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Psychology and Aging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333505/competing-cues-older-adults-rely-on-knowledge-in-the-face-of-fluency
#1
Nadia M Brashier, Sharda Umanath, Roberto Cabeza, Elizabeth J Marsh
Consumers regularly encounter repeated false claims in political and marketing campaigns, but very little empirical work addresses their impact among older adults. Repeated statements feel easier to process, and thus more truthful, than new ones (i.e., illusory truth). When judging truth, older adults' accumulated general knowledge may offset this perception of fluency. In two experiments, participants read statements that contradicted information stored in memory; a post-experimental knowledge check confirmed what individual participants knew...
March 23, 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333504/healthy-aging-and-visual-working-memory-the-effect-of-mixing-feature-and-conjunction-changes
#2
Stephen Rhodes, Mario A Parra, Nelson Cowan, Robert H Logie
It has been suggested that an age-related decrease in the ability to bind and retain conjunctions of features may account for some of the pronounced decline of visual working memory (VWM) across the adult life span. So far the evidence for this proposal has been mixed with some suggesting a specific deficit in binding to location, while the retention of surface feature conjunctions (e.g., color-shape) appears to remain largely intact. The present experiments follow up on the results of an earlier study, which found that older adults were specifically poor at detecting conjunction changes when they were mixed with trials containing changes to individual features, relative to when these trials were blocked (Cowan, Naveh-Benjamin, Kilb, & Saults, 2006)...
March 23, 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333503/stereotype-threat-as-a-trigger-of-mind-wandering-in-older-adults
#3
Megan L Jordano, Dayna R Touron
Older adults (OAs) report less overall mind-wandering than younger adults (YAs) but more task-related interference (TRI; mind-wandering about the task). The current study examined TRI while manipulating older adults' performance-related concerns. We compared groups for which memory-related stereotype threat (ST) was activated or relieved to a control group. Participants completed an operation span task containing mind-wandering probes. ST-activated OAs reported more TRI than ST-relieved OAs and had worse performance on the operation span task...
March 23, 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333502/temporal-dynamics-of-cognitive-performance-and-anxiety-across-older-adulthood
#4
Andrew J Petkus, Chandra A Reynolds, Julie Loebach Wetherell, William S Kremen, Margaret Gatz
Cognitive decline and anxiety symptoms commonly co-occur in later life, but the temporal order of changes on these two attributes is unclear. Specifically, it is unknown if greater anxiety leads to subsequent declines in cognitive performance or if worse cognitive performance leads to increased anxiety. In this study, we sought to elucidate the temporal dynamics between anxiety symptoms and cognitive performance across old age-that is, the extent to which level and change in one variable influence subsequent changes in a second variable...
March 23, 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333501/effects-of-word-predictability-and-preview-lexicality-on-eye-movements-during-reading-a-comparison-between-young-and-older-adults
#5
Wonil Choi, Matthew W Lowder, Fernanda Ferreira, Tamara Y Swaab, John M Henderson
Previous eye-tracking research has characterized older adults' reading patterns as "risky," arguing that compared to young adults, older adults skip more words, have longer saccades, and are more likely to regress to previous portions of the text. In the present eye-tracking study, we reexamined the claim that older adults adopt a risky reading strategy, utilizing the boundary paradigm to manipulate parafoveal preview and contextual predictability of a target word. Results showed that older adults had longer fixation durations compared to young adults; however, there were no age differences in skipping rates, saccade length, or proportion of regressions...
March 23, 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230384/familiar-real-world-spatial-cues-provide-memory-benefits-in-older-and-younger-adults
#6
Jessica Robin, Morris Moscovitch
Episodic memory, future thinking, and memory for scenes have all been proposed to rely on the hippocampus, and evidence suggests that these all decline in healthy aging. Despite this age-related memory decline, studies examining the effects of context reinstatement on episodic memory have demonstrated that reinstating elements of the encoding context of an event leads to better memory retrieval in both younger and older adults. The current study was designed to test whether more familiar, real-world contexts, such as locations that participants visited often, would improve the detail richness and vividness of memory for scenes, autobiographical events, and imagination of future events in young and older adults...
February 23, 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230383/the-interplay-between-personality-and-cognitive-ability-across-12-years-in-middle-and-late-adulthood-evidence-for-reciprocal-associations
#7
Markus Wettstein, Benjamin Tauber, Elżbieta Kuźma, Hans-Werner Wahl
Research on relationships between personality and cognitive abilities has so far resulted in inconsistent findings regarding the strength of the associations. Moreover, relationships have rarely been compared longitudinally and bidirectionally between midlife versus late-life cohorts by considering different personality traits as well as multiple cognitive domains over a long-term follow-up period. We hypothesize that the interplay between the "Big Five" personality traits (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness) and cognitive abilities (information processing speed, crystallized intelligence, fluid intelligence) may change from midlife to old age due to age-associated changes in cognitive and personality plasticity...
