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Brain Topography

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905073/critical-comments-on-eeg-sensor-space-dynamical-connectivity-analysis
#1
Frederik Van de Steen, Luca Faes, Esin Karahan, Jitkomut Songsiri, Pedro A Valdes-Sosa, Daniele Marinazzo
Many different analysis techniques have been developed and applied to EEG recordings that allow one to investigate how different brain areas interact. One particular class of methods, based on the linear parametric representation of multiple interacting time series, is widely used to study causal connectivity in the brain. However, the results obtained by these methods should be interpreted with great care. The goal of this paper is to show, both theoretically and using simulations, that results obtained by applying causal connectivity measures on the sensor (scalp) time series do not allow interpretation in terms of interacting brain sources...
November 30, 2016: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853892/seizure-onset-zone-localization-from-ictal-high-density-eeg-in-refractory-focal-epilepsy
#2
Willeke Staljanssens, Gregor Strobbe, Roel Van Holen, Gwénaël Birot, Markus Gschwind, Margitta Seeck, Stefaan Vandenberghe, Serge Vulliémoz, Pieter van Mierlo
Epilepsy surgery is the most efficient treatment option for patients with refractory epilepsy. Before surgery, it is of utmost importance to accurately delineate the seizure onset zone (SOZ). Non-invasive EEG is the most used neuroimaging technique to diagnose epilepsy, but it is hard to localize the SOZ from EEG due to its low spatial resolution and because epilepsy is a network disease, with several brain regions becoming active during a seizure. In this work, we propose and validate an approach based on EEG source imaging (ESI) combined with functional connectivity analysis to overcome these problems...
November 16, 2016: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815647/clinical-factors-underlying-the-inter-individual-variability-of-the-resting-motor-threshold-in-navigated-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-motor-mapping
#3
Nico Sollmann, Noriko Tanigawa, Lucia Bulubas, Jamil Sabih, Claus Zimmer, Florian Ringel, Bernhard Meyer, Sandro M Krieg
Correctly determining individual's resting motor threshold (rMT) is crucial for accurate and reliable mapping by navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS), which is especially true for preoperative motor mapping in brain tumor patients. However, systematic data analysis on clinical factors underlying inter-individual rMT variability in neurosurgical motor mapping is sparse. The present study examined 14 preselected clinical factors that may underlie inter-individual rMT variability by performing multiple regression analysis (backward, followed by forward model comparisons) on the nTMS motor mapping data of 100 brain tumor patients...
November 4, 2016: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815646/ipsilateral-alteration-of-resting-state-activity-suggests-that-cortical-dysfunction-contributes-to-the-pathogenesis-of-cluster-headache
#4
Péter Faragó, Nikoletta Szabó, Eszter Tóth, Bernadett Tuka, András Király, Gergő Csete, Árpád Párdutz, Délia Szok, János Tajti, Csaba Ertsey, László Vécsei, Zsigmond Tamás Kincses
The pathomechanism of cluster headache (CH) is not entirely understood, but central and peripheral components were suggested. A recent report showed that transcranial magnetic stimulation measured cortical excitability was increased in the hemisphere ipsilalteral to the pain. In the current study we set out to investigate the amplitude of resting brain fMRI activity to find signatures of the increased excitability. High resolution T1 weighted and resting state functional MRI images were acquired from seventeen patients with CH in pain free period and from twenty-six healthy volunteers...
November 4, 2016: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796603/gilles-de-la-tourette-s-and-the-disruption-of-interneuron-mediated-synchrony-comments-on-hashemiyoon-r-kuhn-j-visser-vandewalle-v-brain-topography-2016-doi-10-1007-s10548-016-0525-z
#5
Anthony A Grace
The article by Hashemiyoon et al. is a masterful synthesis of the clinical, genetic, and neurobiological aspects of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome that provides unique insights into the neural state dysfunctions that underlie this enigmatic disorder. In particular, the authors make a powerful argument for the disorder arising from hyposynchronization within cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical systems which may result from a genetically-driven developmental insult to interneuron regulation, and suggest deep brain stimulation as a valuable tool to assess how balance may be restored to the system and reverse the pathological state...
