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Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741966/the-connections-of-wnt-pathway-components-with-cell-cycle-and-centrosome-side-effects-or-a-hidden-logic
#1
Vítězslav Bryja, Igor Červenka, Lukáš Čajánek
Wnt signaling cascade has developed together with multicellularity to orchestrate the development and homeostasis of complex structures. Wnt pathway components - such as β-catenin, Dishevelled (DVL), Lrp6, and Axin-- are often dedicated proteins that emerged in evolution together with the Wnt signaling cascade and are believed to function primarily in the Wnt cascade. It is interesting to see that in recent literature many of these proteins are connected with cellular functions that are more ancient and not limited to multicellular organisms - such as cell cycle regulation, centrosome biology, or cell division...
July 25, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670937/marr-family-transcription-factors-dynamic-variations-on-a-common-scaffold
#2
Dinesh K Deochand, Anne Grove
Members of the multiple antibiotic resistance regulator (MarR) family of transcription factors are critical for bacterial cells to respond to chemical signals and to convert such signals into changes in gene activity. Obligate dimers belonging to the winged helix-turn-helix protein family, they are critical for regulation of a variety of functions, including degradation of organic compounds and control of virulence gene expression. The conventional regulatory paradigm is based on a genomic locus in which the gene encoding the MarR protein is divergently oriented from a gene under its control; MarR binding to the intergenic region controls expression of both genes by changing the interaction of RNA polymerase with gene promoters...
July 3, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644060/lytic-transglycosylases-concinnity-in-concision-of-the-bacterial-cell-wall
#3
David A Dik, Daniel R Marous, Jed F Fisher, Shahriar Mobashery
The lytic transglycosylases (LTs) are bacterial enzymes that catalyze the non-hydrolytic cleavage of the peptidoglycan structures of the bacterial cell wall. They are not catalysts of glycan synthesis as might be surmised from their name. Notwithstanding the seemingly mundane reaction catalyzed by the LTs, their lytic reactions serve bacteria for a series of astonishingly diverse purposes. These purposes include cell-wall synthesis, remodeling, and degradation; for the detection of cell-wall-acting antibiotics; for the expression of the mechanism of cell-wall-acting antibiotics; for the insertion of secretion systems and flagellar assemblies into the cell wall; as a virulence mechanism during infection by certain Gram-negative bacteria; and in the sporulation and germination of Gram-positive spores...
June 23, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635330/multiple-functions-of-insulin-degrading-enzyme-a-metabolic-crosslight
#4
Grazia R Tundo, Diego Sbardella, Chiara Ciaccio, Giuseppe Grasso, Magda Gioia, Andrea Coletta, Fabio Polticelli, Donato Di Pierro, Danilo Milardi, Peter Van Endert, Stefano Marini, Massimo Coletta
Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is a ubiquitous zinc peptidase of the inverzincin family, which has been initially discovered as the enzyme responsible for insulin catabolism; therefore, its involvement in the onset of diabetes has been largely investigated. However, further studies on IDE unraveled its ability to degrade several other polypeptides, such as β-amyloid, amylin, and glucagon, envisaging the possible implication of IDE dys-regulation in the "aggregopathies" and, in particular, in neurodegenerative diseases...
June 21, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635326/encapsulins-molecular-biology-of-the-shell
#5
Robert J Nichols, Caleb Cassidy-Amstutz, Thawatchai Chaijarasphong, David F Savage
Compartmentalization is both a fundamental principle of cellular organization and an emerging theme in prokaryotic biology. Work in the past few decades has shown that protein-based organelles called microcompartments enhance the function of encapsulated cargo proteins. More recently, the repertoire of known prokaryotic organelles has expanded beyond microcompartments to include a new class of smaller proteinaceous compartments, termed nanocompartments (also known as encapsulins). Nanocompartments are icosahedral capsids that are smaller and less complex than microcompartments...
June 21, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618839/sphingosine-kinase-and-sphingosine-1-phosphate-in-liver-pathobiology
#6
Timothy Rohrbach, Michael Maceyka, Sarah Spiegel
Over 20 years ago, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) was discovered to be a bioactive signaling molecule. Subsequent studies later identified two related kinases, sphingosine kinase 1 and 2, which are responsible for the phosphorylation of sphingosine to S1P. Many stimuli increase sphingosine kinase activity and S1P production and secretion. Outside the cell, S1P can bind to and activate five S1P-specific G protein-coupled receptors (S1PR1-5) to regulate many important cellular and physiological processes in an autocrine or paracrine manner...
