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Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133075/spinal-cord-self-repair-during-tail-regeneration-in-polypedates-maculatus-and-putative-role-of-fgf1-as-a-neurotrophic-factor
#1
Jutshina Hota, Sushri Sangita Pati, Pravati Kumari Mahapatra
Spinal cord injury could be fatal in man and often results in irreversible medical conditions affecting mobility. However, anuran amphibians win over such pathological condition by the virtue of regeneration abilities. The tail of anuran tadpoles therefore allures researchers to study spinal cord injury and self- repair process. In the present study, we inflicted injury to the spinal cord by means of surgical transection of the tail and investigated the self-repair activity in the tadpoles of the Indian tree frog Polypedates maculatus...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129748/cellular-calcium-signaling-in-the-aging-brain
#2
REVIEW
Remya Chandran, Mantosh Kumar, K Lakshmi, Reena Sarah Jacob, Sowmya Gunasekaran, Sethu Lakshmi, C Sadasivan, R V Omkumar
Aging in the biological system is an irreversible process. In the initial stages of lifespan aging improves survival skills of an organism while in the later stages aging reduce the survival skills. Aging is associated with changes in several cellular and molecular functions among which calcium signaling is the prominent one. Calcium signaling is essential for many vital functions of the brain and even minor impairments in calcium signaling can lead to deleterious consequences including neuronal death. Calcium signaling proteins are pursued as promising drug targets for many aging related diseases...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129747/mitochondrial-sirt3-and-neurodegenerative-brain-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Anamika, Archita Khanna, Papia Acharjee, Arup Acharjee, Surendra Kumar Trigun
Sirtuins are highly conserved NAD(+) dependent class III histone deacetylases and catalyze deacetylation and ADP ribosylation of a number of non-histone proteins. Since, they require NAD(+) for their activity, the cellular level of Sirtuins represents redox status of the cells and thereby serves as bona fide metabolic stress sensors. Out of seven homologues of Sirtuins identified in mammals, SIRT3, 4 & 5 have been found to be localized and active in mitochondria. During recent past, clusters of protein substrates for SIRT3 have been identified in mitochondria and thereby advocating SIRT3 as the main mitochondrial Sirtuin which could be involved in protecting stress induced mitochondrial integrity and energy metabolism...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128349/a-strategic-plan-to-identify-key-neurophysiological-mechanisms-and-brain-circuits-in-autism
#4
REVIEW
Frédérique Bonnet-Brilhault, Joëlle Malvy, Laurie Tuller, Philippe Prévost, Rasha Zebib, Sandrine Ferré, Christophe Dos Santos, Sylvie Roux, Emmanuelle Houy-Durand, Rémy Magné, Yassine Mofid, Marianne Latinus, Claire Wardak, Nadia Aguillon-Hernandez, Magali Batty, Marie Gomot
Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) cover a large variety of clinical profiles which share two main dimensions: social and communication impairment and repetitive behaviors or restricted interests, which are present during childhood. There is now no doubt that genetic factors are a major component in the etiology of autism but precise physiopathological pathways are still being investigated. Furthermore, developmental trajectories combined with compensatory mechanisms will lead to various clinical and neurophysiological profiles which together constitute this Autism Spectrum Disorder...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126816/effects-of-spermine-and-the-passive-avoidance-learning-pal-following-cerebral-ischemia-in-chicks-association-with-neuroprotection-of-pyramidal-cells
#5
Suleyman Kaplan, M Emin Onger, B Zuhal Altunkaynak, Ebru Elibol, Omur G Deniz, M Önder Karayiğit, Murat Yarım, Cafer Marangoz, Murat Çetin Ragbetli
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of spermine and the passive avoidance learning on hippocampus following transient cerebral ischemia in the chicks. The study is composed of the pure control (CG), sham (SG) and experimental groups (n=20). Experimental groups (ischemia group, IG and ischemia-spermine group, ISG) were exposed to ischemia for 20min whereas the SG was exposed to sham operation and CG group was not exposed to any operation. Passive avoidance learning (PAL) was applied to the half number of the subjects in each group...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113948/non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-and-nervous-system-development
#6
EDITORIAL
Süleyman Kaplan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 4, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113947/diffusion-tensor-and-volumetric-magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-in-the-brains-of-professional-musicians
#7
Niyazi Acer, Serap Bastepe-Gray, Ayse Sagiroglu, Kazim Z Gumus, Levent Degirmencioglu, Gokmen Zararsiz, Muhammet Usame Ozic
Professional musicians represent an ideal model to study the training-induced brain plasticity. The current study aimed to investigate the brain volume and diffusion characteristics of musicians using structural magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The combined use of volumetric and diffusion methods in studying musician brain has not been done in literature. Our study group consisted of seven male musicians playing an instrument and seven age- and gender-matched non-musicians. We evaluated the volumes of gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and calculated total intracranial volume (TIV) and measured the fractional anisotropy (FA) of pre-selected WM bundles: corpus callosum (CC), corticospinal tract (CST), superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), forceps major (ForMaj), forceps minor (ForMin), and arcuate fasciculus (AF)...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113946/numerical-and-length-densities-of-microvessels-in-the-human-brain-correlation-with-preferential-orientation-of-microvessels-in-the-cerebral-cortex-subcortical-grey-matter-and-white-matter-pons-and-cerebellum
