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Molecular Reproduction and Development

Debabrata Das, Reshef Tal
The biological concept of 'fitness' for any species is defined as reproductive success, which in turn depends on several environmental factors. In addition to nutritional availability, it depends on early embryonic survival rates. Particularly in animals with external fertilization, embryonic survival is greatly threatened by predators. To overcome this, oviparous (egg laying) animals avail two processes: i) production of large number of eggs in a single clutch and ii) faster embryonic development. Here using in vitro fertilized zebrafish (Danio rerio) eggs we show the key developmental time-points (in hours) of a growing embryo...
September 19, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Tristan Aguero, Zhigang Jin, Dawn Owens, Arun Malhotra, Karen Newman, Jing Yang, Mary Lou King
Dead-end1 expression is restricted to the vertebrate germline where it is believed to activate translation of mRNAs required to protect and promote that unique lineage. nanos1 is one such germline mRNA whose translation is blocked by a secondary mRNA structure within the ORF. Dead-end1 contains a canonical mRNA Recognition Motif (RRM1) in its N-terminus but also contains a less conserved RRM2. Here we provide a mechanistic picture of the nanos1 mRNA-Dead-end1 interaction in the Xenopus germline. We show that RRM1, but not RRM2, is required for binding nanos1...
September 19, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Naser Shokrzadeh, Mohammad Reza Alivand, Ali Abedelahi, Mohammad Bakhtiar Hessam Shariati, Behrooz Niknafs
BACKGROUND: Successful implantation of embryos requires endometrial receptivity. Calcitonin is one of the factors influencing implantation window. This study aimed to evaluate calcitonin effects on endometrial receptivity. To this end, the effects of calcitonin on the implantation window in the ovarian stimulation and the normal ovarian cycle were investigated by the morphological study of the endometrium as well as the expression of MSX.1, HB-EGF and miRNA Let-7a; then the mechanisms of calcitonin effects were studied through mTOR and ERK1/2 signaling pathways...
September 14, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Zhangying Jennie Chen, Kaitlin M Hitt, Hyebin H Roh, Cynthia Salas, Jessica Hornick, Francesca E Duncan
Mature eggs ovulated from the ovary are arrested in metaphase II and are characterized by a prominent meiotic spindle. The spindle is the cellular machinery responsible for properly segregating chromosomes in both mitosis and meiosis. Microtubules are the main components of the spindle and are composed of heterodimers of α- and β-tubulin organized in protofilaments. Post-translational modification-such as acetylation, phosphorylation, and glycylation-of tubulin regulates its function. Acetylation adds an acetyl group to lysine-40 residues on α-heterodimers, promoting spindle stability through regulating microtubule architecture and integrity...
September 14, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Roshni Patel, Gaurang Shah
Gonadotropin releasing hormone modulators (GnRH) are widely used in numerous reproductive conditions including infertility. Several clinical studies showed mixed results regarding the efficacy of GnRH modulators in PCOS patients. Along with this, few preclinical studies focus on the effect of GnRH modulators in PCOS induced animals. Therefore, the present study was designed to study the effect of Leuprolide and Cetrorelix on hormonal, metabolic and menstrual dysfunction PCOS rats. Pre-pubertal female rats were divided into four groups: group I received normal pellet diet and group II, III and IV received 40% high fat diet for 105 days...
September 11, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Cailing Li, Bo Yang, Peng Pan, Qian Ma, Yong Wu, Zeng Zhang, Xin Guo, Jing Ye, Yaoting Gui
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to play a key role in spermatogenesis. However, whether miRNAs influence androgen/androgen receptor (AR) signaling during spermatogenesis remains unclear. Using a bioinformatic approach, a potential miRNA, miR-130a, which could bind to Ar-3'UTR directly was identified. The expression pattern of miR-130a was further characterized by qRT-PCR. It was found that miR-130a was abundant in testis and its expression level was negatively correlated with age. Overexpression of miR-130a could inhibit AR expression both in vitro and in vivo...
September 6, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Jay Schinfeld, Fady Sharara, Randy Morris, Gianpiero D Palermo, Zev Rosenwaks, Eric Seaman, Steve Hirshberg, John Cook, Cristina Cardona, G Charles Ostermeier, Alexander J Travis
Semen analysis (SA) poorly predicts male fertility, because it does not assess sperm fertilizing ability. The percentage of capacitated sperm determined by GM1 localization ("Cap-Score™"), differs between cohorts of fertile and potentially infertile men, and retrospectively, between men conceiving or failing to conceive by intrauterine insemination (IUI). Here, we prospectively tested whether Cap-Score can predict male fertility with the outcome being clinical pregnancy within ≤3 IUI cycles. Cap-Score and SA were performed (n=208) with outcomes initially available for 91 men...
September 6, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Zvi Roth
The oocyte achieves its developmental competence through the lengthy process of folliculogenesis. It can therefore potentially be exposed to various stressors while enclosed in the follicle. Oocyte maturation relies mainly on maternal sources. These include nuclear, cytoplasmic, and molecular maturation, which involve DNA and RNA organization. Maternal transcripts are dominant through the first embryonic cleavages, up until embryonic genome activation. Thus, it is suggested that any perturbations during oocyte storage, in particular of the maternal transcripts, might lead to genetic and/or epigenetic changes, which might be further expressed in the developing embryo...
