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FEMS Microbiology Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633473/experimental-evolution-and-the-adjustment-of-metabolic-strategies-in-lactic-acid-bacteria
#1
Herwig Bachmann, Douwe Molenaar, Filipe Branco Dos Santos, Bas Teusink
Experimental evolution of microbes has gained lots of interest in recent years, mainly due to the ease of strain characterisation through next-generation sequencing. While evolutionary and systems biologists use experimental evolution to address fundamental questions in their respective fields, studies with lactic acid bacteria are often more directed by applied questions. Insight into population and genome dynamics are valuable for experimental design and data interpretation, and it is becoming increasingly apparent how different constraints limit and govern the outcome of microbial adaptation to a selective environment...
June 19, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591840/novel-approaches-in-function-driven-single-cell-genomics
#2
Devin F R Doud, Tanja Woyke
Deeper sequencing and improved bioinformatics in conjunction with single-cell and metagenomic approaches continue to illuminate undercharacterized environmental microbial communities. This has propelled the 'who is there, and what might they be doing' paradigm to the uncultivated and has already radically changed the topology of the tree of life and provided key insights into the microbial contribution to biogeochemistry. While characterization of 'who' based on marker genes can describe a large fraction of the community, answering 'what are they doing' remains the elusive pinnacle for microbiology...
June 7, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531298/evolution-of-bacterial-virulence
#3
Médéric Diard, Wolf-Dietrich Hardt
Bacterial virulence is highly dynamic and context-dependent. For this reason, it is challenging to predict how molecular changes affect the growth of a pathogen in a host and its spread in host population. Two schools of thought have taken quite different directions to decipher the underlying principles of bacterial virulence. While molecular infection biology is focusing on the basic mechanisms of the pathogen-host interaction, evolution biology takes virulence as one of several parameters affecting pathogen spread in a host population...
May 22, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486655/microbial-processes-driving-coral-reef-organic-carbon-flow
#4
Cynthia B Silveira, Giselle S Cavalcanti, Juline M Walter, Arthur W Silva-Lima, Elizabeth A Dinsdale, David G Bourne, Cristiane C Thompson, Fabiano L Thompson
Coral reefs are one of the most productive ecosystems on the planet, with primary production rates compared to that of rain forests. Benthic organisms release 10-50% of their gross organic production as mucus that stimulates heterotrophic microbial metabolism in the water column. As a result, coral reef microbes grow up to 50 times faster than open ocean communities. Anthropogenic disturbances cause once coral-dominated reefs to become dominated by fleshy organisms, with several outcomes for trophic relationships...
May 9, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430946/forgotten-fungi-the-gut-mycobiome-in-human-health-and-disease
#5
Chloe E Huseyin, Paul W O'Toole, Paul D Cotter, Pauline D Scanlan
The human body is home to a complex and diverse microbial ecosystem that plays a central role in host health. This includes a diversity of fungal species that is collectively referred to as our 'mycobiome'. Although research into the mycobiome is still in its infancy, its potential role in human disease is increasingly recognised. Here we review the existing literature available on the human mycobiota with an emphasis on the gut mycobiome, including how fungi interact with the human host and other microbes...
April 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402413/regulation-of-heat-shock-genes-in-bacteria-from-signal-sensing-to-gene-expression-output
#6
Davide Roncarati, Vincenzo Scarlato
The heat-shock response is a mechanism of cellular protection against sudden adverse environmental growth conditions and results in the prompt production of various heat-shock proteins. In bacteria, specific sensory biomolecules sense temperature fluctuations and transduce intercellular signals that coordinate gene expression outputs. Sensory biomolecules, also known as thermosensors, include nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) and proteins. Once a stress signal is perceived, it is transduced to invoke specific molecular mechanisms controlling transcription of genes coding for heat-shock proteins...
April 11, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521338/klebsiella-pneumoniae-a-major-worldwide-source-and-shuttle-for-antibiotic-resistance
#7
Shiri Navon-Venezia, Kira Kondratyeva, Alessandra Carattoli
Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogen affecting humans and a major source for hospital infections associated with high morbidity and mortality due to limited treatment options. We summarize the wide resistome of this pathogen, which encompasses plentiful chromosomal and plasmid-encoded antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Under antibiotic selective pressure, K. pneumoniae continuously accumulates ARGs, by de novo mutations, and via acquisition of plasmids and transferable genetic elements, leading to extremely drug resistant (XDR) strains harboring a 'super resistome'...
