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Psychology and Aging

Stephan Getzmann, Edmund Wascher
Older adults are usually more easily distracted by task-irrelevant stimuli than younger ones. In addition, there is evidence that it takes them more time to overcome a distracting event. Here, the distracting effect of irregular switches in speaker location was studied in 22 younger and 22 older adults in a speech perception task. The participants responded to target words that were presented either from a frequent location (standard trials) or a rare location (deviant trials). Behavioral performance measures, event-related brain potentials (ERPs), and EEG synchronization (intertrial coherence [ITC]) were analyzed...
October 6, 2016: Psychology and Aging
Han-Jung Ko, Karen Hooker, G John Geldhof, Dan P McAdams
Research shows midlife adults consistently report higher purpose in life (PIL) than older adults. However, less is known about the changes in PIL during the transition from midlife to older adulthood. This study examined 5-year changes of PIL among late-midlife adults in the Foley Longitudinal Study of Adulthood (n = 163, MAge = 56.37). Results showed that most midlife adults reported higher-stable PIL whereas some of them showed lower-stable PIL, with trait conscientiousness and race being significant predictors of PIL...
September 29, 2016: Psychology and Aging
Loreen Mamerow, Renato Frey, Rui Mata
Aging has long been thought to be associated with changes in risk-taking propensity. But do different measures converge in showing similar age-related patterns? We conducted a study to investigate the convergent validity of different self-report and behavioral assessments of risk taking across adulthood (N = 902). Individuals between 18 and 90 years of age answered a self-report item and completed 2 incentivized behavioral tasks: a gambles task and the Balloon Analogue Risk Task. Our results indicate that although all measures show some patterns indicative of an age reduction in risk taking, the correlations between measures are small...
September 29, 2016: Psychology and Aging
Mona Diegelmann, Oliver K Schilling, Hans-Werner Wahl
This article examines the end-of-life development of depressive symptoms and characterizes prototypical groups following the same depressive symptoms development. We modeled time-to-death-related trajectories of depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), applying a latent class growth analysis to deceased older adults from the English Longitudinal Study of Aging (Waves 1 to 5; NTime 1 (T1) = 2,219; MAge(T1) = 73.9 years, SDAge(T1) = 9.4 years; 51% male, 1% non-White). Four prototypical trajectories of depressive symptoms were identified at the end of life: a stably nondepressed group (31...
September 29, 2016: Psychology and Aging
Susan T Charles, Jacqueline Mogle, Emily J Urban, David M Almeida
Across midlife and into old age, older adults often report lower levels of negative affect and similar if not higher levels of positive affect than relatively younger adults. Researchers have offered a simple explanation for this result: Age is related to reductions in stressors and increases in pleasurable activities that result in higher levels of well-being. The current study examines subjective reports of emotional experience assessed across 8 days in a large sample of adults (N = 2,022) ranging from 35 to 84 years old...
September 29, 2016: Psychology and Aging
Nicola Mammarella, Alberto Di Domenico, Rocco Palumbo, Beth Fairfield
Numerous studies have reported age-related differences in memory for emotional information. One explanation places emphasis on an emotion processing preference in older adults that reflects their socioemotional self-relevant goals. Here, we evaluate the degree to which this preference in memory may be modulated by color. In 2 experiments, younger and older adults were asked to study a series of affective words (Experiment 1) or affective pictures (Experiment 2) and then presented with an immediate yes/no memory recognition task...
September 15, 2016: Psychology and Aging
Pauline Narme, Isabelle Peretz, Marie-Laure Strub, Anne-Marie Ergis
Normal aging affects explicit memory while leaving implicit memory relatively spared. Normal aging also modifies how emotions are processed and experienced, with increasing evidence that older adults (OAs) focus more on positive information than younger adults (YAs). The aim of the present study was to investigate how age-related changes in emotion processing influence explicit and implicit memory. We used emotional melodies that differed in terms of valence (positive or negative) and arousal (high or low)...
September 5, 2016: Psychology and Aging
Angela Radulescu, Reka Daniel, Yael Niv
Reinforcement learning (RL) in complex environments relies on selective attention to uncover those aspects of the environment that are most predictive of reward. Whereas previous work has focused on age-related changes in RL, it is not known whether older adults learn differently from younger adults when selective attention is required. In 2 experiments, we examined how aging affects the interaction between RL and selective attention. Younger and older adults performed a learning task in which only 1 stimulus dimension was relevant to predicting reward, and within it, 1 "target" feature was the most rewarding...
September 5, 2016: Psychology and Aging
Beatrice G Kuhlmann, Dayna R Touron
The present study examined how the presentation format of the study list influences younger and older adults' semantic clustering. Spontaneous clustering did not differ between age groups or between an individual-words (presentation of individual study words in consecution) and a whole-list (presentation of the whole study list at once for the same total duration) presentation format in 132 younger (18-30 years, M = 19.7) and 120 older (60-84 years, M = 69.5) adults. However, after instructions to use semantic clustering (second list) age-related differences in recall magnified, indicating a utilization deficiency, and both age groups achieved higher recall in the whole-list than in the individual-words format...
September 5, 2016: Psychology and Aging
E Alison Holman, Roxane Cohen Silver, Jacqueline A Mogle, Stacey B Scott
Despite the prominence of time in influential aging theories and the ubiquity of stress across the life span, research addressing how time perspective (TP) and adversity are associated with well-being across adulthood is rare. Examining the role of TP in coping with life events over the life span would be best accomplished after large-scale population-based exposure to a specific event, with repeated assessments to examine within- and between-person differences over time. A national sample aged 18-91 years (N = 722, M = 49...
