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Molecular Reproduction and Development

Dongwon Kim, A L Johnson
Recruitment of a single follicle into the preovulatory hierarchy of the domestic hen ovary occurs from a small cohort of prehierarchal follicles measuring 6-8 mm in diameter. We have previously reported that granulosa cells (GC) collected from prehierarchal follicles express highest levels of membrane-localized follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) during follicle development, yet fail to initiate signaling via cAMP following short-term incubation with FSH. Consequently, GC from prehierarchal follicles remain in an undifferentiated state and lack the capacity for steroidogenesis due to a deficiency of cAMP-dependent STAR protein and CYP11A1 gene expression...
July 11, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Nasim Tabibnejad, Abbas Aflatoonian, Leila Motamedzadeh, Mehrdad Soleimani, Fatemeh Sadeghian-Nodoushan, Ali Reza Talebi
Cumulus cells features and embryo developmental events can be considered as non-invasive indicators for embryo selection and clinical outcomes. A combination of time-lapse morphokinetic parameters and cumulus cell apoptosis in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) was evaluated for predicting pregnancy outcome. We assessed a total of 547 embryos from 100 intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. Time-lapse records were interpreted in time to pronuclear fading (tPNf), time to 2 to 8 cells (t2-t8), direct cleavage, reverse cleavage, and also for the presence of multinucleation...
July 11, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Yilmaz Guzel, Gamze Bildik, Ece Dilege, Ozgur Oktem
We aimed in this study to explore if sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) reduces apoptosis of primordial follicles during cryopreservation of human ovarian cortical samples. Ovarian cortical tissue fragments obtained from young patients who underwent laparoscopic excision of benign ovarian cysts were used for the experiments. The samples were slow-frozen and thawed with and without S1P at 200 and 400μM, cultured for one day, and then were fixed and processed for both histomorphological assessment and detection of apoptosis with immunohistochemistry using apoptosis marker cleaved caspase-3...
July 11, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Marzieh Eskandari-Shahraki, Bruno Prud'homme, Puttaswamy Manjunath
Members of the Binder of SPerm (BSP) superfamily have been identified in both human and mouse epididymis. These proteins are known to bind sperm membrane and promote sperm capacitation. Studies suggest that BSPH2 might play a different role in sperm functions from its counterparts; however, the role of BSPH2 remains mainly unexplored. To investigate whether the absence of one member of the BSP family could affect fertility, mice lacking Bsph2 expression were generated using Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) associated 9 (Cas9) technology...
July 3, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Beibei Bie, Ya Wang, Liang Li, Huanle Fang, Libing Liu, Jin Sun
Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), a unique population of male germ cells with self-renewal ability, are the foundation for maintenance of spermatogenesis throughout the life of the male. Although many regulatory molecules essential for SSC self-renewal have been identified, the fundamental mechanism underlying how SSCs acquire and maintain their self-renewal activity remains largely to be elucidated. In recent years, many types of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been suggested to regulate the SSC self-renewal through multiple ways, indicating ncRNAs paly crucial roles in SSC self-renewal...
July 3, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Flavia R O de Barros, Fabíola F Paula-Lopes
Exposure of the preimplantation embryo to heat stress triggers a series of cellular, molecular and adaptive changes at the cost of a normal embryonic development. Heat stress disrupts the embryo cytoskeleton, intracellular calcium levels, mitochondrial function and induce apoptosis. Moreover, heat stress can act indirectly through induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to a variety of cellular damage. Embryonic resistance to heat shock is determined by factors such as genotype, developmental stage, apoptosis, redox status and regulatory molecules...
June 29, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Khatun Hafiza, Junki Egashira, Miki Sakatani, Naoki Takenouchi, Hideki Tatemoto, Yasuhiko Wada, Ken-Ichi Yamanaka
We investigated the effects of sericin on the developmental competence of bovine embryos exposed to heat stress (HS). Putative zygotes were cultured with sericin and subjected to HS (40.5°C for 6 h) on Day 2 or 7 followed by continuous culture at 38.5°C until Day 8. Day 2 HS significantly decreased blastocyst development on Day 8 as well as mitochondrial activity, and significantly increased the amount of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and TUNEL-positive cells, whereas Day 7 HS only significantly decreased mitochondrial activity and increased the number of TUNEL-positive cells in Day 8 blastocysts...
June 26, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Uros Midic, Kailey A Vincent, Kai Wang, Alyson Lokken, Ashley L Severance, Amy Ralston, Jason G Knott, Keith E Latham
Structural maintenance of chromosome flexible domain containing 1 (Smchd1) is a chromatin regulatory gene for which mutations are associated with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy and arhinia. The contribution of oocyte- and zygote-expressed SMCHD1 to early development was examined in mice (Mus musculus) using an siRNA knockdown approach. Smchd1 knockdown compromised long-term embryo viability, with reduced embryo nuclear volumes at the morula stage, reduced blastocyst cell number, formation and hatching, and reduced viability to term...
June 13, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Alejandra Elder Ontiveros, Cecilia S Blengini, Jorge López-Tello
Oviparity is an ancestral reproductive strategy in which females lay fertilized eggs to the environment. During development, the offspring rely solely on the resources provided by the yolk sac to favour growth and maturation. This type of nutrition is also known as "lecithotrophy." This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
June 13, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Bajram Berisha, Dieter Schams, Daniela Rodler, Fred Sinowatz, Michael W Pfaffl
The aim of this study was to characterize certain prostaglandin family members in the bovine corpus luteum (CL) during the oestrous cycle and pregnancy. The CL tissue was assigned to the following stages of the oestrous cycle: 1-2, 3-4, 5-7, 8-12, 13-16, >18 days (after regression) and of pregnancy: 1-2, 3-4, 6-7 and >8 months. In these samples, we investigated prostaglandin F2alpha (PTGF), prostaglandin E2 (PTGE) and their receptors (PTGFR, PTGER2, PTGER4), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), PTGF synthase (PTGFS) and PTGE synthase (PTGES)...