May 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521337/perspectives-for-clinical-use-of-engineered-human-host-defense-antimicrobial-peptides
#8
María Eugenia Pachón-Ibáñez, Younes Smani, Jerónimo Pachón, Javier Sánchez-Céspedes
Infectious diseases caused by bacteria, viruses or fungi are among the leading causes of death worldwide. The emergence of drug-resistance mechanisms, especially among bacteria, threatens the efficacy of all current antimicrobial agents, some of them already ineffective. As a result, there is an urgent need for new antimicrobial drugs. Host defense antimicrobial peptides (HDPs) are natural occurring and well-conserved peptides of innate immunity, broadly active against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, viruses and fungi...
May 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521336/chemical-ecology-of-antibiotic-production-by-actinomycetes
#9
Anne van der Meij, Sarah F Worsley, Matthew I Hutchings, Gilles P van Wezel
Actinomycetes are a diverse family of filamentous bacteria that produce a plethora of natural products relevant for agriculture, biotechnology and medicine, including the majority of the antibiotics we use in the clinic. Rather than as free-living bacteria, many actinomycetes have evolved to live in symbiosis with among others plants, fungi, insects and sponges. As a common theme, these organisms profit from the natural products and enzymes produced by the actinomycetes, for example, for protection against pathogenic microbes, for growth promotion or for the degradation of complex natural polymers such as lignocellulose...
May 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486583/editorial-bacterial-pathogens-antibiotics-and-antibiotic-resistance
#10
Ehud Banin, Diarmaid Hughes, Oscar P Kuipers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449040/toxin-antitoxin-systems-and-their-role-in-disseminating-and-maintaining-antimicrobial-resistance
#11
Qiu E Yang, Timothy R Walsh
Toxin-antitoxin systems (TAs) are ubiquitous among bacteria and play a crucial role in the dissemination and evolution of antibiotic resistance, such as maintaining multi-resistant plasmids and inducing persistence formation. Generally, activities of the toxins are neutralised by their conjugate antitoxins. In contrast, antitoxins are more liable to degrade under specific conditions such as stress, and free active toxins interfere with essential cellular processes including replication, translation and cell-wall synthesis...
May 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419240/from-nano-to-micro-using-nanotechnology-to-combat-microorganisms-and-their-multidrug-resistance
#12
Michal Natan, Ehud Banin
The spread of antibiotic resistance and increasing prevalence of biofilm-associated infections is driving demand for new means to treat bacterial infection. Nanotechnology provides an innovative platform for addressing this challenge, with potential to manage even infections involving multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. The current review summarizes recent progress over the last 2 years in the field of antibacterial nanodrugs, and describes their unique properties, mode of action and activity against MDR bacteria and biofilms...
May 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419231/antibiotic-resistance-in-staphylococcus-aureus-current-status-and-future-prospects
#13
Timothy J Foster
The major targets for antibiotics in staphylococci are (i) the cell envelope, (ii) the ribosome and (iii) nucleic acids. Several novel targets emerged from recent targeted drug discovery programmes including the ClpP protease and FtsZ from the cell division machinery. Resistance can either develop by horizontal transfer of resistance determinants encoded by mobile genetic elements viz plasmids, transposons and the staphylococcal cassette chromosome or by mutations in chromosomal genes. Horizontally acquired resistance can occur by one of the following mechanisms: (i) enzymatic drug modification and inactivation, (ii) enzymatic modification of the drug binding site, (iii) drug efflux, (iv) bypass mechanisms involving acquisition of a novel drug-resistant target, (v) displacement of the drug to protect the target...
May 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402441/mining-prokaryotes-for-antimicrobial-compounds-from-diversity-to-function
#14
Vittorio Tracanna, Anne de Jong, Marnix H Medema, Oscar P Kuipers
The bacterial kingdom provides a major source of antimicrobials that can either be directly applied or used as scaffolds to further improve their functionality in the host. The rapidly increasing amount of bacterial genomic, metabolomic and transcriptomic data offers unique opportunities to apply a variety of approaches to mine for existing and novel antimicrobials. Here, we discuss several powerful mining approaches to identify novel molecules with antimicrobial activity across structurally diverse natural products, including ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides, nonribosomal peptides and polyketides...
