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Journal of Molecular Endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30082335/stress-and-glucocorticoid-receptor-regulation-of-mitochondrial-gene-expression
#1
Hannah E Lapp, Andrew A Bartlett, Richard Hunter
Glucocorticoids have long been recognized for their role in regulating the availability of energetic resources, particularly during stress. Furthermore, bidirectional connections between glucocorticoids and the physiology and function of mitochondria have been discovered over the years. However, the precise mechanisms by which glucocorticoids act on mitochondria have only recently been explored. Glucocorticoids appear to regulate mitochondrial transcription via activation of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) with elevated circulating glucocorticoid levels following stress...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30072419/pathobiology-and-genetics-of-adrenocortical-carcinoma
#2
James Frederick Henry Pittaway, Leonardo Guasti
Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy with an incidence worldwide of 0.7-2.0 cases/million/year. Initial staging is the most important factor in determining prognosis. If diagnosed early, surgical resection +/- adjuvant treatment can lead to five-year survival of up to 80%. However, often it is diagnosed late and in advanced disease five-year survival is <15% with a high recurrence rate even after radical surgery. The mainstay of adjuvant treatment is with the drug mitotane. Mitotane has a specific cytotoxic effect on steroidogenic cells of the adrenal cortex but despite this progression through treatment is common...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30072418/oncogenic-kinases-and-perturbations-in-protein-synthesis-machinery-and-energetics-in-neoplasia
#3
Oro Uchenunu, Michael Pollak, Ivan Topisirovic, Laura Hulea
Notwithstanding that metabolic perturbations and dysregulated protein synthesis are salient features of cancer, the mechanism underlying coordination of cellular energy balance with mRNA translation (which is the most energy consuming process in the cell) is poorly understood. In this review, we focus on recently emerging insights in the molecular underpinnings of the cross-talk between oncogenic kinases, translational apparatus and cellular energy metabolism. In particular, we focus on the central signaling nodes that regulate these processes (e...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30068522/defining-lipid-mediators-of-insulin-resistance-controversies-and-challenges
#4
Louise K Metcalfe, Greg C Smith, Nigel Turner
Essential elements of all cells, lipids play important roles in energy production, signalling and as structural components. Despite these critical functions, excessive availability and intracellular accumulation of lipid is now recognised as a major factor contributing to many human diseases, including obesity and diabetes. In the context of these metabolic disorders, ectopic deposition of lipid has been proposed to have deleterious effects of insulin action. While this relationship has been recognised for some time now, there is currently no unifying mechanism to explain how lipids precipitate the development of insulin resistance...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30042122/the-molecular-pathways-underlying-early-gonadal-development
#5
Yisheng Yang, Stephanie Workman, Megan Wilson
The body of knowledge surrounding reproductive development spans the fields of genetics, anatomy, physiology and biomedicine, to build a comprehensive understanding of the later stages of reproductive development in humans and animal models. Despite this, there remains much to learn about the bi-potential progenitor structure that the ovary and testis arise from, known as the genital ridge (GR). This tissue forms relatively late in embryonic development and has the potential to form either the ovary or testis, which in turn produce hormones required for development of the rest of the reproductive tract...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30038054/adsc-conditioned-media-elicit-an-ex-vivo-anti-inflammatory-macrophage-response
#6
Maria Jacoba Kruger, Riana Conradie, Magda Conradie, Mari van de Vyver
Obesity-associated inflammatory mechanisms play a key role in the pathogenesis of metabolic-related diseases. Failure of anti-inflammatory control mechanisms within adipose tissue and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) have been implicated in disease progression. This study investigated the efficacy of allogeneic adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells conditioned media (ADSC-CM) to counteract persistent inflammation by inducing an anti-inflammatory phenotype and cytokine response within PBMCs derived from patients with and without metabolic syndrome...
July 23, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30038053/dimethyl-fumarate-accelerates-wound-healing-under-diabetic-condition
#7
Ying Li, Fuzhe Ma, Huimin Li, Yuguo Song, Huan Zhang, Ziping Jiang, Hao Wu
Impaired wound healing is a common complication among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), resulting in high rates of disability and mortality. Recent findings highlighted the critical role of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) - a master of cellular antioxidants scavenging excessive DM-induced free radicals - in accelerating diabetic wound healing. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is a potent NRF2 activator used for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. However, the effect of DMF on wound healing has not been determined...
