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Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331319/a-histopathological-and-biochemical-evaluation-of-oxidative-injury-in-the-sciatic-nerves-of-male-rats-exposed-to-a-continuous-900-megahertz-electromagnetic-field-throughout-all-periods-of-adolescence
#1
Gökçen Kerimoğlu, Canan Güney, Şafak Ersöz, Ersan Odacı
The effects on human health of the electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by mobile phones, used by approximately 7 billion people worldwide, have become an important subject for scientific research. Studies have suggested that the EMF emitted by mobile phones can cause oxidative stress in different tissues and age groups. Young people in adolescence, a time period when risky behaviors and dependences increase, use mobile phones more than adults. The EMF emitted by mobile phones, which are generally carried in the pocket or in bags when not in use, will very probably affect the sciatic nerve...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305898/tyrosine-hydroxylase-afferents-to-the-interstitial-nucleus-of-the-posterior-limb-of-the-anterior-commissure-are-neurochemically-distinct-from-those-projecting-to-neighboring-nuclei
#2
Tsuyoshi Yamaguchi, Ayuka Ehara, Kazuhiko Nakadate, Shuichi Ueda
The interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure (IPAC) is exclusively innervated by tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-IR) fibers as observed in the other nuclei of the rat forebrain such as the striatum and nucleus accumbens. Distinguishing TH-IR afferents to the IPAC from those projecting to neighboring nuclei has been difficult. However, we previously showed that the TH-IR fibers projecting to the IPAC were invulnerable to neurodegeneration in zitter mutant rats, whereas almost all TH-IR afferents fibers to the dorsolateral striatum were lost, indicating that these two groups of TH-IR afferents have distinct neurochemical properties...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294366/lycium-barbarum-polysaccharide-protects-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy-by-enhancing-autophagy-via-mtor-p70s6k-inhibition-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#3
Si-Yang Liu, Ling Chen, Xiao-Cheng Li, Qi-Kuan Hu, Lan-Jie He
Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP), the major active component of Lycium barbarum, has been found to be effective in the management of some diabetic complications. We evaluated the protective effect of LBP in diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and explored the possible mechanisms. We found that LBP mildly decreased blood glucose levels and partially rescued allodynia and hyperalgesia in the diabetes mellitus (DM) rats. For the electrophysiological function of the sciatic nerve, the decrease in sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV) and sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) amplitudes in DM rats were partially rescued...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288709/collision-of-the-glass-shards-with-the-eye-a-computational-fluid-structure-interaction-model
#4
Alireza Karimi, Reza Razaghi, Hasan Biglari, Toshihiro Sera, Susumu Kudo
The main stream of blunt trauma injuries has been reported to be related to the automobile crashes, sporting activities, and military operations. Glass shards, which can be induced due to car accident, earthquake, gunshot, etc., might collide with the eye and trigger substantial scarring and, consequently, permanently affect the vision. The complications as a result of the collision with the eye and its following injuries on each component of the eye are difficult to be diagnosed. The objective of this study was to employ a Three-Dimensional (3D) computational Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) model of the human eye to assess the results of the glass shards collision with the eye...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288708/pattern-of-aromatase-mrna-expression-in-the-brain-of-a-weakly-electric-fish-apteronotus-leptorhynchus
#5
Katherine Shaw, Rüdiger Krahe
Aromatase is a steroidogenic enzyme involved in the conversion of testosterone into estradiol. Teleosts are unique among vertebrates in possessing two distinct aromatase genes that show different expression patterns within the body. Since the brain is the essential organ underlying the control of behavior, an understanding of the expression pattern of aromatase in the brain can help to identify neural circuits and behaviors that are most likely to be affected by aromatase activity. In addition, identifying species differences in aromatase expression in the brain can further our understanding of divergence in behaviors regulated by local estradiol production and estrogen signaling...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277704/prevention-of-chronic-immobilization-stress-induced-enhanced-expression-of-glucocorticoid-receptors-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-by-inactivation-of-basolateral-amygdala
#6
Sunil Jamuna Tripathi, Suwarna Chakraborty, B N Srikumar, T R Raju, B S Shankaranarayana Rao
Repeated exposure to stress precipitates anxiety, depression and cognitive deficits. Stress-induced activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is modulated by the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA). It is well established that BLA positively regulates the HPA axis and undergoes hypertrophy following chronic immobilization stress (CIS). However, it is not known whether inactivation of the BLA can modulate the stress-induced changes in the expression of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the PFC...