May 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369412/molecular-mechanisms-of-biofilm-based-antibiotic-resistance-and-tolerance-in-pathogenic-bacteria
#15
Clayton W Hall, Thien-Fah Mah
Biofilms are surface-attached groups of microbial cells encased in an extracellular matrix that are significantly less susceptible to antimicrobial agents than non-adherent, planktonic cells. Biofilm-based infections are, as a result, extremely difficult to cure. A wide range of molecular mechanisms contribute to the high degree of recalcitrance that is characteristic of biofilm communities. These mechanisms include, among others, interaction of antimicrobials with biofilm matrix components, reduced growth rates and the various actions of specific genetic determinants of antibiotic resistance and tolerance...
May 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369307/antimicrobial-resistance-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-mechanistic-and-evolutionary-perspectives
#16
Sebastian M Gygli, Sonia Borrell, Andrej Trauner, Sebastien Gagneux
Antibiotic-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains are threatening progress in containing the global tuberculosis epidemic. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics, limiting the number of compounds available for treatment. This intrinsic resistance is due to a number of mechanisms including a thick, waxy, hydrophobic cell envelope and the presence of drug degrading and modifying enzymes. Resistance to the drugs which are active against M. tuberculosis is, in the absence of horizontally transferred resistance determinants, conferred by chromosomal mutations...
May 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333307/formation-physiology-ecology-evolution-and-clinical-importance-of-bacterial-persisters
#17
Bram Van den Bergh, Maarten Fauvart, Jan Michiels
Persisters are transiently tolerant variants that allow populations to avoid eradication by antibiotic treatment. Their antibiotic tolerance is non-genetic, not inheritable and results from a phenotypic switch from the normal, sensitive cell type to the tolerant, persister state. Here we give a comprehensive overview on bacterial persistence. We first define persistence, summarize the various aspects of persister physiology and show their heterogeneous nature. We then focus on the role of key cellular processes and mechanisms controlling the formation of a subpopulation of tolerant cells...
May 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333270/environmental-and-genetic-modulation-of-the-phenotypic-expression-of-antibiotic-resistance
#18
Diarmaid Hughes, Dan I Andersson
Antibiotic resistance can be acquired by mutation or horizontal transfer of a resistance gene, and generally an acquired mechanism results in a predictable increase in phenotypic resistance. However, recent findings suggest that the environment and/or the genetic context can modify the phenotypic expression of specific resistance genes/mutations. An important implication from these findings is that a given genotype does not always result in the expected phenotype. This dissociation of genotype and phenotype has important consequences for clinical bacteriology and for our ability to predict resistance phenotypes from genetics and DNA sequences...
May 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369623/the-hidden-life-of-integrative-and-conjugative-elements
#19
François Delavat, Ryo Miyazaki, Nicolas Carraro, Nicolas Pradervand, Jan Roelof van der Meer
Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) are widespread mobile DNA that transmit both vertically, in a host-integrated state, and horizontally, through excision and transfer to new recipients. Different families of ICEs have been discovered with more or less restricted host ranges, which operate by similar mechanisms but differ in regulatory networks, evolutionary origin and the types of variable genes they contribute to the host. Based on reviewing recent experimental data, we propose a general model of ICE life style that explains the transition between vertical and horizontal transmission as a result of a bistable decision in the ICE-host partnership...
March 25, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364730/genetics-and-evolution-of-yersinia-pseudotuberculosis-o-specific-polysaccharides-a-novel-pattern-of-o-antigen-diversity
#20
Johanna J Kenyon, Monica M Cunneen, Peter R Reeves
O-antigen polysaccharide is a major immunogenic feature of the lipopolysaccharide of Gram-negative bacteria, and most species produce a large variety of forms that differ substantially from one another. There are 18 known O-antigen forms in the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis complex, which are typical in being composed of multiple copies of a short oligosaccharide called an O unit. The O-antigen gene clusters are located between the hemH and gsk genes, and are atypical as 15 of them are closely related, each having one of five downstream gene modules for alternative main-chain synthesis, and one of seven upstream modules for alternative side-branch sugar synthesis...
March 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
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