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Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Saeideh Nakhaei-Rad, Fereshteh Haghighi, Parivash Nouri, Soheila Rezaei Adariani, Jana Lissy, Neda S Kazemein Jasemi, Radovan Dvorsky, Mohammad Reza Ahmadian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 19, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Stella M Lu, Gregory D Fairn
The plasma membrane is compartmentalized into several distinct regions or domains, which show a broad diversity in both size and lifetime. The segregation of lipids and membrane proteins is thought to be driven by the lipid composition itself, lipid-protein interactions and diffusional barriers. With regards to the lipid composition, the immiscibility of certain classes of lipids underlies the "lipid raft" concept of plasmalemmal compartmentalization. Historically, lipid rafts have been described as cholesterol and (glyco)sphingolipid-rich regions of the plasma membrane that exist as a liquid-ordered phase that are resistant to extraction with non-ionic detergents...
February 18, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Shahienaz E Hampton, Timothy M Dore, Walter K Schmidt
Ras converting enzyme 1 (Rce1) is an integral membrane endoprotease localized to the endoplasmic reticulum that mediates the cleavage of the carboxyl-terminal three amino acids from CaaX proteins, whose members play important roles in cell signaling processes. Examples include the Ras family of small GTPases, the γ-subunit of heterotrimeric GTPases, nuclear lamins, and protein kinases and phosphatases. CaaX proteins, especially Ras, have been implicated in cancer, and understanding the post-translational modifications of CaaX proteins would provide insight into their biological function and regulation...
February 9, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Jacqueline Howie, Krzysztof J Wypijewski, Fiona Plain, Lindsay B Tulloch, Niall J Fraser, William Fuller
The ubiquitous sodium/potassium ATPase (Na pump) is the most abundant primary active transporter at the cell surface of multiple cell types, including ventricular myocytes in the heart. The activity of the Na pump establishes transmembrane ion gradients that control numerous events at the cell surface, positioning it as a key regulator of the contractile and metabolic state of the myocardium. Defects in Na pump activity and regulation elevate intracellular Na in cardiac muscle, playing a causal role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction, arrhythmias and heart failure...
February 9, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Yajie Wang, Hengqian Ren, Huimin Zhao
Biocatalysts have been increasingly used in the synthesis of fine chemicals and medicinal compounds due to significant advances in enzyme discovery and engineering. To mimic the synergistic effects of cascade reactions catalyzed by multiple enzymes in nature, researchers have been developing artificial tandem enzymatic reactions in vivo by harnessing synthetic biology and metabolic engineering tools. There is also growing interest in the development of one-pot tandem enzymatic or chemo-enzymatic processes in vitro due to their neat and concise catalytic systems and product purification procedures...
February 7, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Alexandra C Newton
Protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes belong to a family of Ser/Thr kinases whose activity is governed by reversible release of an autoinhibitory pseudosubstrate. For conventional and novel isozymes, this is effected by binding the lipid second messenger, diacylglycerol, but for atypical PKC isozymes, this is effected by binding protein scaffolds. PKC shot into the limelight following the discovery in the 1980s that the diacylglycerol-sensitive isozymes are "receptors" for the potent tumor-promoting phorbol esters...
April 2018: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Zintis Inde, Scott J Dixon
The goal of cancer chemotherapy is to induce homogeneous cell death within the population of targeted cancer cells. However, no two cells are exactly alike at the molecular level, and sensitivity to drug-induced cell death, therefore, varies within a population. Genetic alterations can contribute to this variability and lead to selection for drug resistant clones. However, there is a growing appreciation for the role of non-genetic variation in producing drug-tolerant cellular states that exhibit reduced sensitivity to cell death for extended periods of time, from hours to weeks...
