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FEMS Microbiology Ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430944/plant-microbial-diversity-is-suggested-as-the-key-to-future-biocontrol-and-health-trends
#1
Gabriele Berg, Martina Köberl, Daria Rybakova, Henry Müller, Rita Grosch, Kornelia Smalla
The microbiome of plants plays a crucial role in both plant and ecosystem health. Rapid advances in multi-omics tools are dramatically increasing access to the plant microbiome and consequently to the identification of its links with diseases and to the control of those diseases. Recent insights reveal a close, often symbiotic relationship between microorganisms and plants. Microorganisms can stimulate germination and plant growth, prevent diseases, and promote stress resistance and general fitness. Plants and their associated microorganisms form a holo-biont and have to be considered as co-evolved species assemblages consisting of bacterial, archaeal, and diverse eukaryotic species...
April 19, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431154/physiological-characterization-of-a-halotolerant-anoxygenic-phototrophic-fe-ii-oxidizing-green-sulfur-bacterium-isolated-from-a-marine-sediment
#2
Katja Laufer, Annika Niemeyer, Verena Nikeleit, Maximilian Halama, James M Byrne, Andreas Kappler
Anoxygenic photoautotrophic bacteria which use light energy and electrons from Fe(II) for growth, so-called photoferrotrophs, are suggested to have been amongst the first phototrophic microorganisms on Earth and to have contributed to the deposition of sedimentary iron mineral deposits, i.e. banded iron formations. To date only two isolates of marine photoferrotrophic bacteria exist, both of which are closely related purple non-sulfur bacteria. Here we present a novel green-sulfur photoautotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizer isolated from a marine coastal sediment, Chlorobium sp...
April 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431143/characterisation-of-the-gill-mucosal-bacterial-communities-of-four-butterflyfish-species-a-reservoir-of-bacterial-diversity-in-coral-reefs-ecosystems
#3
Miriam Reverter, Pierre Sasal, N Tapissier-Bontemps, D Lecchini, Suzuki M
While recent studies have suggested that fish mucus microbiota play an important role in homeostasis and prevention of infections, very few studies have investigated the bacterial communities of gill mucus. We characterised the gill mucus bacterial communities of four butterflyfish species and although the bacterial diversity of gill mucus varied significantly between species, Shannon diversities were high (H = 3.7 - 5.7) in all species. Microbiota composition differed between butterflyfishes, with Chaetodon lunulatus and C...
April 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431082/compositional-differences-among-female-associated-and-embryo-associated-microbiota-of-the-viviparous-pacific-beetle-cockroach-diploptera-punctata
#4
Paul A Ayayee, George Keeney, Zakee L Sabree, Agustí Muñoz-Garcia
All cockroach species, except one, harbor the endosymbiont Blattabacterium, transmitted from females to embryos. Adult cockroaches acquire non-Blattabacterium bacteria as part of their gut microbiota over time, but our knowledge of the possible transmission of these non-Blattabacterium bacteria from females to embryos is rudimentary. We characterized the gut microbiota of gravid viviparous Diploptera punctata females and the non-Blattabacterium microbiota of associated developing embryos, as well as the gut microbiota of non-gravid females, and the microbiota of orphan embryos (females not included), following high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to assess bacterial transference...
April 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431045/water-table-drawdown-shapes-the-depth-dependent-variations-in-prokaryotic-diversity-and-structure-in-zoige-peatlands
#5
Qiuping Zhong, Huai Chen, Liangfeng Liu, Yixin He, Dan Zhu, Lin Jiang, Wei Zhan, Ji Hu
Microbial communities are important to ecosystem function and sensitive to hydrological dynamics. However, we lack predictable knowledge about how soil microorganisms respond to water table drawdown in different depths. This research used high-throughput sequencing method to determine the responses of prokaryotic communities to the changes of water table and depth on Zoige peatlands. Our results showed that water table drawdown reduced alpha diversity indices (observed species, Shannon diversity and Chao1 richness) of prokaryotic communities...
April 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430940/unravelling-microbial-ecology-of-industrial-scale-kombucha-fermentations-by-metabarcoding-and-culture-based-methods
#6
M Coton, A Pawtowski, B Taminiau, G Burgaud, F Deniel, L Coulloume-Labarthe, P A Fall, G Daube, E Coton
Kombucha, historically an Asian tea-based fermented drink, has recently become trendy in Western countries. Producers claim it bears health-enhancing properties that may come from the tea or metabolites produced by its microbiome. Despite its long history of production, microbial richness and dynamics have not been fully unravelled, especially at an industrial scale. Moreover, the impact of tea type (green or black) on microbial ecology was not studied. Here, a study compared microbial communities from industrial scale black and green tea fermentations, still traditionally carried out by a microbial biofilm, using culture-dependent and metabarcoding approaches...