December 23, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277705/topographic-specializations-of-catecholaminergic-cells-and-ganglion-cells-and-distribution-of-calcium-binding-proteins-in-the-crepuscular-rock-cavy-kerodon-rupestris-retina
#7
Francisco Gilberto Oliveira, Expedito Silva do Nascimento-Júnior, Judney Cley Cavalcante, Fausto Pierdoná Guzen, Jeferson de Souza Cavalcante, Joacil Germano Soares, José Rodolfo Lopes de Paiva Cavalcanti, Leandro Moura de Freitas, Miriam Stela Maris de Oliveira Costa, Belmira Lara da Silveira Andrade-da-Costa
The rock cavy (Kerodon rupestris) is a crepuscular Hystricomorpha rodent that has been used in comparative analysis of retinal targets, but its retinal organization remains to be investigated. In order to better characterize its visual system, the present study analyzed neurochemical features related to the topographic organization of catecholaminergic cells and ganglion cells, as well the distribution of calcium-binding proteins in the outer and inner retina. Retinal sections and/or wholemounts were processed using tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), GABA, calbindin, parvalbumin and calretinin immunohistochemistry or Nissl staining...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274379/cortical-and-spinal-conditioned-media-modify-the-inward-ion-currents-and-excitability-and-promote-differentiation-of-human-striatal-primordium
#8
Eglantina Idrizaj, Erica Sarchielli, Annamaria Morelli, Rachele Garella, Maria Caterina Baccari, Pasquale Gallina, Gabriella Barbara Vannelli, Fabio Francini, Roberta Squecco
Human striatal precursor cells (HSPs) isolated from ganglionic eminence may differentiate in electrophysiologically functional excitable neuron-like cells and a number of endogenous molecules such as hormones, neurotransmitters or growth factors can actually regulate neuronal growing and differentiation. The purpose of this research was to assess, by electrophysiological and immunocytochemical analysis, if the type of culture medium could specifically impact on the neuronal differentiation potential of HSPs...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29269015/reinforcing-mitochondrial-functions-in-aging-brain-an-insight-into-parkinson-s-disease-therapeutics
#9
REVIEW
G Chandra, R A Shenoi, R Anand, U Rajamma, K P Mohanakumar
Mitochondria, the powerhouse of the neural cells in the brain, are also the seat of certain essential gene signaling pathways that control neuronal functions. Deterioration of mitochondrial functions has been widely reported in normal aging as well as in a spectrum of age-associated neurological diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD). Evidences accumulated in the recent past provide not only advanced information on the causes of mitochondrial bioenergetics defects and redox imbalance in PD brains, but also much insight into mitochondrial biogenesis, quality control of mitochondrial proteins, and genes, which regulate intra- and extra-mitochondrial signaling that control the general health of neural cells...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248756/changes-in-the-element-concentration-of-the-dorsal-hippocampus-ca1-region-during-memory-consolidation-and-reconsolidation
#10
Paulo Fernandes Costa Jobim, Carla Eliete Iochims Dos Santos, Luka Jeromel, Primoz Pellicon, Livio Amaral, Johnny Ferraz Dias
The concentration and distribution of Mg, P, Cl, K, Cu and Zn in the dorsal hippocampus CA1 region of rat brains were studied during memory consolidation and reconsolidation processes stimulated with inhibitory avoidance (IA) tests. Experimental rats were divided into four groups: i) group not submitted to inhibitory avoidance task (IA-N); ii) group submitted to inhibitory avoidance training session (IA-Y); iii) group submitted to inhibitory avoidance reactivation session but did not step down from the platform (IAR-N); and iv) group submitted to avoidance reactivation session and stepped down from the platform (IAR-Y)...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208411/distribution-of-nadph-diaphorase-reactivity-in-the-central-nervous-system-of-the-common-toad-bufo-bufo
#11
Claudia Pinelli, Arun G Jadhao, Anna Scandurra, Biagio D'Aniello
