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Psychology and Aging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471216/greater-perceived-similarity-between-self-and-own-age-others-in-older-than-young-adults
#1
Tian Lin, Elizabeth Ankudowich, Natalie C Ebner
As people age, they increasingly incorporate age-stereotypes into their self-view. Based on this evidence we propose that older compared to young adults identify to a greater extent with their own-age group on personality traits, an effect that may be particularly pronounced for positive traits. Two studies tested these hypotheses by examining associations in young and older adults between evaluations of self and own-age others on personality traits that varied on valence. In both studies, young and older participants rated personality trait adjectives on age typicality, valence, and self-typicality...
May 4, 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471215/cognitive-aging-and-the-distinction-between-intentional-and-unintentional-mind-wandering
#2
Paul Seli, David Maillet, Daniel Smilek, Jonathan M Oakman, Daniel L Schacter
A growing number of studies have reported age-related reductions in the frequency of mind wandering. Here, at both the trait (Study 1) and state (Study 2) levels, we reexamined this association while distinguishing between intentional (deliberate) and unintentional (spontaneous) mind wandering. Based on research demonstrating age-accompanied deficits in executive functioning, we expected to observe increases in unintentional mind wandering with increasing age. Moreover, because aging is associated with increased task motivation, we reasoned that older adults might be more engaged in their tasks, and hence, show a more pronounced decline in intentional mind wandering relative to young adults...
May 4, 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471214/genetic-and-environmental-sources-of-individual-differences-in-views-on-aging
#3
Anna E Kornadt, Christian Kandler
Views on aging are central psychosocial variables in the aging process, but knowledge about their determinants is still fragmental. Thus, the authors investigated the degree to which genetic and environmental factors contribute to individual differences in various domains of views on aging (wisdom, work, fitness, and family), and whether these variance components vary across ages. They analyzed data from 350 monozygotic and 322 dizygotic twin pairs from the Midlife Development in the U.S. (MIDUS) study, aged 25-74...
May 4, 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406653/aging-and-the-optimal-viewing-position-effect-in-visual-word-recognition-evidence-from-english
#4
Lin Li, Sha Li, Jingxin Wang, Victoria A McGowan, Pingping Liu, Timothy R Jordan, Kevin B Paterson
Words are recognized most efficiently by young adults when fixated at an optimal viewing position (OVP), which for English is between a word's beginning and middle letters. How this OVP effect changes with age is unknown but may differ for older adults due to visual declines in later life. Accordingly, a lexical decision experiment was conducted in which short (5-letter) and long (9-letter) words were fixated at various letter positions. The older adults produced slower responses. But, crucially, effects of fixation location for each word-length did not differ substantially across age groups, indicating that OVP effects are preserved in older age...
April 13, 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333505/competing-cues-older-adults-rely-on-knowledge-in-the-face-of-fluency
#5
Nadia M Brashier, Sharda Umanath, Roberto Cabeza, Elizabeth J Marsh
Consumers regularly encounter repeated false claims in political and marketing campaigns, but very little empirical work addresses their impact among older adults. Repeated statements feel easier to process, and thus more truthful, than new ones (i.e., illusory truth). When judging truth, older adults' accumulated general knowledge may offset this perception of fluency. In two experiments, participants read statements that contradicted information stored in memory; a post-experimental knowledge check confirmed what individual participants knew...
March 23, 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333504/healthy-aging-and-visual-working-memory-the-effect-of-mixing-feature-and-conjunction-changes
#6
Stephen Rhodes, Mario A Parra, Nelson Cowan, Robert H Logie
It has been suggested that an age-related decrease in the ability to bind and retain conjunctions of features may account for some of the pronounced decline of visual working memory (VWM) across the adult life span. So far the evidence for this proposal has been mixed with some suggesting a specific deficit in binding to location, while the retention of surface feature conjunctions (e.g., color-shape) appears to remain largely intact. The present experiments follow up on the results of an earlier study, which found that older adults were specifically poor at detecting conjunction changes when they were mixed with trials containing changes to individual features, relative to when these trials were blocked (Cowan, Naveh-Benjamin, Kilb, & Saults, 2006)...
March 23, 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333503/stereotype-threat-as-a-trigger-of-mind-wandering-in-older-adults
#7
Megan L Jordano, Dayna R Touron
Older adults (OAs) report less overall mind-wandering than younger adults (YAs) but more task-related interference (TRI; mind-wandering about the task). The current study examined TRI while manipulating older adults' performance-related concerns. We compared groups for which memory-related stereotype threat (ST) was activated or relieved to a control group. Participants completed an operation span task containing mind-wandering probes. ST-activated OAs reported more TRI than ST-relieved OAs and had worse performance on the operation span task...
