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Molecular Reproduction and Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106766/antioxidant-responses-and-deregulation-of-epigenetic-writers-and-erasers-link-oxidative-stress-and-dna-methylation-in-bovine-blastocysts
#1
Monalisa M Bomfim, Gabriella M Andrade, Maite Del Collado, Juliano R Sangalli, Patrícia K Fontes, Marcelo F G Nogueira, Flávio V Meirelles, Juliano C da Silveira, Felipe Perecin
Early mammalian embryos derived from in vitro fertilization are exposed to conditions distinct from the native oviduct-uterine environment, including atmospheric oxygen that promotes cellular oxidative stress and alters gene expression. High oxygen partial pressure during embryo development is associated with low pregnancy rates and increased embryonic apoptosis. We investigated how bovine embryos responded to high (20% O2 ) or low (5% O2 ) oxygen partial pressure during in vitro culture, evaluating levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as changes in the expression of oxidative stress- and epigenetic-related transcripts and miRNAs in blastocysts...
November 6, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095551/genetic-expansion-of-chaperonin-containing-tcp-1-cct-tric-complex-subunits-yields-testis-specific-isoforms-required-for-spermatogenesis-in-planarian-flatworms
#2
Jenna T Counts, Tasha M Hester, Labib Rouhana
Chaperonin-containing Tail-less complex polypeptide 1 (CCT) is a highly conserved, hetero-oligomeric complex that ensures proper folding of actin, tubulin, and regulators of mitosis. Eight subunits (CCT1-8) make up this complex, and every subunit has a homolog expressed in the testes and somatic tissue of the planarian flatworm Schmidtea mediterranea. Gene duplications of four subunits in the genomes of S. mediterranea and other planarian flatworms created paralogs to CCT1, CCT3, CCT4, and CCT8 that are expressed exclusively in the testes...
November 2, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068507/the-maternal-zygotic-transition-and-zygotic-activation-of-the-mnemiopsis-leidyi-genome-occurs-within-the-first-three-cleavage-cycles
#3
Phillip L Davidson, Bernard J Koch, Christine E Schnitzler, Jonathan Q Henry, Mark Q Martindale, Andreas D Baxevanis, William E Browne
The maternal-zygotic transition (MZT) describes the developmental reprogramming of gene expression marked by the degradation of maternally supplied gene products and activation of the zygotic genome. While the timing and duration of the MZT vary among taxa, little is known about early-stage transcriptional dynamics in the non-bilaterian phylum Ctenophora. We sought to better understand the extent of maternal mRNA loading and subsequent differential transcript abundance during the earliest stages of development by performing comprehensive RNA-sequencing-based analyses of mRNA abundance in single- and eight-cell stage embryos in the lobate ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi...
November 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064589/immunodetection-of-acetylated-alpha-tubulin-in-stony-corals-evidence-for-the-existence-of-flagella-in-coral-male-germ-cells
#4
Shinya Shikina, Yi-Ling Chiu, Chieh-Jhen Chen, Shih-Han Yang, Jack I-Chen Yao, Che-Chun Chen, Jiou-Di Wei, Zih-Fang Shao, Ching-Fong Chang
The molecular and cellular characteristics of male germ cell development remain largely unknown in corals. This study focused on the expression pattern of acetylated α-tubulin (Ac-α-Tu), which is involved in male germ cell development in various animals across taxa, to gain a better understanding of male germ cell development in the stony coral Euphyllia ancora. Immunohistochemical analysis of the different stages of male germ cells showed the presence of filamentous Ac-α-Tu in the early to late stages of male germ cells - such as spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and spermatids - and as well as in the flagella of mature sperm...
