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Molecular Reproduction and Development

Yakun Wang, Xiaoqiong Hao, Jing Yang, Jia Li, Meijia Zhang
A surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland induces the expression of the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like factors, which triggers oocyte maturation, cumulus expansion, and ovulation. How LH induces EGF-like factor expression is unclear. In the present study, a rapid increase of phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) was observed after the activation of LH receptor by human chorionic gonadotropin. Large antral follicles from equine chorionic gonadotropin-primed mice were cultured in medium with LH to stimulate the expression of EGF-like factors...
October 22, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
M P Machado, I Matos, A R Grosso, M Schartl, M M Coelho
Sex determination is a highly variable process that utilizes many different mechanisms to initiate the cascade of differentiation processes. The molecular pathways controlling sexual development are less conserved than previously assumed, and appear to require active maintenance in some species; indeed, the developmental decision of gonad phenotype in gonochoristic species is not fixed at an early developmental stage. Much of the knowledge about sex determination mechanisms was derived from research on gonochoristic, non-seasonal breeders...
October 22, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Ahmed Bulldan, Mazen Shihan, Sandra Goericke-Pesch, Georgios Scheiner-Bobis
A gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-A) implant induces hormonal castration in dogs that is associated with reduced prostate and testes size. We address the molecular events associated with hormonal castration by examining GnRH-A effects on expression and phosphorylation of a number of key signaling proteins. Male beagles were treated for 5 months with a GnRH-A implant, and then surgically castrated at 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 weeks after implant removal; untreated animals served as controls. GnRH-A treatment led to activation of c-Raf, Erk1/2, and p53 in the testes...
October 20, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Lili Ni, Hongchang Xie, Li Tan
The transcription factor FOXJ3 (Forkhead box J3) is highly expressed in spermatogonia and meiotic spermatocytes within mouse testes. Here, we addressed how FOXJ3 might participate in spermatogenesis using two conditional knockout mouse models in which the Foxj3 was deleted from either spermatogonia or meiotic spermatocytes. Both models exhibited complete male sterility, but distinct etiologies: Deleting FOXJ3 from spermatogonia using Foxj3(flox/flox) , Mvh-Cre mice caused Sertoli-cell-only syndrome in males...
October 14, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Junko Nio-Kobayashi, Hazirah B Z Abidin, Jeremy K Brown, Toshihiko Iwanaga, Andrew W Horne, W Colin Duncan
Sialylation creates a negative charge on the cell surface that can interfere with blastocyst implantation. For example, α2,6-sialylation on terminal galactose, catalyzed by the sialyltransferase ST6GAL1, inhibits the binding of galectin-1, a β-galactoside-binding lectin. We recently reported the potential involvement of galectin-1 and -3 in the pathogenesis of tubal ectopic pregnancy; however, the precise role of galectins and their ligand glycoconjugates remain unclear. Here, we investigated the expression of the genes encoding α2,3- and α2,6-galactoside sialyltransferases (ST3GAL1 - 6 and ST6GAL1 - 2) and the localization of sialic acids in the Fallopian tube of women with or without ectopic implantation...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Vincent Picard, Odile Mulner-Lorillon, Jérémie Bourdon, Julia Morales, Patrick Cormier, Anne Siegel, Robert Bellé
Sea urchin eggs exhibit a cap-dependent increase in protein synthesis within minutes after fertilization. This rise in protein synthesis occurs at a constant rate for a great number of proteins translated from the different available mRNAs. Surprisingly, we found that cyclin B, a major cell-cycle regulator, follows a synthesis pattern that is distinct from the global protein population, so we developed a mathematical model to analyze this dissimilarity in biosynthesis kinetic patterns. The model includes two pathways for cyclin B mRNA entry into the translational machinery: one from immediately available mRNA (mRNAcyclinB) and one from mRNA activated solely after fertilization (XXmRNAcyclinB)...
