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FEMS Microbiology Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333270/environmental-and-genetic-modulation-of-the-phenotypic-expression-of-antibiotic-resistance
#1
Diarmaid Hughes, Dan I Andersson
Antibiotic resistance can be acquired by mutation or horizontal transfer of a resistance gene, and generally an acquired mechanism results in a predictable increase in phenotypic resistance. However, recent findings suggest that the environment and/or the genetic context can modify the phenotypic expression of specific resistance genes/mutations. An important implication from these findings is that a given genotype does not always result in the expected phenotype. This dissociation of genotype and phenotype has important consequences for clinical bacteriology and for our ability to predict resistance phenotypes from genetics and DNA sequences...
March 8, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333226/exploring-the-human-microbiome-from-multiple-perspectives-factors-altering-its-composition-and-function
#2
David Rojo, Celia Méndez-García, Beata Anna Raczkowska, Rafael Bargiela, Andrés Moya, Manuel Ferrer, Coral Barbas
Our microbiota presents peculiarities and characteristics that may be altered by multiple factors. The degree and consequences of these alterations depend on the nature, strength and duration of the perturbations as well as the structure and stability of each microbiota. The aim of this review is to sketch a very broad picture of the factors commonly influencing different body sites, and which have been associated with alterations in the human microbiota in terms of composition and function. To do so, first, a graphical representation of bacterial, fungal and archaeal genera reveals possible associations among genera affected by different factors...
February 25, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333307/formation-physiology-ecology-evolution-and-clinical-importance-of-bacterial-persisters
#3
Bram Van den Bergh, Maarten Fauvart, Jan Michiels
Persisters are transiently tolerant variants that allow populations to avoid eradication by antibiotic treatment. Their antibiotic tolerance is non-genetic, not inheritable and results from a phenotypic switch from the normal, sensitive cell type to the tolerant, persister state. Here we give a comprehensive overview on bacterial persistence. We first define persistence, summarize the various aspects of persister physiology and show their heterogeneous nature. We then focus on the role of key cellular processes and mechanisms controlling the formation of a subpopulation of tolerant cells...
February 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087690/editorial-an-expanded-view-of-viruses
#4
EDITORIAL
Urs F Greber, Ralf Bartenschlager
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576366/antibiotic-dialogues-induction-of-silent-biosynthetic-gene-clusters-by-exogenous-small-molecules
#5
REVIEW
Bethany K Okada, Mohammad R Seyedsayamdost
Natural products have traditionally served as a dominant source of therapeutic agents. They are produced by dedicated biosynthetic gene clusters that assemble complex, bioactive molecules from simple precursors. Recent genome sequencing efforts coupled with advances in bioinformatics indicate that the majority of biosynthetic gene clusters are not expressed under normal laboratory conditions. Termed 'silent' or 'cryptic', these gene clusters represent a treasure trove for discovery of novel small molecules, their regulatory circuits and their biosynthetic pathways...
January 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566466/emerging-facets-of-prokaryotic-glycosylation
#6
REVIEW
Christina Schäffer, Paul Messner
Glycosylation of proteins is one of the most prevalent post-translational modifications occurring in nature, with a wide repertoire of biological implications. Pathways for the main types of this modification, the N- and O-glycosylation, can be found in all three domains of life-the Eukarya, Bacteria and Archaea-thereby following common principles, which are valid also for lipopolysaccharides, lipooligosaccharides and glycopolymers. Thus, studies on any glycoconjugate can unravel novel facets of the still incompletely understood fundamentals of protein N- and O-glycosylation...
January 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965320/staphylococcus-aureus-phagocyte-nadph-oxidase-and-chronic-granulomatous-disease
#7
REVIEW
Helene Buvelot, Klara M Posfay-Barbe, Patrick Linder, Jacques Schrenzel, Karl-Heinz Krause
Dysfunction of phagocytes is a relevant risk factor for staphylococcal infection. The most common hereditary phagocyte dysfunction is chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), characterized by impaired generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to loss of function mutations within the phagocyte NADPH oxidase NOX2. Phagocytes ROS generation is fundamental to eliminate pathogens and to regulate the inflammatory response to infection. CGD is characterized by recurrent and severe bacterial and fungal infections, with Staphylococcus aureus as the most frequent pathogen, and skin and lung abscesses as the most common clinical entities...
