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Environmental Geochemistry and Health

Thilo Rennert, Jörg Rinklebe
European floodplain soils are frequently contaminated with potentially toxic inorganic substances. We used a multi-surface model to estimate the aqueous concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in three Mollic Fluvisols from the Central Elbe River (Germany). The model considered complexation in solution and interactions with soil organic matter (SOM), a clay mineral and hydrous Al, Fe and Mn oxides. The amounts of reactive metals were derived from extraction with 0.43 M HNO3. Modelling was carried out as a function of pH (soil pH ± 1...
May 24, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Ričardas Taraškevičius, Rimantė Zinkutė, Laura Gedminienė, Žilvinas Stankevičius
The research is based on analysis data of Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, V, Zn (metals) and S in the hair of 47 girls and 63 boys from eight Vilnius kindergartens and the distribution pattern of high metal concentrations and bioavailability in snow-cover dust, also dust samples from vents of characteristic pollution sources. The kindergartens were selected according to topsoil total contamination index and dust-related indices. Significantly higher Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn concentrations in the hair of girls (means are 1.1, 1.9, 1...
May 23, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Stephanie Mesías Monsalve, Leonardo Martínez, Karla Yohannessen Vásquez, Sergio Alvarado Orellana, José Klarián Vergara, Miguel Martín Mateo, Rogelio Costilla Salazar, Mauricio Fuentes Alburquenque, Dante D Cáceres Lillo
Air quality in schools is an important public health issue because children spend a considerable part of their daily life in classrooms. Particulate size and chemical composition has been associated with negative health effects. We studied levels of trace element concentrations in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in indoor versus outdoor school settings from six schools in Chañaral, a coastal city with a beach severely polluted with mine tailings. Concentrations of trace elements were measured on two consecutive days during the summer and winter of 2012 and 2013 and determined using X-ray fluorescence...
May 23, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Yin Zhong, Dan Li, Xifen Zhu, Weilin Huang, Ping'an Peng
Reliable quantifications of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) not only ensure compliance with laws and regulations on the use of BFRs in commercial products, but also is key for accurate risk assessments of BFRs. Acetone is a common solvent widely used in the analytical procedure of BFRs, but our recent study found that acetone can react with some BFRs. It is highly likely that such reactions can negatively affect the quantifications of BFRs in environmental samples. In this study, the effects of acetone on the extraction yields of three representative BFRs [i...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Yohan Jayawardhana, S S Mayakaduwa, Prasanna Kumarathilaka, Sewwandi Gamage, Meththika Vithanage
The potential of biochar, produced from fibrous organic fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW), for remediation of benzene, one of the frequently found toxic volatile organic compounds in landfill leachate, was investigated in this study based on various environmental conditions such as varying pH, benzene concentration, temperature and time. At the same time, landfill leachate quality parameters were assessed at two different dump sites in Sri Lanka: Gohagoda and Kurunegala. MSW biochar (MSW-BC) was produced by slow temperature pyrolysis at 450 °C, and the physiochemical characteristics of the MSW-BC were characterized...
May 17, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Jinglan Feng, Hao Yu, Kai Mi, Xianfa Su, Yunqi Chen, Jian-Hui Sun, Qilu Li
The pollution characteristics of PM2.5 and correlation analysis with meteorological parameters in Xinxiang during the Shanghai Cooperation Organization Prime Ministers' Meeting were investigated. During the whole meeting, nine PM2.5 samples were collected at a suburban site of Xinxiang, and the average concentration of PM2.5 was 122.28 μg m(-3). NO3(-), NH4(+), SO4(2-) accounted for 56.8% of the total water-soluble ions. In addition, with an exception of Cl(-), all of water-soluble ions decreased during the meeting...
