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Journal of Molecular Endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283578/molecular-identification-and-functional-analysis-of-ctrp9-in-epinephelus-coioides
#1
Guokun Yang, Chaobin Qin, Bin Wang, Jirong Jia, Xi Yuan, Caiyun Sun, Wensheng Li
CTRP9 is a member of the C1q/TNF-related protein (CTRP) superfamily and has been studied in mammals, while the comparative studies of CTRP9 in non-mammalian species are still absent. In this study, CTRP9 was isolated and characterized from the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). The full length cDNA of CTRP9 was 1378 bp in size with ORF (open reading frame) of 1020 bp which encods a 339 amino acids preprohormone. The mRNA expression of CTRP9 showed a rather high level in the kidney and brain, but low level in other tissues...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250059/netrin-1-restores-cell-injury-and-impaired-angiogenesis-in-vascular-endothelial-cells
#2
Ying Xing, Jingbo Lai, Xiangyang Liu, Nana Zhang, Jie Ming, Hengxin Liu, Xi Zhang
Diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) represents a common vascular complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) with high morbidity and disability resulting from amputation. Netrin-1 level was decreased in type 2 DM patients and has been identified as a protective regulator against diabetes-triggered myocardial infarction and nephropathy. Unfortunately, its role and molecular mechanism in DFU remain poorly elucidated. Here, netrin-1 levels were reduced in DM and DFU patients relative to healthy controls, with netrin-1 levels being lowest in DFU patients...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219936/cardioprotection-of-ischemic-preconditioning-in-rats-involves-upregulating-adiponectin
#3
Hui Wang, Wenjing Wu, Jun Duan, Ming Ma, Wei Kong, Yuannan Ke, Gang Li, Jingang Zheng
It has been reported that ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and adiponectin (APN) are cardioprotective in many cardiovascular disorders. However, whether APN mediates the effect of IPC on myocardial injury has not been elucidated. This study was conducted to investigate whether IPC affects myocardial ischemic injury by increasing APN expression. Male adult rats with cardiac knockdowns of APN and its receptors via intramyocardial small-interfering RNA injection were subjected to IPC and then myocardial infarction (MI) at 24 h post-IPC...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213370/promiscuity-among-the-mraps
#4
Adrian J L Clark, Li F Chan
The melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein (MRAP) was originally discovered to be an essential co-receptor for the ACTH receptor/melanocortin 2 receptor, and it physically interacts with this receptor and is required for receptor trafficking and ligand binding. A related molecule, MRAP2, is mainly expressed in the CNS and appears to have a role with the melanocortin 4 receptor. Consistent with this is the observation that a massively obese phenotype develops when the Mrap2 gene is deleted in mice. However, the characteristics of this phenotype differ from those of Mc4r deleted mice, and suggest that an additional role, possibly resulting from an interaction with other receptors is possible...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100703/paternal-epigenetic-programming-evolving-metabolic-disease-risk
#5
Suzy Sj Hur, Jennifer E Cropley, Catherine M Suter
Parental health or exposures can affect the lifetime health outcomes of offspring, independently of inherited genotypes. Such 'epigenetic' effects occur over a broad range of environmental stressors, including defects in parental metabolism. While maternal metabolic effects are well documented, it has only recently been established that that there is also an independent paternal contribution to long-term metabolic health. Both paternal undernutrition and overnutrition can induce metabolic phenotypes in immediate offspring, and in some cases the induced phenotype can affect multiple generations, implying inheritance of an acquired trait...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100702/zanthoxylum-alkylamides-ameliorate-protein-metabolism-disorder-in-stz-induced-diabetic-rats
#6
Tingyuan Ren, Zhu Yu Ping, Xuejuan Xia, Ding Bo Yong, Guo Jing, Kan Jian Quan
This study aimed to evaluate the protein metabolism effect of Zanthoxylum alkylamides and to explore the potential mechanism in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetic rats were orally treated with 2, 4 and 8 mg per kg bw of alkylamides daily for 28 days. Alkylamides decreased the relative weight of the liver and food intake, significantly increased the relative skeletal muscle weight and significantly decreased the blood urea nitrogen levels. Insulin, insulin-like growth factor I, total protein (TP) and albumin (ALB), globular proteins and ALB proteins/globulin protein levels in serum significantly increased...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087820/emerging-functional-roles-of-nuclear-receptors-in-breast-cancer
#7
Tram B Doan, Justine Graham, Christine Clarke
Nuclear receptors (NRs) have been targets of intensive drug development for decades due to their roles as key regulators of multiple developmental, physiological and disease processes. In breast cancer, expression of the estrogen and progesterone receptor remains clinically important in predicting prognosis and determining therapeutic strategies. More recently, there is growing evidence supporting the involvement of multiple nuclear receptors other than the estrogen and progesterone receptors, in the regulation of various processes important to the initiation and progression of breast cancer...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057770/neuroendocrine-integration-of-nutritional-signals-on-reproduction
