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Brain Topography

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229308/eeg-signatures-of-dynamic-functional-network-connectivity-states
#1
E A Allen, E Damaraju, T Eichele, L Wu, V D Calhoun
The human brain operates by dynamically modulating different neural populations to enable goal directed behavior. The synchrony or lack thereof between different brain regions is thought to correspond to observed functional connectivity dynamics in resting state brain imaging data. In a large sample of healthy human adult subjects and utilizing a sliding windowed correlation method on functional imaging data, earlier we demonstrated the presence of seven distinct functional connectivity states/patterns between different brain networks that reliably occur across time and subjects...
February 22, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214981/neural-mechanism-underling-comprehension-of-narrative-speech-and-its-heritability-study-in-a-large-population
#2
Abbas Babajani-Feremi
Comprehension of narratives constitutes a fundamental part of our everyday life experience. Although the neural mechanism of auditory narrative comprehension has been investigated in some studies, the neural correlates underlying this mechanism and its heritability remain poorly understood. We investigated comprehension of naturalistic speech in a large, healthy adult population (n = 429; 176/253 M/F; 22-36 years of age) consisting of 192 twin pairs (49 monozygotic and 47 dizygotic pairs) and 237 of their siblings...
February 18, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213645/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-modulates-neuronal-networks-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#3
Anna Sotnikova, Cornelia Soff, Enzo Tagliazucchi, Katja Becker, Michael Siniatchkin
Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the prefrontal cortex has been repeatedly shown to improve working memory (WM). Since patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by both underactivation of the prefrontal cortex and deficits in WM, the modulation of prefrontal activity with tDCS in ADHD patients may increase their WM performance as well as improve the activation and connectivity of the WM network. In the present study, this hypothesis was tested using a double-blind sham-controlled experimental design...
February 17, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194613/is-the-surface-potential-integral-of-a-dipole-in-a-volume-conductor-always-zero-a-cloud-over-the-average-reference-of-eeg-and-erp
#4
Dezhong Yao
Currently, average reference is one of the most widely adopted references in EEG and ERP studies. The theoretical assumption is the surface potential integral of a volume conductor being zero, thus the average of scalp potential recordings might be an approximation of the theoretically desired zero reference. However, such a zero integral assumption has been proved only for a spherical surface. In this short communication, three counter-examples are given to show that the potential integral over the surface of a dipole in a volume conductor may not be zero...
February 14, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194612/simultaneous-intracranial-eeg-fmri-shows-inter-modality-correlation-in-time-resolved-connectivity-within-normal-areas-but-not-within-epileptic-regions
#5
Ben Ridley, Jonathan Wirsich, Gaelle Bettus, Roman Rodionov, Teresa Murta, Umair Chaudhary, David Carmichael, Rachel Thornton, Serge Vulliemoz, Andrew McEvoy, Fabrice Wendling, Fabrice Bartolomei, Jean-Philippe Ranjeva, Louis Lemieux, Maxime Guye
For the first time in research in humans, we used simultaneous icEEG-fMRI to examine the link between connectivity in haemodynamic signals during the resting-state (rs) and connectivity derived from electrophysiological activity in terms of the inter-modal connectivity correlation (IMCC). We quantified IMCC in nine patients with drug-resistant epilepsy (i) within brain networks in 'healthy' non-involved cortical zones (NIZ) and (ii) within brain networks involved in generating seizures and interictal spikes (IZ1) or solely spikes (IZ2)...
February 13, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176165/hemodynamic-changes-associated-with-interictal-spikes-induced-by-acute-models-of-focal-epilepsy-in-rats-a-simultaneous-electrocorticography-and-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#6
Viktoriya Osharina, Ardalan Aarabi, Mana Manoochehri, Mahdi Mahmoudzadeh, Fabrice Wallois
Interictal spikes can be generated by blocking GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition. The nature of the hemodynamic activities associated with interictal spikes in acute models of focal epilepsy based on GABA deactivation has not been determined. We analyzed systemic changes in hemodynamic signals associated with interictal spikes generated by acute models of focal epilepsy. Simultaneous ElectroCorticoGraphy (ECoG) and Near-InfraRed Spectroscopy (NIRS) recordings were obtained in vivo from adult Sprague-Dawley rat brain during semi-periodic focal interictal spikes induced by local cortical application of low doses of Penicillin G (PG) and Bicuculline Methiodide (BM) as GABA deactivation agents...
February 7, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176164/whole-brain-high-resolution-structural-connectome-inter-subject-validation-and-application-to-the-anatomical-segmentation-of-the-striatum
#7
Pierre Besson, Nicolas Carrière, S Kathleen Bandt, Marc Tommasi, Xavier Leclerc, Philippe Derambure, Renaud Lopes, Louise Tyvaert
The present study describes extraction of high-resolution structural connectome (HRSC) in 99 healthy subjects, acquired and made available by the Human Connectome Project. Single subject connectomes were then registered to the common surface space to allow assessment of inter-individual reproducibility of this novel technique using a leave-one-out approach. The anatomic relevance of the surface-based connectome was examined via a clustering algorithm, which identified anatomic subdivisions within the striatum...
