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FEMS Microbiology Ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790946/a-microbial-endocrinology-based-simulated-small-intestinal-medium-for-the-evaluation-of-neurochemical-production-by-gut-microbiota
#1
Daniel N Villageliú, Sharon Rasmussen, Mark Lyte
Microbial endocrinology represents the union of microbiology and neurobiology and is concerned with the ability of neurochemicals to serve as an evolutionary-based language between host and microbiota in health and disease. The recognition that microorganisms produce, modify and respond to the same neurochemicals utilized in the various signaling pathways of their mammalian hosts is increasingly being recognized as a mechanism by which the host and microbiota may interact to influence the progression of infectious disease as well as influence behavior through the microbiota-gut-brain axis...
May 21, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788432/sucrose-challenges-to-streptococcus-mutans-biofilms-and-the-curve-fitting-for-the-biofilm-changes
#2
Jian-Na Cai, Ji-Eun Jung, Min-Ho Lee, Hyeon-Mi Choi, Jae-Gyu Jeon
The relationship between sugar level and development of dental caries has long been a main topic in dentistry. However, as a ubiquitous component of the modern diet, sucrose is mainly derived from three meals a day, rather than a long time exposure. In this study, various concentrations of sucrose were provided to Streptococcus mutans biofilms for 1h per exposure (3 times per day) to imitate a human meal pattern. And then the relationship between sucrose concentration and changes in the treated biofilms was determined...
May 17, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788056/bacterial-biofilm-formation-on-the-hyphae-of-ectomycorrhizal-fungi-a-widespread-ability-under-controls
#3
Cora Miquel Guennoc, Christophe Rose, Jessy Labbé, Aurélie Deveau
Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi establish symbiosis with roots of most trees of boreal and temperate ecosystems and are major drivers of nutrient fluxes between trees and the soil. ECM fungi constantly interact with bacteria all along their life cycle and the extended networks of hyphae provide a habitat for complex bacterial communities. Despite the important effects these bacteria can have on the growth and activities of ECM fungi, little is known about the mechanisms by which these microorganisms interact. Here we investigated the ability of bacteria to form biofilm on the hyphae of the ECM fungus Laccaria bicolor...
May 17, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771345/sucrose-metabolism-alters-lactobacillus-plantarum-survival-and-interactions-with-the-microbiota-in-the-digestive-tract
#4
Xiaochen Yin, Dustin D Heeney, Yanin Tab Srisengfa, Shin-Yu Chen, Carolyn M Slupsky, Maria L Marco
We investigated whether sucrose metabolism by probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum influences the intestinal survival and microbial responses to this organism when administered to mice fed a sucrose-rich, Western diet. A L. plantarum mutant unable to metabolize sucrose was constructed by deleting scrB, coding for beta-fructofuranosidase, in a rifampicin-resistant strain of L. plantarum NCIMB8826. The ScrB deficient mutant survived in 8-fold higher numbers compared to the wild-type strain when measured 24 h after administration on two consecutive days...
May 16, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771325/native-bacteria-promote-plant-growth-under-drought-stress-condition-without-impacting-the-rhizomicrobiome
#5
Elisabeth Armada, Márcio F A Leite, Almudena Medina, Rosario Azcón, Eiko E Kuramae
Inoculation of plants with beneficial plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) emerges a valuable strategy for ecosystem recovery. However, drought conditions might compromise plant-microbe interactions especially in semiarid regions. This study highlights the effect of native PGPB after one-year inoculation on autochthonous shrubs growth and rhizosphere microbial community composition and activity under drought stress conditions. We inoculated three plant species of semiarid Mediterranean zones, Thymus vulgaris, Santolina chamaecyparissus and Lavandula dentata with a Bacillus thuringiensis strain IAM 12077 and, evaluated the impact on plant biomass, plant nutrient contents, arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) colonization, soil rhizosphere microbial activity, and both the bacterial and fungal communities...
