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Journal of Molecular Endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515053/berberine-reduced-blood-pressure-and-improved-vasodilation-in-diabetic-rats
#1
Yu-Guang Ma, Liang Liang, Yin-Bin Zhang, Bao-Feng Wang, Yun-Gang Bai, Zhi-Jun Dai, Man-Jiang Xie, Zhong-Wei Wang
Hyperglycemia and hypertension are considered to be the two leading risk factors for vascular disease in diabetic patients. However, few pharmacologic agents could provide a combinational therapy for controlling hyperglycemia and hypertension at the same time in diabetes. We aimed to investigate whether berberine treatment could directly reduce blood pressure in diabetes and what is the molecular mechanism underlying the vascular protection of berberine in diabetic rats. Berberine (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day) was intragastrically administered to diabetic rats for 8 weeks since the injection of streptozotocin...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500250/characterization-of-nmb-grp-and-their-receptors-brs3-nmbr-and-grpr-in-chickens
#2
Chunheng Mo, Long Huang, Lin Cui, Can Lv, Dongliang Lin, Liang Song, Guoqiang Zhu, Juan Li, Yajun Wang
The two structurally and functionally related peptides, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and neuromedin B (NMB) play critical roles in many physiological/pathological processes in mammals. However, the information regarding the expression and functionality of avian NMB, GRP, and their receptors is limited. Here, we characterized cNMB, cGRP and their receptors (cNMBR, cGRPR, cBRS3) in chickens. Our results showed that: 1) cNMBR and cGRPR expressed in CHO cells could be potently activated by cNMB and cGRP respectively, as monitored by cell-based luciferase reporter assays, indicating that cNMBR and cGRPR are cNMB- and cGRP-specific receptors; Strikingly, BRS3 of chickens (/spotted gars), which is orthologous to mouse bombesin receptor subtype-3 (BRS3), could be potently activated by GRP and NMB, demonstrating that both peptides are the endogenous ligands for chicken(/spotted gar) BRS3; 2) Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that cGRPR is widely expressed in chicken tissues with abundant expression in the ovary, pancreas, proventriculus, spinal cord and brain, whereas cNMB, cNMBR and cBRS3 are mainly expressed in the brain and testes; 3) Interestingly, qPCR, Western blot, and immuno-staining revealed that cGRP is predominantly expressed in the anterior pituitary and mainly localized to LH-cells, suggesting that cGRP is likely a novel pituitary hormone in chickens...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500249/maternal-high-fat-diet-induces-metabolic-stress-response-disorders-in-offspring-hypothalamus
#3
Long The Nguyen, Sonia Saad, Yi Tan, Carol Pollock, Hui Chen
Maternal obesity has been shown to increase the risk of obesity and related disorders in the offspring, which has been partially attributed to changes of appetite regulators in the offspring hypothalamus. On the other hand, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy have been implicated in hypothalamic neuropeptide dysregulation, thus may also play important roles in such transgenerational effect.  In this study, we show that offspring born to HFD-fed dams showed significantly increased body weight and glucose intolerance, adiposity and plasma triglyceride level at weaning...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500248/the-association-of-the-lipidomic-profile-with-features-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#4
Lisa Moran, Piyushkumar Mundra, Helena Teede, Peter J Miekle
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects up to 18% of reproductive-aged women with reproductive and metabolic complications. While lipidomics can identify associations between lipid species and metabolic diseases, no research has examined the association of lipid species with the pathophysiological features of PCOS. The aim of this study was to examine the lipidomic profile in women with and without PCOS. This study was a cross-sectional study in 156 age-matched pre-menopausal women (18-45 years, BMI>25 kg/m2; n=92 with PCOS, n=64 without PCOS)...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469004/sprouting-strategies-and-dead-ends-in-anti-angiogenic-targeting-of-nets
#5
Patricia Carrasco, Iratxe Zuazo-Gaztelu, Oriol Casanovas
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that arise from cells of the neuroendocrine system. NETs are characterized by being highly vascularized tumors that produce large amounts of proangiogenic factors. Due to their complexity and heterogeneity, progress in the development of successful therapeutic approaches has been limited. For instance, standard chemotherapy-based therapies have proven to be poorly selective for tumor cells and toxic for normal tissues. Considering the urge to develop an efficient therapy to treat NET patients, vascular targeting has been proposed as a new approach to block tumor growth...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438785/nuclear-receptor-research-in-zebrafish
#6
Marcel J M Schaaf
Nuclear receptors (NRs) form a superfamily of transcription factors that can be activated by ligands and are involved in a wide range of physiological processes. NRs are well conserved between vertebrate species. The zebrafish, an increasingly popular animal model system, contains a total of 73 NR genes, and orthologues of almost all human NRs are present. In this review article, an overview is presented of NR research in which the zebrafish has been used as a model. Research is described on the three most studied zebrafish NRs: the Estrogen Receptors (ERs), Retinoic Acid Receptors (RARs) and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs)...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428343/mechanisms-of-autophagy-induction-by-sex-steroids-in-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells
