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Molecular Reproduction and Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856812/resolving-the-complexity-of-vitellogenins-and-their-receptors-in-the-tetraploid-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-ancient-origin-of-the-phosvitin-less-vtgc-in-chondrichthyean-fishes
#1
Øivind Andersen, Chunxia Xu, Gerrit Timmerhaus, Katrine Hånes Kirste, Ingun Naeve, Maren Mommens, Helge Tveiten
Egg yolk proteins are mainly derived from vitellogenin (Vtg), and serve as essential nutrients during early development in oviparous organisms. Vertebrate Vtgs are predominantly synthesized in the liver of maturing females, and are internalized by the oocyte after binding to specific surface receptors (VtgR). Here we clarify the evolutionary history of the vertebrate Vtgs, including the teleost VtgC, which lacks phosvitin, and investigate the repertoire of Vtgs and VtgRs in the tetraploid Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)...
August 30, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834577/from-phenologs-to-silent-suppressors-identifying-potential-therapeutic-targets-for-human-disease
#2
REVIEW
Andy Golden
Orthologous phenotypes, or phenologs, are seemingly unrelated phenotypes generated by mutations in a conserved set of genes. Phenologs have been widely observed and accepted by those who study model organisms, and allow one to study a set of genes in a model organism to learn more about the function of those genes in other organisms, including humans. At the cellular and molecular level, these conserved genes likely function in a very similar mode, but are doing so in different tissues or cell types and can result in different phenotypic effects...
August 23, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833817/na-k-atpase-regulates-bovine-sperm-capacitation-through-raft-and-non-raft-mediated-signaling-mechanisms
#3
Gayathri D Rajamanickam, John P Kastelic, Jacob C Thundathil
Highly dynamic lipid microdomains (rafts) in the sperm plasma membrane contain several signaling proteins that regulate sperm capacitation. Na/K-ATPase isoforms (testis-specific isoform ATP1A4 and ubiquitous isoform ATP1A1) are abundant in bovine sperm plasma membrane. We previously reported that incubation of bovine sperm with ouabain, a specific Na/K-ATPase ligand, induced tyrosine phosphorylation of several sperm proteins during capacitation. The objective of this study was to investigate the roles of lipid rafts and non-rafts in Na/K-ATPase enzyme activity and signaling during bovine sperm capacitation...
August 19, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833824/effects-of-latrunculin-a-on-the-relocation-of-sperm-izumo1-during-gamete-interaction-in-the-mouse
#4
Chong Zhou, Li Huang, De-Shun Shi, Jian-Rong Jiang
The sperm protein IZUMO1 plays a central role in gamete fusion. In mouse sperm, IZUMO1 is enriched at the acrosomal cap before the acrosome reaction, and at the equatorial segment following this reaction; its relocation is dependent on filamentous actin. How actin polymerization affects IZUMO1 relocation during gamete interaction remains unknown. The present study addressed these processes using latrunculin A (LatA), an inhibitor of actin polymerization. We report that 25 µM LatA blocked actin polymerization in the capacitated sperm head, resulting in a marked decrease in sperm with relocated IZUMO1 during the A23187-induced acrosome reaction and cumulus layer penetration...
August 18, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805353/the-role-of-melatonin-receptor-mtnr1a-in-the-action-of-melatonin-on-bovine-granulosa-cells
#5
Shu-Juan Wang, Wen-Ju Liu, Li-Ke Wang, Xun-Sheng Pang, Li-Guo Yang
Granulosa cells (GCs) play an important role in ovarian follicle growth, development, and follicular atresia. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Melatonin on bovine GCs, and asked if MTNR1A was involved in their response to this indole hormone. Our results indicated that Melatonin inhibited GC apoptosis by up-regulating the expression of BCL2, BCL-XL, GPX4, and SOD1, and down-regulating the expression of BAX, CASP3, and TP53. Moreover, Melatonin modulated bovine GC function by decreasing the expression of INHA, INHBB, FSHR, and TGFBR3, and the abundance of Inhibin β and Activin B, while increasing the expression of LHR, INHBA, and secretion of progesterone by GCs...
August 14, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804932/kisspeptin-regulates-ovarian-steroidogenesis-during-delayed-embryonic-development-in-the-fruit-bat-cynopterus-sphinx
#6
Anuradha, Amitabh Krishna
Cynopterus sphinx, a fruit bat, undergoes delayed embryonic development during the winter months, a period that corresponds to low levels of progesterone and estradiol synthesis by the ovary. Kisspeptins (KPs) are a group of neuropeptide hormones that act via G-protein coupled receptor 54 (GPR54) to stimulate hypothalamic secretion of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone, thereby regulating ovarian steroidogenesis, folliculogenesis, and ovulation. GPR54 is also expressed in the ovary, suggesting a direct role for KPs in ovarian steroidogenesis...