February 7, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168599/high-resolution-fmri-of-auditory-cortical-map-changes-in-unilateral-hearing-loss-and-tinnitus
#8
Naghmeh Ghazaleh, Wietske van der Zwaag, Stephanie Clarke, Dimitri Van De Ville, Raphael Maire, Melissa Saenz
Animal models of hearing loss and tinnitus observe pathological neural activity in the tonotopic frequency maps of the primary auditory cortex. Here, we applied ultra high-field fMRI at 7 T to test whether human patients with unilateral hearing loss and tinnitus also show altered functional activity in the primary auditory cortex. The high spatial resolution afforded by 7 T imaging allowed tonotopic mapping of primary auditory cortex on an individual subject basis. Eleven patients with unilateral hearing loss and tinnitus were compared to normal-hearing controls...
February 6, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161728/prior-visual-experience-modulates-learning-of-sound-localization-among-blind-individuals
#9
Qian Tao, Chetwyn C H Chan, Yue-Jia Luo, Jian-Jun Li, Kin-Hung Ting, Zhong-Lin Lu, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, Jun Wang, Tatia M C Lee
Cross-modal learning requires the use of information from different sensory modalities. This study investigated how the prior visual experience of late blind individuals could modulate neural processes associated with learning of sound localization. Learning was realized by standardized training on sound localization processing, and experience was investigated by comparing brain activations elicited from a sound localization task in individuals with (late blind, LB) and without (early blind, EB) prior visual experience...
February 4, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130700/higher-fasting-plasma-glucose-is-associated-with-increased-cortical-thinning-over-12-years-the-path-through-life-study
#10
Marnie E Shaw, Julia Nettersheim, Perminder S Sachdev, Kaarin J Anstey, Nicolas Cherbuin
Recent evidence suggests that type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with accelerated brain ageing, consistent with the observation of increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia in affected individuals. Even non-diabetic individuals with impaired fasting plasma glucose (IFG) levels have shown increased cerebral atrophy, compared to individuals with normal glucose levels. We tested whether longitudinal rates of age-related cortical thinning were associated with fasting plasma glucose levels in a large sample (n = 322) of early-old age individuals (60-66 years) who were scanned with magnetic resonance imaging (1...
January 27, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108852/missing-the-target-the-neural-processing-underlying-the-omission-error
#11
Rinaldo Livio Perri, Donatella Spinelli, Francesco Di Russo
The omissions are infrequent errors consisting in missing responses to the target stimuli. This is the first study aimed at investigating the brain activities associated with omissions in a decision-making task. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in 12 subjects which reported a suitable number of omissions in a visual go/no-go task. We investigated both the pre- and post-stimulus brain activities associated with correct and omitted trials. The electrical neuroimaging technique (BESA) was adopted to extract the anterior insula (aIns) activity associated with the prefrontal P2 component (pP2) peaking about 300 ms after the stimulus and reflecting the stimulus-response mapping process...
January 20, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101703/differences-in-cortical-sources-of-the-event-related-p3-potential-between-young-and-old-participants-indicate-frontal-compensation
#12
R van Dinteren, R J Huster, M L A Jongsma, R P C Kessels, M Arns
The event-related P3 potential, as elicited in auditory signal detection tasks, originates from neural activity of multiple cortical structures and presumably reflects an overlap of several cognitive processes. The fact that the P3 is affected by aging makes it a potential metric for age-related cognitive change. The P3 in older participants is thought to encompass frontal compensatory activity in addition to task-related processes. The current study investigates this by decomposing the P3 using group independent component analysis (ICA)...
January 18, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054159/brain-areas-responsible-for-vigilance-an-eeg-source-imaging-study
#13
Jung-Hoon Kim, Do-Won Kim, Chang-Hwan Im
Vigilance, sometimes referred to as sustained attention, is an important type of human attention as it is closely associated with cognitive activities required in various daily-life situations. Although many researchers have investigated which brain areas control the maintenance of vigilance, findings have been inconsistent. We hypothesized that this inconsistency might be due to the use of different experimental paradigms in the various studies. We found that most of the previous studies used paradigms that included specific cognitive tasks requiring a high cognitive load, which could complicate identification of brain areas associated only with vigilance...
January 4, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905073/critical-comments-on-eeg-sensor-space-dynamical-connectivity-analysis
#14
Frederik Van de Steen, Luca Faes, Esin Karahan, Jitkomut Songsiri, Pedro A Valdes-Sosa, Daniele Marinazzo
Many different analysis techniques have been developed and applied to EEG recordings that allow one to investigate how different brain areas interact. One particular class of methods, based on the linear parametric representation of multiple interacting time series, is widely used to study causal connectivity in the brain. However, the results obtained by these methods should be interpreted with great care. The goal of this paper is to show, both theoretically and using simulations, that results obtained by applying causal connectivity measures on the sensor (scalp) time series do not allow interpretation in terms of interacting brain sources...
