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Somatosensory & Motor Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276837/5-hydroxymethylcytosine-5hmc-and-ten-eleven-translocation-1-3-tet1-3-proteins-in-the-dorsal-root-ganglia-of-mouse-expression-and-dynamic-regulation-in-neuropathic-pain
#1
Alexander G Chamessian, Yawar J Qadri, Matthew Cummins, Michele Hendrickson, Temugin Berta, Thomas Buchheit, Thomas Van de Ven
Epigenetic mechanisms are increasingly implicated in chronic pain pathology. In this study, we demonstrate that the novel epigenetic mark 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is present in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and glia, and its levels increase following nerve injury. Furthermore, we show that the 5hmC-generating Ten-eleven translocation 1-3 (TET1-3) proteins are expressed in a cell-type specific manner in the DRG, with Tet3 displaying differential upregulation after injury, suggesting a potential role in neuropathic pain...
March 1, 2017: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276838/modulation-of-prefrontal-cortex-with-anodal-tdcs-prevents-post-exercise-facilitation-interference-during-dual-task
#2
Carmen Concerto, Jacqueline Babayev, Rowan Mahmoud, Basil Rafiq, Eileen Chusid, Eugenio Aguglia, Diego Coira, Fortunato Battaglia
In this study we aimed to investigate whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) reduces interference effects of a dual task (DT) on post-exercise facilitation (PEF) of the motor evoked potentials. Anodal tDCS reversed the DT interference on PEF after a non-fatiguing isometric contraction. We conclude that anodal DLPFC tDCS improves the ability to allocate attentional resources and modulates plastic adaptations across brain systems.
February 28, 2017: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152665/vibration-parameters-affecting-vibration-induced-reflex-muscle-activity
#3
Muharrem Cidem, Ilhan Karacan, Halil Ibrahim Cakar, Mehmet Cidem, Oguz Sebik, Gizem Yilmaz, Kemal Sitki Turker, Safak Sahir Karamehmetoglu
PURPOSE: To determine vibration parameters affecting the amplitude of the reflex activity of soleus muscle during low-amplitude whole-body vibration (WBV). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted on 19 participants. Vibration frequencies of 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 Hz were used. Surface electromyography, collision force between vibration platform and participant's heel measured using a force sensor, and acceleration measured using an accelerometer fixed to the vibration platform were simultaneously recorded...
February 2, 2017: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140743/the-roles-of-motor-activity-and-environmental-enrichment-in-intellectual-disability
#4
Andrea De Giorgio
In people with intellectual disabilities, an enriched environment can stimulate the acquisition of motor skills and could partially repair neuronal impairment thanks to exploration and motor activity. A deficit in environmental and motor stimulation leads to low scores in intelligence tests and can cause serious motor skill problems. Although studies in humans do not give much evidence for explaining basic mechanisms of intellectual disability and for highlighting improvements due to enriched environmental stimulation, animal models have been valuable in the investigation of these conditions...
January 31, 2017: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114839/detecting-neuronal-dysfunction-of-hand-motor-cortex-in-als-a-mrsi-study
#5
Yuzhou Wang, Xiaodi Li, Wenming Chen, Zhanhang Wang, Yan Xu, Jingpan Luo, Hanbo Lin, Guijun Sun
BACKGROUND: Although hand motor cortex (HMC) has been constantly used for identification of primary motor cortex in magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), neurochemical profiles of HMC have never been assessed independently. As HMC has a constant location and the clinic-anatomic correlation between hand motor function and HMC has been established, we hypothesize that HMC may serve as a promising region of interest in diagnosing ALS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fourteen ALS patients and 14 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC) were recruited in this study...
January 23, 2017: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112005/hemichorea-caused-by-nonketotic-hyperosmolar-state-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#6
Hafiz Khuram Raza, Jia Jing, Guiyun Cui, Xiaoqian Liang, Fang Hua, Zunsheng Zhang, Hai Tang, Hongjuan Shi, Hao Chen
Our report involves a case of hemichorea caused by the nonketotic hyperosmolar state. We have analyzed the clinical data and relevant features of a patient who presented herself to the Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University. The patient had unilateral involuntary movements for 1 month. We discovered that her blood glucose levels were very high. The patient underwent computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), indicating right basal ganglia lesion...
