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Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy

Floris G Wouterlood, Sanne van Oort, Lucian Bloemhard, Nico A Flierman, Jorik Spijkerman, Chris I Wright, Jeroen A M Beliën, Hendrik J Groenewegen
Amygdalostriatal and intra-amygdaloid fiber connectivity was studied in rats via injections of one of the tracers Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) or biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) into various amygdaloid nuclei. To determine the neurotransmitter identity of labeled fibers we combined tracer detection with immunofluorescence staining, using antibodies against vesicular transporters (VTs) associated with glutamatergic (VGluT1, VGluT2) or GABAergic (VGAT) neurotransmission. High-magnification confocal laser scanning images were screened for overlap: occurrence inside tracer labeled fibers or axon terminals of immunofluorescence signal associated with one of the VTs...
November 6, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Ismael Juárez, Julio César Morales-Medina, Julia Flores-Tochihuitl, Gamaliel Santiago Juárez, Gonzalo Flores, Hortencia Chávez Oseki
Orofacial injuries often result in persistent pain and are therefore considered a common health problem worldwide. Considerable evidence suggests that peripheral sensory nerve injury results in diverse plastic changes in the central nervous system (CNS). Tooth pulp is innervated by trigeminal afferents which extend to the trigeminal brainstem sensory nuclear complex and send input to higher level neurons in the CNS, including the ventral posterolateral nucleus of the thalamus (VPL). In the present study, we examined the long term effects of pulpal injury on neuronal arborization in the VPL using morphological analysis via Golgi-Cox staining...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Abdel-Rahman Al-Absi, Heidi Søgaard Christensen, Connie Sanchez, Jens Randel Nyengaard
BACKGROUND: Spine geometry is considered to reflect synapse function. An accurate and fast method for 3D reconstruction of spines is considered a valuable tool for the purpose of studying spine geometry. Currently, most studies employ manual or automatic reconstruction methods, which still suffer from either poor accuracy or extreme time-consumption. The semi-automatic reconstruction method has previously been described as a time-economic and accurate tool for spine number counting. The purpose of this study is to further validate the semi-automatic method with regards to spine geometry investigation, by comparing it with the manual method as well as with the automatic method...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Yutaro Hayashi, Sumiko Mikawa, Chikara Ogawa, Kazuma Masumoto, Fuminori Katou, Kohji Sato
Myostatin (also called as growth and differentiation factor 8 or GDF8), a member of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily of secreted differentiation and growth factors, is a potent inhibitor of skeletal muscle mass in mammals. Although myostatin also plays pivotal roles in cardiac growth and metabolism, postnatal glucose metabolism and adipogenesis, little information is available for myostatin function in the adult central nervous system (CNS). We, thus, investigated myostatin expression in the adult rat CNS using immunohistochemistry...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Sumitra Pati, Lishann M Ingram, Min K Sun, John J Wagner, Brian S Cummings
Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is a primary phospholipid and major source of secondary lipid messengers and also serves as a biosynthetic precursor for other membrane phospholipids. Phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT) is the rate-limiting enzyme responsible for catalyzing the formation of PC. Changes in CCT activity have been associated with lipid dysregulation across various neurological disorders. Additionally, intermediates in PC synthesis, such as CDP-choline, have been suggested to attenuate drug craving during cocaine addiction...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Basma Emad Aboulhoda, Sherif S Hassan
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The adverse neurological effects of tramadol have recently raised attention. The literature pertaining to studying postnatal cerebellar changes induced by prenatal tramadol is very scanty, thus the current study has been designed to improve understanding of the cerebellar oxidative stress-related alterations associated with tramadol administration during pregnancy in this critical period of neuronal differentiation and synaptic development, thereby highlighting the importance of controlling prenatal prescription of opioids and optimizing care for opioid-dependent pregnant women and their infants...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Mausam Ghosh, Sanjay Das, K V L Narasinga Rao, Nupur Pruthi, V J Ramesh, Trichur R Raju, T N Sathyaprabha
