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Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy

M S Rahnama'i, B T Biallosterski, Ph E V Van Kerrebroeck, G A van Koeveringe, J I Gillespie, S G de Wachter
AIM: Increased afferent fibre activity contributes to pathological conditions such as the overactive bladder syndrome. Nerve fibres running near the urothelium are considered to be afferent as no efferent system has yet been described. The aim of this study was to identify sub-types of afferent nerve fibres in the mouse bladder wall based on morphological criteria and analyse regional differences. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 27 bladders of six month old C57BL/6 mice were removed and tissues were processed for immunohistochemistry...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Beata Hermanowicz-Sobieraj, Anna Robak
The study describes the immunoreactivity of calbindin (CB), calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV), their distribution pattern and the co-distribution of CB and CR as well as CB and PV in the septum of the guinea pig during development. Immunohistochemistry was conducted on embryonic (E40, E50, E60), newborn (P0) and postnatal (P5, P10, P20, P40, P100) guinea pig brains. The presence of both CB and CR was detected at E40, while PV began to be observed at E60. Immunoreactivity for CB was constant throughout ontogeny...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Larisa Tratnjek, Marko Živin, Gordana Glavan
Synaptotagmin 7 (SYT7) is ubiquitously expressed calcium sensor, involved in neuronal membrane trafficking. Immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that SYT7 interacts with Synaptotagmin-binding, cytoplasmic RNA-interacting protein (SYNCRIP). SYNCRIP is a component of mRNA granules, which are transported to dendrites and are prerequisite for synaptic plasticity. Given the potential significance of SYT7 regulation in processes of neurodegeneration, which are characterized by high level of synaptic vulnerability, we aimed to analyse and compare the distribution of SYT7 and SYNCRIP proteins in the adult rat striatum, hippocampus, cerebral and cerebellar cortex...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Gökçen Kerimoğlu, Ali Aslan, Orhan Baş, Serdar Çolakoğlu, Ersan Odacı
Cell phones, an indispensable element of daily life, are today used at almost addictive levels by adolescents. Adolescents are therefore becoming increasingly exposed to the effect of the electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by cell phones. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exposure to a 900-MHz EMF throughout adolescence on the lumbar spinal cord using histopathological, immunohistochemical and biochemical techniques. Twenty-four Sprague Dawley (28.3-43.9g) aged 21days were included in the study...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Krystyna Bogus-Nowakowska, Maciej Równiak, Beata Hermanowicz-Sobieraj, Barbara Wasilewska, Janusz Najdzion, Anna Robak
The present study examines the distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity and its morphological relationships with neuropeptide Y (NPY)- and gonadoliberin (GnRH)-immunoreactive (IR) structures in the preoptic area (POA) of the male guinea pig. Tyrosine hydroxylase was expressed in relatively small population of perikarya and they were mostly observed in the periventricular preoptic nucleus and medial preoptic area. The tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-IR) fibers were dispersed troughout the whole POA...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Wolfgang Härtig, Martin Krueger, Sarah Hofmann, Hartmut Preißler, Martin Märkel, Clara Frydrychowicz, Wolf C Mueller, Ingo Bechmann, Dominik Michalski
