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Brain Topography

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108852/missing-the-target-the-neural-processing-underlying-the-omission-error
#1
Rinaldo Livio Perri, Donatella Spinelli, Francesco Di Russo
The omissions are infrequent errors consisting in missing responses to the target stimuli. This is the first study aimed at investigating the brain activities associated with omissions in a decision-making task. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in 12 subjects which reported a suitable number of omissions in a visual go/no-go task. We investigated both the pre- and post-stimulus brain activities associated with correct and omitted trials. The electrical neuroimaging technique (BESA) was adopted to extract the anterior insula (aIns) activity associated with the prefrontal P2 component (pP2) peaking about 300 ms after the stimulus and reflecting the stimulus-response mapping process...
January 20, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101703/differences-in-cortical-sources-of-the-event-related-p3-potential-between-young-and-old-participants-indicate-frontal-compensation
#2
R van Dinteren, R J Huster, M L A Jongsma, R P C Kessels, M Arns
The event-related P3 potential, as elicited in auditory signal detection tasks, originates from neural activity of multiple cortical structures and presumably reflects an overlap of several cognitive processes. The fact that the P3 is affected by aging makes it a potential metric for age-related cognitive change. The P3 in older participants is thought to encompass frontal compensatory activity in addition to task-related processes. The current study investigates this by decomposing the P3 using group independent component analysis (ICA)...
January 18, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054159/brain-areas-responsible-for-vigilance-an-eeg-source-imaging-study
#3
Jung-Hoon Kim, Do-Won Kim, Chang-Hwan Im
Vigilance, sometimes referred to as sustained attention, is an important type of human attention as it is closely associated with cognitive activities required in various daily-life situations. Although many researchers have investigated which brain areas control the maintenance of vigilance, findings have been inconsistent. We hypothesized that this inconsistency might be due to the use of different experimental paradigms in the various studies. We found that most of the previous studies used paradigms that included specific cognitive tasks requiring a high cognitive load, which could complicate identification of brain areas associated only with vigilance...
January 4, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905073/critical-comments-on-eeg-sensor-space-dynamical-connectivity-analysis
#4
Frederik Van de Steen, Luca Faes, Esin Karahan, Jitkomut Songsiri, Pedro A Valdes-Sosa, Daniele Marinazzo
Many different analysis techniques have been developed and applied to EEG recordings that allow one to investigate how different brain areas interact. One particular class of methods, based on the linear parametric representation of multiple interacting time series, is widely used to study causal connectivity in the brain. However, the results obtained by these methods should be interpreted with great care. The goal of this paper is to show, both theoretically and using simulations, that results obtained by applying causal connectivity measures on the sensor (scalp) time series do not allow interpretation in terms of interacting brain sources...
November 30, 2016: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853892/seizure-onset-zone-localization-from-ictal-high-density-eeg-in-refractory-focal-epilepsy
#5
Willeke Staljanssens, Gregor Strobbe, Roel Van Holen, Gwénaël Birot, Markus Gschwind, Margitta Seeck, Stefaan Vandenberghe, Serge Vulliémoz, Pieter van Mierlo
Epilepsy surgery is the most efficient treatment option for patients with refractory epilepsy. Before surgery, it is of utmost importance to accurately delineate the seizure onset zone (SOZ). Non-invasive EEG is the most used neuroimaging technique to diagnose epilepsy, but it is hard to localize the SOZ from EEG due to its low spatial resolution and because epilepsy is a network disease, with several brain regions becoming active during a seizure. In this work, we propose and validate an approach based on EEG source imaging (ESI) combined with functional connectivity analysis to overcome these problems...
November 16, 2016: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815646/ipsilateral-alteration-of-resting-state-activity-suggests-that-cortical-dysfunction-contributes-to-the-pathogenesis-of-cluster-headache
#6
Péter Faragó, Nikoletta Szabó, Eszter Tóth, Bernadett Tuka, András Király, Gergő Csete, Árpád Párdutz, Délia Szok, János Tajti, Csaba Ertsey, László Vécsei, Zsigmond Tamás Kincses
The pathomechanism of cluster headache (CH) is not entirely understood, but central and peripheral components were suggested. A recent report showed that transcranial magnetic stimulation measured cortical excitability was increased in the hemisphere ipsilalteral to the pain. In the current study we set out to investigate the amplitude of resting brain fMRI activity to find signatures of the increased excitability. High resolution T1 weighted and resting state functional MRI images were acquired from seventeen patients with CH in pain free period and from twenty-six healthy volunteers...
November 4, 2016: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933418/temporal-characteristics-of-eeg-microstates-mediate-trial-by-trial-risk-taking
#7
Andreas Pedroni, Lorena R R Gianotti, Thomas Koenig, Dietrich Lehmann, Pascal Faber, Daria Knoch
People seem to have difficulties when perceiving events whose outcome has no influence on the outcome of future events. This illusion that patterns exist where there are none may lead to adverse consequences, such as escalating losses in financial trading or gambling debt. Despite the enormous social consequences of these cognitive biases, however, their neural underpinnings are poorly understood. Attempts to investigate them have so far relied on evoked neural activity, whereas spontaneous brain activity has been treated as noise to be averaged out...
