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Journal of Molecular Endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899417/emerging-roles-of-glis3-in-neonatal-diabetes-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes
#1
Xianjie Wen, Yisheng Yang
GLI-similar 3 (GLIS3), a member of the Krüppel-like zinc finger protein subfamily, is predominantly expressed in the pancreas, thyroid, and kidney. Glis3 mRNA can be initially detected in mouse pancreas at embryonic day 11.5 and is largely restricted to β cells, pancreatic polypeptide-expressing cells, as well as ductal cells at later stage of pancreas development. Mutations in GLIS3 cause a neonatal diabetes syndrome, characterized by neonatal diabetes, congenital hypothyroidism, and polycystic kidney. Importantly, genome-wide association studies showed that variations of GLIS3 are strongly associated with both type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in multiple populations...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872158/filamin-a-is-reduced-and-contributes-to-the-casr-sensitivity-in-human-parathyroid-tumors
#2
Alessandra Mingione, Chiara Verdelli, Stefano Ferrero, Valentina Vaira, Vito Guarnieri, Alfredo Scillitani, Leonardo Vicentini, Gianni Balza, Edoardo Beretta, Annalisa Terranegra, Giuseppe Vezzoli, Laura Soldati, Sabrina Corbetta
Parathyroid tumors display reduced sensitivity to extracellular calcium ([Ca2+]o). [Ca2+]o activates calcium-sensing receptor (CASR), which interacts with the scaffold protein filamin A (FLNA). The study aimed to investigate: 1) the FLNA expression in human parathyroid tumors, 2) its effects on the CASR mRNA and protein expression, and 3) on ERK signaling activation, 4) the effect of the carboxy-terminal CASR variants and 5) of the treatment with the CASR agonist R568 on FLNA-mediated ERK phosphorylation in HEK293 cells...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872157/exendin-4-increases-oxygen-consumption-and-thermogenic-gene-expression-in-muscle-cells
#3
Jin-Seung Choung, Young-Sun Lee, Hee-Sook Jun
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) has many anti-diabetic actions and also increases energy expenditure in vivo. Since skeletal muscle is a major organ controlling energy metabolism, we investigated whether GLP1 can affect energy metabolism in muscle. We found that treatment of differentiated C2C12 cells with Exendin-4 (Ex-4), a GLP1 receptor agonist, reduced oleate:palmitate-induced lipid accumulation and triglyceride content compared with cells without Ex-4 treatment. When we examined the oxygen consumption rate (OCR), not only the basal OCR but also the OCR induced by oleate:palmitate addition was significantly increased in Ex-4-treated differentiated C2C12 cells, and this was inhibited by Exendin-9, a GLP1 receptor antagonist...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864453/glial-cells-and-energy-balance
#4
Pilar Argente-Arizón, Santiago Guerra-Cantera, Luis Miguel Garcia-Segura, Jesús Argente, Julie A Chowen
The search for new strategies and drugs to abate the current obesity epidemic has led to the intensification of research aimed at understanding the neuroendocrine control of appetite and energy expenditure. This intensified investigation of metabolic control has also included the study of how glial cells participate in this process. Glia, the most abundant cell type in the central nervous system, perform a wide spectrum of functions and are vital for the correct functioning of neurons and neuronal circuits...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856505/transcriptomic-changes-throughout-post-hatch-development-in-gallus-gallus-pituitary
#5
Elizabeth M Pritchett, Susan J Lamont, Carl J Schmidt
The pituitary gland is a neuroendocrine organ that works closely with the hypothalamus to affect multiple processes within the body including the stress response, metabolism, growth, and immune function. Relative tissue expression (rEx) is a transcriptome analysis method that compares the genes expressed in a particular tissue to the genes expressed in all other tissues with available data. Using rEx, the aim of this study was to identify genes that are uniquely or more abundantly expressed in the pituitary when compared to all other collected chicken tissues...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875255/glycosylation-pattern-analysis-of-glycoprotein-hormones-and-their-receptors
#6
Ricardo Núñez Miguel, Jane Sanders, Jadwiga Furmaniak, Bernard Rees Smith
We have studied glycosylation patterns in glycoprotein hormones (GPHs) and glycoprotein hormone receptor (GPHR) extracellular domains (ECD) from different species to identify areas not glycosylated that could be involved in inter- or intra-molecular interactions. Comparative models of the structure of the TSHR ECD in complex with TSH and in complex with TSHR autoantibodies (M22, stimulating and K1-70, blocking) were obtained based on the crystal structures of the FSH-FSHR ECD, M22-TSHR leucine-rich repeat domain (LRD) and K1-70-TSHR LRD complexes...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821439/mineralocorticoid-regulation-of-cell-function-the-role-of-rapid-signalling-and-gene-transcription-pathways
#7
Gregory S Y Ong, Morag Young
The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and mineralocorticoids regulate epithelial handling of electrolytes, as well as inducing diverse effects on other organs. Traditionally, MR effects were ascribed to ligand-receptor binding and activation of gene transcription. However, the MR also utilises a number of intracellular signalling cascades, often by transactivating unrelated receptors, to more rapidly change cell function. Although aldosterone is the physiological mineralocorticoid, it is not the sole ligand for MR...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821438/akkermansia-muciniphila-improves-metabolic-profiles-by-reducing-inflammation-in-chow-diet-fed-mice
