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Journal of Molecular Endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30496126/fgf9-inhibits-browning-program-of-white-adipocytes-and-associates-with-human-obesity
#1
Yingkai Sun, Rui Wang, Shaoqian Zhao, Wen Li, Wen Liu, Lingyun Tang, Zhugang Wang, Weiqing Wang, Rui-Xin Liu, Guang Ning, Jiqiu Wang, Jie Hong
Browning of white adipose tissue has been proven to be a potential target to fight against obesity and its metabolic commodities, making the exploration of molecules involved in browning process important. Among those browning agents reported recently, FGF21 play as a quite promising candidate for treating obesity for its obvious enhancement of thermogenic capacity in adipocyte and significant improvement of metabolic disorders in both mice and human. However, whether other members of FGF family play roles in adipose thermogenesis and obese development is still an open question...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30481159/hdac-inhibitors-impair-fshb-subunit-expression-in-murine-gonadotrope-cells
#2
Gauthier Schang, Chirine Toufaily, Daniel J Bernard
Fertility is dependent on follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), a product of gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary gland. Hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and intra-pituitary activins are regarded as the primary drivers of FSH synthesis and secretion. Both stimulate expression of the FSH beta subunit gene (Fshb), although the underlying mechanisms of GnRH action are poorly described relative to those of the activins. There is currently no consensus on how GnRH regulates Fshb transcription, as results vary across species and between in vivo and in vitro approaches...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30407917/kalirin-trio-rho-gdp-gtp-exchange-factors-regulate-proinsulin-and-insulin-secretion
#3
Quinn Dufurrena, Nils Bäck, Richard E Mains, Louis Hodgson, Herbert Tanowitz, Prashant Mandela, Elizabeth Eipper, Regina Kuliawat
Key features for progression to pancreatic β-cell failure and disease are loss of glucose responsiveness and an increased ratio of secreted proinsulin to insulin. Proinsulin and insulin are stored in secretory granules (SGs) and the fine-tuning of hormone output requires signal mediated recruitment of select SG populations according to intracellular location and age. The GTPase Rac1 coordinates multiple signaling pathways that specify SG release and Rac1 activity is controlled in part by GDP/GTP exchange factors (GEFs)...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30400066/hif-1-inhibits-star-transcription-and-testosterone-synthesis-in-murine-leydig-cells
#4
Xueting Wang, Zhiran Zou, Zhihui Yang, Shan Jiang, Yapeng Lu, Dan Wang, Zhangji Dong, Sha Xu, Li Zhu
Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF1) is a critical transcription factor involved in cell response to hypoxia. Under physiological conditions, its a subunit is rapidly degraded in most tissues except testes. HIF1 is stably expressed in Leydig cells, which are the main source of testosterone for male, and might bind to the promoter region of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (Star), which is necessary for the testosterone synthesis, according to software analysis. This study aims to identify the binding sites of HIF1 on Star promoter and its transcriptional regulation of Star to affect testosterone synthesis...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30400060/nutrient-sensor-signaling-pathways-and-cellular-stress-in-fetal-growth-restriction
#5
REVIEW
Bethany Hart, Elizabeth Morgan, Emilyn Alejandro
Fetal growth restriction is one of the most common obstetrical complications resulting in significant perinatal morbidity and mortality. The most frequent etiology of human singleton fetal growth restriction is placental insufficiency, which occurs secondary to reduced utero-placental perfusion, abnormal placentation, impaired trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodeling, resulting in altered nutrient and oxygen transport. Two nutrient-sensing proteins involved in placental development and glucose and amino acid transport are mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT), which are both regulated by availability of oxygen...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30400043/pharmacological-modulation-of-two-melanocortin-5-receptors-by-mrap2-proteins-in-zebrafish
#6
Ming Zhu, Meng Wang, Yijun Chen, Chao Zhang
Melanocortin receptor accessory protein 2 (MRAP2) plays an important role in regulating melanocortin receptors. In zebrafish, MRAP2a and MRAP2b show distinct pharmacological effects on MC4R activity, but how MRAP2 protein regulates other zebrafish melanocortin receptors is barely studied. Zebrafish have two mc5r genes: mc5ra and mc5rb, it is still vague which one is the homologous isoform to the mammalian paralog. Here we utilize synteny and phylogenetic analysis to demonstrate the evolutionary conservation of zebrafish MC5Ra and MC5Rb among different species...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30400042/gremlin-noggin-chordin-and-follistatin-differentially-modulate-bmp-induced-suppression-of-androgen-secretion-by-bovine-ovarian-theca-cells
#7
Claire Glister, Sheena L Regan, Moafaq Samir, Pg Knight
