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Science in Context

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019458/visualizing-the-geography-of-the-diseases-of-china-western-disease-maps-from-analytical-tools-to-tools-of-empire-sovereignty-and-public-health-propaganda-1878-1929
#1
Marta Hanson
Argument This article analyzes for the first time the earliest western maps of diseases in China spanning fifty years from the late 1870s to the end of the 1920s. The 24 featured disease maps present a visual history of the major transformations in modern medicine from medical geography to laboratory medicine wrought on Chinese soil. These medical transformations occurred within new political formations from the Qing dynasty (1644-1911) to colonialism in East Asia (Hong Kong, Taiwan, Manchuria, Korea) and hypercolonialism within China (Tianjin, Shanghai, Amoy) as well as the new Republican Chinese nation state (1912-49)...
September 2017: Science in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019457/science-for-the-chinese-common-reader-myriad-treasures-and-new-knowledge-at-the-turn-of-the-twentieth-century
#2
Joan Judge
Argument This article argues that in order to discern the place of science in the epistemology of Chinese common readers, it is critical to look beyond the coastal enclaves where foreign missionaries and experts interacted with Chinese scholars and officials, beyond the translated treatises they produced, and even beyond the various forms of new media that attempted to more widely disseminate the principles of Western science. Instead, it asserts the need to engage a different register of materials that were less directly tied to foreign expertise, more directly in line with pre-existing lineages of printed materials, and at the same time, integral to early-twentieth-century Chinese circuits of information...
September 2017: Science in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019456/introduction-paving-the-old-new-way-from-qing-to-china
#3
Ori Sela
The funeral procession of Sheng Xuanhuai (, 1844-1916) - the renowned Qing scholar-official, financier, and "father of Chinese industrialism" - meandered through the streets of Shanghai on 18 November 1917. The funeral was a grand event, one that was purportedly documented in film, later to be distributed as the first "news short-film" () in China. The North China Herald reported on the event in some detail, at times in rather florid language, and suggested that "the cortege was splendid and impressive, bringing back the days of the Manchu emperors...
September 2017: Science in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019455/-to-feel-at-home-in-the-wonderful-world-of-modern-science-new-chinese-historiography-and-qing-intellectual-history
#4
Ori Sela
Argument In recent decades a large body of scholarship on the first half of twentieth-century China has successfully shown the ways in which history and historiography had been constructed at the time, as well as the links between history, national identity, education, and politics that was forged during this period. In this paper, I examine Qing intellectual history, in particular that of the mid or "High Qing." I discuss the development of the historiography of this field in the early twentieth century by drawing on the larger developments in historiography; by demonstrating how these developments had shaped Qing intellectual history for later times; by focusing on the historical actors' sense of the importance of "science," being "scientific," and "modernization"; and, by unraveling the intimate connections to older historiographical narratives going back all the way to the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries...
September 2017: Science in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019454/the-dance-of-old-and-new-in-chinese-print-culture-1860s-1955
#5
Cynthia Brokaw
Argument Scholars of modern Chinese publishing and book culture focus on the dramatic transformations that took place in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries: the new technologies that enabled "mass" printing and the development of "modern" genres of print. They often neglect the fact that xylography remained a working technology through much of the Republican period and even into the People's Republic of China. Here I examine the continued use of woodblock printing and the continuing popularity of "traditional" textual genres from two perspectives...
September 2017: Science in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699573/the-first-jewish-astronomers-lunar-theory-and-reconstruction-of-a-dead-sea-scroll
#6
Eshbal Ratzon
Argument The Astronomical Book of Enoch describes the passage of the moon through the gates of heaven, which stand at the edges of the earth. In doing so, the book describes the position of the rising and setting of the moon on the horizon. Otto Neugebauer, the historian of ancient science, suggested using the detailed tables found in later Ethiopic texts in order to reconstruct the path of the moon through the gates. This paper offers a new examination of earlier versions of the Astronomical Book, using a mathematical analysis of the figures and astronomical theories presented throughout the Aramaic Astronomical Book; the results fit both the data preserved in the scrolls and the mathematical approach and religious ideology of the scroll's authors better than the details found in the late Ethiopic texts...