June 6, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Thomas A Delomas, Konrad Dabrowski
Adult triploid zebrafish Danio rerio have previously been reported to be all male. This phenomenon has only been reported in one other gonochoristic fish species, the rosy bitterling Rhodeus ocellatus, despite triploidy being induced in numerous species. To investigate the mechanism responsible, we first produced triploid zebrafish and observed gonad development. Histological sections of juvenile triploid gonads showed that primary growth oocytes were able to develop in the juvenile ovary, but no cortical alveolus or more advanced oocytes were found...
May 31, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Isabela Ramos
Oocytes are remarkable cells in the matter of accumulating macronutrients. Oviparous animals have evolved to produce germline cells that not only enter meiosis to generate a gamete, but also differentiate into a giant cell designed to support embryo growth. To accomplish that, an oocyte typically grows up to 5,000x its original size by accumulating macromolecules, which are collectively referred to as yolk. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
May 18, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Denise Laskowski, Patrice Humblot, Marc-André Sirard, Ylva Sjunnesson, Naveed Jhamat, Renée Båge, Göran Andersson
Insulin functions as a regulator of metabolism and plays an important role in reproduction. Hyperinsulinemia is often observed in obesity and diabetes type 2 and is known to impair fertility, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are only partly understood. Metabolic programming through epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation during embryonic development can lead to health implications for the offspring later in life. Our aim was to study the potential effect of hyperinsulinemia on gene expression and DNA methylation of embryos by adding insulin (0...
May 10, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Shichao Liu, Gerelchimeg Bou, Jianchao Zhao, Shimeng Guo, Jia Guo, Xiaogang Weng, Zhi Yin, Zhonghua Liu
Upregulation of Cdx2 expression in outer cells is a key event responsible for cell lineage segregation between inner cell mass (ICM) and trophoderm (TE) in mouse morula stage embryos. In TE cells, polarization can regulate Hippo and ROCK signaling to induce the nuclear location of YAP, which has been demonstrated to further induce the expression of Cdx2. However, we found that CDX2 expression could not be detected in the outer cells of porcine morula stage embryos and could be found in only some TE cells at the early blastocyst stage...
May 2, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Casey C Read, Gabby Willhelm, Paul W Dyce
Gap junctional coupling between cumulus cells is required for oocytes to reach developmental competence. Multiple connexins, which form these gap junctions, have been found within the ovarian follicles of several species including bovine. The aim of this study was to determine the role of connexin 43 (CX43) and its relationship to embryo development, after in vitro fertilization (IVF). Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were obtained from abattoir sourced, mixed breed, bovine ovaries. COCs were isolated from follicles ranging from 2 to 5 mm in size, representing the preselected follicle pool...
April 26, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Luke D Wilson, Omoyemwen A Obakpolor, Autumn M Jones, Abigail L Richie, Bryce D Mieczkowski, Gabriel T Fall, Rosine W Hall, Jon N Rumbley, Tim L Kroft
Fertilization, the fusion of sperm and oocyte to form a zygote, is the first and arguably the most important cell-cell interaction event in an organism's life. Forward and reverse genetic approaches in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have identified many genes that are required for gametogenesis and fertilization and thus are beginning to elucidate the molecular pathways that underlie these processes. We identified an allele of the spe-49 gene in a second filial generation (F2 ) mutagenesis screen for spermatogenesis-defective (spe) mutants...
April 25, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Yu-Qian Wang, Su-Ren Chen, Yi-Xun Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Aaron L Berenson, Scott E Baird
In Caenorhabditis briggsae hermaphrodites, spermatogenesis begins in the L4 larval stage and persists into early adulthood. Oogenesis begins after spermatogenesis; the sperm-to-oocyte transition is irreversible. The timing of this transition is believed to have evolved in response to selection to maximize the intrinsic growth rate. Sperm-to-oocyte transitions occurred early in Cbr-met-2 and Cbr-fem-3 mutants. These early transitions resulted in reduced brood sizes, but had little or no impact on the intrinsic growth rate...
April 25, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Alan M O'Doherty, Yvonne M O'Brien, John A Browne, Mary Wingfield, Lynne C O'Shea
A greater understanding of the key molecules associated with embryo development during human-assisted reproduction is imperative for the development of advanced diagnostics. Previous studies have shown that follicular microRNAs (miRNAs) are reliable markers of the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Leveraging the utility of miRNAs in PCOS, the aim of this study was to identify miRNAs in human granulosa cells that may be indicative of blastocyst development. Granulosa cells and oocytes were collected from the first follicle aspirated from patients undergoing oocyte retrieval for in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection...
April 25, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Xiwei Jia, Mingcan Zhou, Zhihua Zou, Peng Lin, Yilei Wang, Ziping Zhang
The role of microRNA (miRNA) in reproductive regulation is attracting increasingly more attention. In this study, we obtained 9,643,114 and 15,498,999 raw reads from the ovary and testis library of important farmed mud crab Scylla paramamosain, respectively. After data mining, a total of 4,096,464 and 11,737,973 mappable small RNA sequences remained for analysis. By mapping to the reference genome and expressed sequence tag (EST) of Daphnia pulex and other crabs, a total of 1,417 miRNAs were identified. On the basis of 1,417 miRNAs, 514 (36...
April 25, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
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