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Psychology and Aging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594191/overgeneral-autobiographical-memory-in-healthy-young-and-older-adults-differential-age-effects-on-components-of-the-capture-and-rumination-functional-avoidance-and-impaired-executive-control-carfax-model
#1
Laura Ros, Jose M Latorre, Juan P Serrano, Jorge J Ricarte
The CaRFAX model (Williams et al., 2007) has been used to explain the causes of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM; the difficulty to retrieve specific autobiographical memories), a cognitive phenomenon generally related with different psychopathologies. This model proposes 3 different mechanisms to explain OGM: capture and rumination (CaR), functional avoidance (FA) and impaired executive functions (X). However, the complete CaRFAX model has not been tested in nonclinical populations. This study aims to assess the usefulness of the CaRFAX model to explain OGM in 2 healthy samples: a young sample and an older sample, to test for possible age-related differences in the underlying causes of OGM...
June 8, 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581309/age-differences-in-emotion-recognition-a-question-of-modality
#2
Cornelia Wieck, Ute Kunzmann
Previous research has suggested age deficits in unimodal emotion recognition tasks. In 2 studies with independent samples, we tested the idea that older adults' performance will be enhanced in multimodal emotion recognition tasks. In each study, participants were presented with newly developed film clips, each portraying a young or an old woman while she relived an emotional memory. As a first step, participants received the film clips in each of 3 unimodal conditions (facial, lexical, prosodic). As a second step, participants were presented with tasks that contained different combinations of these modalities...
June 5, 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581308/feeling-sad-makes-us-feel-older-effects-of-a-sad-mood-induction-on-subjective-age
#3
Anne J Dutt, Hans-Werner Wahl
A mood-induction paradigm was implemented in a sample of 144 adults covering midlife and old age (40-80 years) to investigate associations between mood and subjective age. Sad or neutral mood was induced by texts and music pieces. Subjective age was operationalized as felt age relative to chronological age. Participants receiving the sad-mood induction reported changes toward older felt ages from pre- to postinduction. Participants receiving the neutral-mood induction reported comparable levels of subjective age at pre- and postinduction...
June 5, 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569529/age-differences-in-coupling-of-intraindividual-variability-in-mnemonic-strategies-and-practice-related-associative-recall-improvements
#4
Christopher Hertzog, Martin Lövdén, Ulman Lindenberger, Florian Schmiedek
The importance of encoding strategies for associative recall is well established, but there have been no studies of aging and intraindividual variability (IAV) in strategy use during extended practice. We observed strategy use and cued-recall test performance over 101 days of practice in 101 younger adults (M = 25.6 years) and 103 older adults (M = 71.3 years) sandwiched by a pretest and posttest battery including an associative recall test. Each practice session included 2 lists of 12 number-noun paired-associate (PA) items (e...
June 1, 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569528/context-influences-on-the-relationship-between-views-of-aging-and-subjective-age-the-moderating-role-of-culture-and-domain-of-functioning
#5
Thomas M Hess, Erica L O'Brien, Peggy Voss, Anna E Kornadt, Klaus Rothermund, Helene H Fung, Lauren E Popham
Subjective age has been shown to reliably predict a variety of psychological and physical health outcomes, yet our understanding of its determinants is still quite limited. Using data from the Aging as Future project, the authors examined the degree to which views of aging influence subjective age and how this influence varies across cultures and domains of everyday functioning. Using data from 1,877 adults aged from 30 to 95 years of age collected in China, Germany, and the United States, they assessed how general attitudes about aging and perceptions of oneself as an older adult influenced subjective age estimates in 8 different domains of functioning...
June 1, 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557469/using-implicit-association-tests-in-age-heterogeneous-samples-the-importance-of-cognitive-abilities-and-quad-model-processes
#6
Cornelia Wrzus, Boris Egloff, Michaela Riediger
Implicit association tests (IATs) are increasingly used to indirectly assess people's traits, attitudes, or other characteristics. In addition to measuring traits or attitudes, IAT scores also reflect differences in cognitive abilities because scores are based on reaction times (RTs) and errors. As cognitive abilities change with age, questions arise concerning the usage and interpretation of IATs for people of different age. To address these questions, the current study examined how cognitive abilities and cognitive processes (i...