We examined the distribution of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d)-reactive elements in the central nervous system (CNS) of the common toad, Bufo bufo. The investigation involved adult male and female toads collected during the breeding season. Labeled neurons of different morphological appearances (weakly or darkly stained, unipolar, bipolar, and multipolar) and fibers were observed across all subdivisions of the amphibian brain. Overall, a similar distribution of NADPH-d-labeled neurons was observed in the brain of male and female toads...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217488/incomplete-concordance-of-dopamine-transporter-cre-datirescre-mediated-recombination-and-tyrosine-hydroxylase-immunoreactivity-in-the-mouse-forebrain
#12
Siew Hoong Yip, Jade York, Brian Hyland, Stephen J Bunn, David R Grattan
Co-localization of the expression of the dopamine transporter (DAT) with the catecholamine synthesising enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) has been investigated using transgenic mice expressing Cre recombinase (Cre) dependent green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the DAT promoter (DATIREScre/GFP). Brain sections from adult female mice were stained for Cre-induced GFP and TH using immunohistochemistry, revealing a high degree of co-expression in the midbrain dopaminergic neurons (A8-10) with the exception of the periaqueductal and dorsal raphe nuclei where dual-labelling was notably lower...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196107/distribution-of-smad-mrna-and-proteins-in-the-rat-brain
#13
Takayuki Nakajima, Ryusuke Hata, Yuji Kunieda, Tomohiro Kondo
Smad proteins are known to transduce the action of TGF-β superfamily proteins including TGF-βs, activins, and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). In this study, we examined the expression of Smad1, -2, -3, -4, -5, and -8 mRNA in the rat brain by means of RT-PCR and in situ hybridization (ISH). In addition, we examined the nuclear accumulation of Smad1, -2, -3, -5, and -8 proteins after intracerebroventricular injection of TGF-β1, activin A, or BMP6 with immunohistochemistry to investigate whether TGF-β, activin, and/or BMP activate Smads in the rat brain...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179976/vitamin-c-prevents-hypothyroidism-associated-neuronal-damage-in-the-hippocampus-of-neonatal-and-juvenile-rats-a-stereological-study
#14
Elnaz Khordad, Fatemeh Alipour, Farimah Beheshti, Mahmoud Hosseini, Ali Akbar Rajabzadeh, Farimah Asiaei, Masoumeh Seghatoleslam
Hypothyroidism causes an imbalance in antioxidant and pro-oxidants criteria in the brain and enhances the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and neuronal damage has been observed following an excessive ROS. The main purpose of this study was to examine the preventive effect of vitamin C on hypothyroidism associated neuronal damage in the hippocampus of neonatal and juvenile rats. Pregnant rats after delivery of their pups were randomly divided into four groups and treated with (1) normal drinking water as a control group, (2) Propylthiouracil (PTU) 0...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154915/cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated-transcript-peptide-and-calcium-binding-proteins-immunoreactivity-in-the-deep-layers-of-the-superior-colliculus-of-the-guinea-pig-implications-for-multisensory-and-visuomotor-processing
#15
Janusz Najdzion
The superior colliculus (SC) of mammals is a midbrain center, that can be subdivided into the superficial (SCs) and deep layers (SCd). In contrast to the visual SCs, the SCd are involved in multisensory and motor processing. This study investigated the pattern of distribution and colocalization of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) and three calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) i.e. calbindin (CB), calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV) in the SCd of the guinea pig. CART labeling was seen almost exclusively in the neuropil and fibers, which differed in regard to morphology and location...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133075/spinal-cord-self-repair-during-tail-regeneration-in-polypedates-maculatus-and-putative-role-of-fgf1-as-a-neurotrophic-factor
#16
Jutshina Hota, Sushri Sangita Pati, Pravati Kumari Mahapatra
