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Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546123/distribution-of-tyrosine-hydroxylase-immunoreactive-neurons-in-the-brain-of-the-viviparous-fish-gambusia-affinis
#1
Shilpa K Bhat, C B Ganesh
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the common precursor enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathway of catecholaminergic neurotransmitters, dopamine and norepinephrine. In this investigation, the neuroanatomical distribution of TH-immunoreactivity was studied in the brain of the female mosquitofish Gambusia affinis. Numerous intensely stained TH-immunoreactive (ir) neurons were scattered in the olfactory bulb with their fibres extending towards the medial olfactory tract, whereas few telencephalic TH-ir cells with distinct fibres were observed in the dorsal nucleus of area ventralis telencephali and the posterior nucleus of area ventralis telencephali regions...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495518/prenatal-exposure-to-low-dose-diclofenac-sodium-does-not-affect-total-neuron-numbers-in-spinal-segment-t13-in-rats
#2
Murat Çetin Ragbetli, Mikail Kara, Neşe Çölçimen, Necat Koyun, Gamze Çakmak, Veysel Akyol, Omur Gulsum Deniz, Kıymet Kübra Yurt
The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of diclofenac sodium (DS) on the total number of neurons in segment T13 of the spinal cord of offspring of pregnant rats using stereological methods. Eighteen adult female Wistar albino rats weighing 150-200g were used. Pregnant female rats were divided into three groups; a control group, a sham group and a DS (1mg/kg, intramuscular) exposed group. The DS and sham groups received injection from the 5(th) day of gestation to the 19(th). 28 days after birth, the offspring rats were perfused with 4% buffered formalin...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495517/berberine-confers-neuroprotection-in-coping-with-focal-cerebral-ischemia-by-targeting-inflammatory-cytokines
#3
Solmaz Nasseri Maleki, Nahid Aboutaleb, Faramarz Souri
SCOPE: Existing research indicates that anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of berberine play major roles in coping with oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases, but it is not known if this isoquinoline alkaloid affects inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 10 in focal cerebral ischemia. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male Wistar rats (10 weeks old) were treated with 40mg/kg concentration of berberine 1h after focal cerebral ischemia and the anti-inflammatory properties of berberine were evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis, water content measure and behavioral tests...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476689/pax6-interacts-with-iba1-and-shows-age-associated-alterations-in-brain-of-aging-mice
#4
Shashank Kumar Maurya, Rajnikant Mishra
The Pax6, a transcriptional regulator and multifunctional protein, has been found critical for neurogenesis, neuro-degeneration, mental retardation, neuroendocrine tumors, glioblastoma and astrocytomas. The age-associated alteration in the expression of Pax6 in neuron and glia has also been observed in the immunologically privileged brain. Therefore, it is presumed that Pax6 may modulate brain immunity by activation of microglia either directly interacting with genes or proteins of microglia or indirectly though inflammation associated with neurodegeneration...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455213/localization-of-zinc-transporters-in-the-spinal-cord-of-cynomolgus-monkey
#5
Ni Zong, Shi-Xin Ma, Zhan-You Wang
Zinc is abundant in the spinal cord, where it participates in several physiological and pathophysiological processes, including neurotransmission, spinal cord injury, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. However, the mechanisms underlying zinc homeostasis in the spinal cord are largely unknown. Zinc transporters (ZnTs) are responsible for transporting zinc from the cytoplasm to the extracellular space or to intracellular compartments. In the present study, we examined the distribution of ZnT1-10 proteins in the spinal cord of cynomolgus monkey...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445782/the-immunohistochemical-distribution-of-the-gabaa-receptor-%C3%AE-1-%C3%AE-2-%C3%AE-3-%C3%AE-2-3-and-%C3%AE-2-subunits-in-the-human-thalamus
#6
H J Waldvogel, M Munkle, W van Roon-Mom, H Mohler, R L M Faull
The GABAA receptor is the most abundant inhibitory receptor in the human brain and is assembled from a variety of different subunit subtypes which determines their pharmacology and physiology. To determine which GABAA receptor subunit proteins are found in the human thalamus we investigated the distribution of five major GABAA receptor subunits α1, α2, α3, β2,3 and γ2 using immunohistochemical techniques. The α1-, β2,3- and γ2- subunits which combine to form a benzodiazepine sensitive GABAA receptor showed the most intense levels of staining and were the most common subunits found throughout the human thalamus especially in the ventral and posterior nuclear groups...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428016/the-role-of-low-level-laser-therapy-on-neuropathic-pain-relief-and-interleukin-6-expression-following-spinal-cord-injury-an-experimental-study
#7
Negin Mojarad, Atousa Janzadeh, Mahmoud Yousefifard, Farinaz Nasirinezhad
INTRODUCTION: The effect of Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) as a non-invasive treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI) is still under investigation. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of LLLT on neuropathic pain and interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression following SCI in male rats. METHODS: 46 adult male rats were divided into 5 groups of control, SCI, treatment with methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS), 1-week LLLT and 2-week LLLT. Animals underwent behavioral evaluations for motor behavior, level of allodynia and hyperalgesia every week...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419831/molecular-phenotyping-of-transient-postnatal-tyrosine-hydroxylase-neurons-in-the-rat-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis
#8
David A Carter
