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Molecular Reproduction and Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295836/profiling-n-glycans-of-the-egg-jelly-coat-of-the-sea-urchin-paracentrotus-lividus-by-maldi-tof-mass-spectrometry-and-capillary-liquid-chromatography-electrospray-ionization-ion-trap-tandem-mass-spectrometry-systems
#1
Umut Şahar, Remziye Deveci
Sea urchin eggs are surrounded by a carbohydrate-rich layer, termed the jelly coat, that consists of polysaccharides and glycoproteins. In the present study, we describe two mass spectrometric strategies to characterize the N-glycosylation of the Paracentrotus lividus egg jelly coat, which has an alecithal-type extracellular matrix like mammalian eggs. Egg jelly was isolated, lyophilized, and dialysed, followed by peptide N-glycosidase F (PNGase-F) treatment to release N-glycans from their protein chain. These N-glycans were then derivatized by permethylation reaction, and analysed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and capillary liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-ion trap tandem mass spectroscopy (CapLC ESI-Ion trap-MS/MS)...
March 10, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295807/interaction-of-melatonin-and-gonadotropin-inhibitory-hormone-on-the-zebrafish-brain-pituitary-reproductive-axis
#2
Thangal Yumnamcha, Zeeshan Ahmad Khan, Chongtham Rajiv, Sijagurumayum Dharmajyoti Devi, Gopinath Mondal, Haobijam Sanjita Devi, Rupjyoti Bharali, Asamanja Chattoraj
Circadian cycles and photoperiod are known to influence reproductive physiology in several animals. Neuropeptides, such as gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GNIH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH), are influenced by melatonin in birds and mammals. The present study demonstrates the role of melatonin in oocyte maturation in the zebrafish (Danio rerio), via the brain-pituitary-reproductive axis, under different photic conditions. Melatonin was significantly higher both in the whole brain and ovary under continuous dark (DD) compared to continuous light (LL) conditions...
March 10, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244620/testis-specific-isoform-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-tace-is-involved-in-the-regulation-of-bovine-sperm-capacitation
#3
Mina Ojaghi, John Kastelic, Jacob Thundathil
We hypothesized that the testis-specific isoform of Angiotensin-converting enzyme (tACE) is released during bovine sperm capacitation, and its peptidase activity is required for capacitation. Specific objectives of this study were to (i) develop an anti-tACE antibody; (ii) characterize expression of tACE in bovine testes and sperm; and (iii) determine the role of tACE in capacitation. A 110-kDa protein, consistent with the mass of tACE, was detected in sperm extract by our anti-tACE immunoserum. This immunotarget localized at the acrosomal region and principal piece, but was only expressed in testis of mature bulls...
February 28, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244611/suppression-of-fgf2-by-ets2-repressor-factor-erf-is-required-for-chorionic-trophoblast-differentiation
#4
Elena Vorgia, Andreas Zaragkoulias, Ioanna Peraki, George Mavrothalassitis
ETS2 repressor factor (ERF) is a ubiquitous transcriptional repressor regulated by Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation. Homozygous deletion of Erf in mice blocks chorionic trophoblast differentiation, resulting in the failure of chorioallantoic fusion and subsequent embryo death. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling is important for proper trophoblast stem cell (TSC) differentiation and development of the hemochorial placenta. Lack of Fgf2 promotes TSC differentiation, while FGF4 or FGF2 is required for murine TSC maintenance...
February 28, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240438/feeder-independent-canine-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-maintained-under-serum-free-conditions
#5
Toshiya Nishimura, Shingo Hatoya, Ryoji Kanegi, Daluthgamage Pasty Himali Wijesekera, Kousuke Sanno, Erina Tanaka, Kikuya Sugiura, Noritoshi Kawate, Hiromitsu Tamada, Hiroshi Imai, Toshio Inaba
Canine induced pluripotent stem cells (ciPSCs) are an attractive source for regenerative veterinary medicine, and may also serve as a disease model for human regenerative medicine. Extending the application of ciPSCs from bench to bedside, however, requires the resolution of many issues. We generated ciPSCs expressing doxycycline-inducible murine Oct3/4 (Pou5f1), Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc, which were introduced using lentiviral vectors. The resultant ciPSCs required doxycycline to proliferate in the undifferentiated state...
February 27, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233368/cytoplasmic-movement-profiles-of-mouse-surrounding-nucleolus-and-not-surrounding-nucleolus-antral-oocytes-during-meiotic-resumption
#6
Thi Thu Hien Bui, Martina Belli, Lorenzo Fassina, Giulia Vigone, Valeria Merico, Silvia Garagna, Maurizio Zuccotti
Full-grown mouse antral oocytes are classified as surrounding nucleolus (SN) or not-surrounding nucleolus (NSN), depending on the respective presence or absence of a ring of Hoechst-positive chromatin surrounding the nucleolus. In culture, both types of oocytes resume meiosis and reach the metaphase II (MII) stage, but following insemination, NSN oocytes arrest at the 2-cell stage whereas SN oocytes may develop to term. By coupling time-lapse bright-field microscopy with image analysis based on particle image velocimetry, we provide the first systematic measure of the changes to the cytoplasmic movement velocity (CMV) occurring during the germinal vesicle-to-MII (GV-to-MII) transition of these two types of oocytes...
