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Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy

Takehiro Yajima, Tadasu Sato, Kenichiro Shimazaki, Hiroyuki Ichikawa
Transient receptor potential melastatin-3 (TRPM3) is a nonselective cation channel, has permeability of Ca2+ , and probably participates in thermosensitive nociception. In this study, immunohistochemistry for TRPM3 was conducted in the rat trigeminal, glossopharyngeal and vagal sensory ganglia. TRPM3-immunoreactivity was expressed by half of sensory neurons in the trigeminal (TG), petrosal (PG) and jugular ganglia (JG), and by about 80% of sensory neurons in the nodose ganglion (NG). They mostly had small to medium-sized cell bodies...
January 10, 2019: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Dongyan Pan, Xin Chang, Mengqiao Xu, Mingke Zhang, Shoumei Zhang, Yue Wang, Xueting Luo, Jiajun Xu, Xiangqun Yang, Xiaodong Sun
Traumatic optic neuropathy or glaucoma lead to retinal ganglion cells loss and cause blindness, and there is no effective therapy strategy by far. Mesenchymal cells from the Wharton's jelly of the umbilical cord (umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells, UMSCs) and UMSC-derived exosomes (UMSC-Exos) are promising candidates for allogeneic therapy in regenerative medicine, but their effort on optic nerve injury and the underlying mechanism remains undefined. In the present study, we investigated the functions of UMSC-Exos in a rat optic nerve crush (ONC) model...
January 10, 2019: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Rafieh Alizadeh, Zohreh Bagher, Seyed Kamran Kamrava, Masoumeh Falah, Hatef Ghasemi Hamidabadi, Mahdi Eskandarian Boroujeni, Fatemeh Mohammadi, Sepideh Khodaverdi, Arash Zare-Sadeghi, Arta Olya, Ali Komeili
The generation of dopaminergic neurons from stem cells is a potential therapeutic approach to treat neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease. The current study aims to investigate the potential of two different types of mesenchymal stem cells derived from human Wharton's jelly and nasal cavity for differentiation into dopaminergic neurons. The differentiation capacities of both cell types were evaluated using real-time PCR, immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry and HPLC. Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs) are noted for their capability to differentiate into mesodermal and non-mesodermal cells, including neurons...
January 9, 2019: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Hady Ahmady Phoulady, Dmitry Goldgof, Lawrence O Hall, Kevin R Nash, Peter R Mouton
The use of unbiased stereology to quantify structural parameters such as mean cell and nuclear size (area and volume) can be useful for a wide variety of biological studies. Here we propose a novel segmentation framework using an Active Contour Model to automate the collection of stereology from stained cells and other objects in tissue sections. This approach is demonstrated for stained brain sections from young adult Fischer 344 rats. Animals were perfused in-vivo with 4% paraformaldehyde and sectioned by frozen microtomy at an instrument setting of 40 μm...
January 7, 2019: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Juan-Carlos Cerpa, Alain R Marchand, Etienne Coutureau
The anatomy and functions of the rodent prefrontal cortex (PFC) have been extensively studied. It is now clear that the PFC is at the core of various executive functions and that these functions depend on monoaminergic neuromodulation. The PFC receives extensive projections from monoaminergic nuclei and, in particular, from the locus cœruleus (LC) which is the major source of noradrenaline (NA) in the cortex. Projections of this nucleus have long been considered to act diffusely and uniformly throughout the entire brain...
January 7, 2019: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Abdellatif Abbaoui, Halima Gamrani
Copper (Cu) is a transition metal and an essential trace element, but excessive levels of Cu might disturb vital functions and systems including the Central Nervous System (CNS). Curcumin has numerous beneficial effects including protective potential on the CNS toxicity. Previous studies have revealed solid evidence showing metal elements implication in the physiopathology of psychiatric disorders, principally anxiety, as well as association between stressful conditions and the inception of anxiety. In addition, it was stated that stressful condition strengthens memory...
January 3, 2019: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Pollyana C Leal, José Marcos M Bispo, Rovena C G J Engelberth, Kayo Diogenes de A Silva, Ywlliane R Meurer, Alessandra M Ribeiro, Regina H Silva, Murilo Marchioro, José R Santos
Parkinson's disease (PD) is mainly characterized by a dopamine deficiency accompanied by structural and functional changes in striatal neuronal projections. However, studies have considered PD as a multi-systemic disease in which the neurodegenerative process extends beyond the dopaminergic system. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the time-course of serotonergic neuron damage in a progressive model of parkinsonism induced by a low dose of reserpine. Thus, male Wistar rats received 4 (ST, short-treatment of reserpine) or 10 (MT, middle-term treatment of reserpine) subcutaneous injections of vehicle or reserpine (0...