The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a complex integrative centre in the forebrain, composed of multiple sub-nuclei, each with discrete populations of neurons. Progress in understanding BNST function, both in the adult and during postnatal maturation, is dependent upon a more complete characterization of neuronal phenotypes in the BNST. The aim of the current study was to define the molecular phenotype of one postnatal BNST neuronal population, in order to identify molecular factors that may underlie both (protein marker-related) immaturity, and secondly, the transience of this phenotype...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416460/regional-distribution-of-cholinergic-catecholaminergic-serotonergic-and-orexinergic-neurons-in-the-brain-of-two-carnivore-species-the-feliform-banded-mongoose-mungos-mungo-and-the-caniform-domestic-ferret-mustela-putorius-furo
#9
Sashrika Pillay, Adhil Bhagwandin, Mads F Bertelsen, Nina Patzke, Gerhard Engler, Andreas K Engel, Paul R Manger
The nuclear organization of the cholinergic, catecholaminergic, serotonergic and orexinergic neurons in the brains of two species of carnivore, the banded mongoose (Mungos mungo) and domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo), is presented. The banded mongoose belongs to the feliform suborder and the domestic ferret to the caniform suborder, having last shared a common ancestor approximately 53 million years ago; however, they have a very similar overall morphology and life history, presenting an interesting opportunity to examine the extent of evolutionary plasticity in these systems...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416459/the-error-of-broca-from-the-traditional-localizationist-concept-to-a-connectomal-anatomy-of-human-brain
#10
REVIEW
Hugues Duffau
Neurology, especially aphasiology, was mainly built on behavioral-structural correlations ("lesion method"). In this setting, Broca's area has been considered as the "speech area"; moreover, this observation led to localizationism. However, advances in brain mapping techniques, as functional neuroimaging and direct electrical stimulation in patients undergoing awake surgery for gliomas, has resulted in a paradigmatic shift regarding models of neural architecture. In fact, the brain is organized in distributed complex networks underpinning sensorimotor, visuospatial, language, cognitive and emotional functions...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414121/neural-derived-estradiol-regulates-brain-plasticity
#11
REVIEW
Iñigo Azcoitia, Maria Angeles Arevalo, Luis M Garcia-Segura
In addition to be an ovarian hormone, estradiol is a neurosteroid synthesized by neural cells. The brain is a steroidogenic tissue that metabolizes testosterone to estradiol. The last step in the synthesis of estradiol is catalyzed by the enzyme aromatase, which is widely expressed in the brain of male and female animals and humans. Studies that have manipulated the expression or the activity of aromatase have revealed that brain-derived estradiol acts as a neuromodulator and regulates different forms of brain plasticity in male and female animals...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341180/morphological-and-morphometrical-maturation-of-ventral-cochlear-nucleus-in-human-foetus
#12
Sabita Mishra, T S Roy, Shashi Wadhwa
Auditory impulses perceived by the hair cells of the organ of corti are relayed in the cochlear nucleus, the first relay station in the brainstem, by the cochlear nerve. The human foetus is well known to respond to sound during the last trimester of gestation. On the contrary, studies conducted in rat, cat and mouse have shown that these mammals have an immature auditory system at the time of birth. There are very few reports available regarding the morphological and functional maturation of the cochlear nucleus in human...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341179/the-use-of-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-in-neurological-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Murat Terzi, Gamze Altun, Sedat Şen, Adem Kocaman, Arife Ahsen Kaplan, Kıymet Kübra Yurt, Süleyman Kaplan
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been in use for many years and constitute a large part of prescriptions issued in daily practice. Although NSAIDs are used for many diseases in neurology, they have also been tested as a new therapeutic option for various other diseases. While their effects on headache and cerebrovascular diseases are well known, little is known about their impact on neurodegenerative diseases. This review discusses the use, effects and safety of NSAIDs in neurological diseases...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323108/chronic-methamphetamine-exposure-significantly-decreases-microglia-activation-in-the-arcuate-nucleus
#14
Steven A Lloyd, Beau Corkill, Matthew C Bruster, Rick L Roberts, Ryan A Shanks
Methamphetamine is a powerful psychostimulant drug and its use and abuse necessitates a better understanding of its neurobiobehavioral effects. The acute effects of binge dosing of methamphetamine on the neurons in the CNS are well studied. However, the long-term effects of chronic, low-dose methamphetamine are less well characterized, especially in other cell types and areas outside of the major dopamine pathways. Mice were administered 5mg/kg/day methamphetamine for ten days and brain tissue was analyzed using histochemistry and image analysis...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163216/possible-promoting-effects-of-melatonin-leptin-and-alcar-on-regeneration-of-the-sciatic-nerve
#15
Mehmet Emin Onger, Suleyman Kaplan, Ömür Gülsüm Deniz, Gamze Altun, Berrin Zuhal Altunkaynak, Kemal Balcı, Stefania Raimondo, Stefano Geuna
Peripheral nerve injury is a widespread and disabling condition that can impair the individual's daily life. Studies involving medications that may positively affect peripheral nerve regeneration are rare. The aim of this study was to investigate new treatments after peripheral nerve injury using various neuroprotectants, melatonin, alcar and leptin, in the regenerative process in an experimental rat model. Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into eight groups containing equal number of animals. Intraperitoneal injection of melatonin (50mg/kg, for 21days), leptin (1mg/kg, for 21days) and acetyl-l-carnitine (50mg/kg, for six weeks) was performed postoperatively...
