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Brain Topography

Koya Yamashiro, Daisuke Sato, Hideaki Onishi, Kazuhiro Sugawara, Naofumi Otsuru, Hikari Kirimoto, Sho Nakazawa, Yudai Yamazaki, Hiroshi Shirozu, Atsuo Maruyama
Our previous demonstration that the M100 somatosensory evoked magnetic field (SEF) has a similar temporal profile, dipole orientation and source location whether induced by activation (ON-M100) or deactivation (OFF-M100) of electrical stimulation suggests a common cortical system to detect sensory change. While we have not recorded such change-driven components earlier than M100 using electrical stimulation, clear M50 responses were reported using both ON and OFF mechanical stimulation (Onishi et al. in Clin Neurophysiol 121:588-593, 2010)...
November 15, 2018: Brain Topography
S Prinsloo, D I Rosenthal, R Lyle, S M Garcia, S Gabel-Zepeda, R Cannon, E Bruera, L Cohen
Acute pain from mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) undergoing radiation therapy (RT) is common, and may not respond well to narcotics. We used low resolution electromagnetic tomography z-score neurofeedback (LFBz) to investigate whether patients could modify brain wave activity associated with acute pain and whether this would reduce the experience of pain. HNC patients scheduled for RT had baseline pre-pain onset measures (EEG and numeric rating scale) collected before RT and then at pain onset before using analgesics, after each LFBz session and at the end of RT...
November 13, 2018: Brain Topography
Arran T Reader, Nicholas P Holmes
Results from neuropsychological studies, and neuroimaging and behavioural experiments with healthy individuals, suggest that the imitation of meaningful and meaningless actions may be reliant on different processing routes. The left posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) is one area that might be important for the recognition and imitation of meaningful actions. We studied the role of the left pMTG in imitation using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and two-person motion-tracking. Participants imitated meaningless and emblematic meaningful hand and finger gestures performed by a confederate actor whilst both individuals were motion-tracked...
November 8, 2018: Brain Topography
Huibin Jia, Dongchuan Yu
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) involves aberrant organization and functioning of large-scale brain networks. The aim of this study was to examine whether the resting-state EEG microstate analysis could provide novel insights into the abnormal temporal and spatial properties of intrinsic brain activities in patients with ASD. To achieve this goal, EEG microstate analysis was conducted on the resting-state EEG datasets of 15 patients with ASD and 18 healthy controls from the Healthy Brain Network. The parameters (i...
October 31, 2018: Brain Topography
Ernesto Cuartas Morales, Carlos D Acosta-Medina, German Castellanos-Dominguez, Dante Mantini
Accurate source localization of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals requires detailed information about the geometry and physical properties of head tissues. Indeed, these strongly influence the propagation of neural activity from the brain to the sensors. Finite difference methods (FDMs) are head modelling approaches relying on volumetric data information, which can be directly obtained using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The specific goal of this study is to develop a computationally efficient FDM solution that can flexibly integrate voxel-wise conductivity and anisotropy information...
October 19, 2018: Brain Topography
Han Wang, Kun Xie, Li Xie, Xiang Li, Meng Li, Cheng Lyu, Hanbo Chen, Yaowu Chen, Xuesong Liu, Joe Tsien, Tianming Liu
Exploration of brain dynamics patterns has attracted increasing attention due to its fundamental significance in understanding the working mechanism of the brain. However, due to the lack of effective modeling methods, how the simultaneously recorded LFP can inform us about the brain dynamics remains a general challenge. In this paper, we propose a novel sparse coding based method to investigate brain dynamics of freely-behaving mice from the perspective of functional connectivity, using super-long local field potential (LFP) recordings from 13 distinct regions of the mouse brain...
October 19, 2018: Brain Topography
Jing Guo, Mi Yang, Bharat B Biswal, Pu Yang, Wei Liao, Huafu Chen
Post-stroke aphasia (PSA), which refers to the loss or impairment of language, is typically caused by left hemisphere lesions. Previous neuroimaging studies have indicated that the pathology of PSA may be related to abnormalities in functional integration. In this study, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to examine functional connectivity density (FCD) in PSA. We compared short- and long-range FCD between individuals with PSA (n = 17) and healthy controls (HC, n = 20)...
