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Journal of Molecular Endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974537/clc-2c-is-regulated-by-salinity-prolactin-and-extracellular-osmolality-in-tilapia-gill
#1
Jason Breves, Paige Keith, Bethany Hunt, Keano Pavlosky, Mayu Inokuchi, Yoko Yamaguchi, Darren Lerner, Andre P Seale, Gordon Grau
Teleosts inhabiting fresh water depend upon ion-absorptive ionocytes to counteract diffusive ion losses to the external environment. A Clc Cl- channel family member, Clc-2c, was identified as a conduit for basolateral Cl- transport by Na+/Cl- cotransporter 2 (Ncc2)-expressing ionocytes in stenohaline zebrafish (Danio rerio). It is unresolved whether Clc-2c/clc-2c is expressed in euryhaline species and how extrinsic and/or intrinsic factors modulate branchial clc-2c mRNA. Here, we investigated whether environmental salinity, prolactin (Prl) and osmotic conditions modulate clc-2c expression in euryhaline Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus)...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951438/novel-aspects-of-t3-actions-on-gh-and-tsh-synthesis-and-secretion-physiological-implications
#2
Paula Bargi-Souza, Francemilson Goulart-Silva, Maria Tereza Nunes
Thyroid hormones (TH) classically regulate gene expression by transcriptional mechanisms. In pituitary, the encoding genes for Growth Hormone (GH) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) are examples of genes regulated by triiodothyronine (T3) in a positive and negative way, respectively. Recent studies have shown a rapid adjustment of GH and TSH synthesis/secretion induced by T3 posttranscriptional actions. In somatotrophs, T3 promotes an increase in Gh mRNA content, poly(A) tail length and binding to the ribosome, associated with a rearrangement of actin cytoskeleton...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951437/hypothalamic-mechanisms-linking-fatty-acid-sensing-and-food-intake-regulation-in-rainbow-trout
#3
Cristina Velasco, Cristina Otero-Rodiño, Sara Comesana, Jesús M Míguez, Jose L Soengas
We assessed in rainbow trout hypothalamus the effects of oleate and octanoate on levels and phosphorylation status of two transcription factors, FoxO1 and CREB, possibly involved in linking activation of fatty acid sensing with modulation of food intake through expression of brain neuropeptides. Moreover, we assessed changes in phosphorylation status of three proteins possibly involved in modulation of these transcription factors such as Akt, AMPK, and mTOR. In a first experiment, we evaluated in pools of hypothalamus incubated for 3h and 6h at 15 °C in modified Hanks' medium containing 100 or 500 µM oleate or octanoate, the response of fatty acid sensing, neuropeptide expression, and phosphorylation status of proteins of interest...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931558/pathological-processes-and-therapeutic-advances-in-radioiodide-refractory-thyroid-cancer
#4
Marika H Tesselaar, Jan Wa Smit, James Nagarajah, Romana T Netea-Maier, Theo S Plantinga
Whereas in most patients with non-medullary thyroid cancer (TC) disease remission is achieved by thyroidectomy and ablation of tumor remnants by radioactive iodide (RAI), a substantial subgroup of patients with metastatic disease present tumor lesions that have acquired RAI resistance as a result of dedifferentiation. Although oncogenic mutations in BRAF, TERT promoter and TP53 are associated with an increased propensity for induction of dedifferentiation, the role of genetic and epigenetic aberrations and their effects on important intracellular signaling pathways is not yet fully elucidated...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912247/mir-212-mediates-counter-regulation-on-crh-expression-and-hpa-axis-activity-in-male-mice
#5
Yuxiao Tang, Xingjian Cai, Hongwei Zhang, Hui Shen, Wanyin Wang, Zhilei Shen, Wei Gu, Changquan Ling, Min Li
The mechanisms of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation have been studied persistently but still are not elucidated. Considering the emerging roles of microRNA in stress response, we conducted a microRNA microarray in mice hypothalamus to identify the potential role of microRNAs in regulating the HPA axis. In total, 41 microRNAs changed during heat stress, in which we found that miR-212 contains binding sequence with corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) 3'UTR according to sequence analysis. We observed that miR-212 expression in the hypothalamus was escalated by repeated heat and restraint stress...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835418/stem-cell-derived-exosomes-a-novel-vector-for-tissue-repair-and-diabetic-therapy
#6
William Newton, Joseph Kim, John Luo, LuGuang Luo
Exosomes are extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted from a majority of cell types. Exosomes play a role in healthy and pathogenic intercellular interactions via the transfer of proteins, lipids, and RNA. The contents and effects of exosomes vary depending on the properties of the originating cell. Exosomes secreted from some cell types, including stem cells, carry biological factors implicated in the protection, regeneration, and angiogenesis of damaged tissues. Due to these properties, exosomes have attracted attention as a novel vector for regenerative therapies...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827413/differential-regulation-of-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-signalling-by-ptps-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#7
William J Stanley, Prerak M Trivedi, Andrew P Sutherland, Helen Thomas, Esteban N Gurzov