June 15, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545305/clostridium-difficile-toxins-a-and-b-receptors-pores-and-translocation-into-cells
#7
Kathleen E Orrell, Zhifen Zhang, Seiji N Sugiman-Marangos, Roman A Melnyk
The most potent toxins secreted by pathogenic bacteria contain enzymatic moieties that must reach the cytosol of target cells to exert their full toxicity. Toxins such as anthrax, diphtheria, and botulinum toxin all use three well-defined functional domains to intoxicate cells: a receptor-binding moiety that triggers endocytosis into acidified vesicles by binding to a specific host-cell receptor, a translocation domain that forms pores across the endosomal membrane in response to acidic pH, and an enzyme that translocates through these pores to catalytically inactivate an essential host cytosolic substrate...
May 26, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524697/emerging-functions-of-multi-protein-complex-mediator-with-special-emphasis-on-plants
#8
Naveen Malik, Pinky Agarwal, Akhilesh Tyagi
Mediator is a multi-subunit protein complex which is involved in transcriptional regulation in yeast and other eukaryotes. As a co-activator, it connects information from transcriptional activators/repressors to transcriptional machinery including RNA polymerase II and general transcription factors. It is not only involved in transcription initiation but also has important roles to play in transcription elongation and termination. Functional attributes of different Mediator subunits have been largely defined in yeast and mammalian systems earlier, while such studies in plants have gained momentum recently...
May 19, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521544/correction-to-hudecek-izsv%C3%A3-k-johnen-renner-thumann-and-ivics-going-non-viral-the-sleeping-beauty-transposon-system-breaks-on-through-to-the-clinical-side
#9
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 18, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508727/the-role-of-wnt-signaling-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-development
#10
Jenna Richter, David Traver, Karl Willert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524749/ubiquitin-enzymes-in-the-regulation-of-immune-responses
#11
Petra Ebner, Gijs A Versteeg, Fumiyo Ikeda
Ubiquitination plays a central role in the regulation of various biological functions including immune responses. Ubiquitination is induced by a cascade of enzymatic reactions by E1 ubiquitin activating enzyme, E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, and E3 ubiquitin ligase, and reversed by deubiquitinases. Depending on the enzymes, specific linkage types of ubiquitin chains are generated or hydrolyzed. Because different linkage types of ubiquitin chains control the fate of the substrate, understanding the regulatory mechanisms of ubiquitin enzymes is central...
August 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393572/the-role-of-s-nitrosoglutathione-reductase-gsnor-in-human-disease-and-therapy
#12
REVIEW
Scott D Barnett, Iain L O Buxton
S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR), or ADH5, is an enzyme in the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) family. It is unique when compared to other ADH enzymes in that primary short-chain alcohols are not its principle substrate. GSNOR metabolizes S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), S-hydroxymethylglutathione (the spontaneous adduct of formaldehyde and glutathione), and some alcohols. GSNOR modulates reactive nitric oxide (•NO) availability in the cell by catalyzing the breakdown of GSNO, and indirectly regulates S-nitrosothiols (RSNOs) through GSNO-mediated protein S-nitrosation...
June 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279077/translesion-dna-polymerases-in-eukaryotes-what-makes-them-tick
#13
REVIEW
Alexandra Vaisman, Roger Woodgate
Life as we know it, simply would not exist without DNA replication. All living organisms utilize a complex machinery to duplicate their genomes and the central role in this machinery belongs to replicative DNA polymerases, enzymes that are specifically designed to copy DNA. "Hassle-free" DNA duplication exists only in an ideal world, while in real life, it is constantly threatened by a myriad of diverse challenges. Among the most pressing obstacles that replicative polymerases often cannot overcome by themselves are lesions that distort the structure of DNA...
June 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276702/integrating-the-upr-mt-into-the-mitochondrial-maintenance-network
#14
REVIEW
Christopher J Fiorese, Cole M Haynes
Mitochondrial function is central to many different processes in the cell, from oxidative phosphorylation to the synthesis of iron-sulfur clusters. Therefore, mitochondrial dysfunction underlies a diverse array of diseases, from neurodegenerative diseases to cancer. Stress can be communicated to the cytosol and nucleus from the mitochondria through many different signals, and in response the cell can effect everything from transcriptional to post-transcriptional responses to protect the mitochondrial network...