#7
Katarzyna Zielniok, Agnieszka Sobolewska, Malgorzata Gajewska
In dairy cattle mammary gland involution serves to remodel the secretory tissue, and occurs in a period of overlap between mammogenic stimulation caused by next developing pregnancy and tissue regression induced by milk stasis. At this time high concentrations of 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) support regeneration of the mammary tissue, as well as enhance autophagy, a cellular process induced in response to stressful conditions for energy generation and homeostasis maintenance. This study aimed to elucidate the mechanisms of autophagy induction by E2 and P4 using an in vitro model of involution based on 20-fold reduction of FBS content (from 10% to 0...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420715/role-of-soluble-and-membrane-bound-dipeptidylpeptidase-4-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#8
Ahmed A Hasan, Berthold Hocher
Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most frequent, devastating, and costly complications of diabetes. The available therapeutic approaches are limited. Dipeptidyl peptidase type 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors represent a new class of glucose-lowering drugs that might have in addition reno-protective properties. DPP-4 exists in two forms: a plasma membrane-bound form and a soluble form, and can exert many biological actions mainly through its peptidase activity and interaction with extracellular matrix components. The kidneys have the highest DPP-4 expression level in mammalians...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420714/pancreatic-islet-inflammation-an-emerging-role-for-chemokines
#9
J Jason Collier, Tim E Sparer, Michael D Karlstad, Susan J Burke
Both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes exhibit features of inflammation associated with alterations in pancreatic islet function and mass. These immunological disruptions, if unresolved, contribute to the overall pathogenesis of disease onset. This review presents the emerging role of pancreatic islet chemokine production as a critical factor regulating immune cell entry into pancreatic tissue as well as an important facilitator of changes in tissue resident leukocyte activity. Signaling through two specific chemokine receptors (i...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420713/acute-versus-chronic-exposure-to-high-fat-diet-leads-to-distinct-regulation-of-pka
#10
Edra London, Maria Nesterova, Constantine A Stratakis
The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is an essential regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism that plays a critical role in energy homeostasis. The impact of diet on PKA signaling has not been defined, although perturbations in individual PKA subunits are associated with changes in adiposity, physical activity, and energy intake in mice and humans. We hypothesized that a high fat diet (HFD) would elicit peripheral and central alterations in the PKA system that would differ depending on length of exposure to HFD; these differences could protect against or promote diet-induced obesity (DIO)...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400483/somatic-and-inherited-mutations-in-primary-aldosteronism
#11
Fabio Luiz Fernandes-Rosa, Sheerazed Boulkroun, Maria-Christina Zennaro
Primary aldosteronism (PA), the most common form of secondary hypertension, is caused in the majority of cases by unilateral aldosterone producing adenoma (APA) or bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. In the last years, recurrent somatic mutations in KCNJ5, CACNA1D, ATP1A1, and ATP2B3 were proved to be associated with APA development, explaining more than 50% of sporadic APA. The identification of these mutations have allowed the establishment of a model for APA development involving modifications in the intracellular ionic equilibrium and in the regulation of cell membrane potential, leading to autonomous aldosterone overproduction...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400482/epigenetic-programming-of-the-neuroendocrine-stress-response-by-adult-life-stress
#12
Bart Dirven, Judith Homberg, Tamas Kozicz, Marloes Henckens
The hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis is critically involved in the neuroendocrine regulation of stress adaptation, and the restoration of homeostasis following stress exposure. Dysregulation of this axis is associated with stress-related pathologies like major depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, and chronic anxiety. It has long been understood that stress during early life can have a significant lasting influence on the development of the neuroendocrine system and its neural regulators, partially by modifying epigenetic regulation of gene expression, with implications for health and well-being in later life...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385776/rsk-activation-via-erk-modulates-human-colon-cancer-cells-response-to-pthrp
#13
Natalia Calvo, Pedro Carriere, Maria Julia Martin, Claudia Gentili
Parathyroid Hormone-related Peptide (PTHrP) is associated with several human cancers such as colon carcinoma. This disease is a complex multistep process that involves enhanced cell cycle progression and migration. Recently we obtained evidence that in the human colorectal adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells, exogenous PTHrP increases the proliferation and positively modulates cell cycle progression via ERK1/2, p38 MAPK and PI3K. The purpose of this study was to explore if the serine/threonine kinase RSK, which is involved in the progress of many cancers and it is emerging as a potential therapeutic target, mediates PTHrP effects on cancer colon cells...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356324/insulin-regulated-aminopeptidase-inhibitors-do-not-alter-glucose-handling-in-normal-and-diabetic-rat