As stroke therapies are still limited to a minority of patients, efforts have been intensified to an improved understanding of pathophysiological processes during ischemia formation, potentially allowing the development of specific therapeutic interventions. In this context, cytoskeletal elements became evident as key players during the transition process towards long-lasting tissue damage. This study focused on ischemia-related alterations of the cytoskeleton with a special focus on microtubule-associated proteins and neurofilament light chains (NF-L)...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Yoshiyuki Shirasaka, Nora Lee, Haichuan Duan, Horace Ho, Joanna Pak, Joanne Wang
Plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT) is a newly discovered monoamine transporter belonging to the equilibrative nucleoside transporter family. Highly expressed in the brain, PMAT represents a major uptake2 transporter that may play a role in monoamine clearance. Although human PMAT has been functionally characterized at the molecular level, rodent models are often used to evaluate PMAT function in ex vivo and in vivo studies. The aim of this study was to examine if there is potential species difference in the functional characteristics of PMAT between human, rat and mouse...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Michael Peroski, Nikoletta Proudan, George Grignol, Istvan Merchenthaler, Bertalan Dudas
It is a general consensus that stress is one of the major factors that suppresses growth. Previous studies revealed that the catecholaminergic and neuropeptide Y (NPY) systems, involved in the activation of stress-related neuronal circuits, influence growth hormone (GH)-release via modulating growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) secretion. Indeed, catecholaminergic and NPY-immunoreactive (IR) axon varicosities abut on the surface of the GHRH neurons forming contacts. These juxtapositions appear to be real synapses and may represent the morphological substrate of the impact of stress on growth...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Jariya Umka Welbat, Preeyanuch Sangrich, Apiwat Sirichoat, Pornthip Chaisawang, Wunnee Chaijaroonkhanarak, Parichat Prachaney, Wanassanun Pannangrong, Peter Wigmore
Valproic acid (VPA), a commonly used antiepileptic drug, has been reported to cause cognitive impairments in patients. In a previous study, using a rodent model, we showed that VPA treatment impaired cognition which was associated with a reduction in the cell proliferation required for hippocampal neurogenesis. The antidepressant fluoxetine has been shown to increase hippocampal neurogenesis and to reverse the memory deficits found in a number of pathological conditions. In the present study we investigated the protective effects of fluoxetine treatment against the impairments in memory and hippocampal cell proliferation produced by VPA...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Mostafa Hosseini, Mahmoud Yousefifard, Masoud Baikpour, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar, Farinaz Nasirinezhad, Somaye Younesian, Saeed Safari, Parisa Ghelichkhani, Ali Moghadas Jafari
AIM: This article aimed to assess the efficacy of Schwann cell transplantation on motor function recovery in animal model of spinal cord injuries via meta-analysis. METHODS: An extended search was carried out in the electronic databases of Medline (via PubMed), EMBASE (via OvidSP), CENTRAL, SCOPUS, Web of Science (BIOSIS), and ProQuest. Finally, 41 eligible studies conducted on 1046 animals including 517 control animals and 529 transplanted animals were included in the meta-analysis...
September 5, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Anna G Downs, Katie R Scholles, David M Hollis
Rem2 is member of the RGK (Rem, Rad, and Gem/Kir) subfamily of the Ras superfamily of GTP binding proteins known to influence Ca(2+) entry into the cell. In addition, Rem2, which is found at high levels in the vertebrate brain, is also implicated in cell proliferation and synapse formation. Though the specific, regional localization of Rem2 in the adult mammalian central nervous system has been well-described, such information is lacking in other vertebrates. Rem2 is involved in neuronal processes where the capacities between adults of different vertebrate classes vary...
