Whereas fMRI measures the hemodynamic changes in response to increased neural activity, magnetoencephalography (MEG) offers a more concise way of examining the evoked response, with superior temporal resolution. We therefore wanted to combine these imaging techniques to gain additional knowledge of the plasticity processes in response to median nerve injury...
September 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595313/reliability-of-two-point-discrimination-thresholds-using-a-4-2-1-stepping-algorithm
#8
Erik A Wikstrom, Gary Allen
PURPOSE: A 4-2-1 stepping algorithm reliably captures light touch thresholds but has not been used to assess two-point discrimination (TPD) thresholds. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the intra- and inter-rater reliability of a 4-2-1 stepping algorithm at determining TPD thresholds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen healthy, physically active young adults were assessed twice over a 1-week period using digital calipers and a 4-2-1 stepping algorithm...
September 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550186/hemodynamic-changes-in-cortical-sensorimotor-systems-following-hand-and-orofacial-motor-tasks-and-pulsed-pneumotactile-stimulation
#9
Austin O Rosner, Steven M Barlow
We performed a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) study of the evoked hemodynamic responses seen in hand and face sensorimotor cortical representations during (1) active motor tasks and (2) pulsed pneumotactile stimulation. Contralateral fNIRS measurements were performed on 22 healthy adult participants using a block paradigm that consisted of repetitive right hand and right oral angle somatosensory stimulation using a pulsed pneumotactile array stimulator, and repetitive right-hand grip compression and bilabial compressions on strain gages...
September 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27430351/motor-control-of-downward-object-transport-movements-with-precision-grip-by-object-weight
#10
Shinji Yamamoto, Yoshihide Shiraki, Shintaro Uehara, Keisuke Kushiro
In the present study, we investigated the kinematics of object-transport movement in a downward direction using a precision grip, to elucidate how the central nervous system (CNS) takes into account object weight when making the movement, even when participants are unable to recognize the weight until they grasp the object. We found that the kinematics during transport movement were significantly changed by the object weight, even when the weight was unrecognized visually, suggesting that the CNS controls object-transport movement in a downward direction according to object weight, regardless of the visual recognizability of the weight...
June 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412765/relationship-between-blood-lactate-and-cortical-excitability-between-taekwondo-athletes-and-non-athletes-after-hand-grip-exercise
#11
Fiorenzo Moscatelli, Anna Valenzano, Annamaria Petito, Antonio Ivano Triggiani, Michela Anna Pia Ciliberti, Livio Luongo, Marco Carotenuto, Maria Esposito, Antonietta Messina, Vincenzo Monda, Marcellino Monda, Laura Capranica, Giovanni Messina, Giuseppe Cibelli
OBJECTIVES: In taekwondo competitions, fatigue has a large influence on performance. Recent studies have reported that the excitability in the primary hand motor cortex, investigated with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), is enhanced at the end of a maximal exercise and that this improvement correlates with blood lactate. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between blood lactate and cortical excitability in taekwondo athletes and non-athletes. METHODS: The excitability of the primary motor cortex was measured before and after fatiguing hand-grip exercise by TMS...
June 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27377987/comparing-sensibility-for-touch-cold-and-warmth-in-different-skin-areas
#12
Nanna de Rezende Strander, Lars Ståhle, Per T Hansson
The primary objective of this pilot study was to assess if the magnitude estimation of suprathreshold brushing, warmth (40 °C), and cold (25 °C) stimuli of the skin over the dorsum of the hand and the dorsum of the foot are comparable to the perceived intensity for the same stimuli applied to the skin over any of the following areas: forehead, m. trapezius, m. deltoideus, thoracic back, and lumbar back, respectively. Thirty-two subjects aged 18-64 years were included. Participants were examined by two physicians on two different occasions, 1-58 days apart...
June 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27357969/the-effect-of-a-finger-training-application-using-a-tablet-pc-in-chronic-hemiparetic-stroke-patients
#13
Sung Ho Jang, Woo Hyuk Jang
Twenty-one consecutive patients were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (10 patients) or the control group (11 patients). The application consisted of three sections (registration, evaluation, and training) and the training section consisted of five programs (stretching, flexion, extension, opposition, and thumb abduction). Application training consisted of 1 session (31 min)/day, 6 days/week for 4 weeks. We found that our application training was effective in terms of the motor function of the affected hand: Manual Muscle Test of the wrist and finger extensors, the Manual Function Test (subtest of manipulative activity), and the Purdue Pegboard Test...