#14
Anthony L Albiston, Mauricio Cacador, Puspha Sinnayah, Peta Burns, Siew Yeen Chai
Insulin regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) co-localises with the glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in GLUT4 storage vesicles (GSV) in insulin-responsive cells. In response to insulin, IRAP is the only transmembrane enzyme known to translocate together with GLUT4 to the plasma membrane in adipocytes and muscle cells. Although the intracellular region of IRAP is associated with GLUT4 vesicle trafficking, the role of the aminopeptidase activity in insulin responsive cells has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the inhibition of the aminopeptidase activity of IRAP facilitates glucose uptake in insulin responsive cells...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283578/molecular-identification-and-functional-analysis-of-ctrp9-in-epinephelus-coioides
#15
Guokun Yang, Chaobin Qin, Bin Wang, Jirong Jia, Xi Yuan, Caiyun Sun, Wensheng Li
CTRP9 is a member of the C1q/TNF-related protein (CTRP) superfamily and has been studied in mammals, while the comparative studies of CTRP9 in non-mammalian species are still absent. In this study, CTRP9 was isolated and characterized from the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). The full length cDNA of CTRP9 was 1378 bp in size with ORF (open reading frame) of 1020 bp which encods a 339 amino acids preprohormone. The mRNA expression of CTRP9 showed a rather high level in the kidney and brain, but low level in other tissues...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250059/netrin-1-restores-cell-injury-and-impaired-angiogenesis-in-vascular-endothelial-cells
#16
Ying Xing, Jingbo Lai, Xiangyang Liu, Nana Zhang, Jie Ming, Hengxin Liu, Xi Zhang
Diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) represents a common vascular complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) with high morbidity and disability resulting from amputation. Netrin-1 level was decreased in type 2 DM patients and has been identified as a protective regulator against diabetes-triggered myocardial infarction and nephropathy. Unfortunately, its role and molecular mechanism in DFU remain poorly elucidated. Here, netrin-1 levels were reduced in DM and DFU patients relative to healthy controls, with netrin-1 levels being lowest in DFU patients...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473352/mir-21-is-involved-in-norepinephrine-mediated-rat-granulosa-cell-apoptosis-by-targeting-smad7
#17
Li Zhang, Jie Gao, Sheng Cui
Substantive evidence has indicated that the sympathetic innervation contributes to the regulation and development of ovarian functions. Norepinephrine (NE) is one of the major neurotransmitters contained in the extrinsic ovarian sympathetic nerves and is thought to be a potent moderator of ovarian functions such as steroidogenesis and granulosa cell proliferation or apoptosis. However, the mechanisms of NE regulation of granulosa cell apoptosis in the rat ovary are rare. Real-time PCR and Western blot results show that NE regulates the expression of miR-21 in primary granulosa cells in a dose-dependent manner...
May 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381401/programmed-cell-senescence-role-of-il-6-in-the-pituitary
#18
REVIEW
Melanie Sapochnik, Mariana Fuertes, Eduardo Arzt
IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine with multiple pathophysiological functions. As a key factor of the senescence secretome, it can not only promote tumorigenesis and cell proliferation but also exert tumor suppressive functions, depending on the cellular context. IL-6, as do other cytokines, plays important roles in the function, growth and neuroendocrine responses of the anterior pituitary gland. The multiple actions of IL-6 on normal and adenomatous pituitary function, cell proliferation, angiogenesis and extracellular matrix remodeling indicate its importance in the regulation of the anterior pituitary...
May 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373293/lipid-metabolism-and-its-implications-for-type-1-diabetes-associated-cardiomyopathy
#19
REVIEW
Rebecca H Ritchie, Eser J Zerenturk, Darnel Prakoso, Anna C Calkin
Diabetic cardiomyopathy was first defined over four decades ago. It was observed in small post-mortem studies of diabetic patients who suffered from concomitant heart failure despite the absence of hypertension, coronary disease or other likely causal factors, as well as in large population studies such as the Framingham Heart Study. Subsequent studies continue to demonstrate an increased incidence of heart failure in the setting of diabetes independent of established risk factors, suggesting direct effects of diabetes on the myocardium...
May 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363951/heterotrimeric-g-proteins-in-the-control-of-parathyroid-hormone-actions
#20
REVIEW
Murat Bastepe, Serap Turan, Qing He
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a key regulator of skeletal physiology and calcium and phosphate homeostasis. It acts on bone and kidney to stimulate bone turnover, increase the circulating levels of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D and calcium and inhibit the reabsorption of phosphate from the glomerular filtrate. Dysregulated PTH actions contribute to or are the cause of several endocrine disorders. This calciotropic hormone exerts its actions via binding to the PTH/PTH-related peptide receptor (PTH1R), which couples to multiple heterotrimeric G proteins, including Gs and Gq/11 Genetic mutations affecting the activity or expression of the alpha-subunit of Gs, encoded by the GNAS complex locus, are responsible for several human diseases for which the clinical findings result, at least partly, from aberrant PTH signaling...
May 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
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