Craniopharyngiomas (CPs) are rare, epithelial tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) that could lead to manifestation of multiple post-operative symptoms, ranging from hormonal imbalance to obesity, diabetes, visual, neurological and neurocognitive impairments. CP is more frequent in children, and has been reported in middle aged adults as well. In fact, arterial laceration and/or brain stroke which may occur following the removal of some CPs is mainly due to calcification of that CPs along with strong attachments to the blood vessels...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Simo S Zulu, Nicola Simola, Musa V Mabandla, William M U Daniels
The use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has been successful in suppressing HIV-1 replication and restoring peripheral immune functioning in HIV-infected individuals. Despite these advances in the management of HIV, neurocognitive impairments continue to be diagnosed in HIV-infected patients on treatment, even when the viral load is low. Of interest is the observation that deficiencies in brain function in these individuals are marked by a persistent presence of neuroinflammation. Therefore, in this study we investigated whether long-term exposure to ART could contribute to neuroinflammation...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Katherine Shaw
Aromatase (Cyp19a1) is a steroidogenic enzyme that functions to convert aromatizable androgens into bioactive estrogens. The teleost brain is known to have the highest levels of aromatase activity among vertebrates, yet we know relatively little about the function of local estrogen production in teleost behavior. This review compares and contrasts the findings from behavioral studies in the visual, auditory, electrosensory, and olfactory systems, with expression studies in the brain and peripheral nervous system to identify pathways for aromatase effects on teleost behavior...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
N R Resende, P L Soares Filho, P P A Peixoto, A M Silva, S F Silva, J G Soares, E S do Nascimento, J C Cavalcante, J S Cavalcante, M S M O Costa
The aim of this study was to conduct cytoarchitectonic studies and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunohistochemical analysis to delimit the cholinergic groups in the encephalon of the rock cavy (Kerodon rupestris), a crepuscular Caviidae rodent native to the Brazilian Northeast. Three young adult animals were anesthetized and transcardially perfused. The encephala were cut in the coronal plane using a cryostat. We obtained 6 series of 30-μm-thick sections. The sections from one series were subjected to Nissl staining...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Ravi Mundugaru, Senthilkumar Sivanesan, Aurel Popa-Wagner, Padmaja Udaykumar, Ramalingam Kirubagaran, Guruprasad Kp, D J Vidyadhara
Ischemic brain injury is one of the leading causes of death and disability, where lack of disease modifying treatment strategies make us rely on symptomatic relief. Treatment principles from traditional systems of medicine may fill this gap and its validation in modern medicine perspective is important to bring them to mainstream. Here, we evaluated the neuroprotective efficacy of Ayurvedic medicinal herb Pluchea lanceolata in treating ischemic hippocampal injury. Focal hippocampal ischemia was modeled in Wistar rats through stereotaxic intrahippocampal injection of endothelin-1 (ET-1)...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Ayşe İkinci Keleş, Mehmet Yıldırım, Öznur Gedikli, Sedar Çolakoğlu, Haydar Kaya, Orhan Baş, Osman Fikret Sönmez, Ersan Odacı
The purpose of this study was to investigate hippocampus morphology and changes in learning behavior in male rats in late adolescence exposed to the effect of a continuous 1-h a day 900-megahertz (MHz) electromagnetic field (EMF). Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley rats aged 3-weeks were divided equally into control, sham and EMF groups. EMF group rats were exposed to a 900-MHz EMF inside an EMF cage, while the sham group rats were placed in the same cage but were not exposed to such an effect. No procedure was performed on the control group...