October 4, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Xiang-Wei Kong, Dong-Hui Wang, Cheng-Jie Zhou, Hong-Xia Zhou, Cheng-Guang Liang
Kinesin family member 1B (KIF1B) is an important microtubule-dependent monomeric motor in mammals, although little is known about its role in meiosis. We profiled KIF1B expression and localization during oocyte maturation and early embryonic development in mice, revealing a dynamic pattern throughout meiotic progression. Depletion or inhibition of KIF1B leads to abnormal polar body extrusion, disordered spindle dynamics, defects in chromosome congression, increased aneuploidy, and impaired embryonic development...
October 3, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Ripla Arora, Diana J Laird
Sertoli cells in the adult testis serve a secretory function and have a key structural role in the blood testis barrier (BTB). The BTB prevents meiotic spermatocytes from entering the blood and mounting an immune response. Spermatogonial maturation proceeds from the periphery of the seminiferous tubules towards the lumen, while maintaining constant contact with Sertoli cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
October 3, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Vidisha Minhas, Abhinav Shrestha, Neerja Wadhwa, Rita Singh, Satish Kumar Gupta
Improvements in long-term female contraception can be achieved by vaccinating with sperm-derived proteins. Here, recombinant proteins comprising either (i) N- (amino acid residues 1-80) or C- (amino acid residues 76-126) terminal fragments of mouse sperm protein 17 (Sp17) fused to the promiscuous T non-B cell epitope of tetanus toxoid (TT), amino acid residues 830-844 followed by di-lysine linker (KK) (TT-KK-Sp17N or TT-KK-Sp17C , respectively) or (ii) mouse equatorin (amino acid residues 21-185) fused to the T non-B cell epitope of bovine RNase (amino acid residues 94-104) were expressed in Escherichia coli...
September 27, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Yun-Wei Pang, Ye-Qing Sun, Xiao-Long Jiang, Zi-Qiang Huang, Shan-Jiang Zhao, Wei-Hua Du, Hai-Sheng Hao, Xue-Ming Zhao, Hua-Bin Zhu
We aimed to investigate the effect of melatonin on bovine frozen-thawed semen and its impact on fertilization outcome. Plasma membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity, acrosome integrity, and levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured in spermatozoa treated with different concentrations of melatonin. Melatonin-treated spermatozoa were then used for in vitro fertilization, followed by analysis of subsequent embryo development and the expression of apoptosis- and antioxidant-related genes...
September 21, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Ruxue Wei, Xueming Zhao, Haisheng Hao, Weihua Du, Huabin Zhu
The rabbit is considered an important model animal from which to obtain embryonic stem cells because of the utility of this animal in physiology and reproductive research. Here, we derived rabbit ES-like (rES-like) cells from blastocysts of superovulated Japanese white rabbits using culture medium containing 10(-7)  M melatonin, 10 ng/mL basic fibroblast growth factor, and 1,000 IU/mL human leukemia inhibitory factor. This concentration of melatonin had the most significant positive effects on the proliferation inner cell mass-derived cells (improving rates from 19...
September 20, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Yoshie A Fujioka, Asuka Onuma, Wataru Fujii, Koji Sugiura, Kunihiko Naito
Cyclin B (CCNB) accumulation is essential for regulating maturation/M-phase promoting factor activity during vertebrate oocyte maturation. Anaphase-promoting-complex/cyclosome (APC/C) degrades CCNB, allowing the cell cycle to progress; this complex is inhibited by Early mitotic inhibitors 1 and 2 (EMI1 and EMI2). The involvement of both EMI proteins in meiotic maturation has been reported in Xenopus and mouse oocytes, although a recent study described a marked difference in their respective function during meiotic resumption...
September 20, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Anna Shaliutina-Kolešová, Petr Kotas, Jan Štěrba, Marek Rodina, Borys Dzyuba, Jacky Cosson, Otomar Linhart
The purpose of the study was to analyze seminal plasma composition, sperm production, and sperm motility over the course of the spawning season in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The highest mean percent of motile sperm (carp, 98.3 ± 1.6%; rainbow trout, 92.8 ± 5.6%) and highest spermatozoon velocity (carp, 286.3 ± 7.8 μm sec(-1) ; rainbow trout, 245.3 ± 8.3 μm sec(-1) ) were observed in the middle phase of the spawning period, at 5 sec post-activation...