December 12, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856492/forest-microbiome-diversity-complexity-and-dynamics
#8
REVIEW
Petr Baldrian
Globally, forests represent highly productive ecosystems that act as carbon sinks where soil organic matter is formed from residuals after biomass decomposition as well as from rhizodeposited carbon. Forests exhibit a high level of spatial heterogeneity and the importance of trees, the dominant primary producers, for their structure and functioning. Fungi, bacteria and archaea inhabit various forest habitats: foliage, the wood of living trees, the bark surface, ground vegetation, roots and the rhizosphere, litter, soil, deadwood, rock surfaces, invertebrates, wetlands or the atmosphere, each of which has its own specific features, such as nutrient availability or temporal dynamicy and specific drivers that affect microbial abundance, the level of dominance of bacteria or fungi as well as the composition of their communities...
November 16, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204529/the-multicellular-nature-of-filamentous-heterocyst-forming-cyanobacteria
#9
Antonia Herrero, Joel Stavans, Enrique Flores
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204504/profiling-the-metabolic-signals-involved-in-chemical-communication-between-microbes-using-imaging-mass-spectrometry
#10
Nikolas M Stasulli, Elizabeth A Shank
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204482/collective-behaviour-and-swarm-intelligence-in-slime-moulds
#11
Chris R Reid, Tanya Latty
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204477/winding-paths-to-simplicity-genome-evolution-in-facultative-insect-symbionts
#12
Wen-Sui Lo, Ya-Yi Huang, Chih-Horng Kuo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201757/oxidative-and-nitrosative-stress-defences-of-helicobacter-and-campylobacter-species-that-counteract-mammalian-immunity
#13
Annika Flint, Alain Stintzi, Lígia M Saraiva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201751/experimental-evolution-in-biofilm-populations
#14
Hans P Steenackers, Ilse Parijs, Akanksha Dubey, Kevin R Foster, Jozef Vanderleyden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201744/synthetic-microbial-ecology-and-the-dynamic-interplay-between-microbial-genotypes
#15
Jan Dolinšek, Felix Goldschmidt, David R Johnson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201715/behind-the-lines-actions-of-bacterial-type-iii-effector-proteins-in-plant-cells
#16
Daniela Büttner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201690/sensing-the-enemy-containing-the-threat-cell-autonomous-immunity-to-chlamydia-trachomatis
#17
Ryan Finethy, Jörn Coers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201572/editorial-signals-to-sociality-how-microbial-communication-fashions-communities
#18
Karine A Gibbs, Aimee Shen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201512/role-of-environmental-factors-and-microorganisms-in-determining-the-fate-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-the-marine-environment
#19
Robert Duran, Cristiana Cravo-Laureau
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799279/non-canonical-transcription-initiation-the-expanding-universe-of-transcription-initiating-substrates
#20
REVIEW
Ivan Barvík, Dominik Rejman, Natalya Panova, Hana Šanderová, Libor Krásný
RNA polymerase (RNAP) is the central enzyme of transcription of the genetic information from DNA into RNA. RNAP recognizes four main substrates: ATP, CTP, GTP and UTP. Experimental evidence from the past several years suggests that, besides these four NTPs, other molecules can be used to initiate transcription: (i) ribooligonucleotides (nanoRNAs) and (ii) coenzymes such as NAD(+), NADH, dephospho-CoA and FAD. The presence of these molecules at the 5' ends of RNAs affects the properties of the RNA. Here, we discuss the expanding portfolio of molecules that can initiate transcription, their mechanism of incorporation, effects on RNA and cellular processes, and we present an outlook toward other possible initiation substrates...
October 30, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
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