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by the destruction of insulin-producing β-cells by immune cells in the pancreas. Pro-inflammatory including TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-1β are released in the islet during the autoimmune assault and signal in β-cells through phosphorylation cascades, resulting in pro-apoptotic gene expression and eventually β-cell death. Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are a family of enzymes that regulate phosphorylative signalling, and are associated with the development of T1D. Here, we observed expression of PTPN6 and PTPN1 in human islets and islets from non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811318/the-%C3%AE-cell-assassin-iapp-cytotoxicity
#8
Daniel Raleigh, Xiaoxue Zhang, Benoit Hastoy, Anne Clark
Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) forms cytotoxic oligomers and amyloid fibrils in islets in Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The causal factors for amyloid formation are largely unknown. Mechanisms of molecular folding and assembly of human IAPP (hIAPP) into β-sheets, oligomers and fibrils have been assessed by detailed biophysical studies of hIAPP and non-fibrillogenic, rodent IAPP (rIAPP); cytotoxicity is associated with the early phases (oligomers/multimers) of fibrillogenesis. Interaction with synthetic membranes promotes β-sheet assembly possibly via a transient α-helical molecular conformation...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765259/glucose-but-not-kcl-diminishes-submembrane-granule-turnover-in-mouse-beta-cells
#9
Dennis Brüning, Kirstin Reckers, Peter Drain, Ingo Rustenbeck
KCl depolarization is widely used to mimic the depolarization during glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Consequently, the insulin secretion elicited by KCl is often regarded as the equivalent of the first phase of glucose-induced insulin secretion. Here, the effects of both stimuli were compared by measuring the secretion of perifused mouse islets, the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration of single beta-cells and the mobility of submembrane insulin granules by TIRF microscopy of primary mouse beta-cells. Two cargo-directed granule labels were used namely insulin-EGFP and C-peptide-emGFP...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739633/claudin-8d-is-a-cortisol-responsive-barrier-protein-in-the-gill-epithelium-of-trout
#10
Dennis Kolosov, Scott P Kelly
The influence of claudin (Cldn) 8 tight junction (TJ) proteins on cortisol-mediated alterations in gill epithelium permeability were examined using a primary cultured trout gill epithelium model. Genes encoding three Cldn-8 proteins (cldn-8b, -8c and -8d) have been identified in trout and all are expressed in the model gill epithelium. Cortisol treatment 'tightened' the gill epithelium, as indicated by increased transepithelial resistance (TER) and reduced paracellular [3H]polyethylene glycol (MW 400 kDa; PEG-400) flux...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733350/adiponectin-limits-differentiation-and-trophoblast-invasion-in-human-endometrial-cells
#11
Fabien Duval, Esther Dos Santos, Hadia Moindjie, Valérie Serazin, Nelly Swierkowski-Blanchard, François Vialard, Marie-Noëlle Dieudonné
Successful human embryo implantation requires a proper differentiation of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) into decidual cells, during a process called decidualization. ESCs express specific molecules, as prolactin, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), and connexin-43. Decidual cells are also involved in the control of trophoblast invasion, by secreting various factors, as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Adiponectin is an adipokine with insulin-sensitizing, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative effects...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954814/adiponectin-improves-insulin-sensitivity-via-activation-of-autophagic-flux
#12
Penny Ahlstrom, Esther Rai, Suharto Chakma, Hee Ho Cho, Palanivel Rengasamy, Gary Sweeney
Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes, and one potential causative cellular mechanism is endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Adiponectin mediates anti-diabetic effects via direct metabolic actions and by improving insulin sensitivity, and we recently demonstrated an important role in stimulation of autophagy by adiponectin. However, there is limited knowledge on crosstalk between autophagy and ER stress in skeletal muscle and in particular how they are regulated by adiponectin...
November 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871061/sex-dimorphic-regulation-of-osteoprogenitor-progesterone-in-bone-stromal-cells
#13
Alexander Kot, Zhendong A Zhong, Hongliang Zhang, Yu-An Evan Lay, Nancy E Lane, Wei Yao
Increasing peak bone mass is a promising strategy to prevent osteoporosis. A mouse model of global progesterone receptor (PR) ablation showed increased bone mass through a sex-dependent mechanism. Cre-Lox recombination was used to generate a mouse model of osteoprogenitor-specific PR inactivation, which recapitulated the high bone mass phenotype seen in the PR global knockout mouse mode. In this work, we employed RNA sequencing analysis to evaluate sex-independent and sex-dependent differences in gene transcription of osteoprogenitors of wild-type and PR conditional knockout mice...
November 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739632/therapeutic-potential-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-diabetes
#14
REVIEW
Alvaro Moreira, Samuel Kahlenberg, Peter Hornsby
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are self-renewing multipotent cells that have the capacity to secrete multiple biologic factors that can restore and repair injured tissues. Preclinical and clinical evidence have substantiated the therapeutic benefit of MSCs in various medical conditions. Currently, MSCs are the most commonly used cell-based therapy in clinical trials because of their regenerative effects, ease of isolation and low immunogenicity. Experimental and clinical studies have provided promising results using MSCs to treat diabetes...
