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Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy

Ayşe İkinci Keleş, Mehmet Yıldırım, Öznur Gedikli, Sedar Çolakoğlu, Haydar Kaya, Orhan Baş, Osman Fikret Sönmez, Ersan Odacı
The purpose of this study was to investigate hippocampus morphology and changes in learning behavior in male rats in late adolescence exposed to the effect of a continuous 1-h a day 900-megahertz (MHz) electromagnetic field (EMF). Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley rats aged 3-weeks were divided equally into control, sham and EMF groups. EMF group rats were exposed to a 900-MHz EMF inside an EMF cage, while the sham group rats were placed in the same cage but were not exposed to such an effect. No procedure was performed on the control group...
September 3, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Xiaochuan Pang, Zhenbo Su, Yanping Sun, Wenwen Zhang, Hushan Wang
BACKGROUND: Clinical evidence demonstrates that prolonged exposure to ketamine may cause irreversible injury to immature human brains. In this study, we utilized an in vitro model to examine the function of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) SNHG16 in ketamine-induced neurotoxicity in human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived neurons. METHODS: HESCs were induced toward neuronsin vitro, and treated with ketamine, at various concentrations, for 48 h. Viability, apoptosis, caspase-3 activity and ROS activity were then examined among hESC-derived neurons...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Masoumeh Faezi, Solmaz Nasseri Maleki, Nahid Aboutaleb, Mahin Nikougoftar
OBJECTIVE: The mesenchymal stem cells derived from human amniotic membrane have the ability to secrete and release some factors that can promote the repair of damaged tissues. This secretome contains proteins and factors that reduce apoptosis and increase angiogenesis in the ischemia/reperfusion models. The present study was conducted to determine whether this secretome provides protection against transient focal cerebral ischemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A rat model of focal cerebral ischemia was established through middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 60 min and 24 h reperfusion...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Kohei Kawano, Hitoshi Gotoh, Tadashi Nomura, Katsuhiko Ono
During the formation of the oculomotor nucleus (nIII), a subset of cells undergoes transmedian migration, crossing the midline to join the contralateral nucleus. A recent study reported that the onset of transmedian migration of nIII neurons is regulated by Slit/Robo signaling. However, developmental programs that differentiate migratory subpopulations of the nIII remain elusive. Here, we identified cellular and molecular characteristics of nIII neurons that are correlated with their migratory behaviors. Birthdate analysis revealed that contralaterally migrating neurons in the caudal part of the nIII are generated at later stages than uncrossed neurons in the rostral part of the nIII...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Cornelia Voigt, Nigel Bennett
The eusocial Damaraland mole-rat (Fukomys damarensis) represents an extreme example of reproductive skew, in that reproduction is completely blocked in female subordinate group members. It is thought that in these animals normal GnRH secretion from the hypothalamus is disrupted. Prolactin, a peptide hormone secreted from the anterior pituitary gland, has been implicated in a wide variety of functions. Well documented in rodents is its role in mediating lactational infertility. Elevated circulating prolactin levels, such as during lactation, are associated with reduced GnRH release into the portal blood and with a reduction in the frequency and amplitude of LH pulses...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Anna Kozłowska, Anita Mikołajczyk, Mariusz Majewski
The chemical coding of porcine somato (skin)- and viscero (urinary bladder)-projecting sensory neurons have been studied and compared using immunohistochemistry. Cell bodies of skin and bladder afferents were identified following Fast Blue injections into the skin of the hind leg as well as into wall of the urinary bladder, respectively. Immunohistochemistry revealed that small and medium-sized neurons projecting to both skin and bladder contained all of the studied substances i.e. substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related pepide (CGRP), transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV1), lectin from Bandeiraea simplicifolia - Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin B4 (IB4) and galanin (GAL)...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Sabita Neupane, Sunil Srivastav, Sunil Bhurtel, Nikita Katila, Sina Shadfar, Pil-Hoon Park, Jin Tae Hong, Dong-Young Choi
IL-32 is a proinflammatory cytokine, and involved in various diseases including infection, inflammation, and cancer. However, effects of IL-32 on neuroinflammation remain obscure. Herein, we examined the effects of IL-32β on systemic LPS-induced neuroinflammation using IL-32β transgenic (Tg) mice. IL-32β wild type (WT) and Tg mice received LPS injection (5 mg/kg, i.p.), and then neuroinflammatory responses were evaluated. Systemic LPS caused remarkable gliosis in the brain at 12 h regardless of genotypes...
