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Journal of Molecular Endocrinology

Tatiana Traboulsi, Mohamed El Ezzy, James Gleason, Sylvie Mader
About 70% of breast tumors express estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), which mediates the proliferative effects of estrogens on breast epithelial cells, and are candidates for treatment with antiestrogens, steroidal or non-steroidal molecules designed to compete with estrogens and antagonize ERs. The variable patterns of activity of antiestrogens (AEs) in estrogen target tissues and the lack of systematic cross-resistance between different types of molecules have provided evidence for different mechanisms of action...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Ewa Harasim-Symbor, Karolina Konstantynowicz-Nowicka, Adrian Chabowski
Synthetic and natural glucocorticoids are able to highly modify liver lipid metabolism, which is possibly associated with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease development. We have assessed changes in lipid and sphingolipid contents in hepatocytes, lipid composition and saturation status as well as the expression of proteins involved in fatty acid transport after both dexamethasone and palmitate treatments. The experiments were conducted on primary rat hepatocytes, incubated with either dexamethasone and/or palmitic acid during short (16h) and prolonged (40h) exposure...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Jeremy J Allen, Susan L Herrick, Joanne E Fortune
In cattle, primordial follicles form before birth. Fetal ovarian capacity to produce progesterone and estradiol is high before follicle formation begins and decreases around the time follicles first appear (around 90 days of gestation). However, mechanisms that regulate steroid production during this time remain unclear. We hypothesized that LH stimulates progesterone and androgen production and that FSH stimulates aromatization of androgens to estradiol. To test this, we cultured pieces from fetal bovine ovaries for 10 days without or with exogenous hormones and then measured the accumulation of steroids in the culture medium by RIA...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Jessica Sabourin, Florent Allagnat
Normal plasma glucose level is ensured by the action of insulin, the major hypoglycemic hormone. Therefore, it is not surprising that insulin release from pancreatic β-cells of the Langerhans islets is controlled by an array of balanced mechanisms in which glucose plays the leading role. Glucose triggers insulin secretion through the well described pathway of ATP-driven closure of ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP), depolarization of the plasma membrane and opening of the voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCC)...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Gillian A Gray, Christopher I White, Raphael Fp Castellan, Sara J McSweeney, Karen Chapman
Corticosteroids influence development and function of the heart and its response to injury and pressure overload via actions on glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptors. Systemic corticosteroid concentration depends largely on activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, but glucocorticoid can also be regenerated from intrinsically inert metabolites by the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), selectively increasing glucocorticoid levels within cells and tissues...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Carrie S Shemanko
Prolactin and prolactin receptor signaling and function are complex in nature and intricate in function. Basic, pre-clinical and translational research has opened up our eyes to the understanding that prolactin and prolactin receptor signaling function differently within different cellular contexts and microenvironmental conditions. Its multiple roles in normal physiology are subverted in cancer initiation and progression, and gradually we are teasing out the intricacies of function and therapeutic value. Recently, we observed that prolactin has a role in accelerating the time to bone metastasis in breast cancer patients and identified the mechanism by which prolactin stimulated breast cancer cell-mediated lytic osteoclast formation...
November 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Qin He, Dan Mei, Sha Sha, Shanshan Fan, Lin Wang, Ming Dong
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a burgeoning health problem and is considered as a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Increasing evidence demonstrates that berberine (BBR), a natural plant alkaloid, is beneficial for obesity-associated NAFLD. However, the mechanisms about how BBR improves hepatic steatosis remain uncertain. Recently, some reports revealed that enhanced autophagy could decrease hepatic lipid accumulation. In this study, we first established a high-fed diet (HFD) mice model and oleate-palmitate-induced lipotoxicity hepatocytes to explore the association among BBR, autophagy and hepatic steatosis...
November 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Lichun Zhou, Baohua Ma, Xiuzhen Han
Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is associated with nearly all forms of heart failure. It develops in response to disorders such as coronary artery disease, hypertension and myocardial infarction. Angiotensin II (Ang II) has direct effects on the myocardium and promotes hypertension. Chronic elevation of Ang II can lead to pathological cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac failure. Autophagy is an important process in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Under physiological conditions, autophagy is an essential homeostatic mechanism to maintain the global cardiac structure function by ridding damaged cells or unwanted macromolecules and organelles...
