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Somatosensory & Motor Research

Muharrem Cidem, Ilhan Karacan, Halil Ibrahim Cakar, Mehmet Cidem, Oguz Sebik, Gizem Yilmaz, Kemal Sitki Turker, Safak Sahir Karamehmetoglu
PURPOSE: To determine vibration parameters affecting the amplitude of the reflex activity of soleus muscle during low-amplitude whole-body vibration (WBV). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted on 19 participants. Vibration frequencies of 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 Hz were used. Surface electromyography, collision force between vibration platform and participant's heel measured using a force sensor, and acceleration measured using an accelerometer fixed to the vibration platform were simultaneously recorded...
February 2, 2017: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Andrea De Giorgio
In people with intellectual disabilities, an enriched environment can stimulate the acquisition of motor skills and could partially repair neuronal impairment thanks to exploration and motor activity. A deficit in environmental and motor stimulation leads to low scores in intelligence tests and can cause serious motor skill problems. Although studies in humans do not give much evidence for explaining basic mechanisms of intellectual disability and for highlighting improvements due to enriched environmental stimulation, animal models have been valuable in the investigation of these conditions...
January 31, 2017: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Yuzhou Wang, Xiaodi Li, Wenming Chen, Zhanhang Wang, Yan Xu, Jingpan Luo, Hanbo Lin, Guijun Sun
BACKGROUND: Although hand motor cortex (HMC) has been constantly used for identification of primary motor cortex in magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), neurochemical profiles of HMC have never been assessed independently. As HMC has a constant location and the clinic-anatomic correlation between hand motor function and HMC has been established, we hypothesize that HMC may serve as a promising region of interest in diagnosing ALS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fourteen ALS patients and 14 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC) were recruited in this study...
January 23, 2017: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Hafiz Khuram Raza, Jia Jing, Guiyun Cui, Xiaoqian Liang, Fang Hua, Zunsheng Zhang, Hai Tang, Hongjuan Shi, Hao Chen
Our report involves a case of hemichorea caused by the nonketotic hyperosmolar state. We have analyzed the clinical data and relevant features of a patient who presented herself to the Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University. The patient had unilateral involuntary movements for 1 month. We discovered that her blood glucose levels were very high. The patient underwent computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), indicating right basal ganglia lesion...
January 22, 2017: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Henrik Holmgaard, Eva Ørsnæs Hansen, Nhung Phuong Thi Dong, Laila Brøns Dixen, Gebbie Ann Rodriguez Nielsen, Jeppe Nørgaard Poulsen, Parisa Gazerani
Emerging evidence suggests that some phenotypic features, such as eye or hair colour, might predict pain. We investigated if light and dark eye and hair colour would influence pain in 60 healthy subjects divided in groups of 15 according to their eye-hair colour and gender. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs), cold pressor test (CPT), and quality of the perceived pain were assessed. Findings indicated that dark pigmentation phenotype is more sensitive in response to CPT.
January 16, 2017: Somatosensory & Motor Research
René Schwesig, Lisa Hollstein, Stefan K Plontke, Karl-Stefan Delank, Georg Fieseler, Torsten Rahne
The intraobserver reliabilities of the Interactive Balance System (IBS) and Vertiguard were compared in 30 asymptomatic volunteers. Relative reliability for all IBS single tasks and parameters in the IBS was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC ≥0.75). The ICC values ranged from 0.78 to 0.89. The ICC values of the Vertiguard system ranged from 0 to 0.75. The cumulative measure of injury risk of the Vertiguard system was highly reliable.
December 4, 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Yota Obayashi, Jun-Ichi Uemura, Minoru Hoshiyama
Neural connectivity was measured during motor imagery (MI) and motor execution (ME) using magnetoencephalography in nine healthy subjects, MI, and at rest. Lower coherence values during ME and MI between sensorimotor areas than at rest, and lower values during MI between the left supplementary motor area and inferior frontal gyrus than ME suggested the sensorimotor network of MI functioned with similar connectivity to ME and that the inhibitory activity functioned continuously during MI, respectively.
November 28, 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Malwina Taborowska, Dorota Bukowska, Hanna Drzymała-Celichowska, Barbara Mierzejewska-Krzyżowska, Jan Celichowski
The rat medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle is composed of the proximal and distal compartments. In this study, morphometric properties of the compartments and their muscle fibres at five levels of the muscle length and the innervation pattern of these compartments from lumbar segments were investigated. The size and number of muscle fibres in the compartments were different. The proximal compartment at the largest cross section (25% of the muscle length) had 34% smaller cross-sectional area but contained a slightly higher number of muscle fibres (max...
September 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Sami Al-Abdulwahab
PURPOSE: Repeated back extension exercises (RBEEs) have been reported to cause changes in the distribution and intensity of radicular symptoms. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of RBEEs on the neurophysiology of the compromised nerve root and on standing mobility and pain intensity in patients with sub-acute and chronic lumbosacral radiculopathy (LSR). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 40 patients with unilateral sub-acute/chronic LSR voluntarily participated in the study; the patients performed three sets of 10 RBEEs in the prone position with 1 min of rest between the sets...
September 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Heung Yong Jin, Na Young Lee, Hyun A Ko, Kyung Ae Lee, Tae Sun Park
Although diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) are different disease entities, they share similar neuropathic symptoms that impede quality of life for these patients. Despite having very similar downstream effects, there have been no direct comparisons between DPN and CIPN with respect to symptom severity and therapeutic responses. We compared peripheral nerve damage due to hyperglycemia with that caused by paclitaxel (PAC) treatment as represented by biochemical parameters, diverse sensory tests, and immunohistochemistry of cutaneous and sciatic nerves...