September 4, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Tetsu Hayakawa, Masaki Hata, Sachi Kuwahara-Otani, Kyosuke Yamanishi, Hideshi Yagi, Haruki Okamura
Interleukin 18 (IL-18) participates in the inflammatory immune response of lymphocytes. Delay in learning or memory are common in the IL-18 knockout mouse. Many IL-18-immunoreactive neurons are found in the retrosplenial cortex (RSC) and the subiculum. These neurons also contain the IL-18 receptor. We determined the location and the ultrastructure of the IL-18 receptor-immunoreactive neurons in the RSC and observed changes in the IL-18 receptor-immunoreactive neurons of the IL-18 knockout mouse. The IL-18 receptor-immunoreactive neurons were found specifically in layer V of the granular RSC...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Sarah Mikelman, Natalie Mardirossian, Margaret E Gnegy
Although best known as a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), tamoxifen is a drug with a wide range of activities. Tamoxifen has demonstrated some efficacy has a therapeutic for bipolar mania and is believed to exert these effects through inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC). As the symptoms of amphetamine treatment in rodents are believed to mimic the symptoms of a manic episode, many of the preclinical studies for this indication have demonstrated that tamoxifen inhibits amphetamine action. The amphetamine-induced increase in extracellular dopamine which gives rise to the 'manic' effects is due to interaction of amphetamine with the dopamine transporter...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Ewa Badowska-Szalewska, Beata Ludkiewicz, Rafał Krawczyk, Janusz Moryś
It seems that age-dependent changes in stress response may be correlated with alterations in the hypothalamic brain derived neurotrophin factor (BDNF). Two hypothalamic nuclei, ie. paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) are closely related to the stress response. Therefore, the aim of our study was to explore the influence of acute and chronic high-light open field (HL-OF) or forced swim (FS) stimulation on the density of BDNF immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the PVN and SON in adult (postnatal day 90; P90) and aged (P720) Wistar Han rats...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Adejoke Y Onaolapo, Olakunle J Onaolapo, Polycarp U Nwoha
OBJECTIVE: The study evaluated changes in open field behaviours, cerebral cortical histomorphology and biochemical markers of oxidative stress following repeated administration of aspartame in mice. METHODOLOGY: Adult mice were assigned into five groups of twelve each. Vehicle (distilled water), or aspartame (20, 40, 80 and 160mg/kg body weight) were administered orally for 28days. Horizontal locomotion, rearing and grooming were assessed after the first and last dose of aspartame...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Laura L Bruce, Jonathan T Erichsen, Anton Reiner
The goals of this study were to use multiple informative markers to define and characterize the neurochemically distinct compartments of the pigeon basal ganglia, especially striatum and accumbens. To this end, we used antibodies against 12 different neuropeptides, calcium-binding proteins or neurotransmitter-related enzymes that are enriched in the basal ganglia. Our results clarify boundaries between previously described basal ganglia subdivisions in birds, and reveal considerable novel heterogeneity within these previously described subdivisions...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Yutaro Hayashi, Sumiko Mikawa, Kazuma Masumoto, Fuminori Katou, Kohji Sato
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) exert its biological functions by interacting with membrane bound receptors. However, functions of BMPs are also regulated in the extracellular space by secreted antagonistic regulators, such as chordin and noggin. Although the deep involvement of BMP signaling in the development and functions of the trigeminal nuclei has been postulated, little information is available for its expression in the trigeminal nuclei. We, thus, investigated chordin and noggin expression in the adult rat trigeminal nuclei using immunohistochemistry...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
S M J Mortazavi, S A R Mortazavi, Maryam Paknahad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 8, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Karin Dreisig, Matilda Degn, Louise Sund, Piotr Hadaczek, Lluis Samaranch, Waldy San Sebastian, Krystof Bankiewicz, Birgitte Rahbek Kornum
Focus on the purinergic receptor P2Y11 has increased following the finding of an association between the sleep disorder narcolepsy and a genetic variant in P2RY11 causing decreased gene expression. Narcolepsy is believed to arise from an autoimmune destruction of the hypothalamic neurons that produce the neuropeptide hypocretin/orexin. It is unknown how a decrease in expression of P2Y11 might contribute to an autoimmune reaction towards the hypocretin neurons and the development of narcolepsy. To advance narcolepsy research it is therefore extremely important to determine the neuroanatomical localization of P2Y11 in the brain with particular emphasis on the hypocretin neurons...
August 8, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Elizabeth Scarr, Myoung Suk Seo, Timothy Douglas Aumann, Gursharan Chana, Ian Paul Everall, Brian Dean
The muscarinic M1 receptor plays a significant role in cognition, probably by modulating information processing in key regions such as the hippocampus. To understand how the muscarinic M1 receptor achieves these functions in the hippocampus, it is critical to know the distribution of the receptor within this complex brain region. To date, there are limited data on the distribution of muscarinic M1 receptors in the human hippocampus which may also be confounded because some anti-muscarinic receptor antibodies have been shown to lack specificity...
November 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
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