November 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Fei Xiao, Ying Du, Ziquan Lv, Shanghai Chen, Jianmin Zhu, Hongguang Sheng, Feifan Guo
Eight amino acids are considered essential for human nutrition, and three of them, including leucine, isoleucine and valine, are called as branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). We recently discovered that dietary deficiency of any BCAA for 7 days rapidly reduces the abdominal fat mass in mice. The goal of this study was to investigate (1) whether dietary deficiency of the other five essential amino acids (EAAs), including phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, methionine and lysine, would produce similar effects and (2) whether an association between serum AAs and obesity was observed in humans in Chinese Han population...
November 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Xilin Yang, Zezhang Tao, Zhanyong Zhu, Hua Liao, Yueqiang Zhao, Huajun Fan
Insulin plays an important role in the regulation of glucose metabolism. However, the molecular mechanisms involved are not entirely clarified. In this context, we found that miR-593-3p negatively regulates insulin-regulated glucose metabolism in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 and Bel7402 cells. We then identified Slc38a1 and CLIP3 as novel targets of miR-593-3p. Further studies demonstrated that Slc38a1 and CLIP3 mediate insulin-regulated glucose metabolism. Interestingly, we also demonstrated that miR-593-3p expression was negatively associated with Slc38a1 and CLIP3 expression in insulin-treated HepG2 cells, and insulin-induced Slc38a1 and CLIP3 expression via downregulation of miR-593-3p...
November 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Fadil M Hannan, Valerie N Babinsky, Rajesh V Thakker
The extracellular calcium (Ca(2+) o)-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a family C G protein-coupled receptor, which detects alterations in Ca(2+) o concentrations and modulates parathyroid hormone secretion and urinary calcium excretion. The central role of the CaSR in Ca(2+) o homeostasis has been highlighted by the identification of mutations affecting the CASR gene on chromosome 3q21.1. Loss-of-function CASR mutations cause familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia (FHH), whereas gain-of-function mutations lead to autosomal dominant hypocalcaemia (ADH)...
October 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Benjamin Kalbe, Marian Schlimm, Julia Mohrhardt, Paul Scholz, Fabian Jansen, Hanns Hatt, Sabrina Osterloh
The secretion, motility and transport by intestinal tissues are regulated among others by specialized neuroendocrine cells, the so-called enterochromaffin (EC) cells. These cells detect different luminal stimuli, such as mechanical stimuli, fatty acids, glucose and distinct chemosensory substances. The EC cells react to the changes in their environment through the release of transmitter molecules, most importantly serotonin, to mediate the corresponding physiological response. However, little is known about the molecular targets of the chemical stimuli delivered from consumed food, spices and cosmetics within EC cells...
October 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Viswanath Ragupathy, Wang Xue, Ji Tan, Krishnakumar Devadas, Yamei Gao, Indira Hewlett
In human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected women, oral or injectable progesterone containing contraceptive pills may enhance HIV-1 acquisition in vivo, and the mechanism by which this occurs is not fully understood. In developing countries, Herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) co-infection has been shown to be a risk for increase of HIV-1 acquisition and, if co-infected women use progesterone pills, infections may increase several fold. In this study, we used an in vitro cell culture system to study the effects of progesterone on HIV-1 replication and to explore the molecular mechanism of progesterone effects on infected cells...
October 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Sehee Kim, Chanyang Kim, Seungjoon Park
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is decreased in type 2 diabetes, and this impairment appears to be important in cognitive dysfunction. Previous studies suggest that ghrelin gene products (acylated ghrelin (AG), unacylated ghrelin (UAG) and obestatin (OB)) promote neurogenesis. Therefore, we hypothesize that ghrelin gene products may reduce the harmful effects of high glucose (HG) on hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of these peptides on the survival of cultured hippocampal NSCs exposed to HG insult...
