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Molecular Reproduction and Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513911/sperm-capacitation-pretreatment-positively-impacts-bovine-intracytoplasmic-sperm-injection
#1
L Águila, F Zambrano, M E Arias, Felmer R
The efficiency of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in bovines is low compared to other species due in part to inadequate egg activation and sperm nucleus decondensation after injection. We hypothesized that this low efficiency is due to the lack of complete sperm capacitation, so we evaluated the effects of isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX) and methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) on bovine sperm capacitation and on the preimplantation developmental potential of bovine embryos generated by ICSI. Treatment with IBMX and MβCD decreased sperm viability (between 13 to 30%); nevertheless, 0...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513901/transcriptomic-profiling-reveals-disordered-regulation-of-surfactant-homeostasis-in-neonatal-cloned-bovines-with-collapsed-lungs-and-respiratory-distress
#2
Yan Liu, Yifan Rao, Xiaojing Jiang, Fanyi Zhang, Linhua Huang, Weihua Du, Haisheng Hao, Xueming Zhao, Dong Wang, Qiuling Jiang, Huabin Zhu, Xiuzhu Sun
Respiratory distress is a major cause of mortality in cloned neonatal animals, but its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Here, we used necropsy and histology procedures to evaluate the lungs of cloned neonatal bovines dying of respiratory distress, finding incomplete lung dilation, alveolar collapse, and thickened alveolar walls. Comparison of the transcriptomes between collapsed lungs of cloned bovines and their normal counterparts revealed 1373 differentially expressed genes in collapsed lungs (p < 0...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500669/anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-signalling-is-influenced-by-follistatin-288-but-not-fourteen-other-transforming-growth-factor-beta-superfamily-regulators
#3
Yui Kawagishi, Michael W Pankhurst, Yoshio Nakatani, Ian S McLennan
The hypothesis that, in contrast to other Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) superfamily ligands, the dose-response curve of Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is unmodulated was tested by examining whether known TGFB superfamily modulators affect AMH signalling, using a P19/BRE luciferase reporter assay. AMHC and AMHN,C activated the reporter with an EC50 of approximately 0.5 nM. Follistatins (FS) produced concentration-dependent increases in AMHC - and AMHN,C -inidiated reporter activity, with FS288 being more potent than FS315; however, the maximum bioactivity of AMH was not altered by either follistatin...
May 13, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488746/corpora-lutea-control-the-progression-of-small-antral-follicle-growth-in-the-pig-ovary
#4
Holly A LaVoie
The growth of activated ovarian primordial follicles into mature preovulatory follicles takes several months in sexually mature pigs. The penultimate growth period of small antral follicles, like the 0.5-mm diameter follicle shown on the upper right, occurs during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle. Small antral follicle growth is limited to 2-4 mm in diameter by the presence of functional corpora lutea, such as the one shown on the lower left. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
May 10, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481043/novel-agents-for-sperm-purification-sorting-and-imaging
#5
REVIEW
Jean M Feugang
The stringent selection of viable spermatozoa ensures the transmission of high-quality genetic material to the egg during fertilization. Sperm heterogeneity within or between ejaculates and between males obliges varied post-collection handling of semen to assure satisfactory fertility rates. The current techniques used to assess sperm generally detect non-viable and non-fertilizing gametes in the ejaculate, but do not permit the investigation of semen for improved of fertility outcomes. Advances in technology, however, have spurred the search for new approaches to enrich semen with high-quality spermatozoa and to track intra-uterine sperm migration...
May 8, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481028/preservation-of-chromosomal-integrity-in-murine-spermatozoa-derived-from-gonocytes-and-spermatogonial-stem-cells-surviving-prenatal-and-postnatal-exposure-to-%C3%AE-rays-in-mice
#6
Hiroyuki Watanabe, Atsushi Kohda, Jun-Ichiro Komura, Hiroyuki Tateno
Pre- and postnatal male mice were acutely (659 - 690 mGy/min) and continuously (0.303 mGy/min) exposed to 2 Gy γ-rays to evaluate spermatogenic potential and chromosome damage in their germ cells as adults. Acute irradiation on Days 15.5, 16.5, and 17.5 post-coitus affected testicular development, as a result of massive quiescent gonocyte loss; the majority of the seminiferous tubules in these testes were devoid of germ cells. Acute irradiation on Days 18.5 and 19.5 post-coitus had less effect on testicular development and spermatogenesis, even though germ cells were quiescent gonocytes on these days...
May 8, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475264/rfamide-related-peptide-3-and-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-ii-are-autocrine-paracrine-regulators-of-testicular-function-in-the-boar
#7
REVIEW
Clay A Lents, Jennifer F Thorson, Amy T Desaulniers, Brett R White
Widespread use of artificial insemination in swine requires millions of doses of boar semen each year. Subfertility of boars remains a major constraint, which can impact the reproductive efficiency of thousands of sows, so a better understanding of testicular function is needed in order to develop methods to improve semen production. With this in mind, the effects of RFamide-related peptide 3 (RFRP3) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone-II (GnRH-II) on gonadotropin secretion and testicular function of pigs are reviewed here...
