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Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213183/a-role-for-the-serotonin-reuptake-transporter-in-the-brain-and-intestinal-features-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-developmental-antidepressant-exposure
#1
REVIEW
Kara Gross Margolis
Many disease conditions considered CNS-predominant harbor significant intestinal comorbidities. Serotonin (5-HT) and the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) have increasingly been shown to play important roles in both brain and intestinal development and long-term function. 5-HT and SERT may thus modulate critical functions in the development and perpetuation of brain-gut axis disease. We discuss the potential roles of 5-HT and SERT in the brain and intestinal manifestations of autism spectrum disorders and developmental antidepressant exposure...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188834/amelioration-of-cerebellar-dysfunction-in-rats-following-postnatal-ethanol-exposure-using-low-intensity-pulsed-ultrasound
#2
Hiva Mohammadi Bolbanabad, Enayat Anvari, Mohammad Jafar Rezai, Ardashir Moayeri, Mohammad Reza Kaffashian
BACKGROUND: The neonatal development stage of the cerebellum in rats is equivalent to a human foetus in the third trimester of pregnancy. In this stage, cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, and synaptogenesis occur. Clinical and experimental findings have shown that ethanol exposure during brain development causes a variety of disruptions to the brain, including neurogenesis depression, delayed neuronal migration, changes in neurotransmitter synthesis, and neuronal depletion...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179185/the-use-of-diclofenac-sodium-in-urological-practice-a-structural-and-neurochemical-based-review
#3
REVIEW
Mahmut Ulubay, Kıymet Kübra Yurt, Arife Ahsen Kaplan, Mustafa Kemal Atilla
Diclofenac sodium (DS) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with antipyretic and analgesic effects. It is mainly found in the form of sodium salt. The mechanism of action of DS operates by way of cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition. The physiological effect of this substance derives from a decrease in prostaglandin production. DS is a benzeneacetic acid derivative with anti-inflammatory properties. As a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), DS binds to both forms of COX (COX-1 and COX-2) and inhibits the conversion of arachidonic acid into pro-inflammatory prostaglandins by means of chelation...
February 5, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179125/exercise-increases-leptin-levels-correlated-with-igf-1-in-hippocampus-and-prefrontal-cortex-of-adolescent-male-and-female-rats
#4
Nazan Uysal, Sinem Agilkaya, Ali Riza Sisman, Ulas Mehmet Camsari, Celal Gencoglu, Ayfer Dayi, Ilkay Aksu, Basak Baykara, Sultan Cingoz, Muge Kiray
It is known that regular aerobic exercise has positive effects on hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. We have previously have been able to demonstrate that aerobic exercise increased IGF-1 in hippocampus. Leptin, which is associated with cognitive functions, is also involved in fat metabolism and stimulates energy consumption. While it is known that leptin stimulates IGF-1 production in hepatocytes, little known is on the link between IGF-1 and leptin in brain during aerobic exercise. In this study, we investigated the effects of regular aerobic exercise on leptin, leptin receptor expression levels in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163218/atypical-dopamine-efflux-caused-by-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-via-the-human-dopamine-transporter
#5
Aparna Shekar, Jenny I Aguilar, Greta Galli, Nicholas V Cozzi, Simon D Brandt, Arnold E Ruoho, Michael H Baumann, Heinrich J G Matthies, Aurelio Galli
Synthetic cathinones are similar in chemical structure to amphetamines, and their behavioral effects are associated with enhanced dopaminergic signaling. The past ten years of research on the common constituent of bath salts, MDPV (the synthetic cathinone 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone), has aided the understanding of how synthetic cathinones act at the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT). Several groups have described the ability of MDPV to block the DAT with high-affinity. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time a new mode of action of MDPV, namely its ability to promote DAT-mediated DA efflux...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163216/possible-promoting-effects-of-melatonin-leptin-and-alcar-on-regeneration-of-the-sciatic-nerve
#6
Mehmet Emin Onger, Suleyman Kaplan, Ömür Gülsüm Deniz, Gamze Altun, Berrin Zuhal Altunkaynak, Kemal Balcı, Stefania Raimondo, Stefano Geuna
Peripheral nerve injury is a widespread and disabling condition that can impair the individual's daily life. Studies involving medications that may positively affect peripheral nerve regeneration are rare. The aim of this study was to investigate new treatments after peripheral nerve injury using various neuroprotectants, melatonin, alcar and leptin, in the regenerative process in an experimental rat model. Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into eight groups containing equal number of animals. Intraperitoneal injection of melatonin (50mg/kg, for 21days), leptin (1mg/kg, for 21days) and acetyl-l-carnitine (50mg/kg, for six weeks) was performed postoperatively...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163217/neurochemical-organization-and-morphology-of-the-sleep-related-nuclei-in-the-brain-of-the-arabian-oryx-oryx-leucoryx
#7
Joshua G Davimes, Abdulaziz N Alagaili, Nigel C Bennett, Osama B Mohammed, Adhil Bhagwandin, Paul R Manger, Nadine Gravett
The Arabian oryx, Oryx leucoryx, is a member of the superorder Cetartiodactyla and is native to the Arabian Desert. The desert environment can be considered extreme in which to sleep, as the ranges of temperatures experienced are beyond what most mammals encounter. The current study describes the nuclear organization and neuronal morphology of the systems that have been implicated in sleep control in other mammals for the Arabian oryx. The nuclei delineated include those revealed immunohistochemically as belonging to the cholinergic, catecholaminergic, serotonergic and orexinergic systems within the basal forebrain, hypothalamus, midbrain and pons...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163215/vegf-alleviates-als-csf-induced-cytoplasmic-accumulations-of-tdp-43-and-fus-tls-in-nsc-34-cells
