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FEMS Microbiology Ecology

Flore Zélé, Joaquim L Santos, Diogo Prino Godinho, Sara Magalhães
In the last decades, many studies had revealed the potential role of arthropod bacterial endosymbionts in shaping the host range of generalist herbivores and their performance on different host plants, which, in turn, might affect endosymbiont distribution in herbivores populations. We tested this by measuring the prevalence of endosymbionts in natural populations of the generalist spider mite Tetranychus urticae on different host plants. Focusing on Wolbachia, we then analysed how symbionts affected mite life-history traits on the same host-plants in the laboratory...
September 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Tiscar Graells, Helena Ishak, Madeleine Larsson, Lionel Guy
Legionellales is an order of the Gammaproteobacteria, only composed of host-adapted, intracellular bacteria, including the accidental human pathogens Legionella pneumophila and Coxiella burnetii. Although the diversity in terms of lifestyle is large across the order, only a few genera have been sequenced, owing to the difficulty to grow intracellular bacteria in pure culture. In particular, we know little about their global distribution and abundance.Here, we analyze 16/18S rDNA amplicons both from tens of thousands of published studies and from two separate sampling campaigns in and around ponds and in a silver mine...
September 10, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Biderre-Petit Corinne, Taib Najwa, Gardon Hélène, Hochart Corentin, Debroas Didier
Advances in metagenomics have given rise to the possibility of obtaining genome sequences from uncultured microorganisms, even for those poorly represented in microbial community, thereby providing important means to study their ecology and evolution. In this study, metagenomic sequencing was carried out at four sampling depths having different oxygen concentrations or environmental conditions in the water column of Lake Pavin. By analyzing the sequenced reads and matching the contigs to the proxy genomes of the closest cultivated relatives, we evaluated the metabolic potential of the dominant planktonic species involved in the methane cycle...
September 7, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Kevin D Kohl, Kelly F Oakeson, Teri J Orr, Aaron W Miller, Jennifer Sorensen Forbey, Caleb D Phillips, Colin Dale, Robert B Weiss, M Denise Dearing
Microbial detoxification of plant toxins influences the use ofplants as food sources by herbivores. Stephen's woodrats (Neotoma stephensi) specialize on juniper, which is defended by oxalate, phenolics, and monoterpenes, while closely related N. albigula specialize on cactus, which only contains oxalate. Woodrats maintain two gut chambers harboring dense microbial communities: a foregut chamber proximal to the major site of toxin absorption, and a cecal chamber in their hindgut. We performed several experiments to investigate the location and nature of microbial detoxification in the woodrat gut...
September 7, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
James S Evans, Patrick M Erwin, Noa Shenkar, Susanna López-Legentil
Harbor systems represent passive gateways for the introduction of nonnative ascidians that compete with the surrounding benthos and may spread through localized dispersal, even populating adjacent natural reefs. To investigate the potential role of microbial symbionts in the success of ascidian introductions and spread, we evaluated the host-specificity of prokaryotic communities within two ascidian species commonly found off the North Carolina coast. Replicate samples of the native ascidian Eudistoma capsulatum, the nonnative ascidian Distaplia bermudensis, and seawater were collected from artificial (harbor) and natural reef substrates...
July 19, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Yuping Zhang, Christian Jewett, John Gilley, Shannon L Bartelt-Hunt, Daniel D Snow, Laurie Hodges, Xu Li
Reclaimed wastewater is increasingly used as a source of irrigation water in croplands. The enteric pathogens in reclaimed wastewater may accumulate in soil and plants and cause food safety concerns. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of irrigation water containing Salmonella on the microbial communities in the rhizosphere and in the root of lettuce. The effects were also examined with three variables (soil texture, lettuce cultivar, and harvest time) in a factorial design. Analyses on the 16S rRNA gene sequences show that the microbial communities in the root were significantly different from those in the rhizosphere, although ∼80% of the microbes in the root originated from the rhizosphere...
July 13, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Patricia M Valdespino-Castillo, Daniel Cerqueda-García, Ana Cecilia Espinosa, Silvia Batista, Martín Merino-Ibarra, Neslihan Tas, Rocío J Alcántara-Hernández, Luisa I Falcón
Maritime Antarctica has shown the highest increase in temperature in the Southern Hemisphere. Under this scenario, biogeochemical cycles may be altered, resulting in rapid environmental change for Antarctic biota. Microbes, that drive biogeochemical cycles often form biofilms or microbial mats in continental meltwater environments. Limnetic microbial mats from the Fildes Peninsula were studied using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Mat samples were collected from fifteen meltwater stream sites, comprising a natural gradient from ultraoligotrophic glacier flows to meltwater streams exposed to anthropogenic activities...