#8
Tereza Kubíková, Petra Kochová, Petr Tomášek, Kirsti Witter, Zbyněk Tonar
To provide basic data on the local differences in density of microvessels between various parts of the human brain, including representative grey and white matter structures of the cerebral hemispheres, the brain stem and the cerebellum, we quantified the numerical density NV and the length density LV of microvessels in two human brains. We aimed to correlate the density of microvessels with previously published data on their preferential orientation (anisotropy). Microvessels were identified using immunohistochemistry for laminin in 32 samples harvested from the following brain regions of two adult individuals: the cortex of the telencephalon supplied by the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral artery; the basal ganglia (putamen and globus pallidus); the thalamus; the subcortical white matter of the telencephalon; the internal capsule; the pons; the cerebellar cortex; and the cerebellar white matter...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113945/changes-in-the-expression-and-localization-of-signaling-molecules-in-mouse-facial-motor-neurons-during-regeneration-of-facial-nerves
#9
Jeongtae Kim, Shiori Kobayashi, Chigusa Shimizu-Okabe, Akihito Okabe, Changjong Moon, Taekyun Shin, Chitoshi Takayama
After injury, peripheral axons usually re-extend toward their target, and neuronal functions recover. Previous studies have reported that expression of various molecules are transiently altered in motor neurons after nerve injury, but the time course of these changes and their relationship with functional recovery have not been clearly demonstrated. We used the mouse facial nerve transection and suturing model, and examined the changes in expression of five molecules, choline acetyl transferase (ChAT), galanin, calcitonin gene-related protein (CGRP), gephyrin, and potassium chloride co-transporter 2 (KCC2) in the facial motor neurons after surgery until recovery...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100904/nicotine-induced-creb-and-deltafosb-activity-is-modified-by-caffeine-in-the-brain-reward-system-of-the-rat
#10
Przemysław Kowiański, Grażyna Lietzau, Aleksandra Steliga, Ewelina Czuba, Beata Ludkiewicz, Monika Waśkow, Jan H Spodnik, Janusz Moryś
Coffee and nicotine consumption are frequently combined, indicating possible intensifying effect of caffeine on smoking behavior, although neurobiological background of this phenomenon remains unknown. We aimed at determining the effect of caffeine and nicotine, applied separately or simultaneously, on activation of six structures of the brain reward system: nucleus accumbens (NAc), ventral tegmental area (VTA), amygdala (Amg), hippocampus (Hip), medial prefrontal cortex (mPfr) and dorsal striatum (CdP) in the adult male Wistar rats...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107096/chitosan-film-associated-with-mesenchymal-stem-cells-enhanced-regeneration-of-peripheral-nerves-a-rat-sciatic-nerve-model
#11
Mehrnaz Moattari, Homa Mohseni Kouchesfahani, Gholamreza Kaka, Seyed Homayoon Sadraie, Majid Naghdi, Korosh Mansouri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 26, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051039/convolvulus-pluricaulis-shankhapushpi-ameliorates-human-microtubule-associated-protein-tau-hmap%C3%AF-induced-neurotoxicity-in-alzheimer-s-disease-drosophila-model
#12
Kizhakke P Anupama, Olakkaran Shilpa, Anet Antony, Tilagul K Siddanna, Hunasanahally P Gurushankara
Convolvulus pluricaulis (Shankhapushpi) has long been used as traditional herbal medicine in India as nerve tonic. We studied the neuroprotective effects of C. pluricaulis extract (aqueous) against human microtubule-associated protein tau (hMAPτ) induced neurotoxicity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) Drosophila model. We analysed the lifespan, locomotor activity, τ protein level, reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation (LPO), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in 10th, 20th and 30th days old control (wild type), τ control tauopathy Drosophila reared on C...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031555/beneficial-effects-of-dietary-restriction-in-aging-brain
#13
REVIEW
Ibanylla Kynjai Hynniewta Hadem, Teikur Majaw, Babiangshisha Kharbuli, Ramesh Sharma
Aging is a multifactorial complex process that leads to the deterioration of biological functions wherein its underlying mechanism is not fully elucidated. It affects the organism at the molecular and cellular level that contributes to the deterioration of structural integrity of the organs. The central nervous system is the most vulnerable organ affected by aging and its effect is highly heterogeneous. Aging causes alteration in the structure, metabolism and physiology of the brain leading to impaired cognitive and motor-neural functions...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873338/myths-and-truths-about-the-cellular-composition-of-the-human-brain-a-review-of-influential-concepts
#14
REVIEW
Christopher S von Bartheld