August 14, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792084/genetic-control-of-complex-traits-with-a-focus-on-reproduction-in-pigs
#7
REVIEW
Louisa J Zak, Ann Helen Gaustad, Alfonso Bolarin, Marleen L W J Broekhuijse, Grant A Walling, Egbert F Knol
Reproductive traits are complex, and desirable reproductive phenotypes, such as litter size or semen quality, are true polygenetic traits determined by multiple gene regulatory pathways. Each individual gene contributes to the overall variation in these traits, so genetic improvements can be achieved using conventional selection methodology. In the past, a pedigree-based-relationship matrix was used; this is now replaced by a combination of pedigree-based- and genomic-relationship matrices. The heritability of reproductive traits is low to moderate, so large-scale data recording is required to identify specific, selectable attributes...
August 9, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786509/orchestrating-early-embryonic-divisions
#8
Xiaofei Bai, Joshua N Bembenek
In Caenorhabditis elegans, the syncytial germ line generates oocytes that undergo ovulation into the spermatheca, where they are fertilized. The fertilized embryos then undergo two meiotic divisions, followed by mitotic divisions before its deposition outside of the uterus. This series of events is depicted in the image, from germ line syncytium (top) to embryos (bottom). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
August 8, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782859/effect-of-supplementation-of-recombinant-regucalcin-in-extender-on-cryopreservation-of-spermatozoa-of-water-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis
#9
Harikrishna Pillai, Mehtab S Parmar, A M Shende, Jobin Thomas, Harikumar S, G Taru Sharma, S K Ghosh, A Kumaresan, S K Bhure
Elevated intracellular calcium concentration and oxidative damage are two major factors contributing to the poor fertility of cryopreserved spermatozoa. Regucalcin (RGN), also known as Senescence marker protein-30 (SMP-30), is a calcium-binding protein with multiple roles that include calcium homeostasis, anti-oxidative, anti-apoptosis, and anti-proliferation. In Drosophila, regucalcin is reportedly a putative cold-tolerance gene, and a cryoprotective role for regucalcin against intracellular calcium elevation and oxidative stress was reported in P19 cell lines...
August 7, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763574/social-status-and-housing-factors-affect-reproductive-performance-of-pregnant-sows-in-groups
#10
REVIEW
Janeen L Salak-Johnson
Group-housing systems for pregnant sows are considered a welfare-promoting alternative to the individual stall. A major concern associated with pregnant sows housed in group pens is increased aggression at mixing and at feeding, which may cause chronic stress among some of the sows in the group due to low feed intake and social stress. Prolonged activation of the stress axis, based on elevated cortisol levels, may inhibit or impair reproductive success via disruption of the reproductive axis. Mixing sows into groups shortly after insemination evokes a stress response, which may affect fertilization and implantation due to sustained, elevated cortisol levels that disrupt reproductive processes...
August 1, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749007/reactive-oxygen-species-as-mediators-of-sperm-capacitation-and-pathological-damage
#11
REVIEW
Robert J Aitken
Oxidative stress plays a major role in the life and death of mammalian spermatozoa. These gametes are professional generators of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which appear to derive from three potential sources: sperm mitochondria, cytosolic L-amino acid oxidases, and plasma membrane Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases. The oxidative stress created via these sources appears to play a significant role in driving the physiological changes associated with sperm capacitation through the stimulation of a cyclic adenosine monophosphate/Protein kinase A phosphorylation cascade, including the activation of Extracellular signal regulated kinase-like proteins, massive up-regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation in the sperm tail, as well as the induction of sterol oxidation...
July 27, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736970/report-from-the-2016-university-of-california-san-francisco-center-for-reproductive-sciences-retreat
#12
Paolo F Rinaudo, Marco Conti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 24, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731265/application-of-dead-end-knockout-zebrafish-as-recipients-of-germ-cell-transplantation
#13
Qian Li, Wataru Fujii, Kunihiko Naito, Goro Yoshizaki
Germ cell transplantation is a promising technology for the propagation of endangered or valuable fishes. In this technique, sterile male and female recipient fish are injected with donor germ cells so they can produce viable gametes derived from the donor cells. The dead end (dnd) gene is involved in the migration of primordial germ cells; therefore, dnd-knockout zebrafish are expected to be germ-cell-free, making them suitable recipients for germ cell transplantation. dnd mutants were produced by microinjecting 2 nl of 10 ng/μl cRNAs encoding zinc finger nucleases against dnd into the blastodisc of zebrafish embryos before the cell cleavage stage...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722155/metabolite-availability-as-a-window-to-view-the-early-embryo-microenvironment-in-vivo
#14
REVIEW
Kailun Hu, Yang Yu
A preimplantation embryo exists independent of blood supply, and relies on energy sources from its in vivo environment (e.g. oviduct and uterine fluid) to sustain its development. The embryos can survive in this aqueous environment because it contains amino acids, proteins, lactate, pyruvate, oxygen, glucose, antioxidants, ions, growth factors, hormones, and phospholipids - albeit the concentration of each component varies by species, stage of the estrous cycle, and anatomical location. The dynamic nature of this environment sustains the early development from the one-cell zygote to blastocyst, and is reciprocally influenced by the embryo at each embryonic stage...