#8
Shaoqian Zhao, Wen Liu, Jiqiu Wang, Juan Shi, Yingkai Sun, Weiqing Wang, Guang Ning, Rui-Xin Liu, Jie Hong
Abnormal shifts in the composition of gut microbiota contribute to the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases, including obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The crosstalk between gut microbes and the host affects the inflammatory status and glucose tolerance of individuals, but the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated completely. In this study, we treated the lean chow diet-fed mice with Akkermansia muciniphila, which is thought to be inversely correlated with inflammation status and body weight in rodents and humans, and we found that A...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729460/antiestrogens-structure-activity-relationships-and-use-in-breast-cancer-treatment
#9
Tatiana Traboulsi, Mohamed El Ezzy, James Gleason, Sylvie Mader
About 70% of breast tumors express estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), which mediates the proliferative effects of estrogens on breast epithelial cells, and are candidates for treatment with antiestrogens, steroidal or non-steroidal molecules designed to compete with estrogens and antagonize ERs. The variable patterns of activity of antiestrogens (AEs) in estrogen target tissues and the lack of systematic cross-resistance between different types of molecules have provided evidence for different mechanisms of action...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707773/additive-effects-of-dexamethasone-and-palmitate-on-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-and-secretion
#10
Ewa Harasim-Symbor, Karolina Konstantynowicz-Nowicka, Adrian Chabowski
Synthetic and natural glucocorticoids are able to highly modify liver lipid metabolism, which is possibly associated with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease development. We have assessed changes in lipid and sphingolipid contents in hepatocytes, lipid composition and saturation status as well as the expression of proteins involved in fatty acid transport after both dexamethasone and palmitate treatments. The experiments were conducted on primary rat hepatocytes, incubated with either dexamethasone and/or palmitic acid during short (16h) and prolonged (40h) exposure...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698208/regulation-of-steroidogenesis-in-fetal-bovine-ovaries-differential-effects-of-lh-and-fsh
#11
Jeremy J Allen, Susan L Herrick, Joanne E Fortune
In cattle, primordial follicles form before birth. Fetal ovarian capacity to produce progesterone and estradiol is high before follicle formation begins and decreases around the time follicles first appear (around 90 days of gestation). However, mechanisms that regulate steroid production during this time remain unclear. We hypothesized that LH stimulates progesterone and androgen production and that FSH stimulates aromatization of androgens to estradiol. To test this, we cultured pieces from fetal bovine ovaries for 10 days without or with exogenous hormones and then measured the accumulation of steroids in the culture medium by RIA...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658959/prolactin-receptor-in-breast-cancer-marker-for-metastatic-risk
#12
Carrie S Shemanko
Prolactin and prolactin receptor signaling and function are complex in nature and intricate in function. Basic, pre-clinical and translational research has opened up our eyes to the understanding that prolactin and prolactin receptor signaling function differently within different cellular contexts and microenvironmental conditions. Its multiple roles in normal physiology are subverted in cancer initiation and progression, and gradually we are teasing out the intricacies of function and therapeutic value. Recently, we observed that prolactin has a role in accelerating the time to bone metastasis in breast cancer patients and identified the mechanism by which prolactin stimulated breast cancer cell-mediated lytic osteoclast formation...
November 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658958/erk-dependent-mtor-pathway-is-involved-in-berberine-induced-autophagy-in-hepatic-steatosis
#13
Qin He, Dan Mei, Sha Sha, Shanshan Fan, Lin Wang, Ming Dong
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a burgeoning health problem and is considered as a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Increasing evidence demonstrates that berberine (BBR), a natural plant alkaloid, is beneficial for obesity-associated NAFLD. However, the mechanisms about how BBR improves hepatic steatosis remain uncertain. Recently, some reports revealed that enhanced autophagy could decrease hepatic lipid accumulation. In this study, we first established a high-fed diet (HFD) mice model and oleate-palmitate-induced lipotoxicity hepatocytes to explore the association among BBR, autophagy and hepatic steatosis...
November 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620875/the-role-of-autophagy-in-angiotensin-ii-induced-pathological-cardiac-hypertrophy
#14
Lichun Zhou, Baohua Ma, Xiuzhen Han
Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is associated with nearly all forms of heart failure. It develops in response to disorders such as coronary artery disease, hypertension and myocardial infarction. Angiotensin II (Ang II) has direct effects on the myocardium and promotes hypertension. Chronic elevation of Ang II can lead to pathological cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac failure. Autophagy is an important process in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Under physiological conditions, autophagy is an essential homeostatic mechanism to maintain the global cardiac structure function by ridding damaged cells or unwanted macromolecules and organelles...