March 23, 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333502/temporal-dynamics-of-cognitive-performance-and-anxiety-across-older-adulthood
#8
Andrew J Petkus, Chandra A Reynolds, Julie Loebach Wetherell, William S Kremen, Margaret Gatz
Cognitive decline and anxiety symptoms commonly co-occur in later life, but the temporal order of changes on these two attributes is unclear. Specifically, it is unknown if greater anxiety leads to subsequent declines in cognitive performance or if worse cognitive performance leads to increased anxiety. In this study, we sought to elucidate the temporal dynamics between anxiety symptoms and cognitive performance across old age-that is, the extent to which level and change in one variable influence subsequent changes in a second variable...
March 23, 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333501/effects-of-word-predictability-and-preview-lexicality-on-eye-movements-during-reading-a-comparison-between-young-and-older-adults
#9
Wonil Choi, Matthew W Lowder, Fernanda Ferreira, Tamara Y Swaab, John M Henderson
Previous eye-tracking research has characterized older adults' reading patterns as "risky," arguing that compared to young adults, older adults skip more words, have longer saccades, and are more likely to regress to previous portions of the text. In the present eye-tracking study, we reexamined the claim that older adults adopt a risky reading strategy, utilizing the boundary paradigm to manipulate parafoveal preview and contextual predictability of a target word. Results showed that older adults had longer fixation durations compared to young adults; however, there were no age differences in skipping rates, saccade length, or proportion of regressions...
March 23, 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504536/a-signal-detection-analysis-of-eyewitness-identification-across-the-adult-lifespan
#10
Melissa F Colloff, Kimberley A Wade, John T Wixted, Elizabeth A Maylor
Middle-aged and older adults are frequently victims and witnesses of crime, but knowledge of how identification performance changes over the adult life span is sparse. The authors asked young (18-30 years), middle-aged (31-59 years), and older (60-95 years) adults (N = 2,670) to watch a video of a mock crime and to attempt to identify the culprit from a fair lineup (in which all of the lineup members matched the appearance of the suspect) or an unfair lineup (in which the suspect stood out). They also asked subjects to provide confidence ratings for their identification decisions...
May 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504535/route-repetition-and-route-reversal-effects-of-age-and-encoding-method
#11
Samantha Allison, Denise Head
Previous research indicates age-related impairments in learning routes from a start location to a target destination. There is less research on age effects on the ability to reverse a learned path. The method used to learn routes may also influence performance. This study examined how encoding methods influence the ability of younger and older adults to recreate a route in a virtual reality environment in forward and reverse directions. Younger (n = 50) and older (n = 50) adults learned a route either by self-navigation through the virtual environment or through studying a map...
May 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504534/food-for-happy-thought-glucose-protects-age-related-positivity-effects-under-cognitive-load
#12
Konstantinos Mantantzis, Friederike Schlaghecken, Elizabeth A Maylor
Older adults show a preference for positive information, which disappears under high task demands. We examined whether glucose can help older adults preserve their positivity effect (PE) under high cognitive load. One hundred twenty-two adults (40 young and 42 older in Experiment 1; 40 older in Experiment 2) consumed a glucose (25 g) or a taste-matched placebo drink and completed an immediate recall task of emotional word-lists presented under high- and low-load conditions. Older adults showed PEs for low-load lists...
May 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287788/spontaneous-or-intentional-involuntary-versus-voluntary-episodic-memories-in-older-and-younger-adults
#13
Dorthe Berntsen, Anne S Rasmussen, Amanda N Miles, Niels Peter Nielsen, Stine B Ramsgaard
Involuntary episodic memories are memories of past events that come to mind with no preceding attempt of retrieval. Such memories have received little attention in relation to aging compared with voluntary episodic memories (i.e., intentionally retrieved memories of past events). It is well documented that older compared with younger adults have reduced access to episodic memories, when retrieval is voluntary, but little is known about their involuntary episodic recall. Recent evidence suggests that involuntary autobiographical memories are at least as frequent as voluntary autobiographical memories in daily life, but this research has been limited to younger adults...
