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FEMS Microbiology Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325130/emergent-heterogeneous-micro-environments-in-biofilms-substratum-surface-heterogeneity-and-bacterial-adhesion-force-sensing
#1
Yijin Ren, Can Wang, Zhi Chen, Elaine Allan, Henny C van der Mei, Henk J Busscher
Phenotypically-heterogeneous micro-environments emerge as biofilms mature across different environments. Phenotypic-heterogeneity in biofilm sub-populations not obeying quorum sensing-dictated, collective group-behavior, may be considered as a strategy allowing non-conformists to survive hostile conditions. Heterogeneous phenotype development has been amply studied with respect to gene expression and genotypic changes, but 'biofilm genes' responsible for pre-programmed development of heterogeneous micro-environments in biofilms have never been discovered...
January 9, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325042/biochemistry-of-complex-glycan-depolymerisation-by-the-human-gut-microbiota
#2
Didier Ndeh, Harry J Gilbert
The human gut microbiota (HGM) makes an important contribution to health and disease. It is a complex microbial community of trillions of microbes with a majority of its members represented within two phyla, the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, although it also contains species of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. Reflecting its importance, the HGM is sometimes referred to as an 'organ' as it performs functions analogous to systemic tissues within the human host. The major nutrients available to the HGM are host and dietary complex carbohydrates...
January 9, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325027/pathogens-microbiome-and-the-host-emergence-of-the-ecological-koch-s-postulates
#3
Pascale Vonaesch, Mark Anderson, Philippe J Sansonetti
Even though tremendous progress has been made in the last decades to elucidate the mechanisms of intestinal homeostasis, dysbiosis and disease, we are only at the beginning of understanding the complexity of the gut ecosystem and the underlying interaction networks. We are also only starting to unravel the mechanisms that pathogens have evolved to overcome the barriers imposed by the microbiota and host to exploit the system to their own benefit. Recent work in these domains clearly indicates that the 'traditional Koch's postulate', which state that a given pathogen leads to a distinct disease, are not valid for all 'infectious' diseases, but that a more complete and complex interpretation of the Koch's postulate is needed in order to understand and explain them...
January 9, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281028/translation-reinitiation-in-microbes-and-higher-eukaryotes
#4
Stanislava Gunišová, Vladislava Hronová, Mahabub Pasha Mohammad, Alan G Hinnebusch, Leoš Shivaya Valášek
Protein production must be strictly controlled at its beginning and end to synthesize a polypeptide that faithfully copies genetic information carried in the encoding mRNA. In contrast to viruses and prokaryotes, the majority of mRNAs in eukaryotes contain only one coding sequence, resulting in production of a single protein. There are, however, many exceptional mRNAs that either carry short open reading frames upstream of the main coding sequence (uORFs) or even contain multiple long ORFs. A wide variety of mechanisms has evolved in microbes and higher eukaryotes to prevent recycling of some or all translational components upon termination of the first translated ORF in such mRNAs and thereby enable subsequent translation of the next uORF or downstream coding sequence...
December 21, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228184/editorial-for-the-virtual-issue-on-microbiome
#5
Philippe J Sansonetti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 8, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228173/group-a-streptococcal-m-like-proteins-from-pathogenesis-to-vaccine-potential
#6
Hannah Frost, Martina Sanderson-Smith, Mark Walker, Anne Botteaux, Pierre Smeesters
M and M-like surface proteins from Group A Streptococcus (GAS) act as virulence factors and have been used in multiple vaccine candidates. While the M protein has been extensively studied, the two genetically and functionally related M-like proteins, Mrp and Enn, although present in most streptococcal strains have been relatively less characterized. We compile the current state of knowledge for these two proteins, from discovery to recent studies on function and immunogenicity, using the M protein for comparison as a prototype of this family of proteins...
December 7, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177446/a-physiological-perspective-on-the-origin-and-evolution-of-photosynthesis
#7
William F Martin, Donald A Bryant, J Thomas Beatty
The origin and early evolution of photosynthesis are reviewed from an ecophysiological perspective. Earth's first ecosystems were chemotrophic, fueled by geological H2 at hydrothermal vents, and required flavin-based electron bifurcation to reduce ferredoxin for CO2 fixation. Chlorophyll-based phototrophy (chlorophototrophy) allowed autotrophs to generate reduced ferredoxin without electron bifurcation, providing them access to reductants other than H2. Because high-intensity, short-wavelength electromagnetic radiation at Earth's surface would have been damaging for the first chlorophyll (Chl)-containing cells, photosynthesis probably arose at hydrothermal vents under low-intensity, long-wavelength geothermal light...