September 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Kenichi Sugawara, Shigeo Tanabe, Tomotaka Suzuki, Toshio Higashi
The aim of the present study was to investigate the neurophysiological triggers underlying muscle relaxation from the contracted state, and to examine the mechanisms involved in this process and their subsequent modification by neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES). Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to produce motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) and short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) in 23 healthy participants, wherein motor cortex excitability was examined at the onset of voluntary muscle relaxation following a period of voluntary tonic muscle contraction...
September 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Y Imai, K K Petersen, C D Mørch, L Arendt Nielsen
This study aimed to compare the reliability and magnitude of conditioned pain modulation (CPM) by applying different test stimuli (TS) and conditioning stimuli (CS). Twenty-six healthy male participants were recruited in the study of two identical sessions. In each session, four TS (electrical, heat, handheld, and cuff pressure algometry) were applied before and during CS (cold pressor test (CPT) or cuff algometry). The same procedure was repeated with 45-min intervals, but with the other CS. Five thresholds were measured including four pain detection thresholds from four TS and pain tolerance threshold from cuff TS (cuff PTT)...
September 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Lotta Fornander, Tom Brismar, Thomas Hansson, Heidi Wikström
We have previously shown age- and time-dependent effects on brain activity in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of patients with median nerve injury. Whereas fMRI measures the hemodynamic changes in response to increased neural activity, magnetoencephalography (MEG) offers a more concise way of examining the evoked response, with superior temporal resolution. We therefore wanted to combine these imaging techniques to gain additional knowledge of the plasticity processes in response to median nerve injury...
September 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Erik A Wikstrom, Gary Allen
PURPOSE: A 4-2-1 stepping algorithm reliably captures light touch thresholds but has not been used to assess two-point discrimination (TPD) thresholds. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the intra- and inter-rater reliability of a 4-2-1 stepping algorithm at determining TPD thresholds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen healthy, physically active young adults were assessed twice over a 1-week period using digital calipers and a 4-2-1 stepping algorithm...
September 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Austin O Rosner, Steven M Barlow
We performed a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) study of the evoked hemodynamic responses seen in hand and face sensorimotor cortical representations during (1) active motor tasks and (2) pulsed pneumotactile stimulation. Contralateral fNIRS measurements were performed on 22 healthy adult participants using a block paradigm that consisted of repetitive right hand and right oral angle somatosensory stimulation using a pulsed pneumotactile array stimulator, and repetitive right-hand grip compression and bilabial compressions on strain gages...
September 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Shinji Yamamoto, Yoshihide Shiraki, Shintaro Uehara, Keisuke Kushiro
In the present study, we investigated the kinematics of object-transport movement in a downward direction using a precision grip, to elucidate how the central nervous system (CNS) takes into account object weight when making the movement, even when participants are unable to recognize the weight until they grasp the object. We found that the kinematics during transport movement were significantly changed by the object weight, even when the weight was unrecognized visually, suggesting that the CNS controls object-transport movement in a downward direction according to object weight, regardless of the visual recognizability of the weight...
June 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Fiorenzo Moscatelli, Anna Valenzano, Annamaria Petito, Antonio Ivano Triggiani, Michela Anna Pia Ciliberti, Livio Luongo, Marco Carotenuto, Maria Esposito, Antonietta Messina, Vincenzo Monda, Marcellino Monda, Laura Capranica, Giovanni Messina, Giuseppe Cibelli
OBJECTIVES: In taekwondo competitions, fatigue has a large influence on performance. Recent studies have reported that the excitability in the primary hand motor cortex, investigated with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), is enhanced at the end of a maximal exercise and that this improvement correlates with blood lactate. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between blood lactate and cortical excitability in taekwondo athletes and non-athletes. METHODS: The excitability of the primary motor cortex was measured before and after fatiguing hand-grip exercise by TMS...
June 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Nanna de Rezende Strander, Lars Ståhle, Per T Hansson
The primary objective of this pilot study was to assess if the magnitude estimation of suprathreshold brushing, warmth (40 °C), and cold (25 °C) stimuli of the skin over the dorsum of the hand and the dorsum of the foot are comparable to the perceived intensity for the same stimuli applied to the skin over any of the following areas: forehead, m. trapezius, m. deltoideus, thoracic back, and lumbar back, respectively. Thirty-two subjects aged 18-64 years were included. Participants were examined by two physicians on two different occasions, 1-58 days apart...
June 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Sung Ho Jang, Woo Hyuk Jang
Twenty-one consecutive patients were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (10 patients) or the control group (11 patients). The application consisted of three sections (registration, evaluation, and training) and the training section consisted of five programs (stretching, flexion, extension, opposition, and thumb abduction). Application training consisted of 1 session (31 min)/day, 6 days/week for 4 weeks. We found that our application training was effective in terms of the motor function of the affected hand: Manual Muscle Test of the wrist and finger extensors, the Manual Function Test (subtest of manipulative activity), and the Purdue Pegboard Test...
June 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Naoya Hashimoto, Tadasu Sato, Takehiro Yajima, Masatoshi Fujita, Ayumi Sato, Yoshinaka Shimizu, Yusuke Shimada, Noriaki Shoji, Takashi Sasano, Hiroyuki Ichikawa
Secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine-like 1 (SPARCL1) is a member of the osteonectin family of proteins. In this study, immunohistochemistry for SPARCL1 was performed to obtain its distribution in the human brainstem, cervical spinal cord, and sensory ganglion. SPARCL1-immunoreactivity was detected in neuronal cell bodies including perikarya and proximal dendrites, and the neuropil. The motor nuclei of the IIIrd, Vth, VIth, VIIth, IXth, Xth, XIth, and XIIth cranial nerves and spinal nerves contained many SPARCL1-immunoreactive (-IR) neurons with medium-sized to large cell bodies...
June 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
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