July 23, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30021758/mechanisms-of-beneficial-effects-of-metformin-on-fatty-acid-treated-human-islets
#8
Jing Cen, Ernest Sargsyan, Anders Forslund, Peter Bergsten
Elevated levels of palmitate accentuate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) after short-term and cause beta-cell dysfunction after prolonged exposure. We investigated whether metformin, the first-line oral drug for treatment of T2DM, has beneficial effects on FFA-treated human islets and the potential mechanisms behind the effects. Insulin secretion, oxygen consumption rate (OCR), AMPK activation, ER stress and apoptosis were examined in isolated human islets after exposure to elevated levels of palmitate in the absence or presence of metformin...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30021757/tnf-signaling-impacts-glucagon-like-peptide-1-expression-and-secretion
#9
Sufang Chen, Wei Wei, Minjie Chen, Xiaobo Qin, Lianglin Qiu, Li Zhang, Yuhao Zhang, Qi Cao, Zhekang Ying
Numerous studies have implicated tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. However, the role of its primary receptor, TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1), in homeostatic regulation of glucose metabolism is still controversial. In addition to TNFα, lymphotoxin α (LTα) binds to and activates TNFR1. Thus, TNFα and LTα together are known as TNF. To delineate the role of TNF signaling in glucose homeostasis, the present study ascertained how TNF signaling deficiency affects major regulatory components of glucose homeostasis...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006342/integrated-omics-tools-advances-and-future-approaches
#10
Biswapriya B Misra, Carl D Langefeld, Michael Olivier, Laura A Cox
With the rapid adoption of high-throughput omic approaches to analyze biological samples such as genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, each analysis can generate tera- to peta-byte sized data files on a daily basis. These data file sizes, together with differences in nomenclature among these data types, make the integration of these multi-dimensional omics data into biologically meaningful context challenging. Variously named as integrated omics, multi-omics, poly-omics, trans-omics, pan-omics, or shortened to just 'omics', the challenges include differences in data cleaning, normalization, biomolecule identification, data dimensionality reduction, biological contextualization, statistical validation, data storage and handling, sharing, and data archiving...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006341/thyroid-function-disruptors-from-nature-to-chemicals
#11
Karen J Oliveira, Maria Izabel Chiamolera, Gisele Giannocco, Carmen Cabanelas Pazos-Moura, Tania Maria Ortiga-Carvalho
The modern concept of thyroid disruptors includes man-made chemicals and bioactive compounds from food that interfere with any aspect of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis, thyroid hormone biosynthesis and secretion, blood and transmembrane transport, metabolism and local action of thyroid hormones. This review highlights relevant disruptors that effect populations through their diet: directly from food itself (fish oil and polyunsaturated fatty acids, pepper, coffee, cinnamon and resveratrol/grapes), through vegetable cultivation (pesticides) and from containers for food storage and cooking (bisphenol A, phthalates and polybrominated diphenyl ethers)...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29973353/adiponectin-regulates-glycogen-metabolism-at-the-human-fetal-maternal-interface
#12
Fabien Duval, Esther Dos Santos, Benoit Maury, Valérie Serazin, Khadija Fathallah, François Vialard, Marie-Noëlle Dieudonné
Throughout the entire first trimester of pregnancy, fetal growth is sustained by endometrial secretions, i.e histiotrophic nutrition. Endometrial stromal cells (EnSCs) accumulate and secrete a variety of nutritive molecules which are absorbed by trophoblastic cells and transmitted to the fetus. Glycogen appears to have a critical role in the early stages of fetal development, since infertile women have low endometrial glycogen levels. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying glycogen metabolism and trafficking at the fetal-maternal interface have not yet been characterized...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29941488/ovarian-and-extra-ovarian-mediators-in-the-development-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#13
Muraly Puttabyatappa, Vasantha Padmanabhan
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age. The origin of PCOS is still not clear and appears to be a function of gene x environment interactions. This review addresses the current knowledge of the genetic and developmental contributions to the etiology of PCOS, the ovarian and extra-ovarian mediators of PCOS and the gaps and key challenges that need to be addressed in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of PCOS.