Over the last 50 years, quantitative methodology has made important contributions to our understanding of the cellular composition of the human brain. Not all of the concepts that emerged from quantitative studies have turned out to be true. Here, I examine the history and current status of some of the most influential notions. This includes claims of how many cells compose the human brain, and how different cell types contribute and in what ratios. Additional concepts entail whether we lose significant numbers of neurons with normal aging, whether chronic alcohol abuse contributes to cortical neuron loss, whether there are significant differences in the quantitative composition of cerebral cortex between male and female brains, whether superior intelligence in humans correlates with larger numbers of brain cells, and whether there are secular (generational) changes in neuron number...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870762/peripheral-nerve-and-diclofenac-sodium-molecular-and-clinical-approaches
#15
REVIEW
Arife Ahsen Kaplan, Kıymet Kübra Yurt, Ömür Gülsüm Deniz, Gamze Altun
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most frequently prescribed medications worldwide. Diclofenac sodium (DS), one of these NSAIDs, has a high specificity for arachidonic acid-degrading cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 enzymes. This drug can be used to relieve neuropathic pain. In this review, we examine the relevant researches, including in vivo, animal, and clinical human studies, with the aim of understanding the effect of DS on the peripheral nerves. In injured nerves, COX-2 is potently upregulated around the injury site...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855117/how-motor-cognitive-and-musical-expertise-shapes-the-brain-focus-on-the-fmri-and-eeg-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#16
REVIEW
Pauline Cantou, Hervé Platel, Béatrice Desgranges, Mathilde Groussard
Brain activity and structure are shaped by life experiences. This plasticity has often been demonstrated with different types of expertise by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG). Experts showed domain-specific functional neural changes during completion of a task when compared to non-experts. However, all of these results are task-dependent and even though they have proven useful for understanding neural interactions and their direct relation to individual skill, studying brain plasticity without any task might provide complementary information about functional cerebral reorganization due to expertise at the whole-brain level and might facilitate comparison across studies...
August 27, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074372/sequence-and-localization-of-kcnk10a-in-the-brain-of-adult-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#17
Kavinash Loganathan, Shogo Moriya, Mageswary Sivalingam, Kai We Ng, Ishwar S Parhar
kcnk10a has been predicted in zebrafish to be a member of the two-pore domain potassium ion (K(+)) channel-related K(+) (TREK) channel family known as a thermoreceptor. Since reproduction is affected by temperature, Kcnk10a could be involved in the regulation of reproduction. However, expression of kcnk10a in the zebrafish brain and association with reproduction has not been identified. In this study, the full length sequence and localization of kcnk10a in the brain was investigated and gene expressions of the TREK channel family were examined to investigate association with reproduction...
December 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916505/nuclear-organisation-of-cholinergic-catecholaminergic-serotonergic-and-orexinergic-neurons-in-two-relatively-large-brained-rodent-species-the-springhare-pedetes-capensis-and-beecroft-s-scaly-tailed-squirrel-anomalurus-beecrofti
#18
Jordan Sweigers, Adhil Bhagwandin, Muhammad A Spocter, Consolate Kaswera-Kyamakya, Emmanuel Gilissen, Paul R Manger, Busisiwe C Maseko
The present study describes the nuclear organization of the cholinergic, catecholaminergic, serotonergic and orexinergic systems in the brains of the springhare and Beecroft's scaly-tailed squirrel following immunohistochemical labelling. We aimed to investigate any differences in the nuclear organization of these neural systems when compared to previous data on other species of rodents, as these two rodent species have relatively large brains - 1.2 to 1.4 times larger than would be expected for mammals of their body mass and 1...
December 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890110/methyl-aspartylphenylalanine-the-pons-and-cerebellum-in-mice-an-evaluation-of-motor-morphological-biochemical-immunohistochemical-and-apoptotic-effects
#19
A Y Onaolapo, O J Onaolapo, P U Nwoha
In this study, adult mice were assigned to five groups, and administered vehicle (distilled water), or aspartame (20, 40, 80 and 160mg/kg body weight) for 28days. Behavioural tests to assess motor-balance and gait were conducted on day 28, following which animals were sacrificed. Sections of the cerebellar cortex and pons were processed, for general histology and Bielschwosky's silver staining protocol. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) immunoreactivity were assessed. Antioxidant status and aspartic acid/cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase)-3 levels were also assessed using homogenates of the cerebellum and pons...
December 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866082/the-in-situ-morphology-of-microglia-is-highly-sensitive-to-the-mode-of-tissue-fixation
#20
Bogdan Cătălin, Laura Stopper, Tudor-Adrian Bălşeanu, Anja Scheller
Microglia are known as the most motile cells in the central nervous system (CNS). It was shown in vivo that they permanently scan their direct microenvironment and react to pathological conditions within minutes. Many studies of brain pathologies use fixed brain tissue to investigate cellular changes. Unfortunately, due to technical reasons, the time span between the induction of the fixation procedure (start of the perfusion) and the finally-fixed tissue lasts several minutes, giving time to microglia to start reacting to the ischemic conditions due to perfusion start...
December 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
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