June 30, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Te Anne Cotton
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are amongst the most common and functionally important symbionts of terrestrial plants and are highly likely to be affected by global change. The potential consequences of this on plant growth and carbon and nutrient cycling has led to a growing demand for their inclusion in global change models. However, our understanding of their responses to environmental change remains limited. This review provides an overview of recent experiments attempting to predict the effects of atmospheric and climatic change on AM fungal community diversity, composition and functioning...
November 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Carolina Chiellini, Elisangela Miceli, Giovanni Bacci, Camilla Fagorzi, Ester Coppini, Donatella Fibbi, Giovanna Bianconi, Alessio Mengoni, Francesco Canganella, Renato Fani
Epilithic river biofilms characterize the rock surfaces along the Acquarossa river (Viterbo, Italy); they are in part red and in part black colored, maintaining a well-defined borderline. This peculiarity has raised questions about the biotic and abiotic phenomena that might avoid the mixing of the two biofilms. In this study, the structuring of bacterial communities in black and red epilithic biofilm in the Acquarossa river has been investigated with both culture dependent and independent approaches. Data obtained highlighted a (very) different taxonomic composition of black and red epilithons bacterial communities, dominated by Acinetobacter sp...
November 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Ahmed A Shibl, David K Ngugi, Agathe Talarmin, Luke R Thompson, Jochen Blom, Ulrich Stingl
Marine microbes possess genomic and physiological adaptations to cope with varying environmental conditions. So far, the effects of high salinity on the most abundant marine photoautotrophic organism, Prochlorococcus, in marine oligotrophic environments, are mostly unknown. Here, we report the isolation of a new Prochlorococcus strain (RSP50) belonging to high-light (HL) clade II from the Red Sea, one of the warmest and most saline bodies of water in the global oceans. A comparative genomic analysis identified a set of 59 genes that were exclusive to RSP50 relative to currently available Prochlorococcus genomes, the majority of which (70%) encode for hypothetical proteins of unknown function...
November 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Sonam Rathi, Nisha Tak, Garima Bissa, Bhawana Chouhan, Archana Ojha, Dibyendu Adhikari, Saroj K Barik, Rama Rao Satyawada, Janet I Sprent, Euan K James, Hukam S Gehlot
Nodules of Chamaecrista pumila growing in several locations in India were sampled for anatomical studies and for characterization of their rhizobial microsymbionts. Regardless of their region of origin, the nodules were indeterminate with their bacteroids contained within symbiosomes which were surrounded by pectin. More than 150 strains were isolated from alkaline soils from the Thar Desert (Rajasthan), wet-acidic soils of Shillong (Meghalaya), and from trap experiments using soils from four other states with different agro-ecological regions...
November 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Irène Mangin, Flore Dossou-Yovo, Christophe Lévêque, Marie-Vincent Dessoy, Olivier Sawoo, Antonia Suau, Philippe Pochart
This study aimed at evaluating the alteration of the colonic microbiota and the changes in the mucus layer thickness induced by oral administration of living bifidobacteria in rats. The study was performed on rats fed with Bifidobacterium pseudolongum strain Patronus (1010 bacteria per day for 7 days). This bacterial administration led to a large increase of mucus thickness (57%, P < 0.05). Both quantitative PCR and high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene revealed a significant increase of the amount of the Bifidobacterium genus in the microbiota of rats fed with the strain Patronus, associated with a decrease of Akkermansia muciniphila...
November 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Prince P Mathai, Hannah M Dunn, Paolo Magnone, Clairessa M Brown, Chan Lan Chun, Michael J Sadowsky
Bacterial communities that inhabit the surface of aquatic plants are thought to play a critical role in relation to host fitness and function. However, little is known about their structure and dynamics in comparison with those of bacterioplankton. In this study, we performed a comprehensive spatial and temporal characterization of epibacterial communities associated with Eurasian watermilfoil (EWM; Myriophyllum spicatum), an invasive macrophyte, which has established itself in thousands of lakes across North America...