May 16, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Xiaosi Su, Geng Cui, Huang Wang, Zhenxue Dai, Nam-Chil Woo, Wenzhen Yuan
As one of the important elements of controlling the redox system within the hyporheic and hypolentic zone, sulfur is involved in a series of complex biogeochemical processes such as carbon cycle, water acidification, formation of iron and manganese minerals, redox processes of trace metal elements and a series of important ecological processes. Previous studies on biogeochemistry of the hyporheic and hypolentic zones mostly concentrated on nutrients of nitrogen and phosphorus, heavy metals and other pollutants...
May 13, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Rachael Martin, Kim Dowling, Scott Nankervis, Dora Pearce, Singarayer Florentine, Stafford McKnight
Exposure studies have linked arsenic (As) ingestion with disease in mining-affected populations; however, inhalation of mine waste dust as a pathway for pulmonary toxicity and systemic absorption has received limited attention. A biologically relevant extractant was used to assess the 24-h lung bioaccessibility of As in dust isolated from four distinct types of historical gold mine wastes common to regional Victoria, Australia. Mine waste particles less than 20 µm in size (PM20) were incubated in a simulated lung fluid containing a major surface-active component found in mammalian lungs, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine...
May 12, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Miloš Miler
Detailed SEM/EDS investigation of used dental amalgams was carried out in order to characterise morphology and chemical composition of secondary metal-bearing phases resulting from long-term exposure of dental amalgam to oral environment, and assess their solubility in gastric environment. The investigation revealed numerous secondary phases, represented by compositionally and morphologically complex Hg-, Cu-, Sn-, Ag-, Zn-bearing sulphides and oxides/hydroxides, while sulphates and phosphates are scarce. Secondary metal-bearing phases mostly occur at the amalgam/tooth interface; however, some phases were found only on the occlusal surfaces of amalgam...
May 9, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Geir Bjørklund, Jan Aaseth, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Mauricio A Urbina, Riaz Uddin
Worldwide chronic arsenic (As) poisoning by arsenic-contaminated groundwater is one of the most threatening public health problems. Chronic inorganic As (inAs) exposure has been associated with various forms of cancers and numerous other pathological effects in humans, collectively known as arsenicosis. Over the past decade, evidence indicated that As-induced epigenetic modifications have a role in the adverse effects on human health. The main objective of this article is to review the evidence on epigenetic modifications induced by arsenicals...
May 8, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Hazzeman Haris, Ley Juen Looi, Ahmad Zaharin Aris, Nor Farhanna Mokhtar, Nur Ain Ayunie Ayob, Fatimah Md Yusoff, Abu Bakar Salleh, Sarva Mangala Praveena
The aim of the present study was to appraise the levels of heavy metal contamination (Zn and Pb) in sediment of the Langat River (Selangor, Malaysia). Samples were collected randomly from 15 sampling stations located along the Langat River. The parameters measured were pH, redox potential, salinity, electrical conductivity, loss of ignition, cation exchanges capacity (Na, Mg, Ca, K), and metal ions (Zn and Pb). The geo-accumulation index (I geo) and contamination factor (C f) were applied to determine and classify the magnitude of heavy metal pollution in this urban river sediment...
May 8, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Yonggang Xue, Xiaoping Wang, Ping Gong, Tandong Yao
PAHs could be transported to Tibetan Plateau in accompany with atmospheric circulation. The forest regions were found be an important sink for PAHs, while their distributions and migrations in forest are still uncertain. In this study, soil profile samples were collected in southeastern Tibet and the concentrations, distributions, and migration of PAHs in forest region were investigated. The PAHs levels in the forest soils were at the low end of remote sites, ranged from 27.4 to 120.3 ng g(-1) on a dry weight based...
May 5, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Hongwei Pan, Hongjun Lei, Xiaosong He, Beidou Xi, Qigong Xu
Soil and groundwater samples were collected from paddy fields in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River Basin to study the occurrence and the risks associated with organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in soil and groundwater. Results showed that OCPs and OPPs were widely distributed throughout the study area. The levels of OCPs and OPPs in the soil were much lower than those specified by soil quality standards. However, the levels of four OCPs (heptachlors, aldrin, dieldrin, and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane) in groundwater were higher than those permitted by drinking water standards...
