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FEMS Microbiology Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741625/dna-repair-in-the-archaea-an-emerging-picture
#1
Malcolm F White, Thorsten Allers
There has long been a fascination in the DNA Repair pathways of archaea, for two main reasons. Firstly, many archaea inhabit extreme environments where the rate of physical damage to DNA is accelerated. These archaea might reasonably be expected to have particularly robust or novel DNA repair pathways to cope with this. Secondly, the archaea have long been understood to be a lineage distinct from the bacteria, and to share a close relationship with the eukarya, particularly in their information processing systems...
May 5, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733367/learning-from-the-master-targets-and-functions-of-the-ctra-response-regulator-in-brucella-abortus-and-other-alpha-proteobacteria
#2
Katy Poncin, Sébastien Gillet, Xavier De Bolle
The α-proteobacteria are a fascinating group of free-living, symbiotic and pathogenic organisms, including the Brucella genus, which is responsible for a worldwide zoonosis. One common feature of α-proteobacteria is the presence of a conserved response regulator called CtrA, first described in the model bacterium Caulobacter crescentus, where it controls gene expression at different stages of the cell cycle. Here, we focus on Brucella abortus and other intracellular α-proteobacteria in order to better assess the potential role of CtrA in the infectious context...
May 3, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684129/insights-into-rna-processing-pathways-and-associated-rna-degrading-enzymes-in-archaea
#3
Béatrice Clouet-d'Orval, Manon Batista, Marie Bouvier, Yves Quentin, Gwennaele Fichant, Anita Marchfelder, Lisa-Katharina Maier
RNA processing pathways are at the center of regulation of gene expression. All RNA transcripts undergo multiple maturation steps in addition to covalent chemical modifications to become functional in the cell. This includes destroying unnecessary or defective cellular RNAs. In Archaea, information on mechanisms by which RNA species reach their mature forms and associated RNA-modifying enzymes is still fragmentary. To date, most archaeal actors and pathways have been proposed in light of information gathered from Bacteria and Eukarya...
April 19, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672765/mechanisms-of-bacterial-attachment-to-roots
#4
Rachel M Wheatley, Philip S Poole
The attachment of bacteria to roots constitutes the first physical step in many plant-microbe interactions. These interactions exert both positive and negative influences on agricultural systems depending on whether a growth-promoting, symbiotic, or pathogenic relationship transpires. A common biphasic mechanism of root attachment exists across agriculturally important microbial species, including Rhizobium, Agrobacterium, Pseudomonas, Azospirillum and Salmonella. Attachment studies have revealed how plant-microbe interactions develop, and how to manipulate these relationships for agricultural benefit...
April 17, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596635/tiny-architects-biogenesis-of-intracellular-replicative-niches-by-bacterial-pathogens
#5
Eric Martinez, Fernande Ayenoue Siadous, Matteo Bonazzi
Co-evolution of bacterial pathogens with their hosts led to the emergence of a stunning variety of strategies aiming at the evasion of host defences, colonisation of host cells and tissues and, ultimately, the establishment of a successful infection. Pathogenic bacteria are typically classified as extracellular and intracellular, however intracellular lifestyle comes in many different flavours: some microbes rapidly escape to the cytosol whereas, other microbes remain within vacuolar compartments and harness membrane trafficking pathways to generate their host-derived, pathogen-specific replicative niche...
March 27, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579258/dna-silencing-by-prokaryotic-argonaute-proteins-adds-a-new-layer-of-defence-against-invading-nucleic-acids
#6
Sarah Willkomm, Kira Makarova, Dina Grohmann
Argonaute (Ago) proteins are encoded in all three domains of life and are responsible for the regulation of intracellular nucleic acid levels. Whereas some Ago variants are able to cleave target nucleic acids by their endonucleolytic activity others only bind to their target nucleic acids while target cleavage is mediated by other effector proteins. Although all Ago proteins show a high degree of overall structural homology, the nature of the nucleic acid binding partners differs significantly. Recent structural and functional data have provided intriguing new insights into the mechanisms of archaeal and bacterial Ago variants demonstrating the mechanistic diversity within the prokaryotic Ago family with astonishing differences in nucleic acid selection and nuclease specificity...
March 20, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547971/potential-targets-for-next-generation-anti-microbial-glycoconjugate-vaccines
#7
Francesca Micoli, Paolo Costantino, Roberto Adamo
Cell surface carbohydrates have been proven optimal targets for vaccine development. Conjugation of polysaccharides to a carrier protein triggers a T-cell dependent immune response to the glycan moiety. Licensed glycoconjugate vaccines are produced by chemical conjugation of capsular polysaccharides to prevent meningitis caused by meningococcus, pneumococcus and Haemophilus influenzae type b. However, other classes of carbohydrates (O-antigens, exopolysaccharides, wall/teichoic acids) represent attractive targets for developing vaccines...