April 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027905/notochord-isolation-using-laser-capture-microdissection
#16
R G C Santegoeds, Y Yakkioui, A Jahanshahi, G Raven, J J Van Overbeeke, A Herrler, Y Temel
BACKGROUND: Chordoma are malignant tumors of the axial skeleton, which arise from remnants of the notochord. The Notochord (chorda dorsalis) is an essential embryonic structure involved in the development of the nervous system and axial skeleton. Therefore, the notochord seems to be the most biologically relevant control tissue to study chordoma in molecular biology research. Nevertheless, up to now mainly different tissues but not the notochord have been used as control for chordoma, due to difficulty of isolating notochordal tissue...
March 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007551/a-preliminary-investigation-of-phoshodiesterase-7-inhibitor-vp3-15-as-therapeutic-agent-for-the-treatment-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-mice
#17
R Martín-Álvarez, N Paúl-Fernández, V Palomo, C Gil, A Martínez, G Mengod
cAMP plays a significant role in signal transduction pathways controlling multiple cellular processes such as inflammation and immune regulation. cAMP levels are regulated by a family of phosphodiesterases (PDEs). We have studied the effects of a novel PDE7 inhibitor (PDE7i) treatment on mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) a model of multiple sclerosis (MS) and compared it with another PDE7i. EAE was induced by immunizing C57BL/6J mice with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35-55) peptide...
March 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988177/unbiased-estimation-of-cell-number-using-the-automatic-optical-fractionator
#18
Peter R Mouton, Hady Ahmady Phoulady, Dmitry Goldgof, Lawrence O Hall, Marcia Gordon, David Morgan
A novel stereology approach, the automatic optical fractionator, is presented for obtaining unbiased and efficient estimates of the number of cells in tissue sections. Used in combination with existing segmentation algorithms and ordinary immunostaining methods, automatic estimates of cell number are obtainable from extended depth of field images built from three-dimensional volumes of tissue (disector stacks). The automatic optical fractionator is more accurate, 100% objective and 8-10 times faster than the manual optical fractionator...
March 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919828/mucuna-pruriens-reduces-inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase-expression-in-parkinsonian-mice-model
#19
Satyndra Kumar Yadav, Sachchida Nand Rai, Surya Pratap Singh
Parkinson's disease is one of the most common neurodegenerative disease found in aged peoples. Plentiful studies are being conducted to find a suitable and effective cure for this disease giving special impetus on use of herbal plants. The study aimed at investigating the effect of ethanolic extract of Mucuna pruriens (Mp) on level of nitric oxide (NO) in paraquat (PQ) induced Parkinson's disease (PD) mouse model and its subsequent contribution to lipid peroxidation. Twenty four Swiss albino mice were divided into three groups; Control, PQ and PQ+Mp...
March 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914953/both-secreted-and-the-cellular-levels-of-bdnf-attenuated-due-to-tau-hyperphosphorylation-in-primary-cultures-of-cortical-neurons
#20
İrem Lütfiye Atasoy, Erdinç Dursun, Duygu Gezen-Ak, Derya Metin-Armağan, Melek Öztürk, Selma Yılmazer
Intracellular aggregation of hyperphosphorylated tau in neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) is a major neuropathological hallmark of taupathies such as Alzheimer's disease. Okadaic acid (OKA) is a potent inhibitor of PP2A, leading to abnormal tau phosphorylation. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that is selectively downregulated in AD. In this study, we investigated the effects of OKA induced tau hyperphosphorylation on secreted and cellular levels of BDNF in primary cortical neurons that were treated with 25nM OKA...
March 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
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