July 19, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710864/localized-accumulation-of-cytosolic-calcium-near-the-fused-sperm-is-associated-with-the-calcium-and-voltage-dependent-block-of-sperm-entry-in-the-sea-urchin-egg
#15
Pedro I Ivonnet, Tatsuma Mohri, David H McCulloh
Interaction of the sperm and egg depolarizes the egg membrane, allowing the sperm to enter; however, if the egg membrane is not allowed to depolarize from its resting potential (e.g., by voltage-clamp), the sperm will not enter. Previous studies demonstrated that sperm entry into sea urchin eggs that are voltage-clamped at negative membrane potentials is regulated both by the egg's membrane potential and a voltage-dependent influx of calcium into the egg. In these cases, electrical or cytoplasmic continuity (sperm-egg membrane fusion) occurs at negative membrane potentials, but subsequent loss of cytoplasmic continuity results in failure of sperm entry (unfusion)...
July 15, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708332/oxidative-stress-and-cellular-and-tissue-damage-in-organogenic-outbred-mouse-embryos-after-moderate-perigestational-alcohol-intake
#16
Tamara A Coll, Gabriela Chaufan, Leticia Pérez-Tito, Martín R Ventureira, Cristian M A Sobarzo, María Del Carmen Ríos de Molina, Elisa Cebral
Perigestational alcohol consumption by CF-1 mouse, from before mating up to the period of embryo organogenesis, leads to retarded early embryo development and neural tube defects. Here, we addressed if perigestational alcohol ingestion up to Day 10 of pregnancy induces oxidative stress and changes in macromolecules and organ tissues of early organogenic embryos. Adult CF-1 female mice were administered 10% ethanol in their drinking water for 17 days prior to mating and until Day 10 of gestation, whereas control females were administered ethanol-free water...
July 14, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708258/creating-chimeras-embryonic-stem-cells-incorporated
#17
Osvaldo Bogado Pascottini, Daniel E Goszczynski, Alexandra L Nguyen
Gene modification within the murine genome has become a powerful and invaluable tool to investigate development. One example of the utility of such technology is providing a method by which researchers can follow cells throughout development via the introduced genetic modifications.
July 14, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700112/mammalian-blastocyst-mimicry
#18
Niccolò Bianchi, Marianna Longo, CarloAlberto Redi, Manuela Monti
A gradual restriction in stem cells potency is observed during the different stages of mammalian embryonic development, starting with the zygote, the totipotent stem cell par excellence, up to the blastocyst stage. Stem cells of the inner cell mass are endowed with pluripotent characteristic, being able to form cells of the three germ layers (ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm). Pluripotent stem cells retain proliferative capacity throughout the life of an individual, and divide asymmetrically, wherein one cell is the copy of the original stem cell while the other is programmed to begin the differentiation process...
July 12, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700107/cigarette-smoke-induces-rat-testicular-injury-via-mitochondrial-apoptotic-pathway
#19
He Lijuan, You Shuping, Gong Haiyan, Zhang Jing, Wang Li, Zhang Chen, Huang Yunfei, Zhong Chunxue, Zou Ying
An understanding of the causative mechanisms of the harmful effects of cigarette smoke on the male reproductive system remains incomplete. Here, we investigated three different inhaled cigarette smoke doses over five different exposure durations to identify how the testis is affected. The effects of cigarette smoke exposure on testicular germ cells were characterized by morphological changes and a significant elevation in the number of apoptotic cells. Caspase 3 activation increased dramatically after cigarette smoke exposure, accompanied by significant time-dependent expression of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bak (B cell lymphoma/leukemia 2 [Bcl-2] homologous antagonist killer), Bcl2l11 (a BH3 domain-only protein related to Bcl-2), Apaf1 (Apoptotic protease-activating factor-1), and Caspase 9...
July 12, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696579/scrotal-insulation-and-sperm-production-in-the-boar
#20
REVIEW
John J Parrish, Kilby L Willenburg, Katelynn M Gibbs, Kylie B Yagoda, Megan M Krautkramer, Teyanna M Loether, Fabiana C S A Melo
Seasonal infertility is a limiting factor in boar fertility, and is increasingly important as climate changes. Spermatogenesis in the boar produces 256 spermatozoa per type A1 spermatogonium, but the process is inefficient such that only 10-30% of these potential spermatozoa are actually produced. Heat further impacts spermatogenesis by reducing the number of specific germ cells produced while increasing the fraction of abnormal sperm. Early studies used whole-animal exposure to simulate seasonal exposure to heat under production settings, but this approach is associated with many confounding factors that make assessment of the mechanisms of heat-induced damage to spermatogenesis difficult...
July 11, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
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