May 16, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767724/fluctuations-in-populations-of-subsurface-methane-oxidizers-in-coordination-with-changes-in-electron-acceptor-availability
#6
C Magnabosco, P H A Timmers, M C Y Lau, G Borgonie, B Linage-Alvarez, O Kuloyo, R Alleva, T L Kieft, G F Slater, E van Heerden, B Sherwood Lollar, T C Onstott
The concentrations of electron donors and acceptors in the terrestrial subsurface biosphere fluctuate due to migration and mixing of subsurface fluids, but the mechanisms and rates at which microbial communities respond to these changes are largely unknown. Subsurface microbial communities exhibit long cellular turnover times and are often considered relatively static-generating just enough ATP for cellular maintenance. Here, we investigated how subsurface populations of CH4 oxidizers respond to changes in electron acceptor availability by monitoring the biological and geochemical composition in a 1,339 meters-below-land-surface (mbls) fluid-filled fracture over the course of both longer (2...
May 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767715/stable-isotope-probing-of-hypoxic-toluene-degradation-at-the-sikl%C3%A3-s-aquifer-reveals-prominent-role-of-rhodocyclaceae
#7
András Táncsics, Anna Róza Szalay, Milan Farkas, Tibor Benedek, S Szoboszlay, I Szabó, Tillmann Lueders
The availability of oxygen is often a limiting factor for the degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in subsurface environments. However, while both aerobic and anaerobic degraders have been intensively studied, degradation betwixt, under micro- or hypoxic conditions has rarely been addressed. It is speculated that in environments with limited, but sustained oxygen supply, such as in the vicinity of groundwater monitoring wells, hypoxic degradation may take place. A large diversity of subfamily I.2.C extradiol dioxygenase genes has been previously detected in a BTEX-contaminated aquifer in Hungary...
May 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767712/limited-influence-of-hospital-wastewater-on-the-microbiome-and-resistome-of-wastewater-in-a-community-sewerage-system
#8
Elena Buelow, Jumamurat R Bayjanov, Eline Majoor, Rob J L Willems, Marc J M Bonten, Heike Schmitt, Willem van Schaik
Effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been proposed to act as point sources of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment. Hospital sewage may contribute to the spread of ARB and ARGs as it contains the feces and urine of hospitalized patients, who are more frequently colonized with multi-drug resistant bacteria than the general population. However, whether hospital sewage noticeably contributes to the quantity and diversity of ARGs in the general sewerage system has not yet been determined...
May 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767710/relationship-between-dissolved-organic-matter-quality-and-microbial-community-composition-across-polar-glacial-environments
#9
H J Smith, M Dieser, D M McKnight, M D SanClements, C M Foreman
Vast expanses of Earth's surface are covered by ice, with microorganisms in these systems affecting local and global biogeochemical cycles. We examined microbial assemblages from habitats fed by glacial meltwater within the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, and on the west Greenland Ice Sheet, (GrIS) evaluating potential physicochemical factors explaining trends in community structure. Microbial assemblages present in the different Antarctic dry valley habitats were dominated by Sphingobacteria and Flavobacteria, while Gammaproteobacteria and Sphingobacteria prevailed in west GrIS supraglacial environments...
May 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733348/progressive-biogeochemical-transformation-of-placer-gold-particles-drives-compositional-changes-in-associated-biofilm-communities
#10
Maria Angelica Rea, Christopher D Standish, Jeremiah Shuster, Andrew Bissett, Frank Reith
Biofilms on placer gold (Au)-particle surfaces drive Au solubilization and re-concentration thereby progressively transforming the particles. Gold solubilization induces Au-toxicity; however, Au-detoxifying community members ameliorates Au-toxicity by precipitating soluble Au to metallic Au. We hypothesize that Au-dissolution and re-concentration (precipitation) places selective pressures on associated microbial communities, leading to compositional changes and subsequent Au-particle transformation. We analyzed Au-particles from eight United Kingdom sites using next generation sequencing, electron microscopy and micro-analyses...