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) are firmly implicated as intra-ovarian regulators of follicle function and steroidogenesis but information is lacking regarding the regulation of BMP signalling by extracellular binding proteins co-expressed in the ovary. In this study we compared the abilities of four BMP binding proteins (gremlin, noggin, chordin, follistatin) to antagonize the action of four different BMPs (BMP2 BMP4, BMP6, BMP7) on LH-induced androstenedione secretion by bovine theca cells in primary culture...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30400041/src1-deficiency-in-hypothalamic-arcuate-nucleus-increases-appetite-and-body-weight
#8
Qianqian Lu, Yuying Yang, Sheng Jia, Shaoqian Zhao, Bin Gu, Peng Lu, Yang He, Rui-Xin Liu, Jiqiu Wang, Guang Ning, Qin-Yun Ma
Appetite is tightly controlled by neural and hormonal signals in animals. In general, steroid receptor co-activator 1 (SRC1) enhances steroid hormone signalling in energy balance and serves as a common co-activator of several steroid receptors, such as estrogen and glucocorticoid receptors. However, the key roles of SRC1 in energy balance remain largely unknown. We first confirmed that SRC1 is abundantly expressed in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), which is a critical centre for regulating feeding and energy balance; it is further co-localised with agouti-related protein and proopiomelanocortin neurons in the arcuate nucleus...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30532996/novel-actions-of-sclerostin-on-bone
#9
REVIEW
Gill Holdsworth, Scott J Roberts, Hua Zhu Ke
The discovery that two rare autosomal recessive high bone mass conditions were caused by the loss of sclerostin expression prompted studies into its role in bone homeostasis. In this article, we aim to bring together the wealth of information relating to sclerostin in bone though discussion of rare human disorders in which sclerostin is reduced or absent, sclerostin manipulation via genetic approaches and treatment with antibodies that neutralise sclerostin in animal models and in human. Together, these findings demonstrate the importance of sclerostin as a regulator of bone homeostasis and provide valuable insights into its biological mechanism of action...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30532995/novel-cancer-therapies-and-their-association-with-diabetes
#10
REVIEW
Afreen Idris Shariff, Sohail Syed, Rebecca A Shelby, Jeremy Force, Jeffrey Melson Clarke, David D'Alessio, Leonor Corsino
Over the last decade, there has been a shift in the focus of cancer therapy from conventional cytotoxic drugs to therapies more specifically directed to cancer cells. These novel therapies include immunotherapy, targeted therapy and precision medicine, each developed in great part with a goal of limiting collateral destruction of normal tissues, while enhancing tumor destruction. Although this approach is sound in theory, even new, specific therapies have some undesirable, 'off target effects', in great part due to molecular pathways shared by neoplastic and normal cells...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29941488/ovarian-and-extra-ovarian-mediators-in-the-development-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#11
Muraly Puttabyatappa, Vasantha Padmanabhan
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age. The origin of PCOS is still not clear and appears to be a function of gene x environment interactions. This review addresses the current knowledge of the genetic and developmental contributions to the etiology of PCOS, the ovarian and extra-ovarian mediators of PCOS and the gaps and key challenges that need to be addressed in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of PCOS.
October 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30328354/lncrna-neat1-promotes-inflammatory-response-and-induces-corneal-neovascularization
#12
Yan-hui Bai, Yong Lv, Wei-qun Wang, Guang-li Sun, Hao-hao Zhang
Human corneal fibroblasts (HCFs) are implicated in corneal neovascularization (CRNV). The mechanisms underlying the inflammatory response in HCFs and the development of CRNV were explored in this study. Alkali burns were applied to the corneas of rats to establish a CRNV model. The expression of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) nuclear enriched abundant transcript 1 (NEAT1) and mRNA and protein levels of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)- activating protein (NKAP) were examined by quantitative real-time (qRT-PCR) and Western blot methods, respectively...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30328353/cryptochrome-deficiency-enhances-transcription-but-reduces-protein-levels-of-pineal-aanat
#13
Yujiro Yamanaka, Yoshiko Yamada, Ken-Ichi Honma, Sato Honma
Cryptochrome (Cry) 1 and 2 are essential for circadian rhythm generation, not only in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the site of the mammalian master circadian clock, but also in peripheral organs throughout the body. CRY is also known as a repressor of arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (Aanat) transcription; therefore, Cry deficiency is expected to induce constantly high pineal melatonin content. Nevertheless, we previously found that the content was consistently low in melatonin-proficient Cry1 and Cry2 double-deficient mice (Cry1−/−/Cry2−/−) on C3H background...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30328352/trpm3-trpv4-regulates-ca2-mediated-rankl-nfatc1-expression-in-osteoblasts
#14
Aran Son, Namju Kang, Ki Woo Kim, Yu-Mi Yang, Dong Min Shin