November 21, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126195/structural-insights-into-simocyclinone-as-an-antibiotic-effector-ligand-and-substrate
#8
Mark J Buttner, Martin Schäfer, David M Lawson, Anthony Maxwell
Simocyclinones are antibiotics produced by Streptomyces and Kitasatospora species that inhibit the validated drug target DNA gyrase in a unique way, and they are thus of therapeutic interest. Structural approaches have revealed their mode of action, the inducible-efflux mechanism in the producing organism, and given insight into one step in their biosynthesis. The crystal structures of simocyclinones bound to their target (gyrase), the transcriptional repressor SimR, and the biosynthetic enzyme SimC7 reveal fascinating insight into how molecular recognition is achieved with these three unrelated proteins...
November 8, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069427/use-of-genetic-and-chemical-synthetic-lethality-as-probes-of-complexity-in-bacterial-cell-systems
#9
Kristina Klobucar, Eric D Brown
Different conditions and genomic contexts are known to have an impact on gene essentiality and interactions. Synthetic lethal interactions occur when a combination of perturbations, either genetic or chemical, result in a more profound fitness defect than expected based on the effect of each perturbation alone. Synthetic lethality in bacterial systems has long been studied, however during the past decade, the emerging fields of genomics and chemical genomics have led to an increase in the scale and throughput of these studies...
October 24, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069382/environmental-factors-influencing-the-development-and-spread-of-antibiotic-resistance
#10
Johan Bengtsson-Palme, Erik Kristiansson, D G Joakim Larsson
Antibiotic resistance and its wider implications present us with a growing healthcare crisis. Recent research points to the environment as an important component for the transmission of resistant bacteria and in the emergence of resistant pathogens. However, a deeper understanding of the evolutionary and ecological processes that lead to clinical appearance of resistance genes is still lacking, as is knowledge of environmental dispersal barriers. This calls for better models of how resistance genes evolve, are mobilized, transferred and disseminated in the environment...
October 24, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069367/the-effect-of-bacterial-chemotaxis-on-host-infection-and-pathogenicity
#11
Miguel A Matilla, Tino Krell
Chemotaxis enables microorganisms to move according to chemical gradients. Although this process requires substantial cellular energy, it also affords key physiological benefits, including enhanced access to growth substrates. Another important implication of chemotaxis is that it also plays an important role in infection and disease, as chemotaxis signaling pathways are broadly distributed across a variety of pathogenic bacteria. Furthermore, current research indicates that chemotaxis is essential for the initial stages of infection in different human, animal and plant pathogens...
October 24, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136422/transmission-as-a-basic-process-in-microbial-biology-lwoff-award-prize-lecture
#12
Fernando Baquero
Transmission is a basic process in biology and evolution, as it communicates different biological entities within and across hierarchical levels (from genes to holobionts) both in time and space. Vertical descent, replication, is transmission of information across generations (in the time dimension), and horizontal descent is transmission of information across compartments (in the space dimension). Transmission is essentially a communication process that can be studied by analogy of the classic information theory, based on 'emitters', 'messages' and 'receivers'...
November 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29088355/lignin-degradation-microorganisms-enzymes-involved-genomes-analysis-and-evolution
#13
Grzegorz Janusz, Anna Pawlik, Justyna Sulej, Urszula Swiderska-Burek, Anna Jarosz-Wilkolazka, Andrzej Paszczynski
Extensive research efforts have been dedicated to describing degradation of wood, which is a complex process; hence, microorganisms have evolved different enzymatic and non-enzymatic strategies to utilize this plentiful plant material. This review describes a number of fungal and bacterial organisms which have developed both competitive and mutualistic strategies for the decomposition of wood and to thrive in different ecological niches. Through the analysis of the enzymatic machinery engaged in wood degradation, it was possible to elucidate different strategies of wood decomposition which often depend on ecological niches inhabited by given organism...
