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Psychology and Aging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891670/aging-and-syntactic-representations-evidence-of-preserved-syntactic-priming-and-lexical-boost
#1
Sophie M Hardy, Katherine Messenger, Elizabeth A Maylor
Young adults can be primed to reuse a syntactic structure across otherwise unrelated utterances but it is not known whether this phenomenon exists in older adults. In a dialogue task, young and older adults described transitive verb target pictures after hearing active or passive sentences. Both groups were more likely to produce a passive sentence following a passive prime than following an active prime (indicating syntactic priming), and this effect increased when the prime and target involved the same verb (indicating lexical boost)...
September 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891669/an-age-related-deficit-in-resolving-interference-evidence-from-speech-perception
#2
Avanti Dey, Mitchell S Sommers, Lynn Hasher
The presence of noise and interfering information can pose major difficulties during speech perception, particularly for older adults. Analogously, interference from similar representations during retrieval is a major cause of age-related memory failures. To demonstrate a suppression mechanism that underlies such speech and memory difficulties, we tested the hypothesis that interference between targets and competitors is resolved by suppressing competitors, thereby rendering them less intelligible in noise...
September 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891668/visual-attention-and-emotional-reactions-to-negative-stimuli-the-role-of-age-and-cognitive-reappraisal
#3
Maria Wirth, Derek M Isaacowitz, Ute Kunzmann
Prominent life span theories of emotion propose that older adults attend less to negative emotional information and report less negative emotional reactions to the same information than younger adults do. Although parallel age differences in affective information processing and age differences in emotional reactivity have been proposed, they have rarely been investigated within the same study. In this eye-tracking study, we tested age differences in visual attention and emotional reactivity, using standardized emotionally negative stimuli...
September 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891667/in-the-eye-of-the-beholder-can-counter-stereotypes-change-perceptions-of-older-adults-social-status
#4
Deirdre A Robertson, David Weiss
Negative age-related stereotypes often entail the perception that older adults have a lower social status than middle-aged adults. We hypothesized that older adults are perceived to have lower social status because they are less likely to be seen in prestigious occupational positions. People tend to infer general assumptions about group characteristics from exemplars. According to this, presenting a stereotype-inconsistent exemplar (i.e., older person in a high-status position) should change perceptions of older adults' social status...
September 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891666/adversity-in-childhood-and-measures-of-aging-in-midlife-findings-from-a-cohort-of-british-women
#5
Emma L Anderson, Jon Heron, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Diana Kuh, Rachel Cooper, Debbie A Lawlor, Abigail Fraser, Laura D Howe
Very few studies have assessed whether socioeconomic and psychosocial adversity during childhood are associated with objective measures of aging later in life. We assessed associations of socioeconomic position (SEP) and total psychosocial adversity during childhood, with objectively measured cognitive and physical capability in women during midlife. Adverse childhood experiences were retrospectively reported at mean ages 28-30 years in women from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents And Children (N = 2,221)...
September 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891665/levels-of-and-changes-in-life-satisfaction-predict-mortality-hazards-disentangling-the-role-of-physical-health-perceived-control-and-social-orientation
#6
Gizem Hülür, Jutta Heckhausen, Christiane A Hoppmann, Frank J Infurna, Gert G Wagner, Nilam Ram, Denis Gerstorf
It is well documented that well-being typically evinces precipitous decrements at the end of life. However, research has primarily taken a postdictive approach by knowing the outcome (date of death) and aligning, in retrospect, how well-being has changed for people with documented death events. In the present study, we made use of a predictive approach by examining whether and how levels of and changes in life satisfaction prospectively predict mortality hazards and delineate the role of contributing factors, including health, perceived control, and social orientation...
September 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816475/the-role-of-stimulus-complexity-and-salience-in-memory-for-face-name-associations-in-healthy-adults-friend-or-foe
#7
Andrew R Bender, Moshe Naveh-Benjamin, Katheryn Amann, Naftali Raz
The associative deficit hypothesis (ADH) posits that age-related differences in recognition of associations are disproportionately larger than age differences in item recognition because of age-related difficulty in binding and retrieval of two or more pieces of information in a memory episode. This proposition rests on the observation of disproportionately greater age differences in memory for associations than in recognition of individual items. Although ADH has been supported in experiments with verbal and nonverbal stimuli, the effects of task or stimulus characteristics on its generalizability remain unclear...