April 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402470/proper-authentication-of-ancient-dna-is-essential-yes-but-so-are-undogmatic-approaches
#7
Gary A Toranzos, Tasha M Santiago-Rodriguez, Raul J Cano, Gino Fornaciari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 11, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402397/convergence-and-contrast-in-the-community-structure-of-bacteria-fungi-and-archaea-along-a-tropical-elevation-climate-gradient
#8
Kabir G Peay, Christian von Sperber, Emily Cardarelli, Hirokazu Toju, Christopher A Francis, Oliver A Chadwick, Peter M Vitousek
Changes in species richness along climatological gradients have been instrumental in developing theories about the general drivers of biodiversity. Previous studies on microbial communities along climate gradients on mountainsides have revealed positive, negative and neutral richness trends. We examined changes in richness and composition of Fungi, Bacteria and Archaea in soil along a 50-1000 m elevation, 280-3280 mm/yr precipitation gradient in Hawai'i. Soil properties and their drivers are exceptionally well understood along this gradient...
April 11, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387799/nitrosomonas-europaea-biofilm-formation-is-enhanced-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#9
Morgan Petrovich, Chia-Yun Wu, Alex Rosenthal, Kuan-Fu Chen, Aaron I Packman, George F Wells
Biofilms are useful in biotechnology applications such as wastewater treatment, where aggregation of cells on surfaces can increase retention of slow-growing organisms such as ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). The formation and morphological development of polymicrobial biofilms including AOB are not thoroughly understood. Here, we investigated the formation of Nitrosomonas europaea AOB biofilms in flow cell systems. N. europaea developed substantially greater biovolume in co-culture with heterotrophic Pseudomonas aeruginosa than when cultured alone...
April 6, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387795/antagonistic-interactions-of-soil-pseudomonads-are-structured-in-time
#10
Susanne A Kraemer, Jean-Paul R Soucy, Rees Kassen
Social interactions have been invoked as potential major selective forces structuring natural microbial communities and thus may help explain the astonishing bacterial diversity of natural ecosystems. Here, we investigate the prevalence and structure of exotoxin-mediated antagonistic interactions among free-living soil Pseudomonas strains collected over the course of two years at distances of up to one kilometer. Unlike some previous studies on antagonistic interactions among natural isolates, we found the prevalence of exotoxin-mediated inhibitions to be relatively low...
April 6, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379446/50-important-research-questions-in-microbial-ecology
#11
Rachael E Antwis, Sarah M Griffiths, Xavier A Harrison, Paz Aranega-Bou, Andres Arce, Aimee S Bettridge, Francesca L Brailsford, Alexandre de Menezes, Andrew Devaynes, Kristian M Forbes, Ellen L Fry, Ian Goodhead, Erin Haskell, Chloe Heys, Chloe James, Sarah R Johnston, Gillian R Lewis, Zenobia Lewis, Michael C Macey, Alan McCarthy, James E McDonald, Nasmille L Mejia-Florez, David O'Brien, Chloé Orland, Marco Pautasso, William D K Reid, Heather A Robinson, Kenneth Wilson, William J Sutherland
Microbial ecology provides insights into the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of microbial communities underpinning every ecosystem on Earth. Microbial communities can now be investigated in unprecedented detail, although there is still a wealth of open questions to be tackled. Here we identify 50 research questions of fundamental importance to the science or application of microbial ecology, with the intention of summarising the field and bringing focus to new research avenues. Questions are categorised into seven themes: Host-Microbiome Interactions; Health and Infectious Diseases; Human Health and Food Security; Microbial Ecology in a Changing World; Environmental Processes; Functional Diversity; and Evolutionary Processes...
April 3, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369385/reply-to-santiago-rodriguez-et-al-proper-authentication-of-ancient-dna-is-essential
#12
Raphael Eisenhofer, Alan Cooper, Laura S Weyrich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 24, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369331/elucidation-of-the-methanogenic-potential-from-coalbed-microbial-communities-amended-with-volatile-fatty-acids
#13
Christopher N Lyles, Victoria A Parisi, William Howard Beasley, Joy D Van Nostrand, Jizhong Zhou, Joseph M Suflita
The potential for modern coalfield methanogenesis was assessed using formation water from the Illinois Basin, Powder River Basin, and Cook Inlet gas field as inocula for nutrient-replete incubations amended with C1-C5 fatty acids as presumed intermediates formed during anaerobic coal biodegradation. Instead of the expected rapid mineralization of these substrates, methanogenesis was inordinately slow (∼1 μmol•day-1), following long lag periods (>100 day), and methane yields typically did not reach stoichiometrically expected levels...