Mechanical stress plays an important role in the regulation of bone turnover. However, the mechanism underlying hypo-osmotic stress-induced cellular response in osteoblasts remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of hypotonic stress on the expression of bone remodeling factors, including the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) and the nuclear factor of activated T cells type c1 (NFATc1) in primary mouse osteoblasts and MC3T3-E1 cells. Hypo-osmotic stress induced significant increases in RANKL mRNA expression and intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) from the extracellular space...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30139876/loss-of-dbc1-ccar2-affects-tnf%C3%AE-induced-lipolysis-and-glut4-gene-expression-in-murine-adipocytes
#15
Ashley Ann Able, Allison J Richard, Jm Stephens
STAT5A (signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A) is a transcription factor that plays a role in adipocyte development and function. In this study, we report DBC1 (deleted in breast cancer 1; also known as CCAR2) as a novel STAT5A-interacting protein. DBC1 has been primarily studied in tumor cells, but there is evidence that loss of this protein may promote metabolic health in mice. Currently, the functions of DBC1 in mature adipocytes are largely unknown. Using immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting techniques, we confirmed that there is an association between endogenous STAT5A and DBC1 proteins under physiological conditions in the adipocyte nucleus that is not dependent upon STAT5A tyrosine phosphorylation...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30131353/effect-of-tnf-%C3%AE-on-the-expression-of-abca1-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#16
Seisuke Sato, Hitomi Imachi, Jingya Lyu, Yumi Miyai, Kensaku Fukunaga, Tao Dong, Tomohiro Ibata, Toshihiro Kobayashi, Takuo Yoshimoto, Fumi Kikuchi, Kazuko Yonezaki, Nao Yamaji, Hisakazu Iwama, Koji Murao
ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), a 254-kD membrane protein, is a key regulator of lipid efflux from cells to apolipoproteins. ABCA1 in pancreatic β-cells influences insulin secretion and cholesterol homeostasis. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is a pleiotropic cytokine that elicits a wide spectrum of physiological events, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, and is also known to decrease glucose-dependent insulin secretion in pancreatic islets. In the present study, we examined the role of TNF-α on ABCA1 expression in rat pancreatic islets and INS-1 cells...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30021757/tnf-signaling-impacts-glucagon-like-peptide-1-expression-and-secretion
#17
Sufang Chen, Wei Wei, Minjie Chen, Xiaobo Qin, Lianglin Qiu, Li Zhang, Yuhao Zhang, Qi Cao, Zhekang Ying
Numerous studies have implicated tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. However, the role of its primary receptor, TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1), in homeostatic regulation of glucose metabolism is still controversial. In addition to TNFα, lymphotoxin α (LTα) binds to and activates TNFR1. Thus, TNFα and LTα together are known as TNF. To delineate the role of TNF signaling in glucose homeostasis, the present study ascertained how TNF signaling deficiency affects major regulatory components of glucose homeostasis...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30307166/adiponectin-regulates-glycogen-metabolism-at-the-human-fetal%C3%A2-maternal-interface
#18
Fabien Duval, Esther Dos Santos, Benoît Maury, Valérie Serazin, Khadija Fathallah, François Vialard, Marie-Noëlle Dieudonné
Throughout the entire first trimester of pregnancy, fetal growth is sustained by endometrial secretions, i.e. histiotrophic nutrition. Endometrial stromal cells (EnSCs) accumulate and secrete a variety of nutritive molecules that are absorbed by trophoblastic cells and transmitted to the fetus. Glycogen appears to have a critical role in the early stages of fetal development, since infertile women have low endometrial glycogen levels. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying glycogen metabolism and trafficking at the fetal–maternal interface have not yet been characterized...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30307165/the-proneural-bhlh-genes-mash1-math3-and-neurod-are-required-for-pituitary-development
#19
Mitsushige Ando, Masanori Goto, Masato Hojo, Aya Kita, Masashi Kitagawa, Toshiyuki Ohtsuka, Ryoichiro Kageyama, Susumu Miyamoto
Multiple signaling molecules and transcription factors are required for pituitary development. Activator-type bHLH genes Mash1, Math, NeuroD (Neurod) and Neurogenin (Neurog) are well known as key molecules in neural development. Although analyses of targeted mouse mutants have demonstrated involvement of these bHLH genes in pituitary development, studies with single-mutant mice could not elucidate their exact functions, because they cooperatively function and compensate each other. The aim of this study was to elucidate the roles of Mash1, Math3 and NeuroD in pituitary development...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30307164/lipocalin-2-regulates-retinoic-acid-induced-activation-of-beige-adipocytes
#20
Jessica A Deis, Hong Guo, Yingjie Wu, Chengyu Liu, David A Bernlohr, Xiaoli Chen
Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) has been previously characterized as an adipokine regulating thermogenic activation of brown adipose tissue and retinoic acid (RA)-induced thermogenesis in mice. The objective of this study was to explore the role and mechanism for LCN2 in the recruitment and retinoic acid-induced activation of brown-like or ‘beige’ adipocytes. We found LCN2 deficiency reduces key markers of thermogenesis including uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) and inguinal adipocytes derived from Lcn2 −/− mice...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
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