October 31, 2016: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785699/cerebellar-involvement-in-patients-with-mild-to-moderate-myoclonus-due-to-epm1-structural-and-functional-mri-findings-in-comparison-with-healthy-controls-and-ataxic-patients
#6
Anna Nigri, Elisa Visani, Nicola Bertolino, Lorenzo Nanetti, Caterina Mariotti, Marta Panzeri, Maria Grazia Bruzzone, Silvana Franceschetti, Laura Canafoglia
EPM1 (epilepsy, progressive myoclonic 1; Unverricht-Lundborg disease, OMIM #254800) is the most frequent form of progressive myoclonus epilepsy. Previous findings have suggested that its pathophysiology mainly involves the cerebellum, but the evaluation of cerebellar dysfunction is still unsatisfactory. The aim of this study was to assess the structural and functional involvement of the cerebellum in EPM1. We used voxel-based morphometry and spatially unbiased infra-tentorial template analyses of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, and functional MRI (fMRI) scans during block and event-related go/no-go motor tasks to study 13 EPM1 patients with mild to moderate myoclonus...
October 26, 2016: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785698/association-between-falls-and-brain-subvolumes-results-from-a-cross-sectional-analysis-in-healthy-older-adults
#7
Olivier Beauchet, Cyrille P Launay, John Barden, Teresa Liu-Ambrose, Victoria L Chester, Tony Szturm, Sébastien Grenier, Guillaume Léonard, Louis Bherer, Cédric Annweiler, Jorunn L Helbostad, Joe Verghese, Gilles Allali
Falls are a consequence of gait instability. Cortical and subcortical abnormalities have been associated with gait instability but not yet with falls. This study aims to compare the global and regional brain subvolumes between healthy older fallers and non-fallers. A total of 77 healthy older individuals (23 fallers and 54 non-fallers, 69.8 ± 3.5 years; 45.5 % female) were included in this study using a cross-sectional design. Based on an a priori hypothesis, the following brain subvolumes were quantified from three-dimensional T1-weighted MRI using FreeSurfer software: total white matter abnormalities, total white matter, total cortical and subcortical gray matter, hippocampus, motor cortex, somatosensory cortex, premotor cortex, prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex volumes...
October 26, 2016: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783238/putting-the-pieces-together-in-gilles-de-la-tourette-syndrome-exploring-the-link-between-clinical-observations-and-the-biological-basis-of-dysfunction
#8
REVIEW
Rowshanak Hashemiyoon, Jens Kuhn, Veerle Visser-Vandewalle
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a complex, idiopathic neuropsychiatric disorder whose pathophysiological mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. It is phenotypically heterogeneous and manifests more often than not with both motor and behavioral impairment, although tics are its clinical hallmark. Tics themselves present with a complex profile as they characteristically wax and wane and are often preceded by premonitory somatosensory sensations to which it is said a tic is the response. Highly comorbid with obsessive-compulsive disorder and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, it is purported to be an epigenetic, neurodevelopmental spectrum disorder with a complex genetic profile...
October 25, 2016: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766459/absolute-power-spectral-density-changes-in-the-magnetoencephalographic-activity-during-the-transition-from-childhood-to-adulthood
#9
Carlos M Gómez, Elena I Rodríguez-Martínez, Alberto Fernández, Fernando Maestú, Jesús Poza, Carlos Gómez
The aim of this study was to define the pattern of reduction in absolute power spectral density (PSD) of magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals throughout development. Specifically, we wanted to explore whether the human skull's high permeability for electromagnetic fields would allow us to question whether the pattern of absolute PSD reduction observed in the human electroencephalogram is due to an increase in the skull's resistive properties with age. Furthermore, the topography of the MEG signals during maturation was explored, providing additional insights about the areas and brain rhythms related to late maturation in the human brain...