March 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529207/host-cell-cytosolic-immune-response-during-plasmodium-liver-stage-development
#8
Carolina Agop-Nersesian, Livia Niklaus, Rahel Wacker, Volker Heussler
Recent years have witnessed a great gain in knowledge regarding parasite-host cell interactions during Plasmodium liver stage development. It is now an accepted fact that a large percentage of sporozoite invading a hepatocyte fail to form infectious merozoites. There appears to be a delicate balance between parasite survival and elimination and we now start to understand why this is so. Plasmodium liver stages replicate within the parasitophorous vacuole (PV), formed during invasion by invagination of the host cell plasma membrane...
February 26, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529204/strategies-of-adaptation-of-microorganisms-of-the-three-domains-of-life-to-high-salt-concentrations
#9
Nina Gunde-Cimerman, Ana Plemenitaš, Aharon Oren
Hypersaline environments with salt concentrations up to NaCl saturation are inhabited by a great diversity of microorganisms belonging to the three domains of life. They all must cope with the low water activity of their environment, but different strategies exist to provide osmotic balance of the cells' cytoplasm with the salinity of the medium. One option used by many halophilic Archaea and a few representatives of the Bacteria is to accumulate salts, mainly KCl and to adapt the entire intracellular machinery to function in the presence of molar concentrations of salts...
February 26, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29365084/an-integrative-view-of-cell-cycle-control-in-escherichia-coli
#10
Liselot Dewachter, Natalie Verstraeten, Maarten Fauvart, Jan Michiels
Bacterial proliferation depends on the cells' capability to proceed through consecutive rounds of the cell cycle. The cell cycle consists of a series of events during which cells grow, copy their genome, partition the duplicated DNA into different cell halves and, ultimately, divide to produce two newly formed daughter cells. Cell cycle control is of the utmost importance to maintain the correct order of events and safeguard the integrity of the cell and its genomic information. This review covers insights into the regulation of individual key cell cycle events in Escherichia coli...
March 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361041/the-human-cytomegalovirus-terminase-complex-as-an-antiviral-target-a-close-up-view
#11
G Ligat, R Cazal, S Hantz, S Alain
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is responsible for life-threatening infections in immunocompromised individuals and can cause serious congenital malformations. Available antivirals target the viral polymerase but are subject to cross-resistance and toxicity. New antivirals targeting other replication steps and inducing fewer adverse effects are therefore needed. During HCMV replication, DNA maturation and packaging are performed by the terminase complex, which cleaves DNA to package the genome into the capsid...
March 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325042/biochemistry-of-complex-glycan-depolymerisation-by-the-human-gut-microbiota
#12
Didier Ndeh, Harry J Gilbert
The human gut microbiota (HGM) makes an important contribution to health and disease. It is a complex microbial community of trillions of microbes with a majority of its members represented within two phyla, the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, although it also contains species of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. Reflecting its importance, the HGM is sometimes referred to as an 'organ' as it performs functions analogous to systemic tissues within the human host. The major nutrients available to the HGM are host and dietary complex carbohydrates...
March 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281028/please-do-not-recycle-translation-reinitiation-in-microbes-and-higher-eukaryotes
#13
Stanislava Gunišová, Vladislava Hronová, Mahabub Pasha Mohammad, Alan G Hinnebusch, Leoš Shivaya Valášek
Protein production must be strictly controlled at its beginning and end to synthesize a polypeptide that faithfully copies genetic information carried in the encoding mRNA. In contrast to viruses and prokaryotes, the majority of mRNAs in eukaryotes contain only one coding sequence, resulting in production of a single protein. There are, however, many exceptional mRNAs that either carry short open reading frames upstream of the main coding sequence (uORFs) or even contain multiple long ORFs. A wide variety of mechanisms have evolved in microbes and higher eukaryotes to prevent recycling of some or all translational components upon termination of the first translated ORF in such mRNAs and thereby enable subsequent translation of the next uORF or downstream coding sequence...
March 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228184/editorial-editorial-for-the-virtual-issue-on-microbiome
#14
Philippe J Sansonetti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228173/group-a-streptococcal-m-like-proteins-from-pathogenesis-to-vaccine-potential
#15
Hannah R Frost, Martina Sanderson-Smith, Mark Walker, Anne Botteaux, Pierre R Smeesters
M and M-like surface proteins from group A Streptococcus (GAS) act as virulence factors and have been used in multiple vaccine candidates. While the M protein has been extensively studied, the two genetically and functionally related M-like proteins, Mrp and Enn, although present in most streptococcal strains have been relatively less characterised. We compile the current state of knowledge for these two proteins, from discovery to recent studies on function and immunogenicity, using the M protein for comparison as a prototype of this family of proteins...
