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Journal of Molecular Endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212865/the-placenta-controls-the-physiology-of-pregnancy-by-increasing-the-half-life-in-blood-and-receptor
#1
Phil Lowry, Russell Woods
An efficient functioning placenta is essential for a healthy pregnancy and yet the way this is achieved has been the subject of much discussion and confusion, particularly with the occurrence of pathological conditions such as preeclampsia, morning sickness and hyperemesis/ptyalism gravidarum. We will attempt to explain the underlying physiology and the potential roles played by the placental tachykinins, neurokinin B and endokinin.
December 6, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212864/morning-sickness-is-just-the-side-effect-of-a-new-tachykinin-that-the-placenta-secretes-to-improve-local-blood-flow
#2
Phil Lowry
Although morning sickness is very unpleasant, the "old wives' tale" that it results in a healthy baby has now a credible scientific explanation.
December 6, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203518/dna-methylation-in-epigenetic-inheritance-of-metabolic-diseases-through-the-male-germ-line
#3
Louise Rh Illum, Stine T Bak, Sten Lund, Anders Lade Nielsen
The global rise in metabolic diseases can be attributed to a complex interplay between biology, behavior and environmental factors. This article reviews the current literature concerning DNA methylation-based epigenetic inheritance (intergenerational and transgenerational) of metabolic diseases through the male germ line. Included are a presentation of the basic principles for DNA methylation in developmental programming, and a description of windows of susceptibility for the inheritance of environmentally induced aberrations in DNA methylation and their associated metabolic disease phenotypes...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203517/urogualylin-a-new-actor-in-the-energy-balance-movie
#4
Cintia Folgueira, Silvia Barja-Fernandez, Patricia Gonzalez-Saenz, Veronica Pena-Leon, Cecilia Castelao, Manuel Ruiz-Piñon, Felipe F Casanueva, Rubén Nogueiras, Luisa Maria Seoane
Uroguanylin (UGN) is a potential target in the fight against obesity. The mature protein is released after enzymatic cleavage from its natural precursor, pro-UGN. UGN is mostly produced in the gut, and its production is regulated by nutritional status. However, UGN is also produced in other tissues such as the kidneys. In the past, UGN has been widely studied as a natriuretic peptide owing to its involvement in several different pathologies such as heart failure, cancer, and gastrointestinal diseases. However, recent studies have suggested that UGN acts also as a regulator of body weight homeostasis because it modulates both food intake and energy expenditure...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191827/proteasome-mediated-degradation-of-collagen-iii-by-cortisol-in-amnion-fibroblasts
#5
Yabing Mi, Wangsheng Wang, Jiangwen Lu, Chuyue Zhang, Yawei Wang, Hao Ying, Kang Sun
Rupture of fetal membranes (ROM) can initiate parturition at both term and preterm. Collagen III in the compact layer of the amnion contributes to the tensile strength of fetal membranes. However, the upstream signals triggering collagen III degradation remain mostly elusive. In this study we investigated the role of cortisol regenerated by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) in collagen III degradation in human amnion fibroblasts with an aim to seek novel targets for the prevention of preterm premature ROM (PPROM)-elicited preterm birth...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097590/molecular-and-cellular-underpinnings-of-normal-and-abnormal-human-placental-blood-flow
#6
Yingchun Li, Ramón A Lorca, Emily J Su
Abnormal placental function is well-established as a major cause for poor pregnancy outcome. Placental blood flow within the maternal uteroplacental compartment, the fetoplacental circulation, or both, is a vital factor in mediating placental function. Impairment in flow in either or both vasculatures is a significant risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome, potentially impacting maternal well-being, affecting immediate neonatal health, and even influencing the long-term health of the infant. Much remains unknown regarding the mechanistic underpinnings of proper placental blood flow...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093014/irs-posttranslational-modifications-in-regulating-insulin-signaling
#7
Jinghua Peng, Ling He
Insulin resistance is the hallmark of type 2 diabetes; however, the mechanism underlying the development of insulin resistance is still not completely understood. Previous reports showed that posttranslational modifications of IRS play a critical role in insulin signaling, especially the phosphorylation of IRS by distinct kinases. While it is known that increasing Sirtuin 1 deacetylase activity improves insulin sensitivity in the liver, the identity of its counterpart, an acetyl-transferase, remains unknown...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951437/hypothalamic-mechanisms-linking-fatty-acid-sensing-and-food-intake-regulation-in-rainbow-trout
#8