November 30, 2016: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933418/temporal-characteristics-of-eeg-microstates-mediate-trial-by-trial-risk-taking
#15
Andreas Pedroni, Lorena R R Gianotti, Thomas Koenig, Dietrich Lehmann, Pascal Faber, Daria Knoch
People seem to have difficulties when perceiving events whose outcome has no influence on the outcome of future events. This illusion that patterns exist where there are none may lead to adverse consequences, such as escalating losses in financial trading or gambling debt. Despite the enormous social consequences of these cognitive biases, however, their neural underpinnings are poorly understood. Attempts to investigate them have so far relied on evoked neural activity, whereas spontaneous brain activity has been treated as noise to be averaged out...
January 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815647/clinical-factors-underlying-the-inter-individual-variability-of-the-resting-motor-threshold-in-navigated-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-motor-mapping
#16
Nico Sollmann, Noriko Tanigawa, Lucia Bulubas, Jamil Sabih, Claus Zimmer, Florian Ringel, Bernhard Meyer, Sandro M Krieg
Correctly determining individual's resting motor threshold (rMT) is crucial for accurate and reliable mapping by navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS), which is especially true for preoperative motor mapping in brain tumor patients. However, systematic data analysis on clinical factors underlying inter-individual rMT variability in neurosurgical motor mapping is sparse. The present study examined 14 preselected clinical factors that may underlie inter-individual rMT variability by performing multiple regression analysis (backward, followed by forward model comparisons) on the nTMS motor mapping data of 100 brain tumor patients...
January 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796603/gilles-de-la-tourette-s-and-the-disruption-of-interneuron-mediated-synchrony-comments-on-hashemiyoon-r-kuhn-j-visser-vandewalle-v-brain-topography-2016-doi-10-1007-s10548-016-0525-z
#17
Anthony A Grace
The article by Hashemiyoon et al. is a masterful synthesis of the clinical, genetic, and neurobiological aspects of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome that provides unique insights into the neural state dysfunctions that underlie this enigmatic disorder. In particular, the authors make a powerful argument for the disorder arising from hyposynchronization within cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical systems which may result from a genetically-driven developmental insult to interneuron regulation, and suggest deep brain stimulation as a valuable tool to assess how balance may be restored to the system and reverse the pathological state...
January 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783238/putting-the-pieces-together-in-gilles-de-la-tourette-syndrome-exploring-the-link-between-clinical-observations-and-the-biological-basis-of-dysfunction
#18
REVIEW
Rowshanak Hashemiyoon, Jens Kuhn, Veerle Visser-Vandewalle
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a complex, idiopathic neuropsychiatric disorder whose pathophysiological mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. It is phenotypically heterogeneous and manifests more often than not with both motor and behavioral impairment, although tics are its clinical hallmark. Tics themselves present with a complex profile as they characteristically wax and wane and are often preceded by premonitory somatosensory sensations to which it is said a tic is the response. Highly comorbid with obsessive-compulsive disorder and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, it is purported to be an epigenetic, neurodevelopmental spectrum disorder with a complex genetic profile...
January 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766459/absolute-power-spectral-density-changes-in-the-magnetoencephalographic-activity-during-the-transition-from-childhood-to-adulthood
#19
Carlos M Gómez, Elena I Rodríguez-Martínez, Alberto Fernández, Fernando Maestú, Jesús Poza, Carlos Gómez
The aim of this study was to define the pattern of reduction in absolute power spectral density (PSD) of magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals throughout development. Specifically, we wanted to explore whether the human skull's high permeability for electromagnetic fields would allow us to question whether the pattern of absolute PSD reduction observed in the human electroencephalogram is due to an increase in the skull's resistive properties with age. Furthermore, the topography of the MEG signals during maturation was explored, providing additional insights about the areas and brain rhythms related to late maturation in the human brain...
January 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761665/somatosensory-brain-function-and-gray-matter-regional-volumes-differ-according-to-exercise-history-evidence-from-monozygotic-twins
#20
Pekka Hautasaari, Andrej M Savić, Otto Loberg, Eini Niskanen, Jaakko Kaprio, Urho M Kujala, Ina M Tarkka
Associations between long-term physical activity and cortical function and brain structure are poorly known. Our aim was to assess whether brain functional and/or structural modulation associated with long-term physical activity is detectable using a discordant monozygotic male twin pair design. Nine monozygotic male twin pairs were carefully selected for an intrapair difference in their leisure-time physical activity of at least three years duration (mean age 34 ± 1 years). We registered somatosensory mismatch response (SMMR) in EEG to electrical stimulation of fingers and whole brain MR images...
January 2017: Brain Topography
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