March 22, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369320/high-wind-speeds-prevent-formation-of-a-distinct-bacterioneuston-community-in-the-sea-surface-microlayer
#14
Janina Rahlff, Christian Stolle, Helge-Ansgar Giebel, Thorsten Brinkhoff, Mariana Ribas-Ribas, Dorothee Hodapp, Oliver Wurl
The sea-surface microlayer (SML) at the boundary between atmosphere and hydrosphere represents a demanding habitat for bacteria. Wind speed is a crucial but poorly studied factor for its physical integrity. Increasing atmospheric burden of CO2, as suggested for future climate scenarios, may particularly act on this habitat at the air-sea interface. We investigated the effect of increasing wind speeds and different pCO2 levels on SML microbial communities in a wind-wave tunnel, which offered the advantage of low spatial and temporal variability...
March 22, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334408/leaf-endophytic-fungus-interacts-with-precipitation-to-alter-belowground-microbial-communities-in-primary-successional-dunes
#15
Lukas Bell-Dereske, Cristina Takacs-Vesbach, Stephanie N Kivlin, Sarah M Emery, Jennifer A Rudgers
Understanding interactions between above- and belowground components of ecosystems is an important next step in community ecology. These interactions may be fundamental to predicting ecological responses to global change because indirect effects occurring through altered species interactions can outweigh or interact with the direct effects of environmental drivers. In a multi-year field experiment (2010-2015), we tested how experimental addition of a mutualistic leaf endophyte (Epichloë amarillans) associated with American beachgrass (Ammophila breviligulata) interacted with an altered precipitation regime (±30%) to affect the belowground microbial community...
March 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334391/sediment-anoxia-limits-microbial-driven-seagrass-carbon-remineralization-under-warming-conditions
#16
Stacey M Trevathan-Tackett, Justin R Seymour, Daniel A Nielsen, Peter I Macreadie, Thomas C Jeffries, Jonathan Sanderman, Jeff Baldock, Johanna M Howes, Andrew D L Steven, Peter Ralph
Seagrass ecosystems are significant carbon sinks, and their resident microbial communities ultimately determine the quantity and quality of carbon sequestered. However, environmental perturbations have been predicted to affect microbial-driven seagrass decomposition and subsequent carbon sequestration. Utilizing techniques including 16S-rDNA sequencing, solid-state NMR and microsensor profiling, we tested the hypothesis that elevated seawater temperatures and eutrophication enhance the microbial decomposition of seagrass leaf detritus and rhizome/root tissues...
March 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334283/the-microbiology-of-oil-sands-tailings-past-present-future
#17
Julia M Foght, Lisa M Gieg, Tariq Siddique
Surface mining of enormous oil sands deposits in northeastern Alberta, Canada since 1967 has contributed greatly to Canada's economy but has also received negative international attention due largely to environmental concerns and challenges. Not only have microbes profoundly affected the composition and behaviour of this petroleum resource over geological time, they currently influence the management of semi-solid tailings in oil sands tailing ponds (OSTP) and tailings reclamation. Historically, microbial impacts on OSTP were generally discounted but next-generation sequencing and biogeochemical studies have revealed unexpectedly diverse indigenous communities and expanded our fundamental understanding of anaerobic microbial functions...
March 9, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334162/biparental-transmission-of-verminephrobacter-symbionts-in-the-earthworm-aporrectodea-tuberculata-lumbricidae
#18
Laura-Carlota Paz, Andreas Schramm, Marie Braad Lund
Most lumbricid earthworms harbor species-specific Verminephrobacter symbionts in their excretory organs (nephridia). These symbionts are vertically transmitted via the cocoon, where they colonize the embryos. Despite cospeciation for >100 million years with their hosts, Verminephrobacter lack genome reduction and AT bias typical of evolutionary old, vertically transmitted symbionts, caused by recurring bottlenecks. We hypothesized that biparental symbiont transmission into the cocoon enabled genetic mixing and relieved the bottleneck, and tested biparental transmission experimentally for V...
February 23, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334326/allelopathy-mediated-competition-in-microbial-mats-from-antarctic-lakes
#19
Marc Slattery, Michael P Lesser
Microbial mats are vertically stratified communities that host a complex consortium of microorganisms, dominated by cyanobacteria, that compete for available nutrients and environmental niches, within these extreme habitats. The Antarctic Dry Valleys near McMurdo Sound include a series of lakes within the drainage basin that are bisected by glacial traverses. These lakes are traditionally independent, but recent increases in glacial melting have allowed two lakes (Chad and Hoare) to become connected by a meltwater stream...
February 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334248/photoacclimation-by-arctic-cryoconite-phototrophs
#20
R G Perkins, E Bagshaw, L Mol, C J Williamson, D Fagan, M Gamble, M L Yallop
Cryoconite is a matrix of sediment, biogenic polymer and a microbial community which resides on glacier surfaces. The phototrophic component of this community is well adapted to this extreme environment, including high light stress. Photoacclimation of the cryoconite phototrophic community on Longyearbreen, Svalbard was investigated using in situ variable chlorophyll fluorescence. Rapid light curves (RLCs) and induction recovery curves were used to analyse PSII quantum efficiency, relative electron transport rate and forms of down regulation including non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and state transitions in cyanobacteria...
February 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
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