June 2017: Science in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699572/oriental-metrology-and-the-politics-of-antiquity-in-nineteenth-century-survey-sciences
#7
Simon Schaffer
Argument Metrological techniques to establish shared quantitative measures have often been seen as signs of rational modernization. The cases considered here show instead the close relation of such techniques with antiquarian and revivalist programs under imperial regimes. Enterprises in survey sciences in Egypt in the wake of the French invasion of 1798 and in India during the East India Company's revenue surveys involved the promotion of a new kind of oriental metrology designed to represent colonizers' measures as restorations of ancient values to be applied to current systems of survey and measurement...
June 2017: Science in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699571/irrational-coefficients-in-renaissance-algebra
#8
Jeffrey A Oaks
Argument From the time of al-Khwārizmī in the ninth century to the beginning of the sixteenth century algebraists did not allow irrational numbers to serve as coefficients. To multiply by x, for instance, the result was expressed as the rhetorical equivalent of . The reason for this practice has to do with the premodern concept of a monomial. The coefficient, or "number," of a term was thought of as how many of that term are present, and not as the scalar multiple that we work with today. Then, in sixteenth-century Europe, a few algebraists began to allow for irrational coefficients in their notation...
June 2017: Science in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397647/can-science-feed-on-a-crisis-expectations-the-pine-institute-and-the-decline-of-the-french-resin-industry
#9
Marcin Krasnodębski
Argument While science and economy are undoubtedly interwoven, the nature of their relationship is often reduced to a positive correlation between economic and scientific prosperity. It seems that the modern scholarship focusing on "success stories" tends to neglect counterintuitive examples such as the impact of economic crises on research. We argue that economic difficulties, under certain circumstances, may also lead to the prosperous development of scientific institutions. This paper focuses on a particular organism, the Pine Institute in Bordeaux in France...
March 2017: Science in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397646/relocating-pastorian-medicine-accommodation-and-acclimatization-of-pastorian-practices-against-smallpox-at-the-pasteur-institute-of-chengdu-china-1908-1927
#10
Chien-Ling Liu
Argument Revising the diffusionist view of current scholarship on the Pasteur Institutes in China, this paper demonstrates the ways in which local networks and circumstances informed the circulation and construction of knowledge and practices relating to smallpox prophylaxis in the Southwest of China during the early twentieth century. I argue that the Pasteur Institute of Chengdu did not operate in a natural continuity with the preceding local French medical institutions, but rather presented an intentional break from them...
March 2017: Science in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397645/flattening-and-unpacking-human-genetic-variation-in-mexico-postwar-to-present
#11
Víctor Hugo Anaya-Muñoz, Vivette García-Deister, Edna Suárez-Díaz
Argument This paper analyzes the research strategies of three different cases in the study of human genetics in Mexico - the work of Rubén Lisker in the 1960s, INMEGEN's mapping of Mexican genomic diversity between 2004 and 2009, and the analysis of Native American variation by Andrés Moreno and his colleagues in contemporary research. We make a distinction between an approach that incorporates multiple disciplinary resources into sampling design and interpretation (unpacking), from one that privileges pragmatic considerations over more robust multidisciplinary analysis (flattening)...
March 2017: Science in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397644/holding-or-breaking-with-ptolemy-s-generalization-considerations-about-the-motion-of-the-planetary-apsidal-lines-in-medieval-islamic-astronomy
#12
S Mohammad Mozaffari
Argument In the Almagest, Ptolemy finds that the apogee of Mercury moves progressively at a speed equal to his value for the rate of precession, namely one degree per century, in the tropical reference system of the ecliptic coordinates. He generalizes this to the other planets, so that the motions of the apogees of all five planets are assumed to be equal, while the solar apsidal line is taken to be fixed. In medieval Islamic astronomy, one change in this general proposition took place because of the discovery of the motion of the solar apogee in the ninth century, which gave rise to lengthy discussions on the speed of its motion...