November 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Stephanie A Yarwood
New soil organic matter (SOM) models highlight the role of microorganisms in plant litter decomposition and storage of microbial-derived carbon (C) molecules. Wetlands store more C per unit area than any other ecosystem, but SOM storage mechanisms such as aggregation and metal complexes are mostly untested in wetlands. This review discusses what is currently known about the role of microorganisms in SOM formation and C sequestrations, as well as, measures of microbial communities as they relate to wetland C cycling...
November 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Jason C Kimble, Ara S Winter, Michael N Spilde, Robert L Sinsabaugh, Diana E Northup
Low biomass and productivity of arid-land caves with limited availability of nitrogen (N) raises the question of how microbes acquire and cycle this essential element. Caves are ideal environments for investigating microbial functional capabilities, as they lack phototrophic activity and have near constant temperatures and high relative humidity. From the walls of Fort Stanton Cave (FSC), multicolored secondary mineral deposits of soil-like material low in fixed N, known as ferromanganese deposits (FMD), were collected...
November 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Yueh-Ting Lin, Tzu-Hsuan Tu, Chih-Lin Wei, Douglas Rumble, Li-Hung Lin, Pei-Ling Wang
Mud volcanoes provide an accessible channel through which deep subsurface environments can be observed. The manner in which deeply sourced materials shape biogeochemical processes and microbial communities in such geological features remains largely unknown. This study characterized redox transitions, biogeochemical fluxes and microbial communities for samples collected from a methane-rich mud volcano in southwestern Taiwan. Our results indicated that oxygen penetration was confined within the upper 4 mm of fluids/muds and counteracted by the oxidation of pyrite, dissolved sulfide, methane and organic matter at various degrees...
November 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Patricia Geesink, Olaf Tyc, Kirsten Küsel, Martin Taubert, Charlotte van de Velde, Swatantar Kumar, Paolina Garbeva
Microorganisms can produce a plethora of secondary metabolites, some acting as signaling compounds and others as suppressing agents. As yet, the potential of groundwater microbes to produce antimicrobial compounds to increase their competitiveness against other bacteria has not been examined. In this study, we developed an AlamarBlue® based high-throughput screening method that allowed for a fast and highly standardized evaluation of both growth-inhibiting and -promoting metabolites. With this technique, 149 screened bacterial isolates were grown in monocultures and in 1402 co-cultures...
November 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Pei-Qiong Shi, Lei Wang, Yuan Liu, Xuan An, Xiao-Sheng Chen, Muhammad Z Ahmed, Bao-Li Qiu, Wen Sang
The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a severe agricultural pest that harbors at least seven endosymbionts. Many important aspects of the symbiosis mechanism between these bacterial endosymbionts and their hosts are poorly understood, such as endosymbiont proliferation dynamics, spatial distribution and titer regulation during host development. In this study, infection by bacterial endosymbionts in the whitefly B. tabaci Middle East-Asia Minor-1 (MEAM1, formerly B biotype) South China population, their infection titers in various stages of whitefly host development and their spatial localization were investigated...
November 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Kosala A Sirisena, Christopher J Daughney, Magali Moreau, Dalice A Sim, Charles K Lee, Stephen C Cary, Ken G Ryan, Geoffrey K Chambers
Groundwater is a major source of New Zealand's water supply and supports base flows in rivers. Microbial communities in groundwater ecosystems mediate biogeochemical processes, and it is therefore crucial to understand microbial diversity in these ecosystems. We analysed bacterial assemblages from 35 New Zealand groundwater monitoring sites with varying hydrogeochemical conditions across the country. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, and Variovorax represented the most common taxon. Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, Acidovorax, Janthinobacterium, Polaromonas and Caulobacter were the other common taxa...
November 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Olivier Laroche, Xavier Pochon, Louis A Tremblay, Joanne I Ellis, Gavin Lear, Susanna A Wood
Taxonomic and functional community structures may respond differently to anthropogenic stressors. Used in combination they can provide an estimate of functional redundancy, a key component of ecosystem resilience. In this study, the utility of incorporating functional community structure and co-occurrence network properties into impact assessments of offshore oil and gas (O&G) operations on benthic bacterial communities was investigated. Sediment samples and physico-chemical data were collected along a transect at increasing distances from one exploratory drilling (ED), and one gas production and drilling (GPD) field...
November 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
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