#8
Shubham Shantanu, K Vijayalakshmi, S Shruthi, B K Chandrasekhar Sagar, T N Sathyaprabha, A Nalini, Trichur R Raju, Phalguni Anand Alladi
Cytoplasmic mislocalisation and aggregation of TDP-43 and FUS/TLS proteins in spinal motor neurons contribute to the pathogenesis of the highly fatal disorder amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We investigated the neuroprotective effect of VEGF on expression of these proteins in the motor neuronal cell line NSC-34 modelled to reminisce sporadic form of ALS. We studied the expression of TDP-43 and FUS/TLS proteins after exposure to ALS-CSF and following VEGF supplementation by quantitative confocal microscopy and electron microscopy...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159659/day-night-expression-of-mt1-and-mt2-receptors-in-hypothalamic-nuclei-of-the-primate-sapajus-apella
#9
Luciana Pinato, Dayane Ramos, Alessandre Hataka, Patricia S Rossignoli, Marcos Donisete Granado, Marina Cardoso Mazzetto, Leila M G Campos
Melatonin is involved in the temporal organization of several physiological and behavioral events, controlled by hypothalamic nuclei, like sleep, feeding, reproduction and metabolic modulation and acts through two types of high-affinity G protein-coupled membrane receptors: MT1 and MT2. This study aimed to investigate the expression of MT1 and MT2 receptors proteins in four hypothalamic nuclei, i.e., SCN, supraoptic (SON), paraventricular (PVN) and anteroventral periventricular nuclei (AVPV), of the diurnal primate Sapajus apella using immunohistochemistry...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159658/the-rat-vomeronasal-organ-is-a-vitamin-d-target
#10
A Rodewald, V M Gebhart, H Oehring, G F Jirikowski
We studied the expression of vitamin D receptor and of vitamin D binding protein in the rat vomeronasal organ. With immunofluorescence, in situ hybridization and with reverse transcriptase PCR we found both proteins in sensory as well as in non-sensory cells. Sensory neurons contained immunoreactivity for vitamin D3 receptor in nuclei, in portions of the cytoplasm, and in apical dendrites and their microvilli. Vitamin D binding protein was observed in sensory neuron axons and cytoplasm, mostly confined to dendrites...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153469/evaluation-of-motor-neuron-differentiation-potential-of-human-umbilical-cord-blood-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-vitro
#11
Behnam Yousefi, Davood Sanooghi, Faezeh Faghihi, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Nourahmad Latifi
Many people suffer from spinal cord injuries annually. These deficits usually threaten the quality of life of patients. As a postpartum medically waste product, human Umbilical Cord Blood (UCB) is a rich source of stem cells with self- renewal properties and neural differentiation capacity which made it useful in regenerative medicine. Since there is no report on potential of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells into motor neurons, we set out to evaluate the differentiation properties of these cells into motor neuron-like cells through administration of Retinoic Acid(RA), Sonic Hedgehog(Shh) and BDNF using a three- step in vitro procedure...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115272/palmitoylation-mechanisms-in-dopamine-transporter-regulation
#12
REVIEW
Danielle E Rastedt, Roxanne A Vaughan, James D Foster
The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) plays a key role in several biological processes including reward, mood, motor activity and attention. Synaptic DA homeostasis is controlled by the dopamine transporter (DAT) which transports extracellular DA into the presynaptic neuron after release and regulates its availability to receptors. Many neurological disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Parkinson disease and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder are associated with imbalances in DA homeostasis that may be related to DAT dysfunction...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093241/new-isatin-derivative-inhibits-neurodegeneration-by-restoring-insulin-signaling-in-brain
#13
Meha Fatima Aftab, Shabbir Khan Afridi, Uzma Rasool Mughal, Aneela Karim, Darakhshan Jabeen Haleem, Nurul Kabir, Khalid M Khan, Rahman M Hafizur, Rizwana S Waraich
Diabetes is associated with neurodegeneration. Glycation ensues in diabetes and glycated proteins cause insulin resistance in brain resulting in amyloid plaques and NFTs. Also glycation enhances gliosis by promoting neuroinflammation. Currently there is no therapy available to target neurodegenration in brain therefore, development of new therapy that offers neuroprotection is critical. The objective of this study was to evaluate mechanistic effect of isatin derivative URM-II-81, an anti-glycation agent for improvement of insulin action in brain and inhibition of neurodegenration...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017803/ca-2-dependent-surface-trafficking-of-norepinephrine-transporters-depends-on-threonine-30-and-ca-2-calmodulin-kinases
#14
Uhna Sung, Francesca Binda, Valentina Savchenko, William A Owens, Lynette C Daws
The antidepressant-sensitive norepinephrine (NE) transporter (NET) inactivates NE released during central and peripheral neuronal activity by transport into presynaptic cells. Altered NE clearance due to dysfunction of NET has been associated with the development of mental illness and cardiovascular diseases. NET activity in vivo is influenced by stress, neuronal activity, hormones and drugs. We investigated the mechanisms of Ca(2+) regulation of NET and found that Ca(2+) influenced both Vmax and Km for NE transport into cortical synaptosomes...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027905/notochord-isolation-using-laser-capture-microdissection
#15
R G C Santegoeds, Y Yakkioui, A Jahanshahi, G Raven, J J Van Overbeeke, A Herrler, Y Temel
BACKGROUND: Chordoma are malignant tumors of the axial skeleton, which arise from remnants of the notochord. The Notochord (chorda dorsalis) is an essential embryonic structure involved in the development of the nervous system and axial skeleton. Therefore, the notochord seems to be the most biologically relevant control tissue to study chordoma in molecular biology research. Nevertheless, up to now mainly different tissues but not the notochord have been used as control for chordoma, due to difficulty of isolating notochordal tissue...