December 28, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Saeed S Alahmari, Dmitry Goldgof, Lawrence Hall, Hady Ahmady Phoulady, Raj H Patel, Peter R Mouton
In recent decades stereology-based studies have played a significant role in understanding brain aging and developing novel drug discovery strategies for treatment of neurological disease and mental illness. A major obstacle to further progress in a wide range of neuroscience sub-disciplines remains the lack of high-throughput technology for stereology analyses. Though founded on methodologically unbiased principles, commercially available stereology systems still rely on well-trained humans to manually count hundreds of cells within each region of interest (ROI)...
December 27, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Amin Mottahedin, Xiaoli Zhang, Aura Zelco, Maryam Ardalan, Jacqueline C Y Lai, Carina Mallard, Xiaoyang Wang, Hady Ahmady Phoulady
The developing brain is very susceptible to environmental insults, and very immature infants often suffer from long-term neurological syndromes associated with white matter injuries such as periventricular leukomalacia. Infection and inflammation are important risk factors for neonatal brain white matter injuries, but the evaluation of white matter injury in animal models, especially the quantification of myelinated axons, has long been problematic due to the lack of ideal measurement methods. Here, we present an automated segmentation method, which we call MyelinQ, for the quantification of myelinated white matter in immunohistochemical DAB-stained sections of the neonatal mouse brain...
December 23, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Elena V Sivukhina, Gustav F Jirikowski
Corticosteroid-binding globulin CBG is expressed in magnocellular hypothalamic nuclei, in part colocalized with vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT). Here we subjected intact adult male rats to chronic osmotic stress to determine effects on distribution of CBG in VP and OT neurons and in neurons expressing corticotropin- releasing hormone (CRH). Drinking 2% NaCl solution for seven days resulted in increased CBG-immunoreactivity in magnocellular neurons. Triple immunofluorescence revealed increased colocalization with either VP, OT or CRH...
December 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Athineos Philippu
Use of the push-pull superfusing technique has shown that in the brain the release rates of endogenous catecholamines, GABA, glutamate and histamine are not constant but fluctuate temporally according to ultradian rhythms. Rhythmic fluctuations have been found in the posterior and anterior hypothalamus, the locus coeruleus, the nucleus of the solitary tract, the mammillary body and the medial amygdaloid nucleus of cats and rats. Similar fluctuations appear in the nitric oxide signal registered in the nucleus accumbens, as well as in the power of delta and theta waves of the EEG in the posterior hypothalamus...
December 18, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Oladiran I Olateju, Amadi O Ihunwo, Paul R Manger
Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) have impaired sensory processing skills as a result of neurodevelopmental anomalies. The somatosensory barrel field of rodent brain is a readily accessible model for studying the effects of alcohol exposure. Within the barrel field, the posterior medial barrel subfield (PMBSF) receives sensory inputs from the large vibrissae on the contralateral face. This study reports on the consequence of prenatal exposure to alcohol on the somatosensory cortices of mice later in life...