Cristina Velasco, Cristina Otero-Rodiño, Sara Comesana, Jesús M Míguez, Jose L Soengas
We assessed in rainbow trout hypothalamus the effects of oleate and octanoate on levels and phosphorylation status of two transcription factors, FoxO1 and CREB, possibly involved in linking activation of fatty acid sensing with modulation of food intake through expression of brain neuropeptides. Moreover, we assessed changes in phosphorylation status of three proteins possibly involved in modulation of these transcription factors such as Akt, AMPK, and mTOR. In a first experiment, we evaluated in pools of hypothalamus incubated for 3h and 6h at 15 °C in modified Hanks' medium containing 100 or 500 µM oleate or octanoate, the response of fatty acid sensing, neuropeptide expression, and phosphorylation status of proteins of interest...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931558/pathological-processes-and-therapeutic-advances-in-radioiodide-refractory-thyroid-cancer
#9
Marika H Tesselaar, Jan Wa Smit, James Nagarajah, Romana T Netea-Maier, Theo S Plantinga
Whereas in most patients with non-medullary thyroid cancer (TC) disease remission is achieved by thyroidectomy and ablation of tumor remnants by radioactive iodide (RAI), a substantial subgroup of patients with metastatic disease present tumor lesions that have acquired RAI resistance as a result of dedifferentiation. Although oncogenic mutations in BRAF, TERT promoter and TP53 are associated with an increased propensity for induction of dedifferentiation, the role of genetic and epigenetic aberrations and their effects on important intracellular signaling pathways is not yet fully elucidated...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079630/erk-dependent-mtor-pathway-is-involved-in-berberine-induced-autophagy-in-hepatic-steatosis
#10
Qin He, Dan Mei, Sha Sha, Shanshan Fan, Lin Wang, Ming Dong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974537/clc-2c-is-regulated-by-salinity-prolactin-and-extracellular-osmolality-in-tilapia-gill
#11
Jason P Breves, Paige L K Keith, Bethany L Hunt, K Keano Pavlosky, Mayu Inokuchi, Yoko Yamaguchi, Darren T Lerner, Andre P Seale, E Gordon Grau
Teleosts inhabiting fresh water (FW) depend upon ion-absorptive ionocytes to counteract diffusive ion losses to the external environment. A Clc Cl(-) channel family member, Clc-2c, was identified as a conduit for basolateral Cl(-) transport by Na(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter 2 (Ncc2)-expressing ionocytes in stenohaline zebrafish (Danio rerio). It is unresolved whether Clc-2c/clc-2c is expressed in euryhaline species and how extrinsic and/or intrinsic factors modulate branchial clc-2c mRNA. Here, we investigated whether environmental salinity, prolactin (Prl) and osmotic conditions modulate clc-2c expression in euryhaline Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus)...
November 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954814/adiponectin-improves-insulin-sensitivity-via-activation-of-autophagic-flux
#12
Penny Ahlstrom, Esther Rai, Suharto Chakma, Hee Ho Cho, Palanivel Rengasamy, Gary Sweeney
Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes, and one potential causative cellular mechanism is endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Adiponectin mediates anti-diabetic effects via direct metabolic actions and by improving insulin sensitivity, and we recently demonstrated an important role in stimulation of autophagy by adiponectin. However, there is limited knowledge on crosstalk between autophagy and ER stress in skeletal muscle and in particular how they are regulated by adiponectin...
November 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951438/novel-aspects-of-t3-actions-on-gh-and-tsh-synthesis-and-secretion-physiological-implications
#13
REVIEW
P Bargi-Souza, F Goulart-Silva, M T Nunes
Thyroid hormones (THs) classically regulate the gene expression by transcriptional mechanisms. In pituitary, the encoding genes for growth hormone (GH) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) are examples of genes regulated by triiodothyronine (T3) in a positive and negative way, respectively. Recent studies have shown a rapid adjustment of GH and TSH synthesis/secretion induced by T3 posttranscriptional actions. In somatotrophs, T3 promotes an increase in Gh mRNA content, poly(A) tail length and binding to the ribosome, associated with a rearrangement of actin cytoskeleton...
November 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871061/sex-dimorphic-regulation-of-osteoprogenitor-progesterone-in-bone-stromal-cells
#14
Alexander Kot, Zhendong A Zhong, Hongliang Zhang, Yu-An Evan Lay, Nancy E Lane, Wei Yao
Increasing peak bone mass is a promising strategy to prevent osteoporosis. A mouse model of global progesterone receptor (PR) ablation showed increased bone mass through a sex-dependent mechanism. Cre-Lox recombination was used to generate a mouse model of osteoprogenitor-specific PR inactivation, which recapitulated the high bone mass phenotype seen in the PR global knockout mouse mode. In this work, we employed RNA sequencing analysis to evaluate sex-independent and sex-dependent differences in gene transcription of osteoprogenitors of wild-type and PR conditional knockout mice...