September 19, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
T Ángeles-Floriano, A L Roa-Espitia, R Baltiérrez-Hoyos, J Cordero-Martínez, G Elizondo, E O Hernández-González
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates the toxicity of a variety of environmental chemicals. The absence of this receptor causes serious reproductive complications. Ahr-knockout (Ahr-KO) male mice, for example, are considerably less fertile: Half of the few spermatozoa they produce exhibit morphological alterations, and those with typical morphology may have pathologic modifications. We therefore investigated the consequences of AHR loss on capacitation and the acrosome reaction, and asked if these effects are a consequence of changes to actin polymerization and the expression of Cdc42, which encodes Cell division control protein 42 (CDC42), a RHO protein that controls assembly of the actin cytoskeleton in somatic cells as well as during spermatogenesis...
September 16, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Kathryn Atwell, Sara-Jane Dunn, James M Osborne, Hillel Kugler, E Jane Albert Hubbard
Computational models are an invaluable tool in modern biology. They provide a framework within which to summarize existing knowledge, enable competing hypotheses to be compared qualitatively and quantitatively, and to facilitate the interpretation of complex data. Moreover, models allow questions to be investigated that are difficult to approach experimentally. Theories can be tested in context, identifying the gaps in our understanding and potentially leading to new hypotheses. Models can be developed on a variety of scales and with different levels of mechanistic detail, depending on the available data, the biological questions of interest, and the available mathematical and computational tools...
September 13, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Jiaxue Cao, Caihong Wei, Shuzhen Zhang, Terence D Capellini, Li Zhang, Fuping Zhao, Li Li, Tao Zhong, Linjie Wang, Lixin Du, Hongping Zhang
Extensive variation in reproduction has arisen in Chinese Mongolian sheep during recent domestication. Hu and Small-tailed Han sheep, for example, have become non-seasonal breeders and exhibit higher fecundity than Tan and Ujumqin breeds. We therefore scanned reproduction-related single-nucleotide variations from methylated DNA-immunoprecipitation sequencing data generated from each of those four breeds to uncover potential mechanisms underlying this variation. We generated a high-quality map of single nucleotide variations (SNVs) in DNA methylation enriched regions, and found that the majority of variants are located within non-coding regions...
September 13, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Jean-Ju Chung
The'sugarcoat', a dense carbohydrate coat (glycocalyx), is critical to cell-to-cell recognition, including sperm-egg interactions. Lectins are used to probe the localization of glycoproteins on the cell surface, and to track their changes during sperm maturation and capacitation (Tecle and Gagneux, 2015, Mol. Reprod. Dev 82:635-650). Among them, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) binds to the sperm head, cytoplasmic droplet, midpiece, as well as the principal piece and end piece of the sperm tail (Fabrega et al, 2012, Reprod...
September 3, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Hui Liu, Erica V Todd, Mark P Lokman, Melissa S Lamm, John R Godwin, Neil J Gemmell
Teleost fish exhibit remarkably diverse and plastic patterns of sexual development. One of the most fascinating modes of plasticity is functional sex change, which is widespread in marine fish including species of commercial importance; however, the regulatory mechanisms underlying such sex change remain elusive. In this review, we explore such sexual plasticity in fish, using the bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum) as the primary model. Synthesizing current knowledge, we propose that cortisol and key neurochemicals modulate gonadotropin releasing hormone and luteinizing hormone signaling to promote socially controlled sex change in protogynous fish...
August 20, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Stefan Siebert, Celina E Juliano
Mechanisms of sex determination vary greatly among animals. Here we survey what is known in Cnidaria, the clade that forms the sister group to Bilateria and shows a broad array of sexual strategies and sexual plasticity. This observed diversity makes Cnidaria a well-suited taxon for the study of the evolution of sex determination, as closely related species can have different mechanisms, which allows for comparative studies. In this review, we survey the extensive descriptive data on sexual systems (e.g. gonochorism and hermaphroditism) and the plasticity of sex in various cnidarian taxa...
August 17, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Harvey M Florman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
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