August 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816474/deficits-in-category-learning-in-older-adults-rule-based-versus-clustering-accounts
#8
Stephen P Badham, Adam N Sanborn, Elizabeth A Maylor
Memory research has long been one of the key areas of investigation for cognitive aging researchers but only in the last decade or so has categorization been used to understand age differences in cognition. Categorization tasks focus more heavily on the grouping and organization of items in memory, and often on the process of learning relationships through trial and error. Categorization studies allow researchers to more accurately characterize age differences in cognition: whether older adults show declines in the way in which they represent categories with simple rules or declines in representing categories by similarity to past examples...
August 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816473/the-effects-of-context-on-processing-words-during-sentence-reading-among-adults-varying-in-age-and-literacy-skill
#9
Allison A Steen-Baker, Shukhan Ng, Brennan R Payne, Carolyn J Anderson, Kara D Federmeier, Elizabeth A L Stine-Morrow
The facilitation of word processing by sentence context reflects the interaction between the build-up of message-level semantics and lexical processing. Yet, little is known about how this effect varies through adulthood as a function of reading skill. In this study, Participants 18-64 years old with a range of literacy competence read simple sentences as their eye movements were monitored. We manipulated the predictability of a sentence-final target word, operationalized as cloze probability. First fixation durations showed an interaction between age and literacy skill, decreasing with age among more skilled readers but increasing among less skilled readers...
August 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594191/overgeneral-autobiographical-memory-in-healthy-young-and-older-adults-differential-age-effects-on-components-of-the-capture-and-rumination-functional-avoidance-and-impaired-executive-control-carfax-model
#10
Laura Ros, Jose M Latorre, Juan P Serrano, Jorge J Ricarte
The CaRFAX model (Williams et al., 2007) has been used to explain the causes of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM; the difficulty to retrieve specific autobiographical memories), a cognitive phenomenon generally related with different psychopathologies. This model proposes 3 different mechanisms to explain OGM: capture and rumination (CaR), functional avoidance (FA) and impaired executive functions (X). However, the complete CaRFAX model has not been tested in nonclinical populations. This study aims to assess the usefulness of the CaRFAX model to explain OGM in 2 healthy samples: a young sample and an older sample, to test for possible age-related differences in the underlying causes of OGM...
August 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581309/age-differences-in-emotion-recognition-a-question-of-modality
#11
Cornelia Wieck, Ute Kunzmann
Previous research has suggested age deficits in unimodal emotion recognition tasks. In 2 studies with independent samples, we tested the idea that older adults' performance will be enhanced in multimodal emotion recognition tasks. In each study, participants were presented with newly developed film clips, each portraying a young or an old woman while she relived an emotional memory. As a first step, participants received the film clips in each of 3 unimodal conditions (facial, lexical, prosodic). As a second step, participants were presented with tasks that contained different combinations of these modalities...
August 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581308/feeling-sad-makes-us-feel-older-effects-of-a-sad-mood-induction-on-subjective-age
#12
Anne J Dutt, Hans-Werner Wahl
A mood-induction paradigm was implemented in a sample of 144 adults covering midlife and old age (40-80 years) to investigate associations between mood and subjective age. Sad or neutral mood was induced by texts and music pieces. Subjective age was operationalized as felt age relative to chronological age. Participants receiving the sad-mood induction reported changes toward older felt ages from pre- to postinduction. Participants receiving the neutral-mood induction reported comparable levels of subjective age at pre- and postinduction...
August 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569528/context-influences-on-the-relationship-between-views-of-aging-and-subjective-age-the-moderating-role-of-culture-and-domain-of-functioning
#13
Thomas M Hess, Erica L O'Brien, Peggy Voss, Anna E Kornadt, Klaus Rothermund, Helene H Fung, Lauren E Popham
Subjective age has been shown to reliably predict a variety of psychological and physical health outcomes, yet our understanding of its determinants is still quite limited. Using data from the Aging as Future project, the authors examined the degree to which views of aging influence subjective age and how this influence varies across cultures and domains of everyday functioning. Using data from 1,877 adults aged from 30 to 95 years of age collected in China, Germany, and the United States, they assessed how general attitudes about aging and perceptions of oneself as an older adult influenced subjective age estimates in 8 different domains of functioning...