February 24, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224725/quisinostat-treatment-improves-histone-acetylation-and-developmental-competence-of-porcine-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-embryos
#7
Long Jin, Qing Guo, Hai-Ying Zhu, Xiao-Xu Xing, Guang-Lei Zhang, Mei-Fu Xuan, Qi-Rong Luo, Zhao-Bo Luo, Jun-Xia Wang, Xi-Jun Yin, Jin-Dan Kang
Abnormal epigenetic modifications are considered a main contributing factor to low cloning efficiency. In the present study, we explored the effects of quisinostat, a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor, on blastocyst formation rate in porcine somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos, on acetylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (AcH3K9), and on expression of POU5F1 protein and apoptosis-related genes BAX and BCL2. Our results showed that treatment with 10 nM quisinostat for 24 h significantly improved the development of reconstructed embryos compared to the untreated group (19...
February 22, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218427/two-vitellogenins-in-the-loliginid-squid-uroteuthis-edulis-identification-and-specific-expression-in-ovarian-follicles
#8
Hajime Kitano, Naoki Nagano, Keishi Sakaguchi, Michiya Matsuyama
Vitellogenenesis is a physiological process common in oviparous animals. The molecular profile, modifications, and utilization of vitellogenin (VTG), a precursor of yolk protein, have been characterized in various taxa to understand oogenesis within different modes of reproduction. Hormonal regulation of VTGs has been investigated in invertebrates, such as insects and crustaceans; conversely, little is known for cephalopods. In this study, we isolated two VTG genes (ue-VTG1 and ue-VTG2) from the loliginid swordtip squid, Uroteuthis edulis, via a comprehensive survey of a transcriptome database and subsequent cDNA cloning...
February 20, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198054/regulation-of-atf1-and-atf2-transcripts-by-sequences-in-their-3-untranslated-region-in-cleavage-stage-cattle-embryos
#9
Ernesto Orozco-Lucero, Isabelle Dufort, Marc-André Sirard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186371/gene-expression-and-epigenetic-aberrations-in-f1-placentas-fathered-by-obese-males
#10
Megan Mitchell, Reiner Strick, Pamela L Strissel, Ralf Dittrich, Nicole O McPherson, Michelle Lane, Galyna Pliushch, Ramya Potabattula, Thomas Haaf, Nady El Hajj
Gene expression and/or epigenetic deregulation may have consequences for sperm and blastocysts, as well as for the placenta, together potentially contributing to problems observed in offspring. We previously demonstrated specific perturbations of fertilization, blastocyst formation, implantation, as well as aberrant glucose metabolism and adiposity in offspring using a mouse model of paternal obesity. The current investigation analysed gene expression and methylation of specific CpG residues in F1 placentas of pregnancies fathered by obese and normal-weight male mice, using real-time PCR and bisulfite pyrosequencing...
February 10, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176444/an-intact-acrosome-is-required-for-the-chemotactic-response-to-progesterone-in-mouse-spermatozoa
#11
H A Guidobaldi, N Hirohashi, M Cubilla, M G Buffone, L C Giojalas
Mammalian sperm become fertilization-competent in the oviduct, during a process known as capacitation that involves the acquisition of the ability to exocytose the acrosome but also the chemotactic responses - both of which contribute to successful fertilization. Chemotaxis is used by spermatozoa to orient and to locate the egg; the acrosome reaction facilitates sperm binding to and fusing with the egg membrane. Mammalian spermatozoa are able to sense picomolar concentrations of progesterone, which drives chemotactic behavior...
February 8, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176401/the-zp-domain-is-not-one-but-likely-two-independent-domains
#12
LETTER
Damien B Wilburn, Willie J Swanson
The zona pellucida (ZP) or vitelline envelope (VE) is a cellular feature unique to animal oocytes that provides a barrier to the external environment. This structure is composed of several glycoproteins that universally contain a ZP domain: a polypeptide of ∼260 residues that functions as a polymerization module, adopts a predominantly β-sheet fold, and includes 8-10 cysteine residues that form disulfide bonds (Bork and Sander 1992; Han et al. 2010). Our knowledge of the structural features underlying ZP domains has been enhanced in recent years by the release of multiple crystal structures and molecular evolutionary analyses that, together, reveal a repeated pattern of gene duplication, sequence adaptation, and structural conservation from yeast to humans (Swanson et al...