Spinal cord injury could be fatal in man and often results in irreversible medical conditions affecting mobility. However, anuran amphibians win over such pathological condition by the virtue of regeneration abilities. The tail of anuran tadpoles therefore allures researchers to study spinal cord injury and self- repair process. In the present study, we inflicted injury to the spinal cord by means of surgical transection of the tail and investigated the self-repair activity in the tadpoles of the Indian tree frog Polypedates maculatus...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129748/cellular-calcium-signaling-in-the-aging-brain
#17
REVIEW
Remya Chandran, Mantosh Kumar, K Lakshmi, Reena Sarah Jacob, Sowmya Gunasekaran, Sethu Lakshmi, C Sadasivan, R V Omkumar
Aging in the biological system is an irreversible process. In the initial stages of lifespan aging improves survival skills of an organism while in the later stages aging reduce the survival skills. Aging is associated with changes in several cellular and molecular functions among which calcium signaling is the prominent one. Calcium signaling is essential for many vital functions of the brain and even minor impairments in calcium signaling can lead to deleterious consequences including neuronal death. Calcium signaling proteins are pursued as promising drug targets for many aging related diseases...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129747/mitochondrial-sirt3-and-neurodegenerative-brain-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Anamika, Archita Khanna, Papia Acharjee, Arup Acharjee, Surendra Kumar Trigun
Sirtuins are highly conserved NAD(+) dependent class III histone deacetylases and catalyze deacetylation and ADP ribosylation of a number of non-histone proteins. Since, they require NAD(+) for their activity, the cellular level of Sirtuins represents redox status of the cells and thereby serves as bona fide metabolic stress sensors. Out of seven homologues of Sirtuins identified in mammals, SIRT3, 4 & 5 have been found to be localized and active in mitochondria. During recent past, clusters of protein substrates for SIRT3 have been identified in mitochondria and thereby advocating SIRT3 as the main mitochondrial Sirtuin which could be involved in protecting stress induced mitochondrial integrity and energy metabolism...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128349/a-strategic-plan-to-identify-key-neurophysiological-mechanisms-and-brain-circuits-in-autism
#19
REVIEW
Frédérique Bonnet-Brilhault, Joëlle Malvy, Laurie Tuller, Philippe Prévost, Rasha Zebib, Sandrine Ferré, Christophe Dos Santos, Sylvie Roux, Emmanuelle Houy-Durand, Rémy Magné, Yassine Mofid, Marianne Latinus, Claire Wardak, Nadia Aguillon-Hernandez, Magali Batty, Marie Gomot
Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) cover a large variety of clinical profiles which share two main dimensions: social and communication impairment and repetitive behaviors or restricted interests, which are present during childhood. There is now no doubt that genetic factors are a major component in the etiology of autism but precise physiopathological pathways are still being investigated. Furthermore, developmental trajectories combined with compensatory mechanisms will lead to various clinical and neurophysiological profiles which together constitute this Autism Spectrum Disorder...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126816/effects-of-spermine-and-the-passive-avoidance-learning-pal-following-cerebral-ischemia-in-chicks-association-with-neuroprotection-of-pyramidal-cells
#20
Suleyman Kaplan, M Emin Onger, B Zuhal Altunkaynak, Ebru Elibol, Omur G Deniz, M Önder Karayiğit, Murat Yarım, Cafer Marangoz, Murat Çetin Ragbetli
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of spermine and the passive avoidance learning on hippocampus following transient cerebral ischemia in the chicks. The study is composed of the pure control (CG), sham (SG) and experimental groups (n=20). Experimental groups (ischemia group, IG and ischemia-spermine group, ISG) were exposed to ischemia for 20min whereas the SG was exposed to sham operation and CG group was not exposed to any operation. Passive avoidance learning (PAL) was applied to the half number of the subjects in each group...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
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