January 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815647/clinical-factors-underlying-the-inter-individual-variability-of-the-resting-motor-threshold-in-navigated-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-motor-mapping
#8
Nico Sollmann, Noriko Tanigawa, Lucia Bulubas, Jamil Sabih, Claus Zimmer, Florian Ringel, Bernhard Meyer, Sandro M Krieg
Correctly determining individual's resting motor threshold (rMT) is crucial for accurate and reliable mapping by navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS), which is especially true for preoperative motor mapping in brain tumor patients. However, systematic data analysis on clinical factors underlying inter-individual rMT variability in neurosurgical motor mapping is sparse. The present study examined 14 preselected clinical factors that may underlie inter-individual rMT variability by performing multiple regression analysis (backward, followed by forward model comparisons) on the nTMS motor mapping data of 100 brain tumor patients...
January 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796603/gilles-de-la-tourette-s-and-the-disruption-of-interneuron-mediated-synchrony-comments-on-hashemiyoon-r-kuhn-j-visser-vandewalle-v-brain-topography-2016-doi-10-1007-s10548-016-0525-z
#9
Anthony A Grace
The article by Hashemiyoon et al. is a masterful synthesis of the clinical, genetic, and neurobiological aspects of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome that provides unique insights into the neural state dysfunctions that underlie this enigmatic disorder. In particular, the authors make a powerful argument for the disorder arising from hyposynchronization within cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical systems which may result from a genetically-driven developmental insult to interneuron regulation, and suggest deep brain stimulation as a valuable tool to assess how balance may be restored to the system and reverse the pathological state...
January 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783238/putting-the-pieces-together-in-gilles-de-la-tourette-syndrome-exploring-the-link-between-clinical-observations-and-the-biological-basis-of-dysfunction
#10
REVIEW
Rowshanak Hashemiyoon, Jens Kuhn, Veerle Visser-Vandewalle
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a complex, idiopathic neuropsychiatric disorder whose pathophysiological mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. It is phenotypically heterogeneous and manifests more often than not with both motor and behavioral impairment, although tics are its clinical hallmark. Tics themselves present with a complex profile as they characteristically wax and wane and are often preceded by premonitory somatosensory sensations to which it is said a tic is the response. Highly comorbid with obsessive-compulsive disorder and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, it is purported to be an epigenetic, neurodevelopmental spectrum disorder with a complex genetic profile...
January 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766459/absolute-power-spectral-density-changes-in-the-magnetoencephalographic-activity-during-the-transition-from-childhood-to-adulthood
#11
Carlos M Gómez, Elena I Rodríguez-Martínez, Alberto Fernández, Fernando Maestú, Jesús Poza, Carlos Gómez
The aim of this study was to define the pattern of reduction in absolute power spectral density (PSD) of magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals throughout development. Specifically, we wanted to explore whether the human skull's high permeability for electromagnetic fields would allow us to question whether the pattern of absolute PSD reduction observed in the human electroencephalogram is due to an increase in the skull's resistive properties with age. Furthermore, the topography of the MEG signals during maturation was explored, providing additional insights about the areas and brain rhythms related to late maturation in the human brain...
January 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761665/somatosensory-brain-function-and-gray-matter-regional-volumes-differ-according-to-exercise-history-evidence-from-monozygotic-twins
#12
Pekka Hautasaari, Andrej M Savić, Otto Loberg, Eini Niskanen, Jaakko Kaprio, Urho M Kujala, Ina M Tarkka
Associations between long-term physical activity and cortical function and brain structure are poorly known. Our aim was to assess whether brain functional and/or structural modulation associated with long-term physical activity is detectable using a discordant monozygotic male twin pair design. Nine monozygotic male twin pairs were carefully selected for an intrapair difference in their leisure-time physical activity of at least three years duration (mean age 34 ± 1 years). We registered somatosensory mismatch response (SMMR) in EEG to electrical stimulation of fingers and whole brain MR images...
January 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752799/distinguishing-neural-adaptation-and-predictive-coding-hypotheses-in-auditory-change-detection
#13
Renée M Symonds, Wei Wei Lee, Adam Kohn, Odelia Schwartz, Sarah Witkowski, Elyse S Sussman
The auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) component of event-related potentials (ERPs) has served as a neural index of auditory change detection. MMN is elicited by presentation of infrequent (deviant) sounds randomly interspersed among frequent (standard) sounds. Deviants elicit a larger negative deflection in the ERP waveform compared to the standard. There is considerable debate as to whether the neural mechanism of this change detection response is due to release from neural adaptation (neural adaptation hypothesis) or from a prediction error signal (predictive coding hypothesis)...