February 8, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144990/spawning-of-the-ascidian-h-roretzi
#13
Hitoshi Sawada, Maki Shirae-Kurabayashi, Takaharu Numakunai
Ascidians, sessile marine urochordates, are simultaneous hermaphrodites. Shown here is the spawning of a solitary ascidian Halocynthia roretzi (Type-C sub-species). Eggs (detailed in the inset; ∼270 µm diameter) and sperm are released at the same time from the atrial siphon, thus self-fertilization is possible. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
January 31, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079292/germ-cell-tumors-insights-from-the-drosophila-ovary-and-the-mouse-testis
#14
REVIEW
Helen K Salz, Emily P Dawson, Jason D Heaney
Ovarian and testicular germ cell tumors of young adults are thought to arise from defects in germ cell development, but the molecular mechanisms underlying malignant transformation are poorly understood. In this review, we focus on the biology of germ cell tumor formation in the Drosophila ovary and the mouse testis, for which the evidence supports common underlying mechanisms such as blocking initiation into the differentiation pathway, impaired lineage progression, and sexual identity instability. We then discuss how these concepts inform our understanding of the disease in humans...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067447/importance-of-eif2%C3%AE-phosphorylation-as-a-protective-mechanism-against-heat-stress-in-mouse-male-germ-cells
#15
Jungbin Yoon, Kyosun Park, Deog Su Hwang, Kunsoo Rhee
Mammalian male germ cells are exceptionally labile to heat stress. A temporal arrest of translation is one immediate response to heat, which involves heat-induced phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) to block the formation of the translational initiation complex. Here, we investigated the protective mechanisms against heat stress in mouse male germ cells. All known eIF2α kinases were expressed in lineage- and developmental stage-specific manners in the testis; noteworthy was the presence of Gcn2 (General control nonderepressible 2 kinase) in spermatocytes of all seminiferous tubules...
January 9, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044390/systematic-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-characterization-of-leukemia-inhibiting-factor-and-fibroblast-growth-factor-derived-porcine-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#16
Jan O Secher, Ahmet Ceylan, Gianluca Mazzoni, Kaveh Mashayekhi, Tong Li, Suchitra Muenthaisong, Troels T Nielsen, Dong Li, Shengting Li, Stoyan Petkov, Susanna Cirera, Yonglun Luo, Lori Thombs, Haja N Kadarmideen, Andras Dinnyes, Lars Bolund, Bernard A J Roelen, Mette Schmidt, Henrik Callesen, Poul Hyttel, Kristine K Freude
Derivation and stable maintenance of porcine induced pluripotent stem cells (piPSCs) is challenging. We herein systematically analyzed two piPSC lines, derived by lentiviral transduction and cultured under either leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) or fibroblast growth factor (FGF) conditions, to shed more light on the underlying biological mechanisms of porcine pluripotency. LIF-derived piPSCs were more successful than their FGF-derived counterparts in the generation of in vitro chimeras and in teratoma formation...
January 3, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032683/the-varied-ways-of-being-male-and-female
#17
REVIEW
Lukas Schärer
Our understanding of sexual reproduction is mainly informed by research on gonochorists (i.e. species with separate sexes), including insects, birds, and mammals. But the male and female sexes are not two types of individuals; they actually represent two different reproductive strategies, and in many organisms these two strategies are distributed among individuals in a population in a variety of ways. For example, sequential hermaphrodites (or sex-changers) exhibit one strategy early in life, and later switch to the other, while simultaneous hermaphrodites exhibit both strategies at the same time...
December 29, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029195/expression-of-tamoxifen-inducible-cre-recombinase-in-lcn5-creer-t2-transgenic-mouse-caput-epididymis
#18
Juan Xu, Guangxin Yao, Yanfei Ru, Shengsong Xie
The epididymis, which connects the testis to vas deferens, plays a crucial role regulating sperm maturation and fertilization. Here, a tamoxifen-inducible CreER(T2) recombinase transgenic mouse was generated to study the function of genes in the caput epididymis using the Cre/LoxP system, which is driven by the 1.8-kb Lcn5 promoter (Lcn5-CreER(T2) ). Both CRE recombinase and ER(T2) mRNA were specifically expressed in the caput epididymis, beginning at postnatal Day 30 and increasing thereafter. Crossing these Lcn5-CreER(T2) transgenic mice with Rosa26;mT/mG reporter mice, which express membrane-bound GFP (mGFP) only after CRE is active at its genetic locus, resulted in the presence of GFP only in the middle/distal caput epididymis after tamoxifen induction...
December 28, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029191/beauty-in-the-breakdown-morphology-of-the-first-polar-body-in-mature-mouse-eggs
#19
Allison R Grover, Dana Kimelman, Megan A Runge, Francesca E Duncan
In vitro maturation (IVM) is the process whereby oocytes arrested in prophase of meiosis I are stimulated to resume meiosis and progress to metaphase of meiosis II (MII) ex vivo. Here we examined the cytoskeletal morphology of mature MII eggs obtained following IVM. Cumulus oocyte complexes were isolated from antral follicles of hyper-stimulated female mice, and cumulus cells were removed to induce spontaneous oocyte meiotic maturation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
December 28, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240824/is-gender-just-a-category-the-two-plus-sex-advantage
#20
EDITORIAL
Julian L Wong, Mariana F Wolfner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
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