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Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy

Saman Saedi, Arezoo Khoradmehr, Jafarzadeh Shirazi Mohammad Reza, Amin Tamadon
Reproductive function is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonads (HPG) axis. Hypothalamic neurons synthesizing kisspeptin play a fundamental role in the central regulation of the timing of puberty onset and reproduction in mammals. Kisspeptin is a regulator of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). In female rodent, the kisspeptin (encoded by kiss1 gene), neurokinin B (Tac3) and dynorphin neurons form the basis for the "KNDy neurons" in the arcuate nucleus and play a fundamental role in the regulation of GnRH/LH release...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Maryam Borhani-Haghighi, Iraj Ragerdi Kashani, Yousef Mohamadi, Parichehr Pasbakhsh
OBJECTIVE: Prenatal brain injury results from undesirable circumstances during the embryonic development. Current endeavors for treating this complication are basically excluded to postnatal therapeutic approaches. Neural stem cell therapy has shown great promise for treating neurodevelopmental disorders. To our knowledge, this is the first study that investigates the therapeutic effect of in utero transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) in inflammation model of prenatal brain injury...
June 27, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Anastasia S Kharlamova, Olga S Godovalova, Olga I Junemann, Sergei V Saveliev
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 9, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Leon C D Smyth, Justin Rustenhoven, Emma L Scotter, Patrick Schweder, Richard L M Faull, Thomas I H Park, Mike Dragunow
Brain pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) are a critical component of the neurovascular unit and are important in regulating cerebral blood flow and blood-brain barrier integrity. Identification of subtypes of mural cells in tissue and in vitro is important to any study of their function, therefore we identified distinct mural cell morphologies in neurologically normal post-mortem human brain. Further, the distribution of mural cell markers platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFRβ), α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), CD13, neural/glial antigen-2 (NG2), CD146 and desmin was examined...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Derya Metin-Armağan, Duygu Gezen-Ak, Erdinç Dursun, İrem Lütfiye Atasoy, Arzu Karabay, Selma Yılmazer, Melek Öztürk
Hyperphosphorylation of tau leading to neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) is one of the key pathological hallmarks in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer disease (AD). Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (Pin1) regulates the phosphorylation of Ser/Thr sites of tau protein, and promotes microtubule assembly. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of tau hyperphosphorylation on Pin1 expression in primary cortical neurons in order to investigate the results of the pathological process on Pin1, an important enzyme involved in various cellular mechanisms...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Suleyman Kaplan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 29, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Bianca Norrara, Ana Cristina Arrais, Ianara Mendonça da Costa, Jose Ronaldo Santos, Jeferson de Souza Cavalcante, Fausto Pierdoná Guzen, Jose Rodolfo Lopes P Cavalcanti, Marco Aurelio M Freire
Senescence is a physiological and progressive event that leads to the impairment of normal functions of the organism. The nervous system is one of the most affected systems during aging, presenting both structural and functional alterations associated with a decline in normal brain functions. In the present study we aimed to evaluate the impact of senescence on the mesolimbic pathway (nucleus accumbens - NAc and ventral tegmental area - VTA) of the rat, through immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) enzyme, in young (3 months old), middle-aged (10 months old) and aged animals (18 months old)...
