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Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916505/nuclear-organisation-of-cholinergic-catecholaminergic-serotonergic-and-orexinergic-neurons-in-two-relatively-large-brained-rodent-species-the-springhare-pedetes-capensis-and-beecroft-s-scaly-tailed-squirrel-anomalurus-beecrofti
#1
Jordan Sweigers, Adhil Bhagwandin, Muhammad A Spocter, Consolate Kaswera-Kyamakya, Emmanuel Gilissen, Paul R Manger, Busisiwe C Maseko
The present study describes the nuclear organization of the cholinergic, catecholaminergic, serotonergic and orexinergic systems in the brains of the springhare and Beecroft's scaly-tailed squirrel following immunohistochemical labelling. We aimed to investigate any differences in the nuclear organization of these neural systems when compared to previous data on other species of rodents, as these two rodent species have relatively large brains - 1.2 to 1.4 times larger than would be expected for mammals of their body mass and 1...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890110/methyl-aspartylphenylalanine-the-pons-and-cerebellum-in-mice-an-evaluation-of-motor-morphological-biochemical-immunohistochemical-and-apoptotic-effects
#2
A Y Onaolapo, O J Onaolapo, P U Nwoha
In this study, adult mice were assigned to five groups, and administered vehicle (distilled water), or aspartame (20, 40, 80 and 160mg/kg body weight) for 28days. Behavioural tests to assess motor-balance and gait were conducted on day 28, following which animals were sacrificed. Sections of the cerebellar cortex and pons were processed, for general histology and Bielschwosky's silver staining protocol. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) immunoreactivity were assessed. Antioxidant status and aspartic acid/cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase)-3 levels were also assessed using homogenates of the cerebellum and pons...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873338/myths-and-truths-about-the-cellular-composition-of-the-human-brain-a-review-of-influential-concepts
#3
REVIEW
Christopher S Bvon Bartheld
Over the last 50 years, quantitative methodology has made important contributions to our understanding of the cellular composition of the human brain. Not all of the concepts that emerged from quantitative studies have turned out to be true. Here, I examine the history and current status of some of the most influential notions. This includes claims of how many cells compose the human brain, and how different cell types contribute and in what ratios. Additional concepts entail whether we lose significant numbers of neurons with normal aging, whether chronic alcohol abuse contributes to cortical neuron loss, whether there are significant differences in the quantitative composition of cerebral cortex between male and female brains, whether superior intelligence in humans correlates with larger numbers of brain cells, and whether there are secular (generational) changes in neuron number...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870762/peripheral-nerve-and-diclofenac-sodium-molecular-and-clinical-approaches
#4
REVIEW
Arife Ahsen Kaplan, Kıymet Kübra Yurt, Ömür Gülsüm Deniz, Gamze Altun
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most frequently prescribed medications worldwide. Diclofenac sodium (DS), one of these NSAIDs, has a high specificity for arachidonic acid-degrading cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 enzymes. This drug can be used to relieve neuropathic pain. In this review, we examine the relevant researches, including in vivo, animal, and clinical human studies, with the aim of understanding the effect of DS on the peripheral nerves. In injured nerves, COX-2 is potently upregulated around the injury site...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866082/the-in-situ-morphology-of-microglia-is-highly-sensitive-to-the-mode-of-tissue-fixation
#5
Bogdan Cătălin, Laura Stopper, Tudor-Adrian Bălşeanu, Anja Scheller
Microglia are known as the most motile cells in the central nervous system (CNS). It was shown in vivo that they permanently scan their direct microenvironment and react to pathological conditions within minutes. Many studies of brain pathologies use fixed brain tissue to investigate cellular changes. Unfortunately, due to technical reasons, the time span between the induction of the fixation procedure (start of the perfusion) and the finally-fixed tissue lasts several minutes, giving time to microglia to start reacting to the ischemic conditions due to perfusion start...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855117/how-motor-cognitive-and-musical-expertise-shapes-the-brain-focus-on-the-fmri-and-eeg-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#6
REVIEW
Pauline Cantou, Hervé Platel, Béatrice Desgranges, Mathilde Groussard
Brain activity and structure are shaped by life experiences. This plasticity has often been demonstrated with different types of expertise by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG). Experts showed domain-specific functional neural changes during completion of a task when compared to non-experts. However, all of these results are task-dependent and even though they have proven useful for understanding neural interactions and their direct relation to individual skill, studying brain plasticity without any task might provide complementary information about functional cerebral reorganization due to expertise at the whole-brain level and might facilitate comparison across studies...