October 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729437/estradiol-induced-regulation-of-glut4-in-3t3-l1-cells-involvement-of-esr1-and-akt-activation
#15
Raquel S Campello, Luciana A Fátima, João Nilton Barreto-Andrade, Thais F Lucas, Rosana C Mori, Catarina S Porto, Ubiratan F Machado
Impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake involves reduced expression of the GLUT4 (solute carrier family 2 facilitated glucose transporter member 4, SLC2A4 gene). 17β-estradiol (E2) modulates SLC2A4/GLUT4 expression, but the involved mechanisms are unclear. Although E2 exerts biological effects by binding to estrogen receptors 1/2 (ESR1/2), which are nuclear transcriptional factors; extranuclear effects have also been proposed. We hypothesize that E2 regulates GLUT4 through an extranuclear ESR1 mechanism...
October 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729436/regulation-of-adrenal-and-ovarian-steroidogenesis-by-mir-132
#16
Zhigang Hu, Wen-Jun Shen, Fredric B Kraemer, Salman Azhar
miR-132 is hormonally regulated in steroidogenic cells of the adrenal gland, ovary and testis. Here, we examined the potential role of miR-132 in the control of steroidogenesis. Transfection of Y1 adrenal cells with miR-132 increased mRNAs of 3β-HSD and 20α-HSD enzymes, which catalyze the sequential conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone to biologically inactive 20α-hydroxyprogesterone (20α-OHP). Overexpression of miR-132 reduced MeCP2 and StAR protein expression, basal progestin (progesterone and 20α-OHP) production, but enhanced their production in response to cAMP stimulation...
October 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694301/helminth-antigens-counteract-a-rapid-high-fat-diet-induced-decrease-in-adipose-tissue-eosinophils
#17
Susan M van den Berg, Andrea D van Dam, Pascal J H Kusters, Linda Beckers, Myrthe den Toom, Saskia van der Velden, Jan Van den Bossche, Irma van Die, Mariëtte R Boon, Patrick C N Rensen, Esther Lutgens, Menno P J de Winther
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation and white adipose tissue (WAT) beiging can increase energy expenditure and have the potential to reduce obesity and associated diseases. The immune system is a potential target in mediating brown and beige adipocyte activation. Type 2 and anti-inflammatory immune cells contribute to metabolic homeostasis within lean WAT, with a prominent role for eosinophils and interleukin (IL)-4-induced anti-inflammatory macrophages. We determined eosinophil numbers in epididymal WAT (EpAT), subcutaneous WAT (ScAT) and BAT after 1 day, 3 days or 1 week of high-fat diet (HFD) feeding in C57Bl/6 mice...
October 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733476/mir-30e-targets-glipr-2-to-modulate-diabetic-nephropathy-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-experiments
#18
Dong Zhao, Jinhua Jia, Hong Shao
The objectives of this study are to investigate the effect of miR-30e targeting GLIPR-2 on the pathological mechanism of DN. The renal tissues of db/db and db/m mice at different age of weeks were stained with PAS. qRT-PCR was applied to detect the expression of miR-30e and GLIPR-2, not only in the renal tissues of mice but also in the renal tubular epithelial cells (RTECs). By luciferase reporter gene assays, we found the 3'-UTR of the GLIPR-2 mRNA as a direct target of miR-30e. The RTECs cultured in high glucose were divided into blank control, NC, miR-30e mimics, miR-30e inhibitors, miR-30e inhibitor + si-GLIPR-2 and si-GLIPR-2 groups...
August 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733475/gper-modulates-tone-and-coronary-vascular-reactivity-in-male-and-female-rats
#19
Angelina Rafaela Debortoli, Wender do Nascimento Rouver, Nathalie Tristão Banhos Delgado, Vinicius Mengal, Erick Roberto Gonçalves Claudio, Laena Pernomian, Lusiane Maria Bendhack, Margareth Ribeiro Moysés, Roger Lyrio Dos Santos
Compared with age-matched men, premenopausal women are largely protected from coronary artery disease, a difference that is lost after menopause. The effects of oestrogens are mediated by the activation of nuclear receptors (ERα and ERβ) and by the G protein-coupled oestrogen receptor (GPER). This study aims to evaluate the potential role of GPER in coronary circulation in female and male rats. The baseline coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) and the concentration-response curve with a GPER agonist (G-1) were evaluated in isolated hearts before and after the blockade of GPER...
August 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716821/abnormalities-in-alternative-splicing-in-diabetes-therapeutic-targets
#20
REVIEW
Zodwa Dlamini, Fortunate Mokoena, Rodney Hull
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a non-communicable, metabolic disorder that affects 416 million individuals worldwide. Type 2 diabetes contributes to a vast 85-90% of the diabetes incidences while 10-15% of patients suffer from type 1 diabetes. These two predominant forms of DM cause a significant loss of functional pancreatic β-cell mass causing different degrees of insulin deficiency, most likely, due to increased β-cell apoptosis. Treatment options involve the use of insulin sensitisers, α-glucosidase inhibitors, and β-cell secretagogues which are often expensive, limited in efficacy and carry detrimental adverse effects...
August 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
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