March 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287787/training-working-memory-in-older-adults-is-there-an-advantage-of-using-strategies
#14
Erika Borella, Barbara Carretti, Roberta Sciore, Emanuela Capotosto, Laurence Taconnat, Cesare Cornoldi, Rossana De Beni
The purpose of the present study was to test the efficacy of a working memory (WM) training in elderly people, and to compare the effects of a WM training based on an adaptive procedure with one combining the same procedure with the use of a strategy, based on the construction of visual mental images. Eighteen older adults received training with a WM task (the WM group), another 18 received the same WM training and were also taught to use a visual imagery strategy (the WM + Strategy group), and another 18 served as active controls...
March 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287786/the-effects-of-word-frequency-and-word-predictability-during-first-and-second-language-paragraph-reading-in-bilingual-older-and-younger-adults
#15
Veronica Whitford, Debra Titone
We used eye movement measures of paragraph reading to examine how word frequency and word predictability impact first-language (L1) and second-language (L2) word processing in matched bilingual older and younger adults, varying in amount of current L2 experience. Our key findings were threefold. First, across both early- and late-stage reading, word frequency effects were generally larger in older than in younger adults, whereas word predictability effects were generally age-invariant. Second, across both age groups and both reading stages, word frequency effects were larger in the L2 than in the L1, whereas word predictability effects were language-invariant...
March 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287785/iq-as-moderator-of-terminal-decline-in-perceptual-and-motor-speed-spatial-and-verbal-ability-testing-the-cognitive-reserve-hypothesis-in-a-population-based-sample-followed-from-age-70-until-death
#16
Valgeir Thorvaldsson, Ingmar Skoog, Boo Johansson
Terminal decline (TD) refers to acceleration in within-person cognitive decline prior to death. The cognitive reserve hypothesis postulates that individuals with higher IQ are able to better tolerate age-related increase in brain pathologies. On average, they will exhibit a later onset of TD, but once they start to decline, their trajectory is steeper relative to those with lower IQ. We tested these predictions using data from initially nondemented individuals (n = 179) in the H70-study repeatedly measured at ages 70, 75, 79, 81, 85, 88, 90, 92, 95, 97, 99, and 100, or until death, on cognitive tests of perceptual-and-motor-speed and spatial and verbal ability...
March 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287784/sensory-functioning-and-personality-development-among-older-adults
#17
Yannick Stephan, Angelina R Sutin, Grégoire Bosselut, Antonio Terracciano
Deficits in sensory functioning, such as poor vision and hearing, take a significant toll on quality of life. Little is known, however, about their relation with personality development across adulthood. This study examined whether baseline and change in vision and hearing were associated with personality change over a 4-year period. Participants (N = 7,471; Mage = 66.89; 59% women) were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study. They provided data on vision, hearing, and personality both at baseline and 4 years later...
March 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287783/personality-and-actigraphy-measured-physical-activity-in-older-adults
#18
Ashley Artese, Desirae Ehley, Angelina R Sutin, Antonio Terracciano
Most studies on personality and physical activity have relied on self-report measures. This study examined the relation between Five Factor Model personality traits and objective physical activity in older adults. Sixty-nine participants (Mage = 80.2 years; SD = 7.1) wore the ActiGraph monitor for 7 days and completed the NEO Personality Inventory-3 First Half. Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness were associated with more moderate physical activity and more steps per day whereas Neuroticism was inversely related to these physical activity measures (βs > ...
March 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287782/socioeconomic-health-and-psychosocial-mediators-of-racial-disparities-in-cognition-in-early-middle-and-late-adulthood
#19
Laura B Zahodne, Jennifer J Manly, Jacqui Smith, Teresa Seeman, Margie E Lachman
Racial disparities in cognitive performance exist across the life course, but it is not known whether mediators of disparities differ by age. Understanding sources of cognitive disparities at different ages can inform policies and interventions. Data were obtained for non-Hispanic Black and White respondents to The National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States from 3 age groups: 28-44 (N = 1210; 20% Black); 45-64 (N = 2693; 15% Black); and 65-85 (N = 1298; 11% Black). Moderated mediation models characterized direct and indirect effects of race on episodic memory and executive function composite scores through economic, health, and psychosocial variables as a function of age group...
March 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287781/stability-and-change-in-subjective-well-being-the-role-of-performance-based-and-self-rated-cognition
#20
Tina Braun, Stefan C Schmukle, Ute Kunzmann
The primary goal of this study was to address the stability-despite-loss paradox of subjective well-being. Performance-based and self-evaluative measures of cognitive functioning were examined as predictors of subjective well-being in middle-aged and older adults using data from the Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study of Adult Development (ILSE). Consistent with past work, subjective well-being remained relatively stable over a period of 12 years in both age groups, although performance-based and self-rated cognition declined over time...
March 2017: Psychology and Aging
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