August 27, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847703/protective-effect-of-%C3%AE-lipoic-acid-against-%C3%AE-cypermethrin-induced-changes-in-rat-cerebellum
#7
H Elsawy, M A Al-Omair, A Sedky, L Al-Otaibi
Alfa cypermethrin is a pyrethroids extensively used as ectoparasiticide in domestic animals, insecticidal spray on cotton, vegetables and other crops and to kill cockroaches, fleas and termites in house and other buildings. Previous studies have shown the adverse effect of α -cypermethrin on brain. This study was planned to evaluate the possible role of α-lipoic acid in α -cypermethrin induced toxicity in brain of male albino rats. Rats were divided into four groups. The control, α-cypermethrin, α-lipoic acid and α -cypermethrin plus α-lipoic acid treated groups...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834708/parvalbumin-but-not-calretinin-neurons-express-high-levels-of-%C3%AE-1-containing-gabaa-receptors-%C3%AE-7-containing-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-and-d2-dopamine-receptors-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-of-the-rat
#8
Maciej Równiak, Małgorzata Kolenkiewicz, Anna Kozłowska
The generation of emotional responses by the basolateral amygdala is largely determined by the balance of excitatory and inhibitory inputs to its principal neurons - the pyramidal cells. The activity of these neurons is tightly controlled by g-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneurons, especially by those expressing parvalbumin (PV) and calretinin (CR). Although it is known that GABAergic, cholinergic and dopaminergic fibres make synapses on PV and CR cells, knowledge of the various receptors which are used by these cells is still incomplete...
August 20, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803968/acute-spinal-cord-injury-a-review-of-pathophysiology-and-potential-of-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-for-pharmacological-intervention
#9
REVIEW
Emrullah Hayta, Hasan Elden
Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the serious central nervous system injuries, which can lead to significant neurological impairments and a reduction in quality of life with loss in sensory and motor functions. Although recent advancements contribute to the understanding of the underlying pathophysiological processes developed after SCI, currently, there is limited innovative and effective treatment options besides conventional rehabilitation and management of SCI to alleviate the condition. Improvements in neurological functions of the individuals with SCI depend mainly on the mechanical damage occurring in the primary injury and on pathophysiological alterations associated with secondary damage...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757392/extending-the-family-roles-for-uptake2-transporters-in-regulation-of-monoaminergic-signaling
#10
Paul J Gasser, Lynette C Daws
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755997/editorial-for-the-special-issue-monoamine-transporters-in-health-and-disease
#11
EDITORIAL
Paul J Gasser, Lynette C Daws
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 27, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755996/receptor-visualization-and-the-atomic-bomb-a-historical-account-of-the-development-of-the-chemical-neuroanatomy-of-receptors-for-neurotransmitters-and-drugs-during-the-cold-war
#12
REVIEW
J M Palacios, G Mengod
This is a historical account of how receptors for neurotransmitters and drugs got to be seen at the regional, cellular, and subcellular levels in brain, in the years going from the end of the World War II until the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Cold War (1945-1991). The realization in the US of the problem of mental health care, as a consequence of the results of medical evaluation for military service during the war, let the US Government to act creating among other things the National Institute for Mental Health (NIMH)...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754612/differentiation-potential-of-human-cd133-positive-hematopoietic-stem-cells-into-motor-neuron-like-cells-in-vitro
#13
Sepideh Alavi Moghaddam, Behnam Yousefi, Davood Sanooghi, Faezeh Faghihi, Nasim Hayati Roodbari, Nikoo Bana, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Paria Pooyan, Babak Arjmand
Spinal cord injuries and motor neuron-related disorders impact on life of many patients around the world. Since pharmacotherapy and surgical approaches were not efficient to regenerate these types of defects; stem cell therapy as a good strategy to restore the lost cells has become the focus of interest among the scientists. Umbilical cord blood CD133(+) hematopoietic stem cells (UCB- CD133(+) HSCs) with self- renewal property and neural lineage differentiation capacity are ethically approved cell candidate for use in regenerative medicine...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728966/advances-and-perspectives-in-tissue-clearing-using-clarity
#14
REVIEW
Kristian H Reveles Jensen, Rune W Berg