February 23, 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230382/animalistic-dehumanization-of-older-people-by-younger-ones-variations-of-humanness-perceptions-as-a-function-of-a-target-s-age
#8
Valérian Boudjemadi, Stéphanie Demoulin, Jennifer Bastart
The present work investigated associations of older people with humanness. Focusing on complementary approaches (attribute-based, metaphor-based, and target-based), 4 studies tested the hypothesis that older people are the targets of animalistic dehumanization. Using an emotional attribution task, Study 1 (N = 112) explored infrahumanization and shows that young participants attributed more uniquely human emotions to young people than to older ones. No such effect occurred with regards to nonuniquely human emotions...
February 23, 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206784/adult-age-differences-in-production-and-monitoring-in-dual-list-free-recall
#9
Christopher N Wahlheim, B Hunter Ball, Lauren L Richmond
The present experiment examined adult age differences in the production and monitoring of responses in dual-list free recall. Younger and older adults studied 2 lists of unrelated words and were instructed to recall from List 1, List 2, or List 1 and List 2. An externalized free recall procedure required participants to: (a) report all responses that came to mind while recalling from specific lists, (b) classify responses as correct or incorrect, and (c) provide confidence judgments for their accuracy classifications...
February 16, 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287788/spontaneous-or-intentional-involuntary-versus-voluntary-episodic-memories-in-older-and-younger-adults
#10
Dorthe Berntsen, Anne S Rasmussen, Amanda N Miles, Niels Peter Nielsen, Stine B Ramsgaard
Involuntary episodic memories are memories of past events that come to mind with no preceding attempt of retrieval. Such memories have received little attention in relation to aging compared with voluntary episodic memories (i.e., intentionally retrieved memories of past events). It is well documented that older compared with younger adults have reduced access to episodic memories, when retrieval is voluntary, but little is known about their involuntary episodic recall. Recent evidence suggests that involuntary autobiographical memories are at least as frequent as voluntary autobiographical memories in daily life, but this research has been limited to younger adults...
March 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287787/training-working-memory-in-older-adults-is-there-an-advantage-of-using-strategies
#11
Erika Borella, Barbara Carretti, Roberta Sciore, Emanuela Capotosto, Laurence Taconnat, Cesare Cornoldi, Rossana De Beni
The purpose of the present study was to test the efficacy of a working memory (WM) training in elderly people, and to compare the effects of a WM training based on an adaptive procedure with one combining the same procedure with the use of a strategy, based on the construction of visual mental images. Eighteen older adults received training with a WM task (the WM group), another 18 received the same WM training and were also taught to use a visual imagery strategy (the WM + Strategy group), and another 18 served as active controls...
March 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287786/the-effects-of-word-frequency-and-word-predictability-during-first-and-second-language-paragraph-reading-in-bilingual-older-and-younger-adults
#12
Veronica Whitford, Debra Titone
We used eye movement measures of paragraph reading to examine how word frequency and word predictability impact first-language (L1) and second-language (L2) word processing in matched bilingual older and younger adults, varying in amount of current L2 experience. Our key findings were threefold. First, across both early- and late-stage reading, word frequency effects were generally larger in older than in younger adults, whereas word predictability effects were generally age-invariant. Second, across both age groups and both reading stages, word frequency effects were larger in the L2 than in the L1, whereas word predictability effects were language-invariant...
March 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287785/iq-as-moderator-of-terminal-decline-in-perceptual-and-motor-speed-spatial-and-verbal-ability-testing-the-cognitive-reserve-hypothesis-in-a-population-based-sample-followed-from-age-70-until-death
#13
Valgeir Thorvaldsson, Ingmar Skoog, Boo Johansson
Terminal decline (TD) refers to acceleration in within-person cognitive decline prior to death. The cognitive reserve hypothesis postulates that individuals with higher IQ are able to better tolerate age-related increase in brain pathologies. On average, they will exhibit a later onset of TD, but once they start to decline, their trajectory is steeper relative to those with lower IQ. We tested these predictions using data from initially nondemented individuals (n = 179) in the H70-study repeatedly measured at ages 70, 75, 79, 81, 85, 88, 90, 92, 95, 97, 99, and 100, or until death, on cognitive tests of perceptual-and-motor-speed and spatial and verbal ability...