May 26, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Zohreh Bagher, Seyed Kamran Kamrava, Rafieh Alizadeh, Mohammad Farhadi, Moloud Absalan, Masoumeh Falah, Faezeh Faghihi, Arash Zare-Sadeghi, Ali Komeili
Cell transplantation is a potential therapeutic approach for repairing neuropathological and neurodegenerative disorders of central nervous system by replacing the degenerated cells with new ones. Among a variety of stem cell candidates to provide these new cells, olfactory ectomesenchymal stem cells (OE-MSCs) have attracted a great attention due to their neural crest origin, easy harvest, high proliferation, and autologous transplantation. Since there is no report on differentiation potential of these cells into motor neuron-like cells, we evaluated this potential using Real-time PCR, flowcytometry and immunocytochemistry after the treatment with differentiation cocktail containing retinoic acid and Sonic Hedgehog...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Khushboo Srivastava, Ratnakar Tripathi, Rajnikant Mishra
As the brain ages, the survival and plasticity of neurons and glia are compromised. The data-mining and in silico studies suggest interactions of Pax6 with Ras and binding sites in Ras-GAP promoter. The Pax6 also shows age-dependent alterations. Therefore, it is presumed that Pax6 may be associated with the Ras-GAP, a synaptic protein, either directly or indirectly in brain. The expression, co-localization and interaction of Pax6 and Ras-GAP in different regions of brain of mice during aging were investigated through immunofluorescence assay, co-immunoprecipitation and western blotting, respectively...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Sergei G Kalinichenko, Igor I Pushchin
The review deals with topical issues of the neuronal arrangement underlying basic cerebellar functions. The cerebellum and its auxiliary structures contain several hundreds of modules (so called "microzones"). Each module receives the corticopetal input specific for the lobule it belongs to and forms the topographic projection. The precision of the major input-output signal flow in the cerebellar cortex is provided by a pronounced stratification of its synaptic zones of a various origin and regular topography of its afferent connections, interneurons, and efferent neurons...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Abhipradnya Bipin Wahul, Pranav Chintamani Joshi, Arvind Kumar, Sumana Chakravarty
Despite the advancements in medical sciences in last few decades, we are yet to develop promising therapeutics for stroke, which is one of the current global non-communicative disease concerns. The occurrence of stroke is likely to increase further due to the transition in our lifestyles. Inadequate knowledge of the sequential region-specific pathological events induced by cerebral ischemia is one of the underlying reasons. Hence to address this, we have used Bilateral Common Carotid Arterial occlusion (BCCAo) model that mimics human cardiac arrest condition...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Melad G Paulis, Osama A Hassan, Mohmed F Abbass, Mostafa Abo-Al Hamad Mohammad
Despite the well-known toxicity and the efforts to control its exposure, lead still has a serious health concern, particularly in young ages. Chelation therapy cannot correct the neurocognitive effects of chronic exposure. So, there is a requirement to test different protective agents for lead intoxication. Hydrogen-rich water (HRW) has gained attraction recently as an antioxidant. Four groups of rats received sodium acetate, HRW, lead acetate (LA), or LA plus HRW for 8 weeks. Oxidative stress, histological and immunohistochemistry using p53 antibody were used to investigate the toxic effect of lead and the possible HRW protective effect in rat hippocampus...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Bidisha Bhaduri, P L Abhilash, Phalguni Anand Alladi
Epidemiological studies reveal an ethnicity-based bias in prevalence of Parkinson's disease (PD), deriving from the differences that exist between Caucasians and African or Asian populations. Experimental mice models provide a scope to analyse the cellular mechanisms of differential susceptibility to PD. C57BL/6J mice, for instance, are more susceptible to MPTP-induced Parkinsonism whereas CD-1 mice are resistant. In PD-pathogenesis, interneuronal contribution is also likely, although they comprise only 5-10% of the striatal cells...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Bahareh Nazari, Masoud Soleimani, Somayeh Ebrahimi-Barough, Seyed Ehsan Enderami, Mansure Kazemi, Babak Negahdari, Esmaeil Sadroddiny, Jafar Ai
Oligodendrocytes play critical roles in the central nervous system (CNS) thorough producing myelin sheaths around axons. There are a variety of approaches to produce oligodendrocytes in vitro and in vivo which are a subject of interest in many studies. A new approach to induce this differentiation is using microRNA 219 (miR-219). However, this new approach suffers from a lack of studies regarding the effect of miR-219 on differentiating human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to oligodendrocytes. This study aimed to assess the impact of miR-219-overexpression on hiPSCs...