October 6, 2018: Brain Topography
Ailiang Miao, Yingxin Wang, Jing Xiang, Qianqian Liu, Qiqi Chen, Wenchao Qiu, Hongxing Liu, Lu Tang, Yuan Gao, Caiyun Wu, Yuanwen Yu, Jintao Sun, Wenwen Jiang, Qi Shi, Tingting Zhang, Zheng Hu, Xiaoshan Wang
Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), the most common pediatric epilepsy syndrome, is usually treated with valproic acid (VPA) and lamotrigine (LTG) in China. This study aimed to investigate the ictal source locations and functional connectivity (FC) networks between the cortices and thalamus that are related to treatment response. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) data from 25 patients with CAE were recorded at 300 Hz and analyzed in 1-30 Hz frequency bands. Neuromagnetic sources were volumetrically scanned with accumulated source imaging...
October 5, 2018: Brain Topography
F S Feroz, G Leicht, J Rauh, C Mulert
This paper aims to investigate the temporal dynamics within the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the rostral-ventral (rv) ACC during the interaction of emotional valence and arousal with cognitive control in patients with Schizophrenia (SZ). Although cognitive deficits in SZ are highly relevant and emotional disturbances are common, the temporal relationship of brain regions involved in the interaction of emotional and cognitive processing in SZ is yet to be determined. To address this issue, the reaction time (RT), event-related potential (ERP) and temporal dynamics of the dACC and rvACC activity were compared between SZ subjects and healthy controls (HC), using a modified emotional Stroop experiment (with factors namely congruence, arousal and valence)...
October 4, 2018: Brain Topography
Lorena R R Gianotti, Franziska M Dahinden, Thomas Baumgartner, Daria Knoch
Prosocial behavior is of vital importance for the smooth functioning of society. However, the propensity to behave in a prosocial manner is characterized by vast individual differences. In order to reveal the sources of these differences, some studies have used objective, task-independent neural traits, for instance resting electroencephalography (EEG). Despite providing valuable insights into the neural signatures of several domains of prosociality, each of these studies has only focused on one single domain...
September 28, 2018: Brain Topography
Benjamin Klugah-Brown, Cheng Luo, Hui He, Sisi Jiang, Gabriel Kofi Armah, Yu Wu, Jianfu Li, Wenjie Yin, Dezhong Yao
Frontal lobe epilepsy has recently been associated with disrupted brain functional connectivity; variations among various resting-state networks (RSNs) across time remains largely unclear. This study applied dynamic functional network connectivity (dFNC) analysis to investigate functional patterns in the temporal and spatial domains of various functional systems in FLE. Resting-state fMRI data were acquired from 19 FLE patients and 18 controls. Independent component analysis was used to decompose RSNs, which were grouped into seven functional systems...
September 25, 2018: Brain Topography
E Salari, Z V Freudenburg, M J Vansteensel, N F Ramsey
The sensorimotor cortex is responsible for the generation of movements and interest in the ability to use this area for decoding speech by brain-computer interfaces has increased recently. Speech decoding is challenging however, since the relationship between neural activity and motor actions is not completely understood. Non-linearity between neural activity and movement has been found for instance for simple finger movements. Despite equal motor output, neural activity amplitudes are affected by preceding movements and the time between movements...
September 20, 2018: Brain Topography
Jonas Kunst, Radek Marecek, Patricia Klobusiakova, Zuzana Balazova, Lubomira Anderkova, Nela Nemcova-Elfmarkova, Irena Rektorova
Using MRI, a characteristic pattern of grey matter (GM) atrophy has been described in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD); GM patterns at different stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) have been inconclusive. Few studies have directly compared structural changes in groups with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) caused by different pathologies (AD, PD). We used several analytical methods to determine GM changes at different stages of both PD and AD. We also evaluated associations between GM changes and cognitive measurements...
September 11, 2018: Brain Topography
Luqing Wei, Nana Guo, Chris Baeken, Minghua Bi, Xiaowan Wang, Jiang Qiu, Guo-Rong Wu
Effortful control (EC), considered as one component of temperament, describes an individual's capacity for self-regulation. Previous neuroimaging studies have provided convergent evidence that individual differences in EC are determined by the functioning of neural systems subserving executive attention, primarily comprising the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). Notwithstanding, as previous neuroimaging findings highlighted the structural neural bases of EC in adolescence, during which the PFC is prominently remodeled, the underlying neuroanatomical substrates of EC remain uncertain in young adults...