October 20, 2016: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761665/somatosensory-brain-function-and-gray-matter-regional-volumes-differ-according-to-exercise-history-evidence-from-monozygotic-twins
#10
Pekka Hautasaari, Andrej M Savić, Otto Loberg, Eini Niskanen, Jaakko Kaprio, Urho M Kujala, Ina M Tarkka
Associations between long-term physical activity and cortical function and brain structure are poorly known. Our aim was to assess whether brain functional and/or structural modulation associated with long-term physical activity is detectable using a discordant monozygotic male twin pair design. Nine monozygotic male twin pairs were carefully selected for an intrapair difference in their leisure-time physical activity of at least three years duration (mean age 34 ± 1 years). We registered somatosensory mismatch response (SMMR) in EEG to electrical stimulation of fingers and whole brain MR images...
October 19, 2016: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752799/distinguishing-neural-adaptation-and-predictive-coding-hypotheses-in-auditory-change-detection
#11
Renée M Symonds, Wei Wei Lee, Adam Kohn, Odelia Schwartz, Sarah Witkowski, Elyse S Sussman
The auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) component of event-related potentials (ERPs) has served as a neural index of auditory change detection. MMN is elicited by presentation of infrequent (deviant) sounds randomly interspersed among frequent (standard) sounds. Deviants elicit a larger negative deflection in the ERP waveform compared to the standard. There is considerable debate as to whether the neural mechanism of this change detection response is due to release from neural adaptation (neural adaptation hypothesis) or from a prediction error signal (predictive coding hypothesis)...
October 17, 2016: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722839/seizure-onset-mapping-based-on-time-variant-multivariate-functional-connectivity-analysis-of-high-dimensional-intracranial-eeg-a-kalman-filter-approach
#12
Octavian V Lie, Pieter van Mierlo
The visual interpretation of intracranial EEG (iEEG) is the standard method used in complex epilepsy surgery cases to map the regions of seizure onset targeted for resection. Still, visual iEEG analysis is labor-intensive and biased due to interpreter dependency. Multivariate parametric functional connectivity measures using adaptive autoregressive (AR) modeling of the iEEG signals based on the Kalman filter algorithm have been used successfully to localize the electrographic seizure onsets. Due to their high computational cost, these methods have been applied to a limited number of iEEG time-series (<60)...
October 8, 2016: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718099/bayesian-modelling-of-induced-responses-and-neuronal-rhythms
#13
Dimitris A Pinotsis, Roman Loonis, Andre M Bastos, Earl K Miller, Karl J Friston
Neural rhythms or oscillations are ubiquitous in neuroimaging data. These spectral responses have been linked to several cognitive processes; including working memory, attention, perceptual binding and neuronal coordination. In this paper, we show how Bayesian methods can be used to finesse the ill-posed problem of reconstructing-and explaining-oscillatory responses. We offer an overview of recent developments in this field, focusing on (i) the use of MEG data and Empirical Bayes to build hierarchical models for group analyses-and the identification of important sources of inter-subject variability and (ii) the construction of novel dynamic causal models of intralaminar recordings to explain layer-specific activity...
October 7, 2016: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696246/the-importance-of-properly-compensating-for-head-movements-during-meg-acquisition-across-different-age-groups
#14
Eric Larson, Samu Taulu
Unlike EEG sensors, which are attached to the head, MEG sensors are located outside the head surface on a fixed external device. Subject head movements during acquisition thus distort the magnetic field distributions measured by the sensors. Previous studies have looked at the effect of head movements, but no study has comprehensively looked at the effect of head movements across age groups, particularly in infants. Using MEG recordings from subjects ranging in age from 3 months through adults, here we first quantify the variability in head position as a function of age group...
September 30, 2016: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663236/the-effect-of-lateralization-of-motor-onset-and-emotional-recognition-in-pd-patients-using-eeg
#15
R Yuvaraj, M Murugappan, R Palaniappan
The objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between emotion recognition and lateralization of motor onset in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients using electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. The subject pool consisted of twenty PD patients [ten with predominantly left-sided (LPD) and ten with predominantly right-sided (RPD) motor symptoms] and 20 healthy controls (HC) that were matched for age and gender. Multimodal stimuli were used to evoke simple emotions, such as happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise, and disgust...