August 25, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Elma El Khouri, Marjorie Whitfield, Laurence Stouvenel, Archana Kini, Brigitte Riederer, Patrick Lores, Dorothee Romermann, Gabriella di Stefano, Joël R Drevet, Fabrice Saez, Ursula Seidler, Aminata Toure
Members of the Solute Carrier 26 (SLC26) family have emerged as important players in mediating anions fluxes across the plasma membrane of epithelial cells, in cooperation with the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) chloride channel. Among them, SLC26A3 acts as a chloride/bicarbonate exchanger, highly expressed in the gastrointestinal, pancreatic and renal tissues. In humans, mutations in the SLC26A3 gene were shown to induce congenital Chloride-Losing Diarrhea (CLD), a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by life-long secretory diarrhea...
August 17, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Dongwon Kim, Alan L Johnson
Ovarian follicle granulosa cells (GC) and theca tissue from the domestic hen express the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptors, VPAC1 and VPAC2, from the early stages of follicle growth (3-5 mm diameter) through the time of ovulation (Kim and Johnson, 2016). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
August 16, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Zhuqing Wang, Sandy Lee, Daniel Oliver, Shuiqiao Yuan, Chong Tang, Yue Wang, Huili Zheng, Wei Yan
Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase (PRPS) plays an important role in nucleotide biosynthesis by transferring pyrophosphate groups from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to ribose-5-phophate to form 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP)(Cunningham et al. 2014; de Brouwer et al. 2010). The PRPS family contains three members encoded by Prps1, Prps2 and Prps1l1 (de Brouwer et al. 2010; Taira et al. 1989). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
August 16, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Tao Lin, Jae Eun Lee, Jeong Won Kang, Reza K Oqani, Eun Seok Cho, Seong Bok Kim, Dong Il Jin
Poor-quality oocytes (those with 1 to 2 layers of cumulus cells) typically possess low meiotic competence and development. Prolonging the duration of in vitro maturation (IVM; 52 h) can enhance the maturation rate of poor-quality oocytes, but it does not improve subsequent embryonic development. This likely reflects the increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptosis seen in these oocytes compared with the non-prolonged IVM (44 h) group. Melatonin is a free radical scavenger, anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic agent that reported to enhance the quality of embryos by inhibiting ROS generation and apoptosis...
August 14, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Ladan Monsef, Parnaz Borjian Boroujeni, Mehdi Totonchi, Marjan Sabbaghian, Anahita Mohseni Meybodi
Genetic abnormalities have been considered a significant cause of male infertility. Increased expression of SPATA33 during the first wave of spermatogenesis indicates its possible association with the meiotic process. The aim of the current study was to investigate the genetic variations in the SPATA33 gene and its expression in patients with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA). A total of 100 Iranian NOA men with idiopathic infertility were taken as the case group. The control group comprised 100 fertile men who had at least one child...
August 10, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Asha Shahed, Kelly A Young
In vitro culture has been used to study different aspects of ovarian function; however, this technique has not been applied to study recrudescence, or the return of ovarian function in seasonally breeding species. In Siberian hamsters, exposure to inhibitory photoperiods induces declines in ovarian function, which are restored with photostimulation. Because these changes are mediated by changes in systemic gonadotropin (GT) secretion, we hypothesized that culturing photoregressed ovaries with GT would restore aspects of function and induce expression of key folliculogenic factors...
August 9, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Firas Ghouili, Pauline Roumaud, Luc J Martin
Within the seminiferous tubules of the testis, Gja1-encoded connexin43 plays a critical role in intercellular communication between Sertoli cells. These cells nurture, protect and stimulate the developing germ cells and spermatids. SOX transcription factors are known to play an important role in male fertility and sex determination; however, their physiological function and the identity of their target genes in postnatal Sertoli cells remain to be defined. Members of the activating protein-1 (AP-1) family have been shown to regulate Gja1 expression in myometrial and testicular cells and to physically interact with SOX members, suggesting that these transcription factors may regulate its expression within the testis...
August 6, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Liam R Dougherty, Leigh W Simmons
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 4, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Rowan M Karvas, Ying Yang, Toshihiko Ezashi, Danny J Schust, R Michael Roberts, Laura C Schulz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 4, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Bettina P Mihalas, Brendan J Houston, Ella S Green, Elizabeth Ann L Enninga, Eric A Rhon Calderón
Development and differentiation of primordial germ cells (PGCs) marks the origin of the gamete and is essential for sexual reproduction. During mouse embryogenesis, PGCs migrate from the base of the allantois through the embryonic hindgut to colonize the gonadal ridge and undergo mitotic proliferation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
August 4, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Dongwon Kim, Alan L Johnson
Recruitment of a single follicle into the preovulatory hierarchy of the domestic hen ovary occurs from a small cohort of prehierarchal follicles measuring 6-8 mm in diameter. We have previously reported that granulosa cells (GCs) collected from prehierarchal follicles express highest levels of membrane-localized follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) during follicle development, yet fail to initiate signaling via cAMP following short-term incubation with FSH. Consequently, GC from prehierarchal follicles remain in an undifferentiated state and lack the capacity for steroidogenesis due to a deficiency of cAMP-dependent STAR protein and CYP11A1 gene expression...
July 11, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Nasim Tabibnejad, Abbas Aflatoonian, Leila Motamedzadeh, Mehrdad Soleimani, Fatemeh Sadeghian-Nodoushan, Ali Reza Talebi
Cumulus cells features and embryo developmental events can be considered as noninvasive indicators for embryo selection and clinical outcomes. A combination of time-lapse morphokinetic parameters and cumulus cell apoptosis in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) was evaluated for predicting pregnancy outcome. We assessed a total of 547 embryos from 100 intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. Time-lapse records were interpreted in time to pronuclear fading (tPNf), time to 2 to 8 cells (t2-t8), direct cleavage, reverse cleavage, and also for the presence of multinucleation...
July 11, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
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