January 22, 2017: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093011/individuals-with-dark-eyes-and-hair-exhibit-higher-pain-sensitivity
#7
Henrik Holmgaard, Eva Ørsnæs Hansen, Nhung Phuong Thi Dong, Laila Brøns Dixen, Gebbie Ann Rodriguez Nielsen, Jeppe Nørgaard Poulsen, Parisa Gazerani
Emerging evidence suggests that some phenotypic features, such as eye or hair colour, might predict pain. We investigated if light and dark eye and hair colour would influence pain in 60 healthy subjects divided in groups of 15 according to their eye-hair colour and gender. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs), cold pressor test (CPT), and quality of the perceived pain were assessed. Findings indicated that dark pigmentation phenotype is more sensitive in response to CPT.
January 16, 2017: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270049/barrels-xxix-barrels-go-hollywood
#8
Mathew H Evans, Joshua C Brumberg
Barrels XXIX brought together researchers focusing on the rodent barrel cortex and associated systems. The meeting revolved around three themes: thalamocortical interactions in motor control, touch in rodent, monkey, and humans, and the nature of the multisensory computations the brain makes. Over two days these topics were covered as well as many more presentations that focused on the physiology, behavior, and development of the rodent whisker-to-barrel cortex system.
March 2017: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270048/influence-of-transcutaneous-electrical-nerve-stimulation-conditions-on-disynaptic-reciprocal-ia-inhibition-and-presynaptic-inhibition-in-healthy-adults
#9
Kazuya Takeda, Shigeo Tanabe, Soichiro Koyama, Kosuke Ushiroyama, Yuki Naoi, Ikuo Motoya, Hiroaki Sakurai, Yoshikiyo Kanada
This study investigated the influence of stimulus conditions of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on disynaptic reciprocal Ia inhibition (RI) and presynaptic inhibition (D1 inhibition) in healthy adults. Eight healthy participants received TENS (stimulus frequencies of 50, 100, and 200 Hz) over the deep peroneal nerve and tibialis anterior (TA) muscle in the resting condition for 30 min. At pre- and post-intervention, the RI from the TA to the soleus (SOL) and D1 inhibition of the SOL alpha motor neuron were assessed by evoked electromyography...
March 2017: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270047/instruction-prioritization-in-task-based-balance-training-for-individuals-with-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Vaithiamanithi Perumal, Ganeswara Rao Melam, Adel A Alhusaini, Syamala Buragadda, Neha Sharma
The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of prioritization of instruction in balance training for individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Thirty-six participants were evaluated before and after the training using the Berg Balance Scale, Dynamic Gait Index, and Geriatric Depression Scale. Results show that dual task training with variable priority instruction is as effective as single task training in improving the balance performance of individuals with idiopathic PD.
March 2017: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915498/comparison-of-intraobserver-single-task-reliabilities-of-the-interactive-balance-system-ibs-and-vertiguard-in-asymptomatic-subjects
#11
René Schwesig, Lisa Hollstein, Stefan K Plontke, Karl-Stefan Delank, Georg Fieseler, Torsten Rahne
The intraobserver reliabilities of the Interactive Balance System (IBS) and Vertiguard were compared in 30 asymptomatic volunteers. Relative reliability for all IBS single tasks and parameters in the IBS was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC ≥0.75). The ICC values ranged from 0.78 to 0.89. The ICC values of the Vertiguard system ranged from 0 to 0.75. The cumulative measure of injury risk of the Vertiguard system was highly reliable.
December 4, 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892762/functional-inter-cortical-connectivity-among-motor-related-cortices-during-motor-imagery-a-magnetoencephalographic-study
#12
Yota Obayashi, Jun-Ichi Uemura, Minoru Hoshiyama
Neural connectivity was measured during motor imagery (MI) and motor execution (ME) using magnetoencephalography in nine healthy subjects, MI, and at rest. Lower coherence values during ME and MI between sensorimotor areas than at rest, and lower values during MI between the left supplementary motor area and inferior frontal gyrus than ME suggested the sensorimotor network of MI functioned with similar connectivity to ME and that the inhibitory activity functioned continuously during MI, respectively.
November 28, 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855526/morphometric-properties-and-innervation-of-muscle-compartments-in-rat-medial-gastrocnemius
#13
Malwina Taborowska, Dorota Bukowska, Hanna Drzymała-Celichowska, Barbara Mierzejewska-Krzyżowska, Jan Celichowski
The rat medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle is composed of the proximal and distal compartments. In this study, morphometric properties of the compartments and their muscle fibres at five levels of the muscle length and the innervation pattern of these compartments from lumbar segments were investigated. The size and number of muscle fibres in the compartments were different. The proximal compartment at the largest cross section (25% of the muscle length) had 34% smaller cross-sectional area but contained a slightly higher number of muscle fibres (max...