August 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557469/using-implicit-association-tests-in-age-heterogeneous-samples-the-importance-of-cognitive-abilities-and-quad-model-processes
#14
Cornelia Wrzus, Boris Egloff, Michaela Riediger
Implicit association tests (IATs) are increasingly used to indirectly assess people's traits, attitudes, or other characteristics. In addition to measuring traits or attitudes, IAT scores also reflect differences in cognitive abilities because scores are based on reaction times (RTs) and errors. As cognitive abilities change with age, questions arise concerning the usage and interpretation of IATs for people of different age. To address these questions, the current study examined how cognitive abilities and cognitive processes (i...
August 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581330/younger-and-older-adults-associative-memory-for-social-information-the-role-of-information-importance
#15
Mary B Hargis, Alan D Castel
The ability to associate items in memory is critical for social interactions. Older adults show deficits in remembering associative information but can sometimes remember high-value information. In two experiments, younger and older participants studied faces, names, and occupations that were of differing social value. There were no age differences in the recall of important information in Experiment 1, but age differences were present for less important information. In Experiment 2, when younger adults' encoding time was reduced, age differences were largely absent...
June 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569529/age-differences-in-coupling-of-intraindividual-variability-in-mnemonic-strategies-and-practice-related-associative-recall-improvements
#16
Christopher Hertzog, Martin Lövdén, Ulman Lindenberger, Florian Schmiedek
The importance of encoding strategies for associative recall is well established, but there have been no studies of aging and intraindividual variability (IAV) in strategy use during extended practice. We observed strategy use and cued-recall test performance over 101 days of practice in 101 younger adults (M = 25.6 years) and 103 older adults (M = 71.3 years) sandwiched by a pretest and posttest battery including an associative recall test. Each practice session included 2 lists of 12 number-noun paired-associate (PA) items (e...
June 1, 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471216/greater-perceived-similarity-between-self-and-own-age-others-in-older-than-young-adults
#17
Tian Lin, Elizabeth Ankudowich, Natalie C Ebner
As people age, they increasingly incorporate age-stereotypes into their self-view. Based on this evidence we propose that older compared to young adults identify to a greater extent with their own-age group on personality traits, an effect that may be particularly pronounced for positive traits. Two studies tested these hypotheses by examining associations in young and older adults between evaluations of self and own-age others on personality traits that varied on valence. In both studies, young and older participants rated personality trait adjectives on age typicality, valence, and self-typicality...
June 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471215/cognitive-aging-and-the-distinction-between-intentional-and-unintentional-mind-wandering
#18
Paul Seli, David Maillet, Daniel Smilek, Jonathan M Oakman, Daniel L Schacter
A growing number of studies have reported age-related reductions in the frequency of mind wandering. Here, at both the trait (Study 1) and state (Study 2) levels, we reexamined this association while distinguishing between intentional (deliberate) and unintentional (spontaneous) mind wandering. Based on research demonstrating age-accompanied deficits in executive functioning, we expected to observe increases in unintentional mind wandering with increasing age. Moreover, because aging is associated with increased task motivation, we reasoned that older adults might be more engaged in their tasks, and hence, show a more pronounced decline in intentional mind wandering relative to young adults...
June 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471214/genetic-and-environmental-sources-of-individual-differences-in-views-on-aging
#19
Anna E Kornadt, Christian Kandler
Views on aging are central psychosocial variables in the aging process, but knowledge about their determinants is still fragmental. Thus, the authors investigated the degree to which genetic and environmental factors contribute to individual differences in various domains of views on aging (wisdom, work, fitness, and family), and whether these variance components vary across ages. They analyzed data from 350 monozygotic and 322 dizygotic twin pairs from the Midlife Development in the U.S. (MIDUS) study, aged 25-74...
June 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406653/aging-and-the-optimal-viewing-position-effect-in-visual-word-recognition-evidence-from-english
#20
Lin Li, Sha Li, Jingxin Wang, Victoria A McGowan, Pingping Liu, Timothy R Jordan, Kevin B Paterson
Words are recognized most efficiently by young adults when fixated at an optimal viewing position (OVP), which for English is between a word's beginning and middle letters. How this OVP effect changes with age is unknown but may differ for older adults due to visual declines in later life. Accordingly, a lexical decision experiment was conducted in which short (5-letter) and long (9-letter) words were fixated at various letter positions. The older adults produced slower responses. But, crucially, effects of fixation location for each word-length did not differ substantially across age groups, indicating that OVP effects are preserved in older age...
June 2017: Psychology and Aging
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