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Somatosensory & Motor Research

Joana Pacheco, João Raimundo, Filipe Santos, Mário Ferreira, Tiago Lopes, Luis Ramos, Anabela G Silva
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study are to investigate the association between: (i) forward head posture (FHP) and pressure pain thresholds (PPTs); (ii) FHP and maladaptive cognitive processes; and (iii) FHP and neck pain characteristics in university students with subclinical neck pain. MATERIALS/METHODS: A total of 140 university students, 90 asymptomatic and 50 with subclinical neck pain, entered the study. Demographic data, anthropometric data, FHP, and PPTs were collected for both groups...
June 8, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Koichi Hiraoka, Atsushi Kinoshita, Hiroshi Kunimura, Masakazu Matsuoka
This study investigated whether the variability of the sequence length of the go trials preceding a stop trial enhanced or interfered with inhibitory control. The hypotheses tested were either inhibitory control improves when the sequence length of the go trials varies as a consequence of increased preparatory effort or it degrades as a consequence of the switching cost from the go trial to the stop trial. The right-handed participants abducted the left or right index finger in response to a go cue during the go trials...
May 31, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Parisa Gazerani, Brian Edwin Cairns
Previous research findings have suggested an important role for acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) in muscle pain mechanisms. This study was conducted to determine if masticatory muscle afferent fibres express ASICs, if there are sex differences in this expression, and to compare the effects of low pH and hypertonic saline on afferent fibres that innervate the masticatory muscle in vivo. Immunohistochemistry methods were applied to examine the expression of ASICs in trigeminal ganglion neurons, while in vivo electrophysiology techniques were employed to examine changes in masticatory muscle afferent fibre excitability...
May 30, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Akiyoshi Matsugi
PURPOSE: The present study aimed to investigate whether spinal reflex excitability is influenced by the site of cerebellar transcranial magnetic stimulation (C-TMS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen healthy volunteers (mean age: 24.6 ± 6.6 years [11 men]) participated. Participants lay on a bed in the prone position, with both ankle joints fixed to prevent unwanted movement. Right tibial nerve stimulation was provided to elicit the H-reflex in the right soleus muscle...
May 6, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
George A Gescheider, John H Wright
Observers judged the tactile dissimilarities of raised-dot surfaces presented in pairs. The role of the SA I channel in determining these tactile dissimilarities was investigated by examining the dissimilarity judgments when this channel was adapted and when it was not. In an earlier study, the role of the PC channel in determining tactile dissimilarity was examined using the same stimulus materials when the PC channel was adapted and when it was not. Three orthogonal perceptual dimensions identified as blur, pattern roughness, and clarity were found using ALSCAL multidimensional analysis to account for the judged dissimilarities...
April 29, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Yekta Ansari, Anthony Remaud, François Tremblay
PURPOSE: This study investigated the effects of thermal stimulation on corticomotor excitability with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Participants consisted of healthy young adults (n = 20) and seniors (n = 15). Each experimental session consisted of a baseline (BL) assessment, followed by a warming and a cooling protocol. At BL, recordings of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and skin temperature were performed with the index finger covered with a 'neutral' gel pack (24 °C)...
April 13, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Hyeyoung Shin, Malamati Bitzidou, Fernando Palaguachi, Joshua C Brumberg
The Barrels meeting annually brings together researchers focused on the rodent whisker to cortical barrel system prior to the Society for Neuroscience meeting. The 2017 meeting focused on the classification of cortical interneurons, the role interneurons have in shaping brain dynamics, and finally on the circuitry underlying oral sensations. The meeting highlighted the latest advancements in this rapidly advancing field.
March 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Joshua L Haworth, Adam J Strang, Mathias Hieronymus, Mark S Walsh
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Many people use balance training as a rehabilitation or habilitation modality. Although the time course of changes to temporal and spatial aspects of postural sway over the initial weeks of such training is as yet unclear. Particularly, we sought to explore the effects of training on sway during a dynamic task of stance on an ultra-compliant surface. Such a task provides different mechanical, and thus sensorimotor, constraints compared to stance on a solid surface...
March 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Robert Steger, Lauren Blachorsky, Qizong Yang, Joshua C Brumberg
The properties of specific cortical cell types enable greater understanding of how cortical microcircuits process and transmit sensory, motor, and cognitive information. Previous reports have characterized the intrinsic properties of the inverted pyramidal cell (IPC) where the most prominent dendrite is orientated towards the cortical white matter. Using whole cell patch clamp recordings from rat and mouse somatosensory cortex in conjunction with electric microstimulation of the white matter we characterized the synaptic inputs onto IPCs and the more common upright pyramidal cell (UPC) in the infragranular layers...
March 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Ayhan Aşkın, Emel Atar, Hikmet Koçyiğit, Aliye Tosun
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic benefits of Kinect-based virtual reality (VR) game training in rehabilitation encourage its use to improve motor function. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of Kinect-based VR training on motor recovery of the upper extremity and functional outcomes in patients with chronic stroke. METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, group A received 20 sessions of physical therapy (PT) + 20 sessions of Kinect-based VR training and group B received only 20 sessions of PT...
March 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Hidefumi Sasaki, Yukio Urabe, Noriaki Maeda, Toshiaki Suzuki
PURPOSE: This study aimed to validate the preliminary steps of motor image voluntary training in patients who are prone to falling as toe flexion muscle strength decreases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recorded the F-wave in 30 healthy subjects (20 men, 10 women; mean age, 22.5 ± 2.1 years). First, in a resting condition, the muscle was relaxed during the F-wave recording. Subsequently, the motion of the left flexor hallucis brevis muscle is photographed. F-waves were recorded immediately and at 5, 10, and 15 min after motor imagery...