March 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287784/sensory-functioning-and-personality-development-among-older-adults
#14
Yannick Stephan, Angelina R Sutin, Grégoire Bosselut, Antonio Terracciano
Deficits in sensory functioning, such as poor vision and hearing, take a significant toll on quality of life. Little is known, however, about their relation with personality development across adulthood. This study examined whether baseline and change in vision and hearing were associated with personality change over a 4-year period. Participants (N = 7,471; Mage = 66.89; 59% women) were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study. They provided data on vision, hearing, and personality both at baseline and 4 years later...
March 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287783/personality-and-actigraphy-measured-physical-activity-in-older-adults
#15
Ashley Artese, Desirae Ehley, Angelina R Sutin, Antonio Terracciano
Most studies on personality and physical activity have relied on self-report measures. This study examined the relation between Five Factor Model personality traits and objective physical activity in older adults. Sixty-nine participants (Mage = 80.2 years; SD = 7.1) wore the ActiGraph monitor for 7 days and completed the NEO Personality Inventory-3 First Half. Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness were associated with more moderate physical activity and more steps per day whereas Neuroticism was inversely related to these physical activity measures (βs > ...
March 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287782/socioeconomic-health-and-psychosocial-mediators-of-racial-disparities-in-cognition-in-early-middle-and-late-adulthood
#16
Laura B Zahodne, Jennifer J Manly, Jacqui Smith, Teresa Seeman, Margie E Lachman
Racial disparities in cognitive performance exist across the life course, but it is not known whether mediators of disparities differ by age. Understanding sources of cognitive disparities at different ages can inform policies and interventions. Data were obtained for non-Hispanic Black and White respondents to The National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States from 3 age groups: 28-44 (N = 1210; 20% Black); 45-64 (N = 2693; 15% Black); and 65-85 (N = 1298; 11% Black). Moderated mediation models characterized direct and indirect effects of race on episodic memory and executive function composite scores through economic, health, and psychosocial variables as a function of age group...
March 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287781/stability-and-change-in-subjective-well-being-the-role-of-performance-based-and-self-rated-cognition
#17
Tina Braun, Stefan C Schmukle, Ute Kunzmann
The primary goal of this study was to address the stability-despite-loss paradox of subjective well-being. Performance-based and self-evaluative measures of cognitive functioning were examined as predictors of subjective well-being in middle-aged and older adults using data from the Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study of Adult Development (ILSE). Consistent with past work, subjective well-being remained relatively stable over a period of 12 years in both age groups, although performance-based and self-rated cognition declined over time...
March 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182499/perceived-control-across-the-second-half-of-life-the-role-of-physical-health-and-social-integration
#18
Johanna Drewelies, Jenny Wagner, Clemens Tesch-Römer, Jutta Heckhausen, Denis Gerstorf
Perceived control is a key component of successful aging and may serve as a protective factor against age-related declines in central domains of functioning. However, it is a largely open question whether and how perceived control changes from midadulthood to very old age and how such change is shaped by health and social contexts. To examine these questions, we apply growth models to up to 15-year 4-wave longitudinal data from the German Ageing Survey (DEAS; N = 10,081; aged 40-85 years at baseline; 49% women)...
February 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182498/control-beliefs-and-cognition-over-a-10-year-period-findings-from-the-active-trial
#19
Jeanine M Parisi, Alden L Gross, Michael Marsiske, Sherry L Willis, George W Rebok
We examined two facets of control beliefs and cognition over 10 years within the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly study. Intellectual Self-Efficacy decreased (β = -0.32 units/year; SE = 0.03) and Concern About Intellectual Aging increased (β = 0.26 units/year; SE = 0.02) over time, with older age being the only predictor of increases in Concern About Intellectual Aging. Although baseline cognitive performance was related to control beliefs over time, the reverse was not supported...
February 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182497/working-memory-plasticity-and-aging
#20
Rebecca E Rhodes, Benjamin Katz
The present research explores how the trajectory of learning on a working memory task changes throughout the life span, and whether gains in working memory performance are exclusively a question of initial working memory capacity (WMC) or whether age exerts an independent effect. In a large, cross-sectional study of younger, middle-aged, and older adults, we examined learning on a widely used working memory task-the dual n-back task-over 20 sessions of practice. We found that, while all age groups improved on the task, older adults demonstrated less improvement on the task, and also reached a lower asymptotic maximum performance than younger adults...
February 2017: Psychology and Aging
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