September 2016: Psychology and Aging
Helene H Fung, Derek M Isaacowitz
There currently appears to be a general consensus on the relationship between time perspective and aging, such that (a) future time is perceived as more limited with age and (b) older people are more present-focused and less future-focused than younger people. At the same time, there are debates about whether these age differences are positively related to well-being and to what extent there are boundary conditions beyond which these age differences would cease to occur. The 8 manuscripts included in this Special Issue attempt to shed light on these debates...
September 2016: Psychology and Aging
JoNell Strough, Wändi Bruine de Bruin, Andrew M Parker, Philip Lemaster, Nipat Pichayayothin, Rebecca Delaney
According to socioemotional selectivity theory, older adults' emotional well-being stems from having a limited future time perspective that motivates them to maximize well-being in the "here and now." Presumably, then, older adults' time horizons are associated with emotional competencies that boost positive affect and dampen negative affect, but little research has addressed this. Using a U.S. adult life-span sample (N = 3,933; 18-93 years), we found that a 2-factor model of future time perspective (future opportunities; limited time) fit the data better than a 1-factor model...
September 2016: Psychology and Aging
Allyson Brothers, Martina Gabrian, Hans-Werner Wahl, Manfred Diehl
This study examined how 2 distinct facets of perceived personal lifetime-future time perspective (FTP) and awareness of age-related change (AARC)-are associated with another, and how they may interact to predict psychological well-being. To better understand associations among subjective perceptions of lifetime, aging, and well-being, we tested a series of models to investigate questions of directionality, indirect effects, and conditional processes among FTP, AARC-Gains, AARC-Losses, and psychological well-being...
September 2016: Psychology and Aging
Suzanne C Segerstrom, Paul J Geiger, Hannah L Combs, Ian A Boggero
Socioemotional selectivity theory predicts that when perceived time in life is limited, people will prefer emotionally close social partners over less emotionally rewarding partners. Regulating social choices with regard to time perspective can make the best use of time with regard to well-being. However, doing so may depend on the self-regulatory capacity of the individual. Two studies, 1 with younger adults (N = 101) and 1 with younger (N = 42) and older (N = 39) adults, experimentally tested the effects of time perspective and self-regulatory fatigue on preferences for emotionally close partners and knowledgeable partners...
September 2016: Psychology and Aging
Aylin Tasdemir-Ozdes, Carla M Strickland-Hughes, Susan Bluck, Natalie C Ebner
Regardless of age, making healthy lifestyle choices is prudent. Despite that, individuals of all ages sometimes have difficulty choosing the healthy option. We argue that individuals' view of the future and position in the life span affects their current lifestyle choices. We capture the multidimensionality of future thinking by assessing 3 types of future perspective. Younger and older men and women (N = 127) reported global future time perspective, future health perspective, and perceived importance of future health-related events...
September 2016: Psychology and Aging
Joshua L Rutt, Corinna E Löckenhoff
Although perceived continuity with one's future self has attracted increasing research interest, age differences in this phenomenon remain poorly understood. The present study is the first to simultaneously examine past and future self-continuity across multiple temporal distances using both explicit and implicit measures and controlling for a range of theoretically implicated covariates in an adult life span sample (N = 91, aged 18-92, M = 50.15, SD = 19.20, 56% female). Perceived similarity to one's self across 6 past and 6 future time points (1 month to 10 years) was assessed with an explicit self-report measure and an implicit me/not me trait rating task...
September 2016: Psychology and Aging
Linzy Bohn, Sheree T Kwong See, Helene H Fung
This study tested whether time perspective, a central tenant of socioemotional selectivity theory (Carstensen, 2006), moderates positivity effects in emotional memory. To provide measures of time perspective, young (YA; M = 22.48 years), young-old (YO; M = 67.56 years), old-old adults (OO; M = 80.24 years), and participants with moderate severity Alzheimer's disease (PAD; M = 84.28 years) completed a line task and reported subjective age. As expected, YA, YO, and OO reported successively more constrained future time perspectives...
September 2016: Psychology and Aging
Daniel Grühn, Neika Sharifian, Qiao Chu
Although a limited future time perspective (FTP) has been theorized to be the underlying mechanism of positive emotional functioning later in life, there is scant empirical evidence for this position. Using an integrative data-analytic approach, we investigated the predictive value of FTP, age, and subjective health in explaining emotional functioning in a sample of 2,504 adults (17 to 87 years, M = 35.5, SD = 14.2). Although older adults reported a more limited FTP than younger adults, age and a limited FTP had opposite effects in predicting subjective well-being, affect, positive emotions, empathy, and attitudes toward emotions...
September 2016: Psychology and Aging
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Are vocabulary tests measurement invariant between age groups? An item response analysis of three popular tests" by Mark C. Fox, Jane M. Berry and Sara P. Freeman (, 2014[Dec], Vol 29[4], 925-938). In the article, unneeded zeros were inadvertently included at the beginnings of some numbers in Tables 1-4. In addition, the right column in Table 4 includes three unnecessary zeros after asterisks. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record .) Relatively high vocabulary scores of older adults are generally interpreted as evidence that older adults possess more of a common ability than younger adults...
August 2016: Psychology and Aging
Mark C Fox, Zachary Baldock, Sara P Freeman, Jane M Berry
Older adults have especially poor recognition memory for word pairs, and research suggests this associative deficit manifests primarily in older adults' higher rates of false alarms. This could result from older adults either failing to generate meaningful (deep) mediators at study, or failing to benefit from having generated deep mediators at test. Younger and older adults performed a recognition memory task for words and word pairs. A think-aloud analysis of their spontaneous encoding strategies (repetition, shallow mediators, deep mediators) revealed that generation of deep mediators did not differ between younger and older adults, and was associated with high hit rates for items and associates in both age groups...
August 2016: Psychology and Aging
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