January 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722839/seizure-onset-mapping-based-on-time-variant-multivariate-functional-connectivity-analysis-of-high-dimensional-intracranial-eeg-a-kalman-filter-approach
#14
Octavian V Lie, Pieter van Mierlo
The visual interpretation of intracranial EEG (iEEG) is the standard method used in complex epilepsy surgery cases to map the regions of seizure onset targeted for resection. Still, visual iEEG analysis is labor-intensive and biased due to interpreter dependency. Multivariate parametric functional connectivity measures using adaptive autoregressive (AR) modeling of the iEEG signals based on the Kalman filter algorithm have been used successfully to localize the electrographic seizure onsets. Due to their high computational cost, these methods have been applied to a limited number of iEEG time-series (<60)...
January 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659288/the-time-course-of-activity-within-the-dorsal-and-rostral-ventral-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-the-emotional-stroop-task
#15
Farah Shahnaz Feroz, Gregor Leicht, Saskia Steinmann, Christina Andreou, Christoph Mulert
Growing evidence from neuroimaging studies suggest that emotional and cognitive processes are interrelated. Anatomical key structures in this context are the dorsal and rostral-ventral anterior cingulate cortex (dACC and rvACC). However, up to now, the time course of activations within these regions during emotion-cognition interactions has not been disentangled. In the present study, we used event-related potentials (ERP) and standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) region of interest (ROI) source localization analyses to explore the time course of neural activations within the dACC and rvACC using a modified emotional Stroop paradigm...
January 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620801/causal-dynamics-of-scalp-electroencephalography-oscillation-during-the-rubber-hand-illusion
#16
Noriaki Kanayama, Alberto Morandi, Kazuo Hiraki, Francesco Pavani
Rubber hand illusion (RHI) is an important phenomenon for the investigation of body ownership and self/other distinction. The illusion is promoted by the spatial and temporal contingencies of visual inputs near a fake hand and physical touches to the real hand. The neural basis of this phenomenon is not fully understood. We hypothesized that the RHI is associated with a fronto-parietal circuit, and the goal of this study was to determine the dynamics of neural oscillation associated with this phenomenon. We measured electroencephalography while delivering spatially congruent/incongruent visuo-tactile stimulations to fake and real hands...
January 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549639/identification-of-interictal-epileptic-networks-from-dense-eeg
#17
Mahmoud Hassan, Isabelle Merlet, Ahmad Mheich, Aya Kabbara, Arnaud Biraben, Anca Nica, Fabrice Wendling
Epilepsy is a network disease. The epileptic network usually involves spatially distributed brain regions. In this context, noninvasive M/EEG source connectivity is an emerging technique to identify functional brain networks at cortical level from noninvasive recordings. In this paper, we analyze the effect of the two key factors involved in EEG source connectivity processing: (i) the algorithm used in the solution of the EEG inverse problem and (ii) the method used in the estimation of the functional connectivity...
January 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27519536/abnormal-complex-auditory-pattern-analysis-in-schizophrenia-reflected-in-an-absent-missing-stimulus-mismatch-negativity
#18
Dean F Salisbury, Alexis G McCathern
The simple mismatch negativity (MMN) to tones deviating physically (in pitch, loudness, duration, etc.) from repeated standard tones is robustly reduced in schizophrenia. Although generally interpreted to reflect memory or cognitive processes, simple MMN likely contains some activity from non-adapted sensory cells, clouding what process is affected in schizophrenia. Research in healthy participants has demonstrated that MMN can be elicited by deviations from abstract auditory patterns and complex rules that do not cause sensory adaptation...
November 2016: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27509900/the-importance-of-aging-in-gray-matter-changes-within-tinnitus-patients-shown-in-cortical-thickness-surface-area-and-volume
#19
Hye Bin Yoo, Dirk De Ridder, Sven Vanneste
Aging and sensorineural hearing loss are known to be involved in the development of chronic tinnitus. This study explores the structural changes of gray matter using surface base methods and focuses more specifically on changes in cortical thickness in 127 tinnitus patients. The linear relationships between cortical thickness and behavioral measures including aging, tinnitus loudness, tinnitus duration, tinnitus distress, and hearing loss were analyzed. Three dimensional T1-weighted MR images were acquired and cortical gray matter volumes were segmented using FreeSurfer on Talairach space...
November 2016: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27509899/combined-dti-fmri-analysis-for-a-quantitative-assessment-of-connections-between-wm-bundles-and-their-peripheral-cortical-fields-in-verbal-fluency
#20
Elisa Scaccianoce, Maria Marcella Laganà, Francesca Baglio, Maria Giulia Preti, Niels Bergsland, Pietro Cecconi, Mario Clerici, Giuseppe Baselli, George Papadimitriou, Nikos Makris
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are powerful techniques to elucidate the anatomical and functional aspects of brain connectivity. However, integrating these approaches to describe the precise link between structure and function within specific brain circuits remains challenging. In this study, a novel DTI-fMRI integration method is proposed, to provide the topographical characterization and the volumetric assessment of the functional and anatomical connections within the language circuit...
November 2016: Brain Topography
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