May 29, 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471216/greater-perceived-similarity-between-self-and-own-age-others-in-older-than-young-adults
#7
Tian Lin, Elizabeth Ankudowich, Natalie C Ebner
As people age, they increasingly incorporate age-stereotypes into their self-view. Based on this evidence we propose that older compared to young adults identify to a greater extent with their own-age group on personality traits, an effect that may be particularly pronounced for positive traits. Two studies tested these hypotheses by examining associations in young and older adults between evaluations of self and own-age others on personality traits that varied on valence. In both studies, young and older participants rated personality trait adjectives on age typicality, valence, and self-typicality...
May 4, 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581330/younger-and-older-adults-associative-memory-for-social-information-the-role-of-information-importance
#8
Mary B Hargis, Alan D Castel
The ability to associate items in memory is critical for social interactions. Older adults show deficits in remembering associative information but can sometimes remember high-value information. In two experiments, younger and older participants studied faces, names, and occupations that were of differing social value. There were no age differences in the recall of important information in Experiment 1, but age differences were present for less important information. In Experiment 2, when younger adults' encoding time was reduced, age differences were largely absent...
June 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471215/cognitive-aging-and-the-distinction-between-intentional-and-unintentional-mind-wandering
#9
Paul Seli, David Maillet, Daniel Smilek, Jonathan M Oakman, Daniel L Schacter
A growing number of studies have reported age-related reductions in the frequency of mind wandering. Here, at both the trait (Study 1) and state (Study 2) levels, we reexamined this association while distinguishing between intentional (deliberate) and unintentional (spontaneous) mind wandering. Based on research demonstrating age-accompanied deficits in executive functioning, we expected to observe increases in unintentional mind wandering with increasing age. Moreover, because aging is associated with increased task motivation, we reasoned that older adults might be more engaged in their tasks, and hence, show a more pronounced decline in intentional mind wandering relative to young adults...
June 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471214/genetic-and-environmental-sources-of-individual-differences-in-views-on-aging
#10
Anna E Kornadt, Christian Kandler
Views on aging are central psychosocial variables in the aging process, but knowledge about their determinants is still fragmental. Thus, the authors investigated the degree to which genetic and environmental factors contribute to individual differences in various domains of views on aging (wisdom, work, fitness, and family), and whether these variance components vary across ages. They analyzed data from 350 monozygotic and 322 dizygotic twin pairs from the Midlife Development in the U.S. (MIDUS) study, aged 25-74...
June 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406653/aging-and-the-optimal-viewing-position-effect-in-visual-word-recognition-evidence-from-english
#11
Lin Li, Sha Li, Jingxin Wang, Victoria A McGowan, Pingping Liu, Timothy R Jordan, Kevin B Paterson
Words are recognized most efficiently by young adults when fixated at an optimal viewing position (OVP), which for English is between a word's beginning and middle letters. How this OVP effect changes with age is unknown but may differ for older adults due to visual declines in later life. Accordingly, a lexical decision experiment was conducted in which short (5-letter) and long (9-letter) words were fixated at various letter positions. The older adults produced slower responses. But, crucially, effects of fixation location for each word-length did not differ substantially across age groups, indicating that OVP effects are preserved in older age...
June 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206784/adult-age-differences-in-production-and-monitoring-in-dual-list-free-recall
#12
Christopher N Wahlheim, B Hunter Ball, Lauren L Richmond
The present experiment examined adult age differences in the production and monitoring of responses in dual-list free recall. Younger and older adults studied 2 lists of unrelated words and were instructed to recall from List 1, List 2, or List 1 and List 2. An externalized free recall procedure required participants to: (a) report all responses that came to mind while recalling from specific lists, (b) classify responses as correct or incorrect, and (c) provide confidence judgments for their accuracy classifications...
June 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504536/a-signal-detection-analysis-of-eyewitness-identification-across-the-adult-lifespan
#13
Melissa F Colloff, Kimberley A Wade, John T Wixted, Elizabeth A Maylor
Middle-aged and older adults are frequently victims and witnesses of crime, but knowledge of how identification performance changes over the adult life span is sparse. The authors asked young (18-30 years), middle-aged (31-59 years), and older (60-95 years) adults (N = 2,670) to watch a video of a mock crime and to attempt to identify the culprit from a fair lineup (in which all of the lineup members matched the appearance of the suspect) or an unfair lineup (in which the suspect stood out). They also asked subjects to provide confidence ratings for their identification decisions...