March 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Yuanlong Song, Linlin Gao
The acutely dissociated neurons from the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) are extensively used. The effects of acute dissociation on the properties of these neurons are, however, not clear. In this study, the action potentials (APs) were recorded from both acutely dissociated and in vivo identified DRG neurons with patch clamp and sharp electrode recording techniques, respectively. We found that acute dissociation slowed both the depolarizing and repolarizing rate of APs, and elongated the AP duration (APD). The lower recording temperature presented in the acutely dissociated neurons contributed to about 10% of these differences...
March 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Tara L Moore, Bethany G E Bowley, Penny L Shultz, Samantha M Calderazzo, Eli J Shobin, Ajay R Uprety, Douglas L Rosene, Mark B Moss
Aged individuals experience decreased fine motor function of the hand and digits, which could result, in part, from the chronic, systemic state of inflammation that occurs with aging. Recent research for treating age-related inflammation has focused on the effects of nutraceuticals that have anti-inflammatory properties. One particular dietary polyphenol, curcumin, the principal curcuminoid of the spice turmeric, has been shown to have significant anti-inflammatory effects and there is mounting evidence that curcumin may serve to reduce systemic inflammation...
March 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Elena Kokkoni, Joshua L Haworth, Regina T Harbourne, Nicholas Stergiou, Anastasia Kyvelidou
AIM OF THE STUDY: Independent sitting requires the control of the involved body segments over the base of support using information obtained from the three sensory systems (visual, vestibular, and somatosensory). The contribution of somatosensory information in infant sitting has not been explored. To address this gap, we altered the context of the sitting support surface and examined the infants' immediate postural responses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten 7-month-old typically developing infants sat on compliant and firm surfaces in one session...
December 2017: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Amalie Højmose Simoni, Anne Jerwiarz, Amalie Randers, Parisa Gazerani
AIM OF THE STUDY: Pain perception is associated with different phenotypic characteristics such as sex, eye, and hair color. Hence, it is assumed that ABO blood type can also affect pain perception. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In order to investigate this hypothesis, an experimental study with healthy volunteers (18-40 years) was designed. The experimental procedure included a blood type test and two rounds of pressure pain threshold assessments separated by a cold pressor test...
December 2017: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Tayfun Kasikci, Semai Bek, Guray Koc, Mehmet Yucel, Yasar Kutukcu, Zeki Odabasi
OBJECTIVES: Detecting whether a possible disequilibrium between the excitatory and inhibitory interhemispheric interactions in paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) exists. METHODS: This study assessed measures of motor threshold, motor evoked potential latency, the cortical silent period, the ipsilateral silent period and the transcallosal conduction time (TCT) in PKD patients. Data were compared between the clinically affected hemisphere (aH) and the fellow hemisphere (fH)...
December 2017: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Ramazan Üstün, Elif Kaval Oğuz, Çağrı Delilbaşı, Ayşe Şeker, Filiz Taşpınar, Mehmet Reşit Öncü, Ahmet Regaip Oğuz
PURPOSE: Ankaferd Blood Stopper® (ABS), a licenced medicinal herbal extract, is commonly used as an effective topical haemostatic agent. This study is designed to investigate whether topical ABS application may cause peripheral nerve degeneration and neuromuscular dysfunction in a mouse sciatic nerve model. METHODS: Twenty mice were randomly divided into two groups; an ABS treated experimental group and a saline-treated control group. Left sciatic nerves were treated with 0...
December 2017: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Ivy Ka Yu Cheng, Edwin Man Lai Yiu, Karen Man Kei Chan
AIM OF STUDY: To examine the resting motor threshold of the tongue in healthy adults and stroke survivors. METHODS: Thirty-five healthy adults were classified into three groups: Group 1 (19-38 years; n = 11), Group 2 (50-64 years; n = 12) and Group 3 (66-78 years; n = 12). Six chronic stroke survivors (mean age =59 years, SD = 9.1 years) were recruited (Group 4). The resting motor thresholds (RMTs) of the tongue were measured and compared (i) among the four groups and (ii) between stroke survivors and age-matched healthy adults...
December 2017: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Johannes C Ayena, Louis E Tremblay, Martin J-D Otis, Bob-Antoine J Ménélas
INTRODUCTION: Several researchers have demonstrated the positive benefits of auditory and visual cueing in the gait improvements among individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, few studies have evaluated the role of vibrotactile cueing when compared to auditory and visual cueing. This paper compares how these stimuli affect the risk of falling while walking on six types of soil (concrete, sand, parquet, broken stone, two types of carpet). METHODS: An instrumented Timed Up and Go (iTUG) test served to evaluate how audio, visual and vibrotactile cueing can affect the risk of falling of elderly...
December 2017: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Mohammad Reza Emad, Hadi Momeninejad, Babak Pourabbas Tahvildari, Hossein Yari
Despite differences in the anatomical and physiological characteristics of the medial gastrocnemius (MG), lateral gastrocnemius (LG), and soleus (Sol) muscles, it is common practice to investigate them as single triceps surae H-reflex recordings. The aim of this study was to compare the latencies of H-reflex recordings from the Sol, MG, and LG in patients with explicit magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence of unilateral S1 radiculopathy and also compare their diagnostic yield in varied clinical characteristics (i...
December 2017: Somatosensory & Motor Research
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