June 25, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29941487/the-proneural-bhlh-genes-mash1-math3-and-neurod-are-required-for-pituitary-development
#14
Mitsushige Ando, Masanori Goto, Masato Hojo, Aya Kita, Masashi Kitagawa, Toshiyuki Ohtsuka, Ryoichiro Kageyama, Susumu Miyamoto
Multiple signaling molecules and transcription factors are required for pituitary development. Activator-type bHLH genes Mash1, Math, NeuroD and Neurogenin are well known as key molecules in neural development. Although analyses of targeted mouse mutants have demonstrated involvement of these bHLH genes in pituitary development, studies with single-mutant mice could not elucidate their exact functions, because they cooperatively function and compensate each other. The aim of this study was to elucidate the roles of Mash1, Math3 and NeuroD in pituitary development...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921568/lipocalin-2-regulates-retinoic-acid-induced-activation-of-beige-adipocytes
#15
Jessica A Deis, Hong Guo, Yingjie Wu, Chengyu Liu, David A Bernlohr, Xiaoli Chen
Lipocalin-2 (Lcn2) has been previously characterized as an adipokine regulating thermogenic activation of brown adipose tissue and retinoic acid (RA)-induced thermogenesis in mice. The objective of this study was to explore the role and mechanism for Lcn2 in the recruitment and retinoic acid-induced activation of brown-like or "beige" adipocytes. We found Lcn2 deficiency reduces key markers of thermogenesis including uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) and inguinal adipocytes derived from Lcn2-/- mice...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899079/hormone-therapy-and-breast-cancer-emerging-steroid-receptor-mechanisms
#16
Meghan Samantha Perkins, Renate Louw-du Toit, Donita Africander
Although hormone therapy is widely used by millions of women to relieve symptoms of menopause, it has been associated with several side-effects such as coronary heart disease, stroke and increased invasive breast cancer risk. These side-effects have caused many women to seek alternatives to conventional hormone therapy, including the controversial custom-compounded bioidentical hormone therapy suggested to not increase breast cancer risk. Historically estrogens and the estrogen receptor were considered the principal factors promoting breast cancer development and progression, however, a role for other members of the steroid receptor family in breast cancer pathogenesis is now evident, with emerging studies revealing an interplay between some steroid receptors...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875122/recent-insight-into-the-correlation-of-srebp-mediated-lipid-metabolism-and-innate-immune-response
#17
Hyeon Young Park, Hye Suk Kang, Seung-Soon Im
Fatty acids are essential nutrients that contribute to several intracellular functions. Fatty acid synthesis and oxidation are known to be regulated by sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), which play a pivotal role in the regulation of cellular triglyceride synthesis and cholesterol biogenesis. Recent studies point to a multifunctional role of SREBPs in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases, such as obesity, type II diabetes, and cancer as well as in immune responses. Notably, fatty-acid metabolic intermediates are involved in energy homeostasis and pathophysiological conditions...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866650/nfatc3-deficiency-reduces-the-classical-activation-of-adipose-tissue-macrophages
#18
Li Hu, Fengli He, Meifeng Huang, Meihua Peng, Zhiguang Zhou, Feng Liu, Yan-Shan Dai
Nuclear factors of activated T-cells (NFAT) c3 has a prominent role in regulation of proinflammatory factors in immune cells. The classically activated M1 macrophages are key players in the initiation and maintenance of adipose tissue (AT) inflammation. The role of NFATc3 in obesity and AT inflammation is unknown. We set out to determine how deficiency of NFATc3 effected macrophage polarization, inflammation and insulin resistance in visceral adipose tissue of high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Nfatc3-/- and wild type (WT) mice were fed a HFD for 8 to 17 weeks...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29848626/the-emergence-of-the-nicotinamide-riboside-kinases-in-the-regulation-of-nad-metabolism
#19
Rachel S Fletcher, Gareth Lavery
The concept of replenishing or elevating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) availability to combat metabolic disease and ageing (described extensively in recent reviews [1, 2]) is an area of intense research. This has led to a need to define the endogenous regulatory pathways and mechanisms cell and tissues utilise to maximise NAD+ availability such that strategies to intervene in the clinical setting are able to be fully realised. This review discusses the importance of different salvage pathways involved in metabolising the vitamin B3 class of NAD+ precursor molecules, with a particular focus on the recently identified nicotinamide riboside kinase (NRK) pathway at both a tissue-specific and systemic level...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29848625/the-mitochondrial-unfolded-protein-response-and-mitohormesis-a-perspective-on-metabolic-diseases
#20
Hyon-Seung Yi, Joon Young Chang, Minho Shong
Mitochondria perform essential roles as crucial organelles for cellular and systemic energy homeostasis, and as signaling hubs which coordinate nuclear transcriptional responses to the intra- and extra-cellular environment. Complex human diseases, including diabetes, obesity, fatty liver disease and aging-related degenerative diseases are associated with alterations in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) function. However, a recent series of studies in animal models have revealed that an integrated response to tolerable mitochondrial stress appears to render cells less susceptible to subsequent aging processes and metabolic stresses, which is a key feature of mitohormesis...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
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