June 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276701/genomics-of-apicomplexan-parasites
#15
REVIEW
Lakshmipuram Seshadri Swapna, John Parkinson
The increasing prevalence of infections involving intracellular apicomplexan parasites such as Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, and Cryptosporidium (the causative agents of malaria, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis, respectively) represent a significant global healthcare burden. Despite their significance, few treatments are available; a situation that is likely to deteriorate with the emergence of new resistant strains of parasites. To lay the foundation for programs of drug discovery and vaccine development, genome sequences for many of these organisms have been generated, together with large-scale expression and proteomic datasets...
June 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276700/iron-acquisition-through-the-bacterial-transferrin-receptor
#16
REVIEW
Anastassia K Pogoutse, Trevor F Moraes
Transferrin is one of the sources of iron that is most readily available to colonizing and invading pathogens. In this review, we look at iron uptake by the bacterial transferrin receptor that is found in the families Neisseriaceae, Pasteurellaceae and Moraxellaceae. This bipartite receptor consists of the TonB-dependent transporter, TbpA, and the surface lipoprotein, TbpB. In the past three decades, major advancements have been made in our understanding of the mechanism through which the Tbps take up iron...
June 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276699/p120-catenin-in-canonical-wnt-signaling
#17
REVIEW
Mireia Duñach, Beatriz Del Valle-Pérez, Antonio García de Herreros
Canonical Wnt signaling controls β-catenin protein stabilization, its translocation to the nucleus and the activation of β-catenin/Tcf-4-dependent transcription. In this review, we revise and discuss the recent results describing actions of p120-catenin in different phases of this pathway. More specifically, we comment its involvement in four different steps: (i) the very early activation of CK1ɛ, essential for Dvl-2 binding to the Wnt receptor complex; (ii) the internalization of GSK3 and Axin into multivesicular bodies, necessary for a complete stabilization of β-catenin; (iii) the activation of Rac1 small GTPase, required for β-catenin translocation to the nucleus; and (iv) the release of the inhibitory action caused by Kaiso transcriptional repressor...
June 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124577/mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-mtor-a-central-regulator-of-male-fertility
#18
REVIEW
Tito T Jesus, Pedro F Oliveira, Mário Sousa, C Yan Cheng, Marco G Alves
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator of cellular metabolic phenotype and is involved in virtually all aspects of cellular function. It integrates not only nutrient and energy-sensing pathways but also actin cytoskeleton organization, in response to environmental cues including growth factors and cellular energy levels. These events are pivotal for spermatogenesis and determine the reproductive potential of males. Yet, the molecular mechanisms by which mTOR signaling acts in male reproductive system remain a matter of debate...
June 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427283/break-induced-replication-in-eukaryotes-mechanisms-functions-and-consequences
#19
Cynthia J Sakofsky, Anna Malkova
Break-induced replication (BIR) is an important pathway specializing in repair of one-ended double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs). This type of DSB break typically arises at collapsed replication forks or at eroded telomeres. BIR initiates by invasion of a broken DNA end into a homologous template followed by initiation of DNA synthesis that can proceed for hundreds of kilobases. This synthesis is drastically different from S-phase replication in that instead of a replication fork, BIR proceeds via a migrating bubble and is associated with conservative inheritance of newly synthesized DNA...
April 21, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402189/going-non-viral-the-sleeping-beauty-transposon-system-breaks-on-through-to-the-clinical-side
#20
Michael Hudecek, Zsuzsanna Izsvák, Sandra Johnen, Matthias Renner, Gabriele Thumann, Zoltán Ivics
Molecular medicine has entered a high-tech age that provides curative treatments of complex genetic diseases through genetically engineered cellular medicinal products. Their clinical implementation requires the ability to stably integrate genetic information through gene transfer vectors in a safe, effective and economically viable manner. The latest generation of Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon vectors fulfills these requirements, and may overcome limitations associated with viral gene transfer vectors and transient non-viral gene delivery approaches that are prevalent in ongoing pre-clinical and translational research...
April 12, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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