September 3, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Xiaochuan Pang, Zhenbo Su, Yanping Sun, Wenwen Zhang, Hushan Wang
BACKGROUND: Clinical evidence demonstrates that prolonged exposure to ketamine may cause irreversible injury to immature human brains. In this study, we utilized an in vitro model to examine the function of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) SNHG16 in ketamine-induced neurotoxicity in human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived neurons. METHODS: HESCs were induced toward neuronsin vitro, and treated with ketamine, at various concentrations, for 48 h. Viability, apoptosis, caspase-3 activity and ROS activity were then examined among hESC-derived neurons...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Suleyman Kaplan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Houari Boukersi, Nemcha Lebaili, Nathalie Samson, Sylvie Granon
The objective of this work was to investigate the implication of serotonin (5-HT) produced in the dorsal and medial raphé nuclei (DRN and MRN) in water homeostasis in desert animal Gerbillus tarabuli. For that, we measured the density of 5-HT immunolabeled neurons in hydrated and dehydrated animals (over 1 and six months). In this work, 5-HT positive neurons showed some change in shape and colour intensity in dehydrated gerbils comparing with hydrated gerbils. Furthermore a differential increase of 5-HT neurons density was observed in DRN subregions and in MRN following 1 and 6 months of dehydration...
November 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Kıymet Kübra Yurt, Elfide Gizem Kivrak, Gamze Altun, Hamza Mohamed, Fathelrahman Ali, Hosam Eldeen Gasmalla, Suleyman Kaplan
A quantitative description of a three-dimensional (3D) object based on two-dimensional images can be made using stereological methods These methods involve unbiased approaches and provide reliable results with quantitative data. The quantitative morphology of the nervous system has been thoroughly researched in this context. In particular, various novel methods such as design-based stereological approaches have been applied in neuoromorphological studies. The main foundations of these methods are systematic random sampling and a 3D approach to structures such as tissues and organs...
November 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Elnaz Khordad, Fatemeh Alipour, Farimah Beheshti, Mahmoud Hosseini, Ali Akbar Rajabzadeh, Farimah Asiaei, Masoumeh Seghatoleslam
Hypothyroidism causes an imbalance in antioxidant and pro-oxidants criteria in the brain and enhances the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and neuronal damage has been observed following an excessive ROS. The main purpose of this study was to examine the preventive effect of vitamin C on hypothyroidism associated neuronal damage in the hippocampus of neonatal and juvenile rats. Pregnant rats after delivery of their pups were randomly divided into four groups and treated with (1) normal drinking water as a control group, (2) Propylthiouracil (PTU) 0...
November 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Christopher S von Bartheld
Over the last 50 years, quantitative methodology has made important contributions to our understanding of the cellular composition of the human brain. Not all of the concepts that emerged from quantitative studies have turned out to be true. Here, I examine the history and current status of some of the most influential notions. This includes claims of how many cells compose the human brain, and how different cell types contribute and in what ratios. Additional concepts entail whether we lose significant numbers of neurons with normal aging, whether chronic alcohol abuse contributes to cortical neuron loss, whether there are significant differences in the quantitative composition of cerebral cortex between male and female brains, whether superior intelligence in humans correlates with larger numbers of brain cells, and whether there are secular (generational) changes in neuron number...
November 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
C Kaur, I Pal, S Saini, T G Jacob, T C Nag, A Thakar, D N Bhardwaj, T S Roy
Estimation of total number of neurons in the spiral ganglion (SG) at various ages and their functional status is important as these neurons are constantly exposed to noise and other environmental factors that may lead to neuronal loss with aging due to excitotoxic damage. Parvalbumin (PV) is a calcium-binding protein (CBP), found in highly metabolically active neurons. It helps in buffering cytosolic calcium, which is essential for neurotransmitter release. The neurons in the adult human SG express PV more strongly than other CBPs like calbindin and calretinin...
November 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Sabita Mishra, T S Roy, Shashi Wadhwa
Auditory impulses perceived by the hair cells of the organ of corti are relayed in the cochlear nucleus, the first relay station in the brainstem, by the cochlear nerve. The human foetus is well known to respond to sound during the last trimester of gestation. On the contrary, studies conducted in rat, cat and mouse have shown that these mammals have an immature auditory system at the time of birth. There are very few reports available regarding the morphological and functional maturation of the cochlear nucleus in human...
November 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
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