October 24, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024157/regulation-of-nonylphenol-induced-reproductive-toxicity-in-mouse-spermatogonia-cells-by-mir-361-3p
#5
Liyan Tang, Bo Zhao, Hui Zhang, Qiao Du, Jiang Zhu, Zhijiang Zhao, Ce Chen, Cheng Luo, Qiyuan Kang, Wenbing Yuan, Shaohua Bian, Hang Bi, Huimin Sun, Yingyi Li
Nonylphenol (NP) is an environmental chemical that affects apoptosis and male infertility. In our study, we found that a high concentration of NP could down-regulate the expression of microRNA-361-3p (miR-361-3p) in the murine GC-1 spermatogonia cell line and in vivo in murine spermatogonia. Additionally, one direct target of this miR, the 3' untranslated region of Killin (Klln) mRNA, was identified. Klln encodes a transcription factor that directly regulates the expression of Tp73 (transcriptionally active p73), whose encoded protein can up-regulate the expression of Puma (P53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis)...
October 12, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024220/differential-expression-of-key-subunits-of-swi-snf-chromatin-remodeling-complexes-in-porcine-embryos-derived-in-vitro-or-in-vivo
#6
Birgit Cabot, Yu-Chun Tseng, Jennifer S Crodian, Ryan Cabot
In vitro embryo production is an established method for both humans and animals, but is fraught with inferior development and health issues in offspring born after in vitro fertilization procedures. Analysis of epigenetic changes caused by exposure to in vitro conditions should shed light on potential sources of these phenotypes. Using immunocytochemistry, we investigated the localization and relative abundance of components associated with the SWI/SNF (Switch/Sucrose non-fermentable) chromatin-remodeling complex-including BAF155, BAF170, BAF180, BAF53A, BAF57, BAF60A, BAF45D, ARID1A, ARID1B, ARID2, SNF5, and BRD7-in oocytes and in in vitro-produced and in vivo-derived porcine embryos...
October 10, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981180/characterization-of-extracellular-ca-2-dependent-full-type-hyperactivation-in-ejaculated-boar-spermatozoa-preincubated-with-a-camp-analog
#7
Nagisa Otsuka, Hiroshi Harayama
Ejaculated boar spermatozoa exhibit two types of hyperactivation: full and non-full. Full-type hyperactivation is characterized by the asymmetrical bending of the entire middle piece-principal piece and a twisting/figure-eight-like trajectory, and can be induced by simple incubation with CaCl2 after preincubation with a cAMP analog (Sp-5,6-dichloro-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-benzimidazole-3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate [cBiMPS]). Here, we compared the sperm flagellar motility after treatments with elevators of [Ca(2+) ]i (cBiMPS/CaCl2 , thimerosal, procaine, and 4-aminopyridine) to characterize the regulatory mechanism of extracellular Ca(2+) -dependent, full-type hyperactivation in ejaculated boar spermatozoa, and examined the possible involvement of Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily C member 3 (TRPC3) in this event using the specific inhibitor Pyr3...
October 5, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976615/establishment-of-breast-tumor-spheroids-an-emerging-research-tool
#8
Azza Mohamed Akasha, J Julie Kim
Breast cancer research has historically relied on two model systems: two-dimensional cell culture systems and mouse models. These models, although very convenient, lack the functional phenotypic architecture of human tissue. Extrapolation of hormonal responses from models to human relevance also requires further investigation due to the anatomical, physiological, and biological differences. Three-dimensional spheroids provide alternative models as they better represent the architecture and maintain the histomorphological, functional, and micro-environmental features of the in vivo human tumor tissue...