September 23, 2016: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659288/the-time-course-of-activity-within-the-dorsal-and-rostral-ventral-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-the-emotional-stroop-task
#16
Farah Shahnaz Feroz, Gregor Leicht, Saskia Steinmann, Christina Andreou, Christoph Mulert
Growing evidence from neuroimaging studies suggest that emotional and cognitive processes are interrelated. Anatomical key structures in this context are the dorsal and rostral-ventral anterior cingulate cortex (dACC and rvACC). However, up to now, the time course of activations within these regions during emotion-cognition interactions has not been disentangled. In the present study, we used event-related potentials (ERP) and standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) region of interest (ROI) source localization analyses to explore the time course of neural activations within the dACC and rvACC using a modified emotional Stroop paradigm...
September 22, 2016: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647317/association-between-resting-state-microstates-and-ratings-on-the-amsterdam-resting-state-questionnaire
#17
Evaldas Pipinis, Sigita Melynyte, Thomas Koenig, Lina Jarutyte, Klaus Linkenkaer-Hansen, Osvaldas Ruksenas, Inga Griskova-Bulanova
There is a gap in understanding on how physiologically observed activity is related to the subjective, internally oriented experience during resting state. Microstate analysis is a frequent approach to evaluate resting-state EEG. But the relationship of commonly observed resting-state microstates to psychological domains of resting is not clear. The Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire (ARSQ) was recently introduced, offering an effective way to quantify subjective states after a period of resting and associate these quantifiers to psychological and physiological variables...
September 19, 2016: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640158/altered-resting-state-eeg-microstate-parameters-and-enhanced-spatial-complexity-in-male-adolescent-patients-with-mild-spastic-diplegia
#18
Fei Gao, Huibin Jia, Xiangci Wu, Dongchuan Yu, Yi Feng
The aim of this study was to investigate the resting-state EEG microstate parameters and spatial complexity in male adolescent patients with mild spastic diplegia (MSD). Resting-state EEG data were collected from male adolescent patients with MSD and healthy controls with eyes closed. EEG microstate and omega complexity analysis were performed. Microstate analysis revealed that the occurrence rate of microstate class A and D were significantly higher and the duration of microstate class B was significantly lower in the patients compared to healthy controls, which indicated that the temporal complexity may be higher and certain cognitive functions may be impaired in these patients...
September 17, 2016: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620801/causal-dynamics-of-scalp-electroencephalography-oscillation-during-the-rubber-hand-illusion
#19
Noriaki Kanayama, Alberto Morandi, Kazuo Hiraki, Francesco Pavani
Rubber hand illusion (RHI) is an important phenomenon for the investigation of body ownership and self/other distinction. The illusion is promoted by the spatial and temporal contingencies of visual inputs near a fake hand and physical touches to the real hand. The neural basis of this phenomenon is not fully understood. We hypothesized that the RHI is associated with a fronto-parietal circuit, and the goal of this study was to determine the dynamics of neural oscillation associated with this phenomenon. We measured electroencephalography while delivering spatially congruent/incongruent visuo-tactile stimulations to fake and real hands...
September 12, 2016: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613530/auditory-magnetoencephalographic-frequency-tagged-responses-mirror-the-ongoing-segmentation-processes-underlying-statistical-learning
#20
Juliane Farthouat, Ana Franco, Alison Mary, Julie Delpouve, Vincent Wens, Marc Op de Beeck, Xavier De Tiège, Philippe Peigneux
Humans are highly sensitive to statistical regularities in their environment. This phenomenon, usually referred as statistical learning, is most often assessed using post-learning behavioural measures that are limited by a lack of sensibility and do not monitor the temporal dynamics of learning. In the present study, we used magnetoencephalographic frequency-tagged responses to investigate the neural sources and temporal development of the ongoing brain activity that supports the detection of regularities embedded in auditory streams...
September 9, 2016: Brain Topography
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