March 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177446/a-physiological-perspective-on-the-origin-and-evolution-of-photosynthesis
#16
William F Martin, Donald A Bryant, J Thomas Beatty
The origin and early evolution of photosynthesis are reviewed from an ecophysiological perspective. Earth's first ecosystems were chemotrophic, fueled by geological H2 at hydrothermal vents and, required flavin-based electron bifurcation to reduce ferredoxin for CO2 fixation. Chlorophyll-based phototrophy (chlorophototrophy) allowed autotrophs to generate reduced ferredoxin without electron bifurcation, providing them access to reductants other than H2. Because high-intensity, short-wavelength electromagnetic radiation at Earth's surface would have been damaging for the first chlorophyll (Chl)-containing cells, photosynthesis probably arose at hydrothermal vents under low-intensity, long-wavelength geothermal light...
March 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471481/bacterial-fungal-interactions-ecology-mechanisms-and-challenges
#17
A Deveau, G Bonito, J Uehling, M Paoletti, M Becker, S Bindschedler, S Hacquard, V Hervé, J Labbé, O A Lastovetsky, S Mieszkin, L J Millet, B Vajna, P Junier, P Bonfante, B P Krom, S Olsson, J D van Elsas, L Y Wick
Fungi and bacteria are found living together in a wide variety of environments. Their interactions are significant drivers of many ecosystem functions and are important for the health of plants and animals. A large number of fungal and bacterial families are engaged in complex interactions that lead to critical behavioural shifts of the microorganisms ranging from mutualism to pathogenicity. The importance of bacterial-fungal interactions (BFI) in environmental science, medicine and biotechnology has led to the emergence of a dynamic and multidisciplinary research field that combines highly diverse approaches including molecular biology, genomics, geochemistry, chemical and microbial ecology, biophysics and ecological modelling...
February 19, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447350/soil-protists-a-fertile-frontier-in-soil-biology-research
#18
Stefan Geisen, Edward A D Mitchell, Sina Adl, Michael Bonkowski, Micah Dunthorn, Flemming Ekelund, Leonardo D Fernández, Alexandre Jousset, Valentyna Krashevska, David Singer, Frederick W Spiegel, Julia Walochnik, Enrique Lara
Protists include all eukaryotes except plants, fungi and animals. They are an essential, yet often forgotten, component of the soil microbiome. Method developments have now furthered our understanding of the real taxonomic and functional diversity of soil protists. They occupy key roles in microbial foodwebs as consumers of bacteria, fungi and other small eukaryotes. As parasites of plants, animals and even of larger protists, they regulate populations and shape communities. Pathogenic forms play a major role in public health issues as human parasites, or act as agricultural pests...
February 13, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325130/emergent-heterogeneous-micro-environments-in-biofilms-substratum-surface-heterogeneity-and-bacterial-adhesion-force-sensing
#19
Yijin Ren, Can Wang, Zhi Chen, Elaine Allan, Henny C van der Mei, Henk J Busscher
Phenotypically-heterogeneous micro-environments emerge as biofilms mature across different environments. Phenotypic-heterogeneity in biofilm sub-populations not obeying quorum sensing-dictated, collective group-behavior, may be considered as a strategy allowing non-conformists to survive hostile conditions. Heterogeneous phenotype development has been amply studied with respect to gene expression and genotypic changes, but 'biofilm genes' responsible for pre-programmed development of heterogeneous micro-environments in biofilms have never been discovered...
January 9, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325027/pathogens-microbiome-and-the-host-emergence-of-the-ecological-koch-s-postulates
#20
Pascale Vonaesch, Mark Anderson, Philippe J Sansonetti
Even though tremendous progress has been made in the last decades to elucidate the mechanisms of intestinal homeostasis, dysbiosis and disease, we are only at the beginning of understanding the complexity of the gut ecosystem and the underlying interaction networks. We are also only starting to unravel the mechanisms that pathogens have evolved to overcome the barriers imposed by the microbiota and host to exploit the system to their own benefit. Recent work in these domains clearly indicates that the 'traditional Koch's postulate', which state that a given pathogen leads to a distinct disease, are not valid for all 'infectious' diseases, but that a more complete and complex interpretation of the Koch's postulate is needed in order to understand and explain them...
January 9, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
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