May 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504535/route-repetition-and-route-reversal-effects-of-age-and-encoding-method
#14
Samantha Allison, Denise Head
Previous research indicates age-related impairments in learning routes from a start location to a target destination. There is less research on age effects on the ability to reverse a learned path. The method used to learn routes may also influence performance. This study examined how encoding methods influence the ability of younger and older adults to recreate a route in a virtual reality environment in forward and reverse directions. Younger (n = 50) and older (n = 50) adults learned a route either by self-navigation through the virtual environment or through studying a map...
May 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504534/food-for-happy-thought-glucose-protects-age-related-positivity-effects-under-cognitive-load
#15
Konstantinos Mantantzis, Friederike Schlaghecken, Elizabeth A Maylor
Older adults show a preference for positive information, which disappears under high task demands. We examined whether glucose can help older adults preserve their positivity effect (PE) under high cognitive load. One hundred twenty-two adults (40 young and 42 older in Experiment 1; 40 older in Experiment 2) consumed a glucose (25 g) or a taste-matched placebo drink and completed an immediate recall task of emotional word-lists presented under high- and low-load conditions. Older adults showed PEs for low-load lists...
May 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333505/competing-cues-older-adults-rely-on-knowledge-in-the-face-of-fluency
#16
Nadia M Brashier, Sharda Umanath, Roberto Cabeza, Elizabeth J Marsh
Consumers regularly encounter repeated false claims in political and marketing campaigns, but very little empirical work addresses their impact among older adults. Repeated statements feel easier to process, and thus more truthful, than new ones (i.e., illusory truth). When judging truth, older adults' accumulated general knowledge may offset this perception of fluency. In two experiments, participants read statements that contradicted information stored in memory; a post-experimental knowledge check confirmed what individual participants knew...
March 23, 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333504/healthy-aging-and-visual-working-memory-the-effect-of-mixing-feature-and-conjunction-changes
#17
Stephen Rhodes, Mario A Parra, Nelson Cowan, Robert H Logie
It has been suggested that an age-related decrease in the ability to bind and retain conjunctions of features may account for some of the pronounced decline of visual working memory (VWM) across the adult life span. So far the evidence for this proposal has been mixed with some suggesting a specific deficit in binding to location, while the retention of surface feature conjunctions (e.g., color-shape) appears to remain largely intact. The present experiments follow up on the results of an earlier study, which found that older adults were specifically poor at detecting conjunction changes when they were mixed with trials containing changes to individual features, relative to when these trials were blocked (Cowan, Naveh-Benjamin, Kilb, & Saults, 2006)...
March 23, 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333503/stereotype-threat-as-a-trigger-of-mind-wandering-in-older-adults
#18
Megan L Jordano, Dayna R Touron
Older adults (OAs) report less overall mind-wandering than younger adults (YAs) but more task-related interference (TRI; mind-wandering about the task). The current study examined TRI while manipulating older adults' performance-related concerns. We compared groups for which memory-related stereotype threat (ST) was activated or relieved to a control group. Participants completed an operation span task containing mind-wandering probes. ST-activated OAs reported more TRI than ST-relieved OAs and had worse performance on the operation span task...
March 23, 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333502/temporal-dynamics-of-cognitive-performance-and-anxiety-across-older-adulthood
#19
Andrew J Petkus, Chandra A Reynolds, Julie Loebach Wetherell, William S Kremen, Margaret Gatz
Cognitive decline and anxiety symptoms commonly co-occur in later life, but the temporal order of changes on these two attributes is unclear. Specifically, it is unknown if greater anxiety leads to subsequent declines in cognitive performance or if worse cognitive performance leads to increased anxiety. In this study, we sought to elucidate the temporal dynamics between anxiety symptoms and cognitive performance across old age-that is, the extent to which level and change in one variable influence subsequent changes in a second variable...
March 23, 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333501/effects-of-word-predictability-and-preview-lexicality-on-eye-movements-during-reading-a-comparison-between-young-and-older-adults
#20
Wonil Choi, Matthew W Lowder, Fernanda Ferreira, Tamara Y Swaab, John M Henderson
Previous eye-tracking research has characterized older adults' reading patterns as "risky," arguing that compared to young adults, older adults skip more words, have longer saccades, and are more likely to regress to previous portions of the text. In the present eye-tracking study, we reexamined the claim that older adults adopt a risky reading strategy, utilizing the boundary paradigm to manipulate parafoveal preview and contextual predictability of a target word. Results showed that older adults had longer fixation durations compared to young adults; however, there were no age differences in skipping rates, saccade length, or proportion of regressions...
March 23, 2017: Psychology and Aging
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