#8
Maggie Corr Evans, Greg Anderson
Reproductive function in mammals is energetically costly and therefore tightly regulated by nutritional status. To enable this integration of metabolic and reproductive function, information regarding peripheral nutritional status must be relayed centrally to the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons that drive reproductive function. The metabolically relevant hormones leptin, insulin and ghrelin have been identified as key mediators of this 'metabolic control of fertility'. However, the neural circuitry through which they act to exert their control over GnRH drive remains incompletely understood...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057768/tert-biology-and-function-in-cancer-beyond-immortalization
#9
Ana Pestana, João Vinagre, M Sobrinho-Simões, P Soares
Evasion of replicative senescence and proliferation without restriction, sometimes designated as immortalization, is one of cancer hallmarks that may be attained through reactivation of telomerase in somatic cells. In contrast to most normal cells in which there is lack of telomerase activity, upregulation of TERT transcription/activity is detected in 80 to 90% of malignant tumours. In several types of cancer there is a relationship between the presence of TERTp mutations, TERT mRNA expression and clinico-pathological features but the biological bridge between the occurrence of TERTp mutations and the aggressive/invasive features displayed by the tumours remains unidentified...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258092/impaired-adipose-expansion-caused-by-liver-x-receptor-activation-is-associated-with-insulin-resistance-in-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#10
Yueting Dong, Zhiye Xu, Ziyi Zhang, Xueyao Yin, Xihua Lin, Hong Li, Fenping Zheng
Liver X receptors (LXR) are deemed as potential drug targets for atherosclerosis, whereas a role in adipose tissue expansion and its relation to insulin sensitivity remains unclear. To assess the metabolic effects of LXR activation by the dual LXRα/β agonist T0901317, C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) were treated with T0901317 (30 mg/kg once daily by intraperitoneal injection) for 3 weeks. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were used for analysing the effect of T0901317 on glucose uptake. The following results were obtained from this study...
April 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196832/gpr55-a-new-promising-target-for-metabolism
#11
REVIEW
Eva Tudurí, Monica Imbernon, Rene Javier Hernández-Bautista, Marta Tojo, Johan Fernø, Carlos Diéguez, Rubén Nogueiras
GPR55 is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that has been identified as a new cannabinoid receptor. Given the wide localization of GPR55 in brain and peripheral tissues, this receptor has emerged as a regulator of multiple biological actions. Lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) is generally accepted as the endogenous ligand of GPR55. In this review, we will focus on the role of GPR55 in energy balance and glucose metabolism. We will summarize its actions on feeding, nutrient partitioning, gastrointestinal motility and insulin secretion in preclinical models and the scarce data available in humans...
April 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122818/effects-of-g6pc2-deletion-on-body-weight-and-cholesterol-in-mice
#12
Kayla A Boortz, Kristen E Syring, Lynley D Pound, Huan Mo, Lisa Bastarache, James K Oeser, Owen P McGuinness, Joshua C Denny, Richard M O'Brien
Genome-wide association study (GWAS) data have linked the G6PC2 gene to variations in fasting blood glucose (FBG). G6PC2 encodes an islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit that forms a substrate cycle with the beta cell glucose sensor glucokinase. This cycle modulates the glucose sensitivity of insulin secretion and hence FBG. GWAS data have not linked G6PC2 to variations in body weight but we previously reported that female C57BL/6J G6pc2-knockout (KO) mice were lighter than wild-type littermates on both a chow and high-fat diet...
April 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073818/transcriptional-coregulator-rip140-an-essential-regulator-of-physiology
#13
REVIEW
Jaya Nautiyal
Transcriptional coregulators drive gene regulatory decisions in the transcriptional space. Although transcription factors including all nuclear receptors provide a docking platform for coregulators to bind, these proteins bring enzymatic capabilities to the gene regulatory sites. RIP140 is a transcriptional coregulator essential for several physiological processes, and aberrations in its function may lead to diseased states. Unlike several other coregulators that are known either for their coactivating or corepressing roles, in gene regulation, RIP140 is capable of acting both as a coactivator and a corepressor...
April 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057769/extra-nuclear-effects-of-estrogen-on-cortical-bone-in-males-require-er%C3%AE-af-1
#14
H H Farman, J Wu, K L Gustafsson, S H Windahl, S H Kim, J A Katzenellenbogen, C Ohlsson, M K Lagerquist
Estradiol (E2) signaling via estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is important for the male skeleton as demonstrated by ERα inactivation in both mice and man. ERα mediates estrogenic effects not only by translocating to the nucleus and affecting gene transcription but also by extra-nuclear actions e.g., triggering cytoplasmic signaling cascades. ERα contains various domains, and the role of activation function 1 (ERαAF-1) is known to be tissue specific. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of extra-nuclear estrogen effects for the skeleton in males and to determine the role of ERαAF-1 for mediating these effects...