December 18, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Sang Joon Won, Melanie Cheung See Kit, Brent R Martin
Protein depalmitoylation describes the removal of thioester-linked long chain fatty acids from cysteine residues in proteins. For many S-palmitoylated proteins, this process is promoted by acyl protein thioesterase enzymes, which catalyze thioester hydrolysis to solubilize and displace substrate proteins from membranes. The closely related enzymes acyl protein thioesterase 1 (APT1; LYPLA1) and acyl protein thioesterase 2 (APT2; LYPLA2) were initially identified from biochemical assays as G protein depalmitoylases, yet later were shown to accept a number of S-palmitoylated protein and phospholipid substrates...
December 14, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Jeremy W Schroeder, Ponlkrit Yeesin, Lyle A Simmons, Jue D Wang
Mutations in an organism's genome can arise spontaneously, that is, in the absence of exogenous stress and prior to selection. Mutations are often neutral or deleterious to individual fitness but can also provide genetic diversity driving evolution. Mutagenesis in bacteria contributes to the already serious and growing problem of antibiotic resistance. However, the negative impacts of spontaneous mutagenesis on human health are not limited to bacterial antibiotic resistance. Spontaneous mutations also underlie tumorigenesis and evolution of drug resistance...
November 6, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Bojk A Berghuis, Vlad-Stefan Raducanu, Mohamed M Elshenawy, Slobodan Jergic, Martin Depken, Nicholas E Dixon, Samir M Hamdan, Nynke H Dekker
Synchronizing the convergence of the two-oppositely moving DNA replication machineries at specific termination sites is a tightly coordinated process in bacteria. In Escherichia coli, a "replication fork trap" - found within a chromosomal region where forks are allowed to enter but not leave - is set by the protein-DNA roadblock Tus-Ter. The exact sequence of events by which Tus-Ter blocks replisomes approaching from one direction but not the other has been the subject of controversy for many decades. Specific protein-protein interactions between the nonpermissive face of Tus and the approaching helicase were challenged by biochemical and structural studies...
November 6, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Kerryanne Crawford, Juan José Bonfiglio, Andreja Mikoč, Ivan Matic, Ivan Ahel
Proper and timely regulation of cellular processes is fundamental to the overall health and viability of organisms across all kingdoms of life. Thus, organisms have evolved multiple highly dynamic and complex biochemical signaling cascades in order to adapt and survive diverse challenges. One such method of conferring rapid adaptation is the addition or removal of reversible modifications of different chemical groups onto macromolecules which in turn induce the appropriate downstream outcome. ADP-ribosylation, the addition of ADP-ribose (ADPr) groups, represents one of these highly conserved signaling chemicals...
November 3, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Bian Li, Michaela Fooksa, Sten Heinze, Jens Meiler
Prediction of protein tertiary structures from amino acid sequence and understanding the mechanisms of how proteins fold, collectively known as "the protein folding problem," has been a grand challenge in molecular biology for over half a century. Theories have been developed that provide us with an unprecedented understanding of protein folding mechanisms. However, computational simulation of protein folding is still difficult, and prediction of protein tertiary structure from amino acid sequence is an unsolved problem...
October 4, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
David A Dik, Daniel R Marous, Jed F Fisher, Shahriar Mobashery
The lytic transglycosylases (LTs) are bacterial enzymes that catalyze the non-hydrolytic cleavage of the peptidoglycan structures of the bacterial cell wall. They are not catalysts of glycan synthesis as might be surmised from their name. Notwithstanding the seemingly mundane reaction catalyzed by the LTs, their lytic reactions serve bacteria for a series of astonishingly diverse purposes. These purposes include cell-wall synthesis, remodeling, and degradation; for the detection of cell-wall-acting antibiotics; for the expression of the mechanism of cell-wall-acting antibiotics; for the insertion of secretion systems and flagellar assemblies into the cell wall; as a virulence mechanism during infection by certain Gram-negative bacteria; and in the sporulation and germination of Gram-positive spores...