September 10, 2018: Brain Topography
Raffaella Franciotti, Nicola Walter Falasca, Dario Arnaldi, Francesco Famà, Claudio Babiloni, Marco Onofrj, Flavio Mariano Nobili, Laura Bonanni
Graph theory analysis on resting state electroencephalographic rhythms disclosed topological properties of cerebral network. In Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, this approach showed mixed results. Granger causality matrices were used as input to the graph theory allowing to estimate the strength and the direction of information transfer between electrode pairs. The number of edges (degree), the number of inward edges (in-degree), of outgoing edges (out-degree) were statistically compared among healthy controls, patients with mild cognitive impairment due to AD (AD-MCI) and AD patients with mild dementia (ADD) to evaluate if degree abnormality could involve low and/or high degree vertices, the so called hubs, in both prodromal and over dementia stage...
August 25, 2018: Brain Topography
Yoon-Hee Cha, Guofa Shou, Diamond Gleghorn, Benjamin C Doudican, Han Yuan, Lei Ding
To determine intrinsic functional connectivity (IFC) related to symptom changes induced by rTMS in mal de debarquement syndrome (MdDS), a motion perceptual disorder induced by entrainment to oscillating motion. Twenty right-handed women (mean age: 52.9 ± 12.6 years; mean duration illness: 35.2 ± 24.2 months) with MdDS received five sessions of rTMS (1 Hz right DLPFC, 10 Hz left DLPFC) over consecutive days. High-density (128-channel) resting-state EEG were recorded prior to and following treatment sessions and analyzed using a group-level independent component (IC) analysis...
November 2018: Brain Topography
Hanna Kaltiainen, Liisa Helle, Mia Liljeström, Hanna Renvall, Nina Forss
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) patients continue to pose a diagnostic challenge due to their diverse symptoms without trauma-specific changes in structural imaging. We addressed here the possible early changes in spontaneous oscillatory brain activity after mTBI, and their feasibility as an indicator of injury in clinical evaluation. We recorded resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG) data in both eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions from 26 patients (11 females and 15 males, aged 20-59) with mTBI 6 days-6 months after the injury, and compared their spontaneous oscillatory activity to corresponding data from 139 healthy controls...
November 2018: Brain Topography
Alexandra Morris, Mathura Ravishankar, Lena Pivetta, Asadur Chowdury, Dimitri Falco, Jessica S Damoiseaux, David R Rosenberg, Steven L Bressler, Vaibhav A Diwadkar
We investigated the flexible modulation of undirected functional connectivity (uFC) of brain pathways during simple uni-manual responding. Two questions were central to our interests: (1) does response hand (dominant vs. non-dominant) differentially modulate connectivity and (2) are these effects related to responding under varying motor sets. fMRI data were acquired in twenty right-handed volunteers who responded with their right (dominant) or left (non-dominant) hand (blocked across acquisitions). Within acquisitions, the task oscillated between periodic responses (promoting the emergence of motor sets) or randomly induced responses (disrupting the emergence of motor sets)...
November 2018: Brain Topography
Roxane J Itier, Frank Preston
The N170 ERP component is a central neural marker of early face perception usually thought to reflect holistic processing. However, it is also highly sensitive to eyes presented in isolation and to fixation on the eyes within a full face. The lateral inhibition face template and eye detector (LIFTED) model (Nemrodov et al. in NeuroImage 97:81-94, 2014) integrates these views by proposing a neural inhibition mechanism that perceptually glues features into a whole, in parallel to the activity of an eye detector that accounts for the eye sensitivity...
November 2018: Brain Topography
N Kuhnke, J Schwind, M Dümpelmann, M Mader, A Schulze-Bonhage, J Jacobs
High frequency oscillations (HFO) are known as markers of epileptic areas in intracranial EEG and possibly scalp EEG. We compared distributions of HFO in the ripple band (80-250 Hz) in intracranial and scalp EEG with either a conventional 10-20-montage (10-20-EEG) or a high density recording using 128 electrodes (HD-EEG). HFO were visually identified, in all intracranial EEG channels (80-500 Hz) and all channels of the 10-20-EEG (scalp EEG 80-250 Hz). For the HD-EEG, HFO were analyzed in regions of interest using areas with HFO as seen on the 10-20-EEG as well as areas in the clinically-defined seizure onset zone (SOZ)...
November 2018: Brain Topography
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