February 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965370/genetic-characterization-of-a-mouse-line-with-primary-aldosteronism
#15
L G Perez-Rivas, Y Rhayem, S Sabrautzki, C Hantel, B Rathkolb, M Hrabě de Angelis, M Reincke, F Beuschlein, A Spyroglou
In an attempt to define novel genetic loci involved in the pathophysiology of primary aldosteronism, a mutagenesis screen after treatment with the alkylating agent N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea was established for the parameter aldosterone. One of the generated mouse lines with hyperaldosteronism was phenotypically and genetically characterized. This mouse line had high aldosterone levels but normal creatinine and urea values. The steroidogenic enzyme expression levels in the adrenal gland did not differ significantly among phenotypically affected and unaffected mice...
February 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872157/exendin-4-increases-oxygen-consumption-and-thermogenic-gene-expression-in-muscle-cells
#16
Jin-Seung Choung, Young-Sun Lee, Hee-Sook Jun
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) has many anti-diabetic actions and also increases energy expenditure in vivo As skeletal muscle is a major organ controlling energy metabolism, we investigated whether GLP1 can affect energy metabolism in muscle. We found that treatment of differentiated C2C12 cells with exendin-4 (Ex-4), a GLP1 receptor agonist, reduced oleate:palmitate-induced lipid accumulation and triglyceride content compared with cells without Ex-4 treatment. When we examined the oxygen consumption rate (OCR), not only the basal OCR but also the OCR induced by oleate:palmitate addition was significantly increased in Ex-4-treated differentiated C2C12 cells, and this was inhibited by exendin-9, a GLP1 receptor antagonist...
February 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920093/metformin-reduces-glycometabolism-of-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#17
Chen-Tian Shen, Wei-Jun Wei, Zhong-Ling Qiu, Hong-Jun Song, Xin-Yun Zhang, Zhen-Kui Sun, Quan-Yong Luo
More aggressive thyroid cancer cells show a higher activity of glycometabolism. Targeting cancer cell metabolism has emerged as a novel approach to prevent or treat malignant tumors. Glucose metabolism regulation effect of metformin in papillary thyroid cancer was investigated in the current study. Human papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) cell lines BCPAP and KTC1 were used. Cell viability was detected by CCK8 assay. Glucose uptake and relative gene expression were measured in metformin (0-10 mM for 48 h)-treated cells by (18)F-FDG uptake assay and western blotting analysis, respectively...
January 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875255/glycosylation-pattern-analysis-of-glycoprotein-hormones-and-their-receptors
#18
Ricardo Núñez Miguel, Jane Sanders, Jadwiga Furmaniak, Bernard Rees Smith
We have studied glycosylation patterns in glycoprotein hormones (GPHs) and glycoprotein hormone receptor (GPHR) extracellular domains (ECD) from different species to identify areas not glycosylated that could be involved in intermolecular or intramolecular interactions. Comparative models of the structure of the TSHR ECD in complex with TSH and in complex with TSHR autoantibodies (M22, stimulating and K1-70, blocking) were obtained based on the crystal structures of the FSH-FSHR ECD, M22-TSHR leucine-rich repeat domain (LRD) and K1-70-TSHR LRD complexes...
January 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864453/glial-cells-and-energy-balance
#19
REVIEW
Pilar Argente-Arizón, Santiago Guerra-Cantera, Luis Miguel Garcia-Segura, Jesús Argente, Julie A Chowen
The search for new strategies and drugs to abate the current obesity epidemic has led to the intensification of research aimed at understanding the neuroendocrine control of appetite and energy expenditure. This intensified investigation of metabolic control has also included the study of how glial cells participate in this process. Glia, the most abundant cell type in the central nervous system, perform a wide spectrum of functions and are vital for the correct functioning of neurons and neuronal circuits...
January 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856505/transcriptomic-changes-throughout-post-hatch-development-in-gallus-gallus-pituitary
#20
Elizabeth M Pritchett, Susan J Lamont, Carl J Schmidt
The pituitary gland is a neuroendocrine organ that works closely with the hypothalamus to affect multiple processes within the body including the stress response, metabolism, growth and immune function. Relative tissue expression (rEx) is a transcriptome analysis method that compares the genes expressed in a particular tissue to the genes expressed in all other tissues with available data. Using rEx, the aim of this study was to identify genes that are uniquely or more abundantly expressed in the pituitary when compared to all other collected chicken tissues...
January 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
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