May 5, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471514/developmental-competence-of-porcine-genome-edited-zygotes
#8
REVIEW
M A Gil, C A Martinez, A Nohalez, I Parrilla, J Roca, J Wu, P J Ross, C Cuello, J C Izpisua, E A Martinez
Genome editing in pigs has tremendous practical applications for biomedicine. The advent of genome editing technology, with its use of site-specific nucleases - including ZFNs, TALENs, and the CRISPR/Cas9 system - has popularized targeted zygote genome editing via one-step microinjection in several mammalian species. Here, we review methods to optimize the developmental competence of genome-edited porcine embryos and strategies to improve the zygote genome-editing efficiency in pigs.This article is protected by copyright...
May 4, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467682/transcriptional-control-of-genes-mediating-ovarian-follicular-growth-differentiation-and-steroidogenesis-in-pigs
#9
REVIEW
Holly A LaVoie
The pig is an agriculturally important species, so understanding its follicular dynamics and the transcriptional events that accompany such changes is critical to optimizing reproductive outcomes. Numerous small- to medium-size antral follicles are recruited and continue growth under the influence of gonadotropins and growth factors during the follicular phase of the porcine estrous cycle. Several of these follicles are selected to mature into large preovulatory follicles whose granulosa cells acquire luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors...
May 3, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464323/ssm1b-expression-and-function-in-germ-cells-of-adult-mice-and-in-early-embryos
#10
Sarayu Ratnam, Grazyna Bozek, Christopher Payne, Shannon Gallagher, Terence Martin, Ursula Storb
Strain-specific modifier of DNA methylation 1b (Ssm1b) is a Krüppel-associated box (KRAB) zinc finger gene that promotes CpG methylation in the mouse transgene HRD (Heavy chain enhancer, Rearrangement by Deletion). Ssm1b expression and concomitant HRD methylation are also present in the male and female germ cells of adult mice. Ssm1b is expressed in both diploid (2N) and haploid (1N) oocytes, as well as in 1N spermatids and spermatozoa, but not in 2N spermatogonia. Interestingly, Ssm1b mRNA is not detected in any other adult mouse organ examined, although Ssm1-family mRNAs are highly expressed in the heart...
May 2, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462533/protein-kinase-a-activity-leads-to-the-extension-of-the-acrosomal-process-in-starfish-sperm
#11
Keisuke Niikura, Md Shahanoor Alam, Masahiro Naruse, Mitsuru Jimbo, Hideaki Moriyama, Adrian Reich, Gary M Wessel, Midori Matsumoto
Acrosomal vesicles (AVs) of sperm undergo exocytosis during the acrosome reaction, which is immediately followed by the actin polymerization-dependent extension of an acrosomal process (AP) in echinoderm sperm. In the starfish Asterias amurensis, a large proteoglycan, acrosome reaction-inducing substance (ARIS), together with asteroidal sperm-activating peptide (asterosap) and/or cofactor for ARIS, induces the acrosome reaction. Asterosap induces a transient elevation of intracellular cGMP and Ca(2+) levels, and, together with ARIS, causes a sustained increase in intracellular cAMP and Ca(2+) ...
April 29, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452160/microrna-regulation-of-immune-events-at-conception
#12
REVIEW
S A Robertson, B Zhang, H Y Chan, D J Sharkey, S C Barry, T Fullston, J E Schjenken
The reproductive tract environment at conception programs the developmental trajectory of the embryo, sets the course of pregnancy, and impacts offspring phenotype and health. Despite the fundamental importance of this stage of reproduction, the rate-limiting regulatory mechanisms operating locally to control fertility and fecundity are incompletely understood. Emerging studies highlight roles for microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating reproductive and developmental processes and in modulating the quality and strength of the female immune response...
April 27, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452156/understanding-follicle-growth-in-vitro-are-we-getting-closer-to-obtaining-mature-oocytes-from-in-vitro-grown-human-follicles-of-humans
#13
REVIEW
Yilmaz Guzel, Ozgur Oktem
Obtaining and fertilizing mature oocytes from immature follicles that were grown outside the body has conceptually attracted scientists for centuries, with initial attempts first documented in the 19(th) century. Significant progress has been made since then, due in part to a better understanding of folliculogenesis and improved techniques of in vitro follicle growth. Indeed, in vitro growth is now considered a reasonable approach to preserve or restore fertility when immature follicles and their oocytes need to be grown and matured outside the body...
April 27, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452082/reproductive-tract-modifications-of-the-boar-sperm-surface
#14
REVIEW
Bart M Gadella
The sperm cell has a unique, polarized and segregated surface that is modified extensively by the changing environments in both the male and the female reproductive tracts. The sperm cannot refresh its surface, as protein translation and membrane recycling by intracellular vesicular transport have ceased upon its maturation. So, how is the sperm surface modified in the reproductive tracts and how do these processes affect fertilization? This review traces these modifications as boar sperm travels from their liberation from the Sertoli cell into the lumen of seminiferous tubules of the testis to the site of fertilization in the ampulla of the oviduct in the sow, via an artificial insemination route...