October 4, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940399/capturing-chaotic-chromosomes-pairing-in-action
#9
Micka C Bertucci, Arunika Das, Harriet C Fitzgerald, Daniel E Goszczynski
Accurate chromosome segregation is critical for the formation of haploid gametes, and therefore healthy offspring. Errors in segregation result in aneuploidy, which increases exponentially with maternal age (Hassold and Hunt, 2001). Maternally aged mouse oocytes were recently found to exhibit premature sister chromatid separation due to reduced levels of Securin, an essential regulator of sister chromatid cohesion (Nabti et al, 2017). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
September 20, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856812/resolving-the-complexity-of-vitellogenins-and-their-receptors-in-the-tetraploid-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-ancient-origin-of-the-phosvitin-less-vtgc-in-chondrichthyean-fishes
#10
Øivind Andersen, Chunxia Xu, Gerrit Timmerhaus, Katrine Hånes Kirste, Ingun Naeve, Maren Mommens, Helge Tveiten
Egg yolk proteins are mainly derived from vitellogenin (Vtg), and serve as essential nutrients during early development in oviparous organisms. Vertebrate Vtgs are predominantly synthesized in the liver of maturing females, and are internalized by the oocyte after binding to specific surface receptors (VtgR). Here, we clarify the evolutionary history of vertebrate Vtgs, including the teleost VtgC, which lacks phosvitin, and investigate the repertoire of Vtgs and VtgRs in the tetraploid Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)...
August 30, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834577/from-phenologs-to-silent-suppressors-identifying-potential-therapeutic-targets-for-human-disease
#11
REVIEW
Andy Golden
Orthologous phenotypes, or phenologs, are seemingly unrelated phenotypes generated by mutations in a conserved set of genes. Phenologs have been widely observed and accepted by those who study model organisms, and allow one to study a set of genes in a model organism to learn more about the function of those genes in other organisms, including humans. At the cellular and molecular level, these conserved genes likely function in a very similar mode, but are doing so in different tissues or cell types and can result in different phenotypic effects...
August 23, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045767/the-oohs-and-oompahs-are-in-good-company
#12
EDITORIAL
Gary M Wessel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749007/reactive-oxygen-species-as-mediators-of-sperm-capacitation-and-pathological-damage
#13
REVIEW
Robert J Aitken
Oxidative stress plays a major role in the life and death of mammalian spermatozoa. These gametes are professional generators of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which appear to derive from three potential sources: sperm mitochondria, cytosolic L-amino acid oxidases, and plasma membrane Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases. The oxidative stress created via these sources appears to play a significant role in driving the physiological changes associated with sperm capacitation through the stimulation of a cyclic adenosine monophosphate/Protein kinase A phosphorylation cascade, including the activation of Extracellular signal regulated kinase-like proteins, massive up-regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation in the sperm tail, as well as the induction of sterol oxidation...
October 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736970/report-from-the-2016-university-of-california-san-francisco-center-for-reproductive-sciences-retreat
#14
Paolo F Rinaudo, Marco Conti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731265/application-of-dead-end-knockout-zebrafish-as-recipients-of-germ-cell-transplantation
#15
Qian Li, Wataru Fujii, Kunihiko Naito, Goro Yoshizaki
Germ cell transplantation is a promising technology for the propagation of endangered or valuable fishes. In this technique, sterile male and female recipient fish are injected with donor germ cells so they can produce viable gametes derived from the donor cells. The dead end (dnd) gene is involved in the migration of primordial germ cells; therefore, dnd-knockout zebrafish are expected to be germ-cell-free, making them suitable recipients for germ cell transplantation. dnd mutants were produced by microinjecting 2 nl of 10 ng/μl cRNAs encoding zinc finger nucleases against dnd into the blastodisc of zebrafish embryos before the cell- cleavage stage...
October 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722155/metabolite-availability-as-a-window-to-view-the-early-embryo-microenvironment-in-vivo
#16
REVIEW
Kailun Hu, Yang Yu
A preimplantation embryo exists independent of blood supply, and relies on energy sources from its in vivo environment (e.g., oviduct and uterine fluid) to sustain its development. The embryos can survive in this aqueous environment because it contains amino acids, proteins, lactate, pyruvate, oxygen, glucose, antioxidants, ions, growth factors, hormones, and phospholipids-albeit the concentration of each component varies by species, stage of the estrous cycle, and anatomical location. The dynamic nature of this environment sustains early development from the one-cell zygote to blastocyst, and is reciprocally influenced by the embryo at each embryonic stage...