July 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Maryam Borhani-Haghighi, Iraj Ragerdi Kashani, Yousef Mohamadi, Parichehr Pasbakhsh
OBJECTIVE: Prenatal brain injury results from undesirable circumstances during the embryonic development. Current endeavors for treating this complication are basically excluded to postnatal therapeutic approaches. Neural stem cell therapy has shown great promise for treating neurodevelopmental disorders. To our knowledge, this is the first study that investigates the therapeutic effect of in utero transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) in inflammation model of prenatal brain injury...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Terri M Driessen, Changjiu Zhao, Marissa Saenz, Sharon A Stevenson, Yuji Owada, Stephen C Gammie
Fatty acid binding protein 7 (Fabp7) is a versatile protein that is linked to glial differentiation and proliferation, neurogenesis, and multiple mental health disorders. Recent microarray studies identified a robust decrease in Fabp7 expression in key brain regions of the postpartum rodents. Given its diverse functions, Fabp7 could play a critical role in sculpting the maternal brain and promoting the maternal phenotype. The present study aimed at investigating the expression profile of Fabp7 across the postpartum CNS...
October 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Saman Saedi, Arezoo Khoradmehr, Jafarzadeh Shirazi Mohammad Reza, Amin Tamadon
Reproductive function is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonads (HPG) axis. Hypothalamic neurons synthesizing kisspeptin play a fundamental role in the central regulation of the timing of puberty onset and reproduction in mammals. Kisspeptin is a regulator of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). In female rodent, the kisspeptin (encoded by kiss1 gene), neurokinin B (Tac3) and dynorphin neurons form the basis for the "KNDy neurons" in the arcuate nucleus and play a fundamental role in the regulation of GnRH/LH release...
October 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Leon C D Smyth, Justin Rustenhoven, Emma L Scotter, Patrick Schweder, Richard L M Faull, Thomas I H Park, Mike Dragunow
Brain pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) are a critical component of the neurovascular unit and are important in regulating cerebral blood flow and blood-brain barrier integrity. Identification of subtypes of mural cells in tissue and in vitro is important to any study of their function, therefore we identified distinct mural cell morphologies in neurologically normal post-mortem human brain. Further, the distribution of mural cell markers platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFRβ), α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), CD13, neural/glial antigen-2 (NG2), CD146 and desmin was examined...
October 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Derya Metin-Armağan, Duygu Gezen-Ak, Erdinç Dursun, İrem Lütfiye Atasoy, Arzu Karabay, Selma Yılmazer, Melek Öztürk
Hyperphosphorylation of tau leading to neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) is one of the key pathological hallmarks in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer disease (AD). Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (Pin1) regulates the phosphorylation of Ser/Thr sites of tau protein, and promotes microtubule assembly. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of tau hyperphosphorylation on Pin1 expression in primary cortical neurons in order to investigate the results of the pathological process on Pin1, an important enzyme involved in various cellular mechanisms...
October 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Bianca Norrara, Felipe P Fiuza, Ana Cristina Arrais, Ianara Mendonça Costa, Jose Ronaldo Santos, Rovena Clara G J Engelberth, Jeferson Souza Cavalcante, Fausto Pierdoná Guzen, Jose Rodolfo Lopes P Cavalcanti, Marco Aurelio M Freire
Senescence is a physiological and progressive event that leads to the impairment of normal functions of the organism. The nervous system is one of the most affected systems during aging, presenting both structural and functional alterations associated with a decline in normal brain functions. In the present study we aimed to evaluate the impact of senescence on the mesolimbic pathway (nucleus accumbens - NAc and ventral tegmental area - VTA) of the rat, through immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) enzyme, in young (3 months old), middle-aged (10 months old) and aged animals (18 months old)...