October 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Sushi Jiang, Hening Zhai, Danjie Li, Jiana Huang, Heng Zhang, Ziru Li, Weizhen Zhang, Geyang Xu
This study examined whether AMPK, an evolutionarily conserved sensor of cellular energy status, determines the production of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1). A negative relation existed between phosphorylation of AMPKα and the expression and secretion of GLP1 during changes in energy status in STC-1 cells, an L-like cell line. High concentration of glucose (25 mmol/L) decreased AMPKα phosphorylation, whereas it stimulated the expression and secretion of GLP1 relative to 5.6 mmol/L glucose. Serum starvation upregulated AMPKα phosphorylation, whereas it reduced GLP1 production significantly...
October 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Chunyu Wang, Li Tian, Kun Zhang, Yaxi Chen, Xiang Chen, Ying Xie, Qian Zhao, Xijie Yu
The purpose of the study was to determine the roles of interleukin-6 (IL6) in fat and bone communication. Male wild-type (WT) mice and IL6 knockout (IL6(-/-)) mice were fed with either regular diet (RD) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. Bone mass and bone microstructure were evaluated by micro-computed tomography. Gene expression related to lipid and bone metabolisms was assayed with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Bone marrow cells from both genotypes were induced to differentiate into osteoblasts or osteoclasts, and treated with palmitic acid (PA)...
October 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Laura Sabatino, Claudia Kusmic, Giuseppina Nicolini, Rosario Amato, Giovanni Casini, Giorgio Iervasi, Silvana Balzan
Angiogenesis is important for recovery after tissue damage in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion, and tri-iodothyronine (T3) has documented effects on angiogenesis. The angiopoietins 1/2 and tyrosine kinase receptor represent an essential system in angiogenesis controlling endothelial cell survival and vascular maturation. Recently, in a 3-day ischemia/reperfusion rat model, the infusion of a low dose of T3 improved the post-ischemic recovery of cardiac function.Adopting this model, our study aimed to investigate the effects of T3 on the capillary index and the expression of angiogenic genes as the angiopoietins 1/2 and tyrosine kinase receptor system, in the thoracic aorta and in the left ventricle...
October 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
F Astort, E M Repetto, L Rocha-Viegas, M E Mercau, S Sanchez Puch, C V Finkielstein, A Pecci, C B Cymeryng
In addition to the well-known function of ACTH as the main regulator of adrenal steroidogenesis, we have previously demonstrated its effect on the transcriptional stimulation of HO-1 expression, a component of the cellular antioxidant defense system. In agreement, we hereby demonstrate that, in adrenocortical Y1 cells, HO-1 induction correlates with a significant prevention of the generation of reactive oxygen species induced by H2O2/Fe(2+) ACTH/cAMP-dependent activation of redox-imbalanced related factors such as NRF2 or NFκB and the participation of MAPKs in this mechanism was, however, discarded based on results with specific inhibitors and reporter plasmids...
August 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Kesha Rana, Maria W S Chiu, Patricia K Russell, Jarrod P Skinner, Nicole K L Lee, Barbara C Fam, Jeffrey D Zajac, Helen E MacLean
The aim of this study was to investigate the direct muscle cell-mediated actions of androgens by comparing two different mouse lines. The cre-loxP system was used to delete the DNA-binding activity of the androgen receptor (AR) in mature myofibers (MCK mAR(ΔZF2)) in one model and the DNA-binding activity of the AR in both proliferating myoblasts and myofibers (α-actin mAR(ΔZF2)) in another model. We found that hind-limb muscle mass was normal in MCK mAR(ΔZF2) mice and that relative mass of only some hind-limb muscles was reduced in α-actin mAR(ΔZF2) mice...
August 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Silvia Giatti, Roberto Cosimo Melcangi, Marzia Pesaresi
Progestins are a broad class of progestational agents widely differing in their chemical structures and pharmacological properties. Despite emerging data suggest that progestins, besides their action as endometrial protection, can also have multiple nonreproductive functions, much remains to be discovered regarding the actions exerted by these molecules in the nervous system. Here, we report the role exerted by different progestins, currently used for contraception or in postmenopausal hormone replacement therapies, in regulating cognitive functions as well as social behavior and mood...
August 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
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