September 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Sima Dameni, Atousa Janzadeh, Mahmoud Yousefifard, Farinaz Nasirinezhad
BACKGROUND: and aim: Irisin is a new myokine that is secreted by myocytes during exercise, and plays a role in creating the beneficial effects of exercise on metabolism. Considering the benefits of exercise in reducing pain, this study was carried out to determine the probable effect of irisin on neuropathic pain in the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model in male rats. METHODS: To induce neuropathic pain CCI model was used. Animals were divided into groups of control, CCI, sham, CCI + vehicle, and CCI + irisin...
September 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Tsuyoshi Yamaguchi, Ayuka Ehara, Kazuhiko Nakadate, Shuichi Ueda
The interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure (IPAC) is exclusively innervated by tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-IR) fibers as observed in the other nuclei of the rat forebrain such as the striatum and nucleus accumbens. Distinguishing TH-IR afferents to the IPAC from those projecting to neighboring nuclei has been difficult. However, we previously showed that the TH-IR fibers projecting to the IPAC were invulnerable to neurodegeneration in zitter mutant rats, whereas almost all TH-IR afferents fibers to the dorsolateral striatum were lost, indicating that these two groups of TH-IR afferents have distinct neurochemical properties...
July 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Alireza Karimi, Reza Razaghi, Hasan Biglari, Toshihiro Sera, Susumu Kudo
The main stream of blunt trauma injuries has been reported to be related to the automobile crashes, sporting activities, and military operations. Glass shards, which can be induced due to car accident, earthquake, gunshot, etc., might collide with the eye and trigger substantial scarring and, consequently, permanently affect the vision. The complications as a result of the collision with the eye and its following injuries on each component of the eye are difficult to be diagnosed. The objective of this study was to employ a Three-Dimensional (3D) computational Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) model of the human eye to assess the results of the glass shards collision with the eye...
July 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Katherine Shaw, Rüdiger Krahe
Aromatase is a steroidogenic enzyme involved in the conversion of testosterone into estradiol. Teleosts are unique among vertebrates in possessing two distinct aromatase genes that show different expression patterns within the body. Since the brain is the essential organ underlying the control of behavior, an understanding of the expression pattern of aromatase in the brain can help to identify neural circuits and behaviors that are most likely to be affected by aromatase activity. In addition, identifying species differences in aromatase expression in the brain can further our understanding of divergence in behaviors regulated by local estradiol production and estrogen signaling...
July 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Francisco Gilberto Oliveira, Expedito Silva do Nascimento-Júnior, Judney Cley Cavalcante, Fausto Pierdoná Guzen, Jeferson de Souza Cavalcante, Joacil Germano Soares, José Rodolfo Lopes de Paiva Cavalcanti, Leandro Moura de Freitas, Miriam Stela Maris de Oliveira Costa, Belmira Lara da Silveira Andrade-da-Costa
The rock cavy (Kerodon rupestris) is a crepuscular Hystricomorpha rodent that has been used in comparative analysis of retinal targets, but its retinal organization remains to be investigated. In order to better characterize its visual system, the present study analyzed neurochemical features related to the topographic organization of catecholaminergic cells and ganglion cells, as well the distribution of calcium-binding proteins in the outer and inner retina. Retinal sections and/or wholemounts were processed using tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), GABA, calbindin, parvalbumin and calretinin immunohistochemistry or Nissl staining...
July 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Eglantina Idrizaj, Erica Sarchielli, Annamaria Morelli, Rachele Garella, Maria Caterina Baccari, Pasquale Gallina, Gabriella Barbara Vannelli, Fabio Francini, Roberta Squecco
Human striatal precursor cells (HSPs) isolated from ganglionic eminence may differentiate in electrophysiologically functional excitable neuron-like cells and a number of endogenous molecules such as hormones, neurotransmitters or growth factors can actually regulate neuronal growing and differentiation. The purpose of this research was to assess, by electrophysiological and immunocytochemical analysis, if the type of culture medium could specifically impact on the neuronal differentiation potential of HSPs...
July 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
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