April 27, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436551/genomics-and-metabolomics-of-post-weaning-return-to-estrus
#15
REVIEW
Lea A Rempel, Gary A Rohrer, Danny J Nonneman
The weaning-to-estrus interval is a multifaceted trait that has the potential to substantially improve production efficiency in today's global swine industry, if variation in this measure can be reduced. Systems-biology approaches should help close the knowledge gap and increase selection tools and management strategies - such as gilt development programs, farrowing, and lactation feeding programs - to decrease the weaning-to-estrus interval. Metabolomics, the study of small compounds within biofluids and tissues, provides links between genotype and phenotype...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436137/insights-into-in-vitro-spermatogenesis-in-mammals-past-present-future
#16
REVIEW
Amir Fattahi, Zeinab Latifi, Tohid Ghasemnejad, Hamid Reza Nejabati, Mohammad Nouri
Considering the self-renewal and differentiation ability of pluripotent stem cells, some studies have pointed out the possibility of stem cell-derived sperm production. Most studies that test this hypothesis have been conducted on rodents, with some promising results; however, studies on humans are progressing slowly, and have encountered technical and ethical hurdles. Established methods to differentiate stem cells - including embryoid bodies, co-culturing, and various feeder cells - may provide a niche that is similar to in vivo conditions and resolve epigenetic abnormalities, but a gonadal-like three-dimensional structure is still required to produce germ cells with the correct imprinting...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418610/localization-patterns-of-the-ganglioside-gm1-in-human-sperm-are-indicative-of-male-fertility-and-independent-of-traditional-semen-measures
#17
Cristina Cardona, Queenie V Neri, Alana J Simpson, Melissa A Moody, G Charles Ostermeier, Eric K Seaman, Theodore Paniza, Zev Rosenwaks, Gianpiero D Palermo, Alexander J Travis
Semen analysis lacks a functional component and best identifies extreme cases of infertility. The ganglioside GM1 is known to have functional roles during capacitation and acrosome exocytosis. Here, we assessed whether GM1 localization patterns (Cap-Score™) correspond with male fertility in different settings: Study 1 involved couples pursuing assisted reproduction in a tertiary care fertility clinic, while Study 2 involved men with known fertility versus those questioning their fertility at a local urology center...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418600/validation-of-a-laboratory-developed-test-of-human-sperm-capacitation
#18
Melissa A Moody, Cristina Cardona, Alana J Simpson, T Timothy Smith, Alexander J Travis, G Charles Ostermeier
Sperm must undergo capacitation to become fertilization competent. Here we validated that monosialotetrahexosylganglioside (GM1 ) localization patterns, which were assessed in the Cap-Score™ Sperm Function Test, reflect a capacitated state in human sperm. First, we defined patterns representing sperm that do or do not respond to stimuli for capacitation. Sperm with "capacitated" patterns had exposed acrosomal carbohydrates and underwent acrosome exocytosis in response to calcium ionophore (A23187). Precision was evaluated by percent change of the Cap-Score measured for 50, 100, 150, and 200 sperm...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418219/alpha-2-macroglobulin-as-a-region-specific-secretory-protein-in-male-reproductive-tract-and-its-dynamics-during-sperm-transit-toward-the-female-spermatheca-in-the-blue-crab
#19
Thanyaporn Senarai, Rapeepun Vanichviriyakit, Shinji Miyata, Chihiro Sato, Prapee Sretarugsa, Wattana Weerachatyanukul, Ken Kitajima
A 250-kDa protein was isolated from fluid in the middle spermatic duct (MSD) of the blue crab (Portunus pelagicus). N-terminal and partial amino acid sequences revealed that this MSD-specific protein is highly similar to the plasma-enriched protein Alpha-2 macroglobulin (α2M). The P. pelagicus ortholog (Ppα2M) is a large glycoprotein possessing mannose and N-acetylglucosamine residues. Ppa2m mRNA was detected in the spermatic duct, androgenic gland, and hematopoietic tissue, whereas the protein was primarily observed in the apical cytoplasm of MSD epithelium and in the matrix of the acrosome of MSD sperm; distally within spermatic duct, Ppα2M was lost from the sperm membrane but remained in the sperm acrosome...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407435/sl15-a-seminal-plasma-derived-lectin-from-the-sperm-of-llama-lama-glama
#20
Renato Zampini, Sabrina Sequeira, Martin Eduardo Argañaraz, Silvana Andrea Apichela
The oviductal sperm reservoir of South American camelids is formed when sperm bind to N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) on the surface of oviductal epithelium. The aim of this study was to characterize the GalNAc-binding proteins on llama sperm, and to establish their origin. Sperm-adsorbed proteins were extracted with 0.5 M KCl in Hepes-balanced salts. Sperm-adsorbed and seminal plasma proteins were then subjected to ligand blotting for their GalNAc affinity, and the labeled bands were identified by mass spectrometry...
April 13, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
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