March 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007551/a-preliminary-investigation-of-phoshodiesterase-7-inhibitor-vp3-15-as-therapeutic-agent-for-the-treatment-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-mice
#16
R Martín-Álvarez, N Paúl-Fernández, V Palomo, C Gil, A Martínez, G Mengod
cAMP plays a significant role in signal transduction pathways controlling multiple cellular processes such as inflammation and immune regulation. cAMP levels are regulated by a family of phosphodiesterases (PDEs). We have studied the effects of a novel PDE7 inhibitor (PDE7i) treatment on mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) a model of multiple sclerosis (MS) and compared it with another PDE7i. EAE was induced by immunizing C57BL/6J mice with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35-55) peptide...
March 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988177/unbiased-estimation-of-cell-number-using-the-automatic-optical-fractionator
#17
Peter R Mouton, Hady Ahmady Phoulady, Dmitry Goldgof, Lawrence O Hall, Marcia Gordon, David Morgan
A novel stereology approach, the automatic optical fractionator, is presented for obtaining unbiased and efficient estimates of the number of cells in tissue sections. Used in combination with existing segmentation algorithms and ordinary immunostaining methods, automatic estimates of cell number are obtainable from extended depth of field images built from three-dimensional volumes of tissue (disector stacks). The automatic optical fractionator is more accurate, 100% objective and 8-10 times faster than the manual optical fractionator...
March 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919828/mucuna-pruriens-reduces-inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase-expression-in-parkinsonian-mice-model
#18
Satyndra Kumar Yadav, Sachchida Nand Rai, Surya Pratap Singh
Parkinson's disease is one of the most common neurodegenerative disease found in aged peoples. Plentiful studies are being conducted to find a suitable and effective cure for this disease giving special impetus on use of herbal plants. The study aimed at investigating the effect of ethanolic extract of Mucuna pruriens (Mp) on level of nitric oxide (NO) in paraquat (PQ) induced Parkinson's disease (PD) mouse model and its subsequent contribution to lipid peroxidation. Twenty four Swiss albino mice were divided into three groups; Control, PQ and PQ+Mp...
March 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914953/both-secreted-and-the-cellular-levels-of-bdnf-attenuated-due-to-tau-hyperphosphorylation-in-primary-cultures-of-cortical-neurons
#19
İrem Lütfiye Atasoy, Erdinç Dursun, Duygu Gezen-Ak, Derya Metin-Armağan, Melek Öztürk, Selma Yılmazer
Intracellular aggregation of hyperphosphorylated tau in neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) is a major neuropathological hallmark of taupathies such as Alzheimer's disease. Okadaic acid (OKA) is a potent inhibitor of PP2A, leading to abnormal tau phosphorylation. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that is selectively downregulated in AD. In this study, we investigated the effects of OKA induced tau hyperphosphorylation on secreted and cellular levels of BDNF in primary cortical neurons that were treated with 25nM OKA...
March 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913184/tolerance-of-hyperammonemia-in-brain-of-heteropneustes-fossilis-is-supported-by-glutamate-glutamine-cycle
#20
Suman Mishra, Rajnikant Mishra
This report presents analysis of molecular switches associated with tolerance to hyperammonemia in Heteropneustes fossilis because it tolerates about 100-fold more ammonia than mammals. Brains of Heteropneustes fossilis exposed to 100mM ammonium chloride were dissected after Zero hour as control, 16h and 20h exposure. The status of neuron and glia were analysed by Golgi staining, Luxol Fast Blue, and Nissl's staining. The expression patterns of genes associated to homeostasis of neuron and glia, management of oxidative stress and inflammation, ammonia metabolism and brain derived neurotrophic factor were analysed through reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction...
March 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
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