CLARITY is a tissue clearing method, which enables immunostaining and imaging of large volumes for 3D-reconstruction. The method was initially time-consuming, expensive and relied on electrophoresis to remove lipids to make the tissue transparent. Since then several improvements and simplifications have emerged, such as passive clearing (PACT) and methods to improve tissue staining. Here, we review advances and compare current applications with the aim of highlighting needed improvements as well as aiding selection of the specific protocol for use in future investigations...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720408/comparative-investigation-of-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-immunoreactivity-in-rat-and-human-claustrum
#15
Boycho Landzhov, Dimka Hinova-Palova, Lawrence Edelstein, Elena Dzhambazova, Ilina Brainova, Georgi P Georgiev, Vesela Ivanova, Adrian Paloff, Wladimir Ovtscharoff
We compared the distribution, density and morphological characteristics of nitric oxide synthase-immunoreactive (NOS-ir) neurons in the rat and human claustrum. These neurons were categorized by diameter into three main types: large, medium and small. In the human claustrum, large neurons ranged from 26 to 40μm in diameter, medium neurons from 20 to 25μm and small neurons from 13 to 19μm. In the rat claustrum, large neurons ranged from 19 to 23μm in diameter, medium neurons from 15 to 18μm and small neurons from 10 to 14μm...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720407/mechanical-properties-of-the-human-spinal-cord-under-the-compressive-loading
#16
Alireza Karimi, Ahmad Shojaei, Pedram Tehrani
The spinal cord as the most complex and critical part of the human body is responsible for the transmission of both motor and sensory impulses between the body and the brain. Due to its pivotal role any types of physical injury in that disrupts its function following by shortfalls, including the minor motor and sensory malfunctions as well as complicate quadriplegia and lifelong ventilator dependency. In order to shed light on the injuries to the spinal cord, the application of the computational models to simulate the trauma impact loading to that are deemed required...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712785/development-of-the-cerebellum-in-turbot-psetta-maxima-analysis-of-cell-proliferation-and-distribution-of-calcium-binding-proteins
#17
Encarnación De Miguel, Rosa Álvarez-Otero
The morphogenesis, cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation of the turbot (Psetta maxima) cerebellum has been studied using conventional histological techniques and immunohistochemical methods for proliferating cell nuclear antigen and calcium binding proteins. As in other vertebrates, the cerebellar anlage emerges as proliferative plates of neural tissue during the embryonic period. The anlage of the cerebellum persists without morphological changes until the end of the larval life when the mantle zone is differentiated...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711564/role-of-estrogen-and-levodopa-in-1-methyl-4-pheny-l-1-2-3-6-tetrahydropyridine-mptp-induced-cognitive-deficit-in-parkinsonian-ovariectomized-mice-model-a-comparative-study
#18
Satyndra Kumar Yadav, Shivani Pandey, Babita Singh
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disease found in the aging population. Currently, many studies are being conducted to find a suitable and effective cure for PD, with an emphasis on the use of herbal plants. In this study, the neuroprotective effects of estrogen was evaluated in the 1-methyl-4-phe-nyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of PD with cognitive deficit and compared to Levodopa (LD), a well reported neuroprotective agent used for treating PD. Twenty-four Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into four groups: Control, MPTP, MPTP+LD and MPTP+estrogen...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669880/role-of-vitamin-d-in-amyloid-clearance-via-lrp-1-upregulation-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-potential-therapeutic-target
#19
REVIEW
Parmi Patel, Jigna Shah
Amyloid beta (Aβ) deposition is considered to be one of the primary reason to trigger Alzheimer's disease (AD). Literature clearly suggests decline in Aβ clearance to be accountable for progression of late onset AD as compared to augmented Aβ production. There may be several pathways for Aβ clearance out of which one of the major pathway is the vascular-mediated removal of Aβ from the brain across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) via efflux pumps or receptors. Among Aβ scavenger receptors, low density lipoprotein receptor related protein (LRP-1) has been most extensively studied...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668578/computer-assisted-three-dimensional-tracking-of-sensory-innervation-in-the-murine-bladder-mucosa-with-two-photon-microscopy
#20
Anna Schueth, Bart Spronck, Marc A M J van Zandvoort, Gommert A van Koeveringe
A strong association between functional bladder disorders and bladder sensation is well-known, with a relationship between malfunctioning detrusor muscle and abnormal sensation arising from the sub-urothelium and the lamina propria (LP), has been suggested. However, the exact underlying pathophysiology of these bladder disorders is not completely understood. Therefore, it is important to gain knowledge on sensory innervation of the urinary bladder in order to understand the neural network function in healthy and diseased bladder...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
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