November 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077880/repetitive-sequences-in-malaria-parasite-proteins
#14
Heledd M Davies, Stephanie D Nofal, Emilia J McLaughlin, Andrew R Osborne
Five species of parasite cause malaria in humans with the most severe disease caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Many of the proteins encoded in the P. falciparum genome are unusually enriched in repetitive low-complexity sequences containing a limited repertoire of amino acids. These repetitive sequences expand and contract dynamically and are among the most rapidly changing sequences in the genome. The simplest repetitive sequences consist of single amino acid repeats such as poly-asparagine tracts that are found in approximately 25% of P...
November 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077840/light-controlled-motility-in-prokaryotes-and-the-problem-of-directional-light-perception
#15
Annegret Wilde, Conrad W Mullineaux
The natural light environment is important to many prokaryotes. Most obviously, phototrophic prokaryotes need to acclimate their photosynthetic apparatus to the prevailing light conditions, and such acclimation is frequently complemented by motility to enable cells to relocate in search of more favorable illumination conditions. Non-phototrophic prokaryotes may also seek to avoid light at damaging intensities and wavelengths, and many prokaryotes with diverse lifestyles could potentially exploit light signals as a rich source of information about their surroundings and a cue for acclimation and behavior...
November 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048477/the-role-of-toxins-in-clostridium-difficile-infection
#16
Ramyavardhanee Chandrasekaran, D Borden Lacy
Clostridium difficile is a bacterial pathogen that is the leading cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis worldwide. The incidence, severity, mortality and healthcare costs associated with C. difficile infection (CDI) are rising, making C. difficile a major threat to public health. Traditional treatments for CDI involve use of antibiotics such as metronidazole and vancomycin, but disease recurrence occurs in about 30% of patients, highlighting the need for new therapies...
November 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029257/beyond-the-bulk-disclosing-the-life-of-single-microbial-cells
#17
Katrin Rosenthal, Verena Oehling, Christian Dusny, Andreas Schmid
Microbial single cell analysis has led to discoveries that are beyond what can be resolved with population-based studies. It provides a pristine view of the mechanisms that organize cellular physiology, unbiased by population heterogeneity or uncontrollable environmental impacts. A holistic description of cellular functions at the single cell level requires analytical concepts beyond the miniaturization of existing technologies, defined but uncontrolled by the biological system itself. This review provides an overview of the latest advances in single cell technologies and demonstrates their potential...
November 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029129/a-visual-review-of-the-human-pathogen-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#18
Ditte Høyer Engholm, Mogens Kilian, David S Goodsell, Ebbe Sloth Andersen, Rikke Schmidt Kjærgaard
Being the principal causative agent of bacterial pneumonia, otitis media, meningitis and septicemia, the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major global health problem. To highlight the molecular basis of this problem, we have portrayed essential biological processes of the pneumococcal life cycle in eight watercolor paintings. The paintings are done to a consistent nanometer scale based on currently available data from structural biology and proteomics. In this review article, the paintings are used to provide a visual review of protein synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall synthesis, cell division, teichoic acid synthesis, virulence, transformation and pilus synthesis based on the available scientific literature within the field of pneumococcal biology...
November 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029112/diversity-and-regulation-of-intrinsic-%C3%AE-lactamases-from-non-fermenting-and-other-gram-negative-opportunistic-pathogens
#19
Carlos Juan, Gabriel Torrens, Mar González-Nicolau, Antonio Oliver
This review deeply addresses for the first time the diversity, regulation and mechanisms leading to mutational overexpression of intrinsic β-lactamases from non-fermenting and other non-Enterobacteriaceae Gram-negative opportunistic pathogens. After a general overview of the intrinsic β-lactamases described so far in these microorganisms, including circa. 60 species and 100 different enzymes, we review the wide array of regulatory pathways of these β-lactamases. They include diverse LysR-type regulators, which control the expression of β-lactamases from relevant nosocomial pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Stenothrophomonas maltophilia or two-component regulators, with special relevance in Aeromonas spp...
November 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962014/functional-insights-into-pathogen-biology-from-3d-electron-microscopy
#20
Marek Cyrklaff, Friedrich Frischknecht, Mikhail Kudryashev
In recent years, novel imaging approaches revolutionised our understanding of the cellular and molecular biology of microorganisms. These include advances in fluorescent probes, dynamic live cell imaging, superresolution light and electron microscopy. Currently, a major transition in the experimental approach shifts electron microscopy studies from a complementary technique to a method of choice for structural and functional analysis. Here we review functional insights into the molecular architecture of viruses, bacteria and parasites as well as interactions with their respective host cells gained from studies using cryogenic electron tomography and related methodologies...
November 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
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