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Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy

Yves Tillet, Sylvie Chalon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Houari Boukersi, Nemcha Lebaili, Nathalie Samson, Sylvie Granon
The objective of this work was to investigate the implication of serotonin (5-HT) produced in the dorsal and medial raphé nuclei (DRN and MRN) in water homeostasis in desert animal Gerbillus tarabuli. For that, we measured the density of 5-HT immunolabeled neurons in hydrated and dehydrated animals (over 1 and six months). In this work, 5-HT positive neurons showed some change in shape and colour intensity in dehydrated gerbils comparing with hydrated gerbils. Furthermore a differential increase of 5-HT neurons density was observed in DRN subregions and in MRN following 1 and 6 months of dehydration...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Bahareh Nazari, Masoud Soleimani, Somayeh Ebrahimi Barough, Seyed Ehsan Enderami, Mansure Kazemi, Babak Negahdari, Esmaeil Sadroddiny, Jafar Ai
Oligodendrocytes play critical roles in the central nervous system (CNS) thorough producing myelin sheaths around axons. There are a variety of approaches to produce oligodendrocytes in vitro and in vivo which are a subject of interest in many studies. A new approach to induce this differentiation is using microRNA 219 (miR-219). However, this new approach suffers from a lack of studies regarding the effect of miR-219 on differentiating human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to oligodendrocytes. This study aimed to assess the impact of miR-219-overexpression on hiPSCs...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Mehdi Khodamoradi, Hamed Ghazvini, Saeed Esmaeili-Mahani, Kaveh Shahveisi, Vahid Farnia, Hossein Zhaleh, Nasrin Abdoli, Zeinab Akbarnejad, Hakimeh Saadati, Vahid Sheibani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Sima Dameni, Atousa Janzadeh, Mahmoud Yousefifard, Farinaz Nasirinezhad
BACKGROUND: and aim: Irisin is a new myokine that is secreted by myocytes during exercise, and plays a role in creating the beneficial effects of exercise on metabolism. Considering the benefits of exercise in reducing pain, this study was carried out to determine the probable effect of irisin on neuropathic pain in the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model in male rats. METHODS: To induce neuropathic pain CCI model was used. Animals were divided into groups of control, CCI, sham, CCI + vehicle, and CCI + irisin...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Niya Gowthami, B Sunitha, Manish Kumar, T S Keshava Prasad, N Gayathri, B Padmanabhan, M M Srinivas Bharath
In eukaryotes, mitochondrial complex I (NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase; CI) is central to oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Mammalian CI is a 45 subunit complex that forms supercomplexes with other OXPHOS complexes. Since CI defects are associated with aging and neurodegeneration, it is pertinent to understand its structure-function relationship. Although genetic mutations could lower CI activity causing mitochondrial dysfunction in several pathologies, post-translational modifications (PTMs) have emerged as a key mechanism contributing to altered CI activity...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Kıymet Kübra Yurt, Elfide Gizem Kivrak, Gamze Altun, Hamza Mohamed, Fathelrahman Idris, Hosam Eldeen E G Mohemmed, Suleyman Kaplan
A quantitative description of a three-dimensional (3D) object based on two-dimensional (2D) images can be made using stereological methods These methods involve unbiased approaches and provide reliable results with quantitative data. The quantitative morphology of the nervous system has been thoroughly researched in this context. In particular, various novel methods such as design-based stereological approaches have been applied in neuoromorphological studies. The main foundations of these methods are systematic random sampling and a 3D approach to structures such as tissues and organs...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Kylie B O'Brien, Anjail Z Sharrief, Eric J Nordstrom, Anthony J Travanty, Mailee Huynh, Megan P Romero, Katie C Bittner, Michael T Bowser, Frank H Burton
Tics and compulsions in comorbid Tourette's syndrome (TS) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are associated with chronic hyperactivity of parallel cortico/amygdalo-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) loop circuits. Comorbid TS- & OCD-like behaviors have likewise been observed in D1CT-7 mice, in which an artificial neuropotentiating transgene encoding the cAMP-elevating intracellular subunit of cholera toxin (CT) is chronically expressed selectively in somatosensory cortical & amygdalar dopamine (DA) D1 receptor-expressing neurons that activate cortico/amygdalo-striatal glutamate (GLU) output...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Srinivasan ThyagaRajan, Lalgi Hima, Uday P Pratap, Hannah P Priyanka, Ramasamy Vasantharekha
Reproductive aging in females is marked by alterations in gonadal hormones, estrogen and progesterone, that facilitate cessation of reproductive cycles and onset of female-specific diseases such as autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases, hormone-dependent cancers, and osteoporosis. Bidirectional communication between the three homeostatic systems, nervous system, endocrine system, and immune system, is essential for the maintenance of health and any dysfunction in the cross-talk promotes the development of diseases and cancer...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Ramesh Naidu Annavarapu, Srujana Kathi, Vamsi Krishna Vadla
The aim of this article is to highlight current approaches for imaging elderly brain, indispensable for cognitive neuroscience research with emphasis on the basic physical principles of various non-invasive neuroimaging techniques. The first part of this article presents a quick overview of the primary non-invasive neuroimaging modalities used by cognitive neuroscientists such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), Profusion imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) along with tractography and connectomics...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Vrinda M, Arun S, Srikumar B N, Bindu M Kutty, Shankaranarayana Rao B S
Epilepsy is a neurological condition associated with seizures, neurodegeneration, circuit reorganization, and other structural and functional abnormalities. These elements ultimately lead to behavioural alterations such as anxiety, depression, and importantly cognitive impairment like learning disability and memory impairment. These factors can attribute to acceleration of aging and cognitive impairment in middle-aged people, which is otherwise evident in dementia and Alzheimer's disease among elderly people...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Yutaro Hayashi, Sumiko Mikawa, Kazuma Masumoto, Fuminori Katou, Kohji Sato
Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11), also known as bone morphogenetic protein 11 (BMP11), is a member of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily. Although GDF11 plays pivotal roles during development, including anterior/posterior patterning, formation of the kidney, stomach, spleen and endocrine pancreas, little information is available for GDF11 expression in the adult central nervous system (CNS). We, thus, investigated GDF11 expression in the adult rat CNS using immunohistochemistry. GDF11 was intensely expressed in most neurons and their axons...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Reena Rathod, Harshini Surendran, Rajani Battu, Jogin Desai, Rajarshi Pal
Retinal degenerative disorders are a leading cause of the inherited, irreversible and incurable vision loss. While various rodent model systems have provided crucial information in this direction.lack of disease-relevant tissue availability and species-specific differences have proven to be a major roadblock. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) have opened up a whole new avenue of possibilities not just in understanding the disease mechanism but also potential therapeutic approaches towards a cure. In this review, we have summarized recent advances in the methods of deriving retinal cell types from iPSCs which can serve as a renewable source of disease-relevant cell population for basic as well as translational studies...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Alpana Singh, Poonam Verma, Anu Raju, Kochupurackal P Mohanakumar
We have recently demonstrated neuroprotective abilities of nimodipine, an L-type voltage dependent calcium channel (VDCC) blocker in cellular and animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD). To understand the calcium regulatory mechanisms in the disease pathogenesis, the present study examined calcium regulatory proteins calbindin and calpain mRNA and protein levels employing quantitative PCR and western blot in 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium ion (MPP+)-treated SH-SY5Y cell lines and in the striatum of mice treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Devin P Merullo, Jeremy A Spool, Changjiu Zhao, Lauren V Riters
Animals communicate in distinct social contexts to convey information specific to those contexts, such as sexual or agonistic motivation. In seasonally-breeding male songbirds, seasonal changes in day length and increases in testosterone stimulate sexually-motivated song directed at females for courtship and reproduction. Dopamine and testosterone may act in the same brain regions to stimulate sexually-motivated singing. The neuropeptide neurotensin, acting at the neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1), can strongly influence dopamine transmission...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Gökçen Kerimoğlu, Canan Güney, Şafak Ersöz, Ersan Odacı
The effects on human health of the electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by mobile phones, used by approximately 7 billion people worldwide, have become an important subject for scientific research. Studies have suggested that the EMF emitted by mobile phones can cause oxidative stress in different tissues and age groups. Young people in adolescence, a time period when risky behaviors and dependences increase, use mobile phones more than adults. The EMF emitted by mobile phones, which are generally carried in the pocket or in bags when not in use, will very probably affect the sciatic nerve...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Tsuyoshi Yamaguchi, Ayuka Ehara, Kazuhiko Nakadate, Shuichi Ueda
The interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure (IPAC) is exclusively innervated by tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-IR) fibers as observed in the other nuclei of the rat forebrain such as the striatum and nucleus accumbens. Distinguishing TH-IR afferents to the IPAC from those projecting to neighboring nuclei has been difficult. However, we previously showed that the TH-IR fibers projecting to the IPAC were invulnerable to neurodegeneration in zitter mutant rats, whereas almost all TH-IR afferents fibers to the dorsolateral striatum were lost, indicating that these two groups of TH-IR afferents have distinct neurochemical properties...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Si-Yang Liu, Ling Chen, Xiao-Cheng Li, Qi-Kuan Hu, Lan-Jie He
Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP), the major active component of Lycium barbarum, has been found to be effective in the management of some diabetic complications. We evaluated the protective effect of LBP in diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and explored the possible mechanisms. We found that LBP mildly decreased blood glucose levels and partially rescued allodynia and hyperalgesia in the diabetes mellitus (DM) rats. For the electrophysiological function of the sciatic nerve, the decrease in sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV) and sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) amplitudes in DM rats were partially rescued...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Alireza Karimi, Reza Razaghi, Hasan Biglari, Toshihiro Sera, Susumu Kudo
The main stream of blunt trauma injuries has been reported to be related to the automobile crashes, sporting activities, and military operations. Glass shards, which can be induced due to car accident, earthquake, gunshot, etc., might collide with the eye and trigger substantial scarring and, consequently, permanently affect the vision. The complications as a result of the collision with the eye and its following injuries on each component of the eye are difficult to be diagnosed. The objective of this study was to employ a Three-Dimensional (3D) computational Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) model of the human eye to assess the results of the glass shards collision with the eye...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Katherine Shaw, Rüdiger Krahe
Aromatase is a steroidogenic enzyme involved in the conversion of testosterone into estradiol. Teleosts are unique among vertebrates in possessing two distinct aromatase genes that show different expression patterns within the body. Since the brain is the essential organ underlying the control of behavior, an understanding of the expression pattern of aromatase in the brain can help to identify neural circuits and behaviors that are most likely to be affected by aromatase activity. In addition, identifying species differences in aromatase expression in the brain can further our understanding of divergence in behaviors regulated by local estradiol production and estrogen signaling...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
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