November 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739632/therapeutic-potential-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-diabetes
#15
REVIEW
Alvaro Moreira, Samuel Kahlenberg, Peter Hornsby
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are self-renewing multipotent cells that have the capacity to secrete multiple biologic factors that can restore and repair injured tissues. Preclinical and clinical evidence have substantiated the therapeutic benefit of MSCs in various medical conditions. Currently, MSCs are the most commonly used cell-based therapy in clinical trials because of their regenerative effects, ease of isolation and low immunogenicity. Experimental and clinical studies have provided promising results using MSCs to treat diabetes...
October 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729437/estradiol-induced-regulation-of-glut4-in-3t3-l1-cells-involvement-of-esr1-and-akt-activation
#16
Raquel S Campello, Luciana A Fátima, João Nilton Barreto-Andrade, Thais F Lucas, Rosana C Mori, Catarina S Porto, Ubiratan F Machado
Impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake involves reduced expression of the GLUT4 (solute carrier family 2 facilitated glucose transporter member 4, SLC2A4 gene). 17β-estradiol (E2) modulates SLC2A4/GLUT4 expression, but the involved mechanisms are unclear. Although E2 exerts biological effects by binding to estrogen receptors 1/2 (ESR1/2), which are nuclear transcriptional factors; extranuclear effects have also been proposed. We hypothesize that E2 regulates GLUT4 through an extranuclear ESR1 mechanism...
October 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729436/regulation-of-adrenal-and-ovarian-steroidogenesis-by-mir-132
#17
Zhigang Hu, Wen-Jun Shen, Fredric B Kraemer, Salman Azhar
miR-132 is hormonally regulated in steroidogenic cells of the adrenal gland, ovary and testis. Here, we examined the potential role of miR-132 in the control of steroidogenesis. Transfection of Y1 adrenal cells with miR-132 increased mRNAs of 3β-HSD and 20α-HSD enzymes, which catalyze the sequential conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone to biologically inactive 20α-hydroxyprogesterone (20α-OHP). Overexpression of miR-132 reduced MeCP2 and StAR protein expression, basal progestin (progesterone and 20α-OHP) production, but enhanced their production in response to cAMP stimulation...
October 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694301/helminth-antigens-counteract-a-rapid-high-fat-diet-induced-decrease-in-adipose-tissue-eosinophils
#18
Susan M van den Berg, Andrea D van Dam, Pascal J H Kusters, Linda Beckers, Myrthe den Toom, Saskia van der Velden, Jan Van den Bossche, Irma van Die, Mariëtte R Boon, Patrick C N Rensen, Esther Lutgens, Menno P J de Winther
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation and white adipose tissue (WAT) beiging can increase energy expenditure and have the potential to reduce obesity and associated diseases. The immune system is a potential target in mediating brown and beige adipocyte activation. Type 2 and anti-inflammatory immune cells contribute to metabolic homeostasis within lean WAT, with a prominent role for eosinophils and interleukin (IL)-4-induced anti-inflammatory macrophages. We determined eosinophil numbers in epididymal WAT (EpAT), subcutaneous WAT (ScAT) and BAT after 1 day, 3 days or 1 week of high-fat diet (HFD) feeding in C57Bl/6 mice...
October 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676563/melatonin-mediates-vasodilation-through-both-direct-and-indirect-activation-of-bkca-channels
#19
T Zhao, H Zhang, C Jin, F Qiu, Y Wu, L Shi
Melatonin, synthesized primarily by the pineal gland, is a neuroendocrine hormone with high membrane permeability. The vascular effects of melatonin, including vasoconstriction and vasodilation, have been demonstrated in numerous studies. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully understood. Large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BKCa) channels are expressed broadly on smooth muscle cells and play an important role in vascular tone regulation. This study explored the mechanisms of myocyte BKCa channels and endothelial factors underlying the action of melatonin on the mesenteric arteries (MAs)...
October 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912247/mir-212-mediates-counter-regulation-on-crh-expression-and-hpa-axis-activity-in-male-mice
#20
Yuxiao Tang, Xingjian Cai, Hongwei Zhang, Hui Shen, Wanyin Wang, Zhilei Shen, Wei Gu, Changquan Ling, Min Li
The mechanisms of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation have been studied persistently but still are not elucidated. Considering the emerging roles of microRNA in stress response, we conducted a microRNA microarray in mice hypothalamus to identify the potential role of microRNAs in regulating the HPA axis. In total, 41 microRNAs changed during heat stress, in which we found that miR-212 contains binding sequence with corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) 3'UTR according to sequence analysis. We observed that miR-212 expression in the hypothalamus was escalated by repeated heat and restraint stress...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
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