June 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27357901/sparcl1-containing-neurons-in-the-human-brainstem-and-sensory-ganglion
#14
Naoya Hashimoto, Tadasu Sato, Takehiro Yajima, Masatoshi Fujita, Ayumi Sato, Yoshinaka Shimizu, Yusuke Shimada, Noriaki Shoji, Takashi Sasano, Hiroyuki Ichikawa
Secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine-like 1 (SPARCL1) is a member of the osteonectin family of proteins. In this study, immunohistochemistry for SPARCL1 was performed to obtain its distribution in the human brainstem, cervical spinal cord, and sensory ganglion. SPARCL1-immunoreactivity was detected in neuronal cell bodies including perikarya and proximal dendrites, and the neuropil. The motor nuclei of the IIIrd, Vth, VIth, VIIth, IXth, Xth, XIth, and XIIth cranial nerves and spinal nerves contained many SPARCL1-immunoreactive (-IR) neurons with medium-sized to large cell bodies...
June 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27356466/identifying-the-brain-regions-associated-with-acute-spasticity-in-patients-diagnosed-with-an-ischemic-stroke
#15
Susan J Barlow
Spasticity is a common impairment found in patients that have been diagnosed with a stroke. Little is known about the pathophysiology of spasticity at the level of the brain. This retrospective study was performed to identify an association between the area of the brain affected by an ischemic stroke and the presence of acute spasticity. Physical and occupational therapy assessments from all patients (n = 441) that had suffered a stroke and were admitted into a local hospital over a 4-year period were screened for inclusion in this study...
June 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27323912/prediction-of-motor-outcome-using-remaining-corticospinal-tract-in-patients-with-pontine-infarct-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#16
Sung Ho Jang, Jun Lee, Mi Young Lee, So Min Park, Won Hee Choi, Kyung Hee Do
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the remaining corticospinal tract (CST) as determined by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and 6-month motor outcome in patients with pontine infarct. Ratios of fractional anisotropy (FA), fiber number (FN), and CST area were calculated, and the FN ratio and CST area ratio showed significant correlation with all 6-month motor outcome. Thus, the remaining CST in the pons measured using DTI at early stage of stroke could predict motor outcome in patients with pontine infarct...
June 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27255483/effect-of-sitting-postures-and-shoulder-position-on-the-cervicocephalic-kinesthesia-in-healthy-young-males
#17
Ahmad Alghadir, Hamayun Zafar, Zaheen Iqbal, Einas Al-Eisa
Information about head orientation, position, and movement with respect to the trunk relies on the visual, vestibular, extensive muscular, and articular proprioceptive system of the neck. Various factors can affect proprioception since it is the function of afferent integration, and tuning of muscular and articular receptors. Pain, muscle fatigue, and joint position have been shown to affect proprioceptive capacity. Thus, it can be speculated that changes in body posture can alter the neck proprioception. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of body posture on cervicocephalic kinesthetic sense in healthy subjects...
June 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27189650/ankle-muscle-coactivation-and-its-relationship-with-ankle-joint-kinematics-and-kinetics-during-gait-in-hemiplegic-patients-after-stroke
#18
Ryosuke Kitatani, Koji Ohata, Shuhei Sato, Aki Watanabe, Yu Hashiguchi, Natsuki Yamakami, Kaoru Sakuma, Shigehito Yamada
INTRODUCTION: Increased ankle muscle coactivation during gait is a compensation strategy for enhancing postural stability in patients after stroke. However, no previous studies have demonstrated that increased ankle muscle coactivation influenced ankle joint movements during gait in patients after stroke. PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between ankle muscle coactivation and ankle joint movements in hemiplegic patients after stroke. METHODS: Seventeen patients after stroke participated...
June 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27181292/manipulating-vibratory-devices-orientation-and-position-enhances-proprioceptive-disturbance-during-upright-stance
#19
Marcelo P Pereira, Paulo H S Pelicioni, Lilian T B Gobbi
We tested local vibration effects during upright standing considering: (i) the orientation of vibratory devices in relation to muscle fibres; (ii) the muscle region stimulated; and (iii) the number of stimulation spots. Results showed a higher balance disturbance with vibration devices oriented parallel to triceps surae muscle fibres. The single stimulation of the proximal region of the tibialis anterior muscle belly induces the same proprioceptive disturbance as stimulating multiple regions simultaneously.
June 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27166786/visual-and-proprioceptive-contributions-to-postural-control-of-upright-stance-in-unilateral-vestibulopathy
#20
Katrin Eysel-Gosepath, Christopher McCrum, Gaspar Epro, Gert-Peter Brüggemann, Kiros Karamanidis
Preserving upright stance requires central integration of the sensory systems and appropriate motor output from the neuromuscular system to keep the centre of pressure (COP) within the base of support. Unilateral peripheral vestibular disorder (UPVD) causes diminished stance stability. The aim of this study was to determine the limits of stability and to examine the contribution of multiple sensory systems to upright standing in UPVD patients and healthy subjects. We hypothesized that closure of the eyes and Achilles tendon vibration during upright stance will augment the postural sway in UPVD patients more than in healthy subjects...
June 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
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