October 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710864/localized-accumulation-of-cytosolic-calcium-near-the-fused-sperm-is-associated-with-the-calcium-and-voltage-dependent-block-of-sperm-entry-in-the-sea-urchin-egg
#17
Pedro I Ivonnet, Tatsuma Mohri, David H McCulloh
Interaction of the sperm and egg depolarizes the egg membrane, allowing the sperm to enter; however, if the egg membrane is not allowed to depolarize from its resting potential (e.g., by voltage-clamp), the sperm will not enter. Previous studies demonstrated that sperm entry into sea urchin eggs that are voltage-clamped at negative membrane potentials is regulated both by the egg's membrane potential and a voltage-dependent influx of calcium into the egg. In these cases, electrical or cytoplasmic continuity (sperm-egg membrane fusion) occurs at negative membrane potentials, but subsequent loss of cytoplasmic continuity results in failure of sperm entry (unfusion)...
October 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708332/oxidative-stress-and-cellular-and-tissue-damage-in-organogenic-outbred-mouse-embryos-after-moderate-perigestational-alcohol-intake
#18
Tamara A Coll, Gabriela Chaufan, Leticia Pérez-Tito, Martín R Ventureira, Cristian M A Sobarzo, María Del Carmen Ríos de Molina, Elisa Cebral
Perigestational alcohol consumption by CF-1 mouse, from before mating up to the period of embryo organogenesis, leads to retarded early embryo development and neural tube defects. Here, we addressed if perigestational alcohol ingestion up to Day 10 of pregnancy induces oxidative stress and changes in macromolecules and organ tissues of early organogenic embryos. Adult CF-1 female mice were administered 10% ethanol in their drinking water for 17 days prior to mating and until Day 10 of gestation, whereas control females were administered ethanol-free water...
October 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700107/cigarette-smoke-induces-rat-testicular-injury-via-mitochondrial-apoptotic-pathway
#19
Lijuan He, Shuping You, Haiyan Gong, Jing Zhang, Li Wang, Chen Zhang, Yunfei Huang, Chunxue Zhong, Ying Zou
An understanding of the causative mechanisms of the harmful effects of cigarette smoke on the male reproductive system remains incomplete. Here, we investigated three different inhaled cigarette smoke doses over five different exposure durations to identify how the testis is affected. The effects of cigarette smoke exposure on testicular germ cells were characterized by morphological changes and a significant elevation in the number of apoptotic cells. Caspase 3 activation increased dramatically after cigarette smoke exposure, accompanied by significant time-dependent expression of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bak (B cell lymphoma/leukemia 2 [Bcl-2] homologous antagonist killer), Bcl2l11 (a BH3 domain-only protein related to Bcl-2), Apaf1 (Apoptotic protease-activating factor-1), and Caspase 9...
October 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688214/uterine-molecular-changes-for-non-invasive-embryonic-attachment-in-the-marsupials-macropus-eugenii-macropodidae-and-trichosurus-vulpecula-phalangeridae
#20
Melanie K Laird, Jessica R Dargan, Lillian Paterson, Christopher R Murphy, Bronwyn M McAllan, Geoff Shaw, Marilyn B Renfree, Michael B Thompson
Pregnancy in mammals requires remodeling of the uterus to become receptive to the implanting embryo. Remarkably similar morphological changes to the uterine epithelium occur in both eutherian and marsupial mammals, irrespective of placental type. Nevertheless, molecular differences in uterine remodeling indicate that the marsupial uterus employs maternal defences, including molecular reinforcement of the uterine epithelium, to regulate embryonic invasion. Non-invasive (epitheliochorial) embryonic attachment in marsupials likely evolved secondarily from invasive attachment, so uterine defences in these species may prevent embryonic invasion...
October 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
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