September 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838950/back-extension-exercises-decompress-the-spinal-root-and-improve-standing-mobility-in-patients-with-sub-acute-lumbosacral-radiculopathy
#14
Sami Al-Abdulwahab
PURPOSE: Repeated back extension exercises (RBEEs) have been reported to cause changes in the distribution and intensity of radicular symptoms. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of RBEEs on the neurophysiology of the compromised nerve root and on standing mobility and pain intensity in patients with sub-acute and chronic lumbosacral radiculopathy (LSR). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 40 patients with unilateral sub-acute/chronic LSR voluntarily participated in the study; the patients performed three sets of 10 RBEEs in the prone position with 1 min of rest between the sets...
September 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756190/comparison-of-sensory-tests-and-neuronal-quantity-of-peripheral-nerves-between-streptozotocin-stz-induced-diabetic-rats-and-paclitaxel-pac-treated-rats
#15
Heung Yong Jin, Na Young Lee, Hyun A Ko, Kyung Ae Lee, Tae Sun Park
Although diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) are different disease entities, they share similar neuropathic symptoms that impede quality of life for these patients. Despite having very similar downstream effects, there have been no direct comparisons between DPN and CIPN with respect to symptom severity and therapeutic responses. We compared peripheral nerve damage due to hyperglycemia with that caused by paclitaxel (PAC) treatment as represented by biochemical parameters, diverse sensory tests, and immunohistochemistry of cutaneous and sciatic nerves...
September 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666529/effect-of-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-on-motor-cortex-excitability-upon-release-of-tonic-muscle-contraction
#16
Kenichi Sugawara, Shigeo Tanabe, Tomotaka Suzuki, Toshio Higashi
The aim of the present study was to investigate the neurophysiological triggers underlying muscle relaxation from the contracted state, and to examine the mechanisms involved in this process and their subsequent modification by neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES). Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to produce motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) and short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) in 23 healthy participants, wherein motor cortex excitability was examined at the onset of voluntary muscle relaxation following a period of voluntary tonic muscle contraction...
September 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650216/comparing-test-retest-reliability-and-magnitude-of-conditioned-pain-modulation-using-different-combinations-of-test-and-conditioning-stimuli
#17
Y Imai, K K Petersen, C D Mørch, L Arendt Nielsen
This study aimed to compare the reliability and magnitude of conditioned pain modulation (CPM) by applying different test stimuli (TS) and conditioning stimuli (CS). Twenty-six healthy male participants were recruited in the study of two identical sessions. In each session, four TS (electrical, heat, handheld, and cuff pressure algometry) were applied before and during CS (cold pressor test (CPT) or cuff algometry). The same procedure was repeated with 45-min intervals, but with the other CS. Five thresholds were measured including four pain detection thresholds from four TS and pain tolerance threshold from cuff TS (cuff PTT)...
September 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650127/cortical-plasticity-in-patients-with-median-nerve-lesions-studied-with-meg
#18
Lotta Fornander, Tom Brismar, Thomas Hansson, Heidi Wikström
We have previously shown age- and time-dependent effects on brain activity in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of patients with median nerve injury. Whereas fMRI measures the hemodynamic changes in response to increased neural activity, magnetoencephalography (MEG) offers a more concise way of examining the evoked response, with superior temporal resolution. We therefore wanted to combine these imaging techniques to gain additional knowledge of the plasticity processes in response to median nerve injury...
September 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595313/reliability-of-two-point-discrimination-thresholds-using-a-4-2-1-stepping-algorithm
#19
Erik A Wikstrom, Gary Allen
PURPOSE: A 4-2-1 stepping algorithm reliably captures light touch thresholds but has not been used to assess two-point discrimination (TPD) thresholds. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the intra- and inter-rater reliability of a 4-2-1 stepping algorithm at determining TPD thresholds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen healthy, physically active young adults were assessed twice over a 1-week period using digital calipers and a 4-2-1 stepping algorithm...
September 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550186/hemodynamic-changes-in-cortical-sensorimotor-systems-following-hand-and-orofacial-motor-tasks-and-pulsed-pneumotactile-stimulation
#20
Austin O Rosner, Steven M Barlow
We performed a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) study of the evoked hemodynamic responses seen in hand and face sensorimotor cortical representations during (1) active motor tasks and (2) pulsed pneumotactile stimulation. Contralateral fNIRS measurements were performed on 22 healthy adult participants using a block paradigm that consisted of repetitive right hand and right oral angle somatosensory stimulation using a pulsed pneumotactile array stimulator, and repetitive right-hand grip compression and bilabial compressions on strain gages...
September 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
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