November 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613820/effects-of-essential-amino-acids-on-lipid-metabolism-in-mice-and-humans
#15
Fei Xiao, Ying Du, Ziquan Lv, Shanghai Chen, Jianmin Zhu, Hongguang Sheng, Feifan Guo
Eight amino acids are considered essential for human nutrition, and three of them, including leucine, isoleucine and valine, are called as branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). We recently discovered that dietary deficiency of any BCAA for 7 days rapidly reduces the abdominal fat mass in mice. The goal of this study was to investigate (1) whether dietary deficiency of the other five essential amino acids (EAAs), including phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, methionine and lysine, would produce similar effects and (2) whether an association between serum AAs and obesity was observed in humans in Chinese Han population...
November 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613819/microrna-593-3p-regulates-insulin-promoted-glucose-consumption-by-targeting-slc38a1-and-clip3
#16
Xilin Yang, Zezhang Tao, Zhanyong Zhu, Hua Liao, Yueqiang Zhao, Huajun Fan
Insulin plays an important role in the regulation of glucose metabolism. However, the molecular mechanisms involved are not entirely clarified. In this context, we found that miR-593-3p negatively regulates insulin-regulated glucose metabolism in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 and Bel7402 cells. We then identified Slc38a1 and CLIP3 as novel targets of miR-593-3p. Further studies demonstrated that Slc38a1 and CLIP3 mediate insulin-regulated glucose metabolism. Interestingly, we also demonstrated that miR-593-3p expression was negatively associated with Slc38a1 and CLIP3 expression in insulin-treated HepG2 cells, and insulin-induced Slc38a1 and CLIP3 expression via downregulation of miR-593-3p...
November 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647839/disorders-of-the-calcium-sensing-receptor-and-partner-proteins-insights-into-the-molecular-basis-of-calcium-homeostasis
#17
REVIEW
Fadil M Hannan, Valerie N Babinsky, Rajesh V Thakker
The extracellular calcium (Ca(2+) o)-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a family C G protein-coupled receptor, which detects alterations in Ca(2+) o concentrations and modulates parathyroid hormone secretion and urinary calcium excretion. The central role of the CaSR in Ca(2+) o homeostasis has been highlighted by the identification of mutations affecting the CASR gene on chromosome 3q21.1. Loss-of-function CASR mutations cause familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia (FHH), whereas gain-of-function mutations lead to autosomal dominant hypocalcaemia (ADH)...
October 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553203/helional-induces-ca2-decrease-and-serotonin-secretion-of-qgp-1-cells-via-a-pkg-mediated-pathway
#18
Benjamin Kalbe, Marian Schlimm, Julia Mohrhardt, Paul Scholz, Fabian Jansen, Hanns Hatt, Sabrina Osterloh
The secretion, motility and transport by intestinal tissues are regulated among others by specialized neuroendocrine cells, the so-called enterochromaffin (EC) cells. These cells detect different luminal stimuli, such as mechanical stimuli, fatty acids, glucose and distinct chemosensory substances. The EC cells react to the changes in their environment through the release of transmitter molecules, most importantly serotonin, to mediate the corresponding physiological response. However, little is known about the molecular targets of the chemical stimuli delivered from consumed food, spices and cosmetics within EC cells...
October 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538988/progesterone-augments-cell-susceptibility-to-hiv-1-and-hiv-1-hsv-2-co-infections
#19
Viswanath Ragupathy, Wang Xue, Ji Tan, Krishnakumar Devadas, Yamei Gao, Indira Hewlett
In human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected women, oral or injectable progesterone containing contraceptive pills may enhance HIV-1 acquisition in vivo, and the mechanism by which this occurs is not fully understood. In developing countries, Herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) co-infection has been shown to be a risk for increase of HIV-1 acquisition and, if co-infected women use progesterone pills, infections may increase several fold. In this study, we used an in vitro cell culture system to study the effects of progesterone on HIV-1 replication and to explore the molecular mechanism of progesterone effects on infected cells...
October 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530317/ghrelin-gene-products-rescue-cultured-adult-rat-hippocampal-neural-stem-cells-from-high-glucose-insult
#20
Sehee Kim, Chanyang Kim, Seungjoon Park
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is decreased in type 2 diabetes, and this impairment appears to be important in cognitive dysfunction. Previous studies suggest that ghrelin gene products (acylated ghrelin (AG), unacylated ghrelin (UAG) and obestatin (OB)) promote neurogenesis. Therefore, we hypothesize that ghrelin gene products may reduce the harmful effects of high glucose (HG) on hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of these peptides on the survival of cultured hippocampal NSCs exposed to HG insult...
October 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
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