March 2017: Science in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079498/how-place-and-audience-matter-perspectives-on-mathematics-plural-identities-from-late-1950s-french-and-english-middle-school-textbooks
#13
Catherine Radtka
Argument In this paper, I argue that studying school textbooks is a fruitful way to investigate mathematical conceptions in different national contexts. These sources give access to the written production of an extended mathematical milieu whose members write for various audiences. By studying the case of late 1950s French and English textbooks issued for a growing audience of 11- to 15-year-old pupils, I show that a plurality of conceptions was projected at the time onto pupils and their teachers in both national contexts...
December 2016: Science in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079497/meanings-of-waves-electroencephalography-and-society-in-mexico-city-1940-1950
#14
Nuria Valverde Pérez
Argument This paper focuses on the uses of electroencephalograms (EEGs) in Mexico during their introductory decade from 1940 to 1950. Following Borck (2006), I argue that EEGs adapted to fit local circumstances and that this adjustment led to the consolidation of different ways of making science and the emergence of new objects of study and social types. I also maintain that the way EEGs were introduced into the institutional networks of Mexico entangled them in discussions about the objective and juridical definitions of social groups, thereby preempting concerns about their technical and epistemic limitations...
December 2016: Science in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079496/on-the-theory-of-the-sphygmograph
#15
Ernst Mach
Many debates have already taken place on the reliability of the results obtained by means of sphygmographs. The following remarks may contribute to clarify some still unsettled points.
December 2016: Science in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079495/on-the-principle-of-temporal-diminution-in-serial-photography
#16
Ludwig Mach
In some cases our sensory organs are no longer capable of rendering processes in the external world perceptible to us. Their inadequacy expresses itself, for example, in phenomena that involve the kind of expansion of space and time in which the conditions for summary perception are no longer at all present. The resources that aid our immediate sense perception in these circumstances will thus be charged with the task of expanding or diminishing space and time to the extent that the contiguity and succession of events is comprehensible to us...
December 2016: Science in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079494/remarks-on-scientific-applications-of-photography
#17
Ernst Mach
It is undisputed that all scientific knowledge proceeds from sense perception. And the way in which sense perception is fostered by the graphic arts generally, and in particular by photography (stereoscopy included), likewise needs no further explanation here.
December 2016: Science in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079493/ernst-mach-invents-a-new-sphygmograph
#18
Alexandre Métraux
Argument The sphygmograph as designed and tested by Jules-Étienne Marey - an apparatus destined to write pulse tracings on paper - revolutionized medical diagnostics in the early 1860s. Since the accuracy with which this device registered and objectified the pulse was controversial from the outset, the young scholar Ernst Mach (soon to become a leading theoretician and philosopher) decided to thoroughly examine Marey's sphygmograph. The investigation led to the invention of an alternative, truly Machian, sphygmograph...
December 2016: Science in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079492/working-with-instruments-ernst-mach-as-material-epistemologist-a-short-introduction
#19
Christoph Hoffmann, Alexandre Métraux
With the death of Ernst Mach on February 19, 1916, one day after his seventy-eighth birthday, a question finally became explicit that had been looming for some time. It was as simple as it was fundamental: who, in the end, was this man, a scientist or a philosopher? The importance of this question for contemporaries can easily be gleaned from the obituaries that appeared in the weeks following Mach's death: one in the Physikalische Zeitschrift, written by Albert Einstein, and another in the Archiv für die Geschichte der Philosophie, written by Mach's former student Heinrich Gomperz...
December 2016: Science in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079491/the-problem-of-university-courses-on-infinitesimal-calculus-and-their-demarcation-from-infinitesimal-calculus-in-high-schools-erratum
#20
Otto Toeplitz
In the above mentioned article [1] unfortunately the names of the translators of Toeplitz's lecture were omitted. The correct title is: The Problem of University Courses on Infinitesimal Calculus and Their Demarcation from Infinitesimal Calculus in High Schools Otto Toeplitz Translated into English by Michael N. Fried and Hans Niels Jahnke.
December 2016: Science in Context
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