December 17, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Oliver Kaut, Klaus Kuchelmeister, Christoph Moehl, Ullrich Wüllner
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic neurodegenerative disorder of unknown etiology, characterized pathologically by α-synuclein aggregates preferentially found in oligodendroglial cells. DNA methylation has emerged as a mechanism of regulation of α-synuclein expression. Reduced 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) DNA methylation of α-synuclein has been found in the brains of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) methylation is another epigenetic modification of DNA. It is involved in the de-methylation of DNA, gene regulation, and DNA repair mechanisms...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
A Y Onaolapo, O J Ayeni, M O Ogundeji, A Ajao, O J Onaolapo, A R Owolabi
Ketamine is a dissociative anaesthetic agent whose recreational use amongst adolescents and young adults is reaching epidemic proportions in a number of countries. While animal studies have examined the long-term detrimental effects of early-life ketamine exposure, there is a paucity of information on the immediate effects of ketamine following subchronic administration in the adolescence period. Adolescent rats were assigned into four groups of 10 animals each, administered intraperitoneal (i.p) injections of vehicle or one of three doses of ketamine (7...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Yasuro Atoji, Sonjoy Sarkar
Glutamatergic neurons are widely distributed in gray matter across the four segments of the pigeon spinal cord. Postsynaptic neurons containing ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs), however, have been elucidated in only some AMPA subunits. This study examined the localization of postsynaptic neurons having three types of iGluRs in the pigeon spinal cord. Nine mRNAs of iGluR subunits - namely GluA1, GluA2, GluA3, and GluA4 for AMPA receptors; GluK1, GluK2, and GluK4 for kainate receptors; and GluN1 and GluN2A for N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors - were analyzed by in situ hybridization...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Majed Aldehri, Yasin Temel, Ali Jahanshahi, Sarah Hescham
Fornix deep brain stimulation (DBS) has the ability to refurbish memory functions in animal models with experimental dementia. One of the possible underlying mechanisms is the acute increase of acetylcholine in the hippocampus. Another suggested hypothesis is neuroplasticity. Recent work in rats has shown that acute fornix DBS can modulate neurotrophic factors as well as synaptic plasticity markers on the short-term. Here, we want to test the hypothesis that acute fornix DBS can also lead to long-term effects on neuroplasticity...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Eduardo Baltazar-Gaytan, Patricia Aguilar-Alonso, Eduardo Brambila, Hiram Tendilla-Beltran, Rubén Antonio Vázquez-Roque, Julio Cesar Morales-Medina, Nestor Maceda-Mártinez, Clara Castro-Flores, Macario Susano-Pompeyo, Linda Garcés-Ramírez, Fidel de la Cruz, Fernando García-Dolores, Gonzalo Flores
Suicidal behavior is a complex human behavior and current data suggests that suicide is an increasing cause of death among young people. The neurobiology of suicide is unknown and data investigating the role of the pituitary in suicidal behavior is scarce. Imaging data suggests that this gland increases in size in patients with major depression and recent data implicates hyperactivity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in suicidal behavior. In this study, we evaluate the size and number of cells as well as markers related to oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation of the anterior and posterior sections of the pituitary gland of male suicide completers...
November 10, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Floris G Wouterlood, Sanne van Oort, Lucian Bloemhard, Nico A Flierman, Jorik Spijkerman, Christopher I Wright, Jeroen A M Beliën, Hendrik J Groenewegen
Amygdalostriatal and intra-amygdaloid fiber connectivity was studied in rats via injections of one of the tracers Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) or biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) into various amygdaloid nuclei. To determine the neurotransmitter identity of labeled fibers we combined tracer detection with immunofluorescence staining, using antibodies against vesicular transporters (VTs) associated with glutamatergic (VGluT1, VGluT2) or GABAergic (VGAT) neurotransmission. High-magnification confocal laser scanning images were screened for overlap: occurrence inside tracer labeled fibers or axon terminals of immunofluorescence signal associated with one of the VTs...
November 6, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Ismael Juárez, Julio César Morales-Medina, Julia Flores-Tochihuitl, Gamaliel Santiago Juárez, Gonzalo Flores, Hortencia Chávez Oseki
Orofacial injuries often result in persistent pain and are therefore considered a common health problem worldwide. Considerable evidence suggests that peripheral sensory nerve injury results in diverse plastic changes in the central nervous system (CNS). Tooth pulp is innervated by trigeminal afferents which extend to the trigeminal brainstem sensory nuclear complex and send input to higher level neurons in the CNS, including the ventral posterolateral nucleus of the thalamus (VPL). In the present study, we examined the long term effects of pulpal injury on neuronal arborization in the VPL using morphological analysis via Golgi-Cox staining...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Abdel-Rahman Al-Absi, Heidi Søgaard Christensen, Connie Sanchez, Jens Randel Nyengaard
BACKGROUND: Spine geometry is considered to reflect synapse function. An accurate and fast method for 3D reconstruction of spines is considered a valuable tool for the purpose of studying spine geometry. Currently, most studies employ manual or automatic reconstruction methods, which still suffer from either poor accuracy or extreme time-consumption. The semi-automatic reconstruction method has previously been described as a time-economic and accurate tool for spine number counting. The purpose of this study is to further validate the semi-automatic method with regards to spine geometry investigation, by comparing it with the manual method as well as with the automatic method...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
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