May 5, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Shengtao Ma, Guofa Ren, Xiangying Zeng, Zhiqiang Yu, Guoying Sheng, Jiamo Fu
A number of studies have reported on the exposure of e-waste dismantling workers to significantly high concentrations of halogenated organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Such exposure can have adverse health effects. However, little information on the metabolites of these contaminants exists. In this study, we investigated PCBs levels and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCB) in the serum of e-waste workers in Taizhou in eastern China. Our results indicate elevated PCB and OH-PCB levels in the serum of the workers, with medians of 443...
May 5, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Lv Xu, Qin Sun, Shiming Ding, Mengdan Gong, Chaosheng Zhang
Diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT) is a dynamically passive sampling technique which has been applied increasingly to the environmental monitoring field. In the preliminary period, the DGT with zirconium hydroxide-silver iodide as the binding phase (ZrO-AgI DGT) has been developed for the determination of sulfide (S(II)). On this basis, this paper developed its determination method for inorganic arsenite (As(III)) to further realize the simultaneous and high-resolution measurements of labile inorganic As and S(II) in sediments...
May 5, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Ean M Garvin, Cas F Bridge, Meredith S Garvin
Metal releases from the Tri-State Mining District (TSMD) that is located in southwestern Missouri, southeastern Kansas, and northeastern Oklahoma, have contaminated floodplain soils within the Neosho and Spring river watersheds of the Grand Lake watershed. Since the Oklahoma portion of the watershed lies within ten tribal jurisdictions, the potential accumulation of metals within plant species that are gathered and consumed by tribal members, as well as the resulting metal exposure risks to tribal human health, was a warranted concern for further investigation...
May 2, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Zhuo Guan, Xiang-Yu Tang, Jae E Yang, Yong Sik Ok, Zhihong Xu, Taku Nishimura, Brian J Reid
Excessive transport of fine sediment, and its associated pollutants, can cause detrimental impacts in aquatic environments. It is therefore important to perform accurate sediment source apportionment to identify hot spots of soil erosion. Various tracers have been adopted, often in combination, to identify sediment source type and its spatial origin; these include fallout radionuclides, geochemical tracers, mineral magnetic properties and bulk and compound-specific stable isotopes. In this review, the applicability of these techniques to particular settings and their advantages and limitations are reviewed...
April 28, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Dong-Wan Cho, Sohyun Kim, Yiu Fai Tsang, Hocheol Song
Nitrogen-doped copper-biochar (N-Cu-biochar) was synthesized via pyrolysis of glucose in the presence of copper and melamine and used as a catalyst in the reduction of p-nitrophenol by NaBH4. N-Cu-biochar was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface analyzer. The catalytic performance of N-Cu-biochar was evaluated under varying conditions of NaBH4 concentration, biochar dosage, and initial p-nitrophenol concentration...
April 28, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Jechan Lee, Yiu Fai Tsang, Jeong-Ik Oh, Seokmann Hong, Changsung Kim, Eilhann E Kwon
Lipid derivatization technology-mediated fatty acid profiling studies have been suggested to dissect the contents of lipids in white fat and brown fat tissue. The focus of this study is to profile fatty acid lipidomics in brown adipose tissue and white adipose tissue of mice by derivatizing their lipids into fatty acid methyl esters via in situ transmethylation using a rice husk-derived biochar as porous media. The in situ transmethylation using biochar is advantageous in biological analysis because there was no loss of samples inevitably occurring in the loss of lipid in solvent extraction and purification steps...
April 28, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Zahra Derakhshan Nejad, Myung Chae Jung, Ki-Hyun Kim
The major frequent contaminants in soil are heavy metals which may be responsible for detrimental health effects. The remediation of heavy metals in contaminated soils is considered as one of the most complicated tasks. Among different technologies, in situ immobilization of metals has received a great deal of attention and turned out to be a promising solution for soil remediation. In this review, remediation methods for removal of heavy metals in soil are explored with an emphasis on the in situ immobilization technique of metal(loid)s...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
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