October 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Grazia R Tundo, Diego Sbardella, Chiara Ciaccio, Giuseppe Grasso, Magda Gioia, Andrea Coletta, Fabio Polticelli, Donato Di Pierro, Danilo Milardi, Peter Van Endert, Stefano Marini, Massimo Coletta
Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is a ubiquitous zinc peptidase of the inverzincin family, which has been initially discovered as the enzyme responsible for insulin catabolism; therefore, its involvement in the onset of diabetes has been largely investigated. However, further studies on IDE unraveled its ability to degrade several other polypeptides, such as β-amyloid, amylin, and glucagon, envisaging the possible implication of IDE dys-regulation in the "aggregopathies" and, in particular, in neurodegenerative diseases...
October 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Robert J Nichols, Caleb Cassidy-Amstutz, Thawatchai Chaijarasphong, David F Savage
Compartmentalization is both a fundamental principle of cellular organization and an emerging theme in prokaryotic biology. Work in the past few decades has shown that protein-based organelles called microcompartments enhance the function of encapsulated cargo proteins. More recently, the repertoire of known prokaryotic organelles has expanded beyond microcompartments to include a new class of smaller proteinaceous compartments, termed nanocompartments (also known as encapsulins). Nanocompartments are icosahedral capsids that are smaller and less complex than microcompartments...
October 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Timothy Rohrbach, Michael Maceyka, Sarah Spiegel
Over 20 years ago, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) was discovered to be a bioactive signaling molecule. Subsequent studies later identified two related kinases, sphingosine kinase 1 and 2, which are responsible for the phosphorylation of sphingosine to S1P. Many stimuli increase sphingosine kinase activity and S1P production and secretion. Outside the cell, S1P can bind to and activate five S1P-specific G protein-coupled receptors (S1PR1-5) to regulate many important cellular and physiological processes in an autocrine or paracrine manner...
October 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Naveen Malik, Pinky Agarwal, Akhilesh Tyagi
Mediator is a multi-subunit protein complex which is involved in transcriptional regulation in yeast and other eukaryotes. As a co-activator, it connects information from transcriptional activators/repressors to transcriptional machinery including RNA polymerase II and general transcription factors. It is not only involved in transcription initiation but also has important roles to play in transcription elongation and termination. Functional attributes of different Mediator subunits have been largely defined in yeast and mammalian systems earlier, while such studies in plants have gained momentum recently...
October 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Lisa A Poole, David Cortez
A large number of SNF2 family, DNA and ATP-dependent motor proteins are needed during transcription, DNA replication, and DNA repair to manipulate protein-DNA interactions and change DNA structure. SMARCAL1, ZRANB3, and HLTF are three related members of this family with specialized functions that maintain genome stability during DNA replication. These proteins are recruited to replication forks through protein-protein interactions and bind DNA using both their motor and substrate recognition domains (SRDs)...
September 28, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Lindsey R F Backman, Michael A Funk, Christopher D Dawson, Catherine L Drennan
Glycyl radical enzymes (GREs) are important biological catalysts in both strict and facultative anaerobes, playing key roles both in the human microbiota and in the environment. GREs contain a backbone glycyl radical that is post-translationally installed, enabling radical-based mechanisms. GREs function in several metabolic pathways including mixed acid fermentation, ribonucleotide reduction and the anaerobic breakdown of the nutrient choline and the pollutant toluene. By generating a substrate-based radical species within the active site, GREs enable C-C, C-O and C-N bond breaking and formation steps that are otherwise challenging for nonradical enzymes...
September 13, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Matteo De March, Alfredo De Biasio
The proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) sliding clamp lies at the heart of the accurate duplication of eukaryotic genomes. While the outer surface of the PCNA ring interacts with polymerases and other factors, the role of the inner wall facing the DNA is elusive. Recent evidence shows that conserved basic residues in the PCNA central channel create a specific surface that recognizes the DNA backbone and enables the clamp to slide by rotationally tracking the DNA helix. The sliding surface can be modulated (i) through lysine acetylation, which triggers PCNA degradation during nucleotide excision repair (NER) and stimulates repair by homologous recombination (HR) or (ii) through binding of the protein factor p15(PAF), which turns off DNA lesion bypass...
August 17, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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