October 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Zohreh Bagher, Seyed Kamran Kamrava, Rafieh Alizadeh, Mohammad Farhadi, Moloud Absalan, Masoumeh Falah, Faezeh Faghihi, Arash Zare-Sadeghi, Ali Komeili
Cell transplantation is a potential therapeutic approach for repairing neuropathological and neurodegenerative disorders of central nervous system by replacing the degenerated cells with new ones. Among a variety of stem cell candidates to provide these new cells, olfactory ectomesenchymal stem cells (OE-MSCs) have attracted a great attention due to their neural crest origin, easy harvest, high proliferation, and autologous transplantation. Since there is no report on differentiation potential of these cells into motor neuron-like cells, we evaluated this potential using Real-time PCR, flowcytometry and immunocytochemistry after the treatment with differentiation cocktail containing retinoic acid and Sonic Hedgehog...
October 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Khushboo Srivastava, Ratnakar Tripathi, Rajnikant Mishra
As the brain ages, the survival and plasticity of neurons and glia are compromised. The data-mining and in silico studies suggest interactions of Pax6 with Ras and binding sites in Ras-GAP promoter. The Pax6 also shows age-dependent alterations. Therefore, it is presumed that Pax6 may be associated with the Ras-GAP, a synaptic protein, either directly or indirectly in brain. The expression, co-localization and interaction of Pax6 and Ras-GAP in different regions of brain of mice during aging were investigated through immunofluorescence assay, co-immunoprecipitation and western blotting, respectively...
October 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Sergei G Kalinichenko, Igor I Pushchin
The review deals with topical issues of the neuronal arrangement underlying basic cerebellar functions. The cerebellum and its auxiliary structures contain several hundreds of modules (so called "microzones"). Each module receives the corticopetal input specific for the lobule it belongs to and forms the topographic projection. The precision of the major input-output signal flow in the cerebellar cortex is provided by a pronounced stratification of its synaptic zones of a various origin and regular topography of its afferent connections, interneurons, and efferent neurons...
October 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Melad G Paulis, Osama A Hassan, Mohmed F Abbass, Mostafa Abo-Al Hamad Mohammad
Despite the well-known toxicity and the efforts to control its exposure, lead still has a serious health concern, particularly in young ages. Chelation therapy cannot correct the neurocognitive effects of chronic exposure. So, there is a requirement to test different protective agents for lead intoxication. Hydrogen-rich water (HRW) has gained attraction recently as an antioxidant. Four groups of rats received sodium acetate, HRW, lead acetate (LA), or LA plus HRW for 8 weeks. Oxidative stress, histological and immunohistochemistry using p53 antibody were used to investigate the toxic effect of lead and the possible HRW protective effect in rat hippocampus...
September 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Bidisha Bhaduri, P L Abhilash, Phalguni Anand Alladi
Epidemiological studies reveal an ethnicity-based bias in prevalence of Parkinson's disease (PD), deriving from the differences that exist between Caucasians and African or Asian populations. Experimental mice models provide a scope to analyse the cellular mechanisms of differential susceptibility to PD. C57BL/6J mice, for instance, are more susceptible to MPTP-induced Parkinsonism whereas CD-1 mice are resistant. In PD-pathogenesis, interneuronal contribution is also likely, although they comprise only 5-10% of the striatal cells...
September 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Yaroslav Kolinko, Milena Kralickova, Zbynek Tonar
The interest in investigating brain pericytes is growing due to their diverse influences on neuronal function. While numerous studies have investigated the particular properties and functions of pericytes, complex insight into their functional histology is often lacking. In this work, we review and combine the current knowledge regarding brain pericyte function in normal physiology and its role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases and tumorigenesis. Special attention is paid to the interaction between the components of the neurovascular unit...
September 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Ramamoorthy Rajkumar, Gavin S Dawe
Olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) has been used as a model of depression over several decades. This model presupposes a mechanism that is still not proven in clinical depression. A wealth of clinical literature has focused on the derangements in frontal cortex (prefrontal, orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortices) associated with depression. In this comprehensive review, anatomical, electrophysiological and molecular sequelae of bulbectomy in the rodent frontal cortex are explored and compared with findings on brains of humans with major depression...
September 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
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