May 3, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733333/prokaryotic-community-successions-and-interactions-in-marine-biofilms-the-key-role-of-flavobacteriia
#11
Thomas Pollet, Lyria Berdjeb, Cédric Garnier, Gaël Durrieu, Christophe Le Poupon, Benjamin Misson, Jean-François Briand
Despite clear advances in characterizing marine biofilms, details on their formation and species succession remain scarce particularly during the early stage of development. We investigated the microbial community composition and succession in coastal marine biofilms on plastic. Samples were collected over 75 days of immersion with strengthened samplings during the early stages of biofilm establishment. Biofilm composition was estimated using Illumina Miseq and microbial community interactions were assessed through microbial association network analysis...
May 3, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722806/redox-gradient-driven-electron-transport-in-a-mixed-community-anodic-biofilm
#12
Matthew D Yates, Sarah Barr Engel, Brian J Eddie, Nikolai Lebedev, Anthony P Malanoski, Leonard M Tender
Here we describe the long distance (multi-cell-length) extracellular electron transport (LD-EET) that occurs in an anode-grown mixed community biofilm (MCB) enriched from river sediment that contains 3-45% Geobacter spp. High signal-to-noise temperature-dependent electrochemical gating measurements (EGM) using interdigitated microelectrode arrays reveal a peak-shaped electrical conductivity vs. potential dependency, indicating MCB acts as a redox conductor, similar to pure culture anode-grown Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms (GSB)...
May 2, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722798/stochastic-processes-govern-bacterial-communities-from-the-blood-of-pikas-and-from-their-arthropod-vectors
#13
Huan Li, Tongtong Li, Jiapeng Qu
Vector-borne microbes influence pathogen transmission and blood microbiomes, thereby affecting the emergence of infectious diseases. Thus, understanding the relationship between host and vector microbiomes is of importance. In this study, we investigated the bacterial community composition, diversity and assembly of the flea (Rhadinopsylla dahurica vicina), torsalo (Hypoderma curzonial), and the blood and gut of their shared pika host, Ochotona curzoniae. Bartonella, Sphingomonas and Bradyrhizobium were enriched in blood, while Wolbachia and Fusobacterium were more abundant in fleas and torsaloes...
May 2, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718180/deciphering-the-genome-and-secondary-metabolome-of-the-plant-pathogen-fusarium-culmorum
#14
Ruth Schmidt, Mikael B Durling, Victor de Jager, Riya C Menezes, Erik Nordkvist, Aleš Svatoš, Mukesh Dubey, Lukas Lauterbach, Jeroen S Dickschat, Magnus Karlsson, Paolina Garbeva
Fusarium culmorum is one of the most important fungal plant pathogens that causes diseases on a wide diversity of cereal and non-cereal crops. We report herein for the first time the genome sequence of F. culmorum strain PV and its associated secondary metabolome that plays a role in the interaction with other microorganisms and contributes to its pathogenicity on plants. The genome revealed the presence of two terpene synthases, trichodiene and longiborneol synthase, which generate an array of volatile terpenes...
April 30, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718229/complex-life-cycle-broad-host-range-and-adaptation-strategy-of-the-intranuclear-paramecium-symbiont-preeria-caryophila-comb-nov
#15
Alexey Potekhin, Michael Schweikert, Irina Nekrasova, Valerio Vitali, Sabine Schwarzer, Arina Anikina, Oliver Kaltz, Giulio Petroni, Martina Schrallhammer
Holospora and related bacteria are a group of obligate Paramecium symbionts. Characteristic features are their infectivity, the presence of two distinct morphotypes, and usually a strict specialization for a single Paramecium species as host and a nuclear compartment (either somatic or generative nucleus) for reproduction. Holospora caryophila steps out of line, naturally occurring in Paramecium biaurelia and Paramecium caudatum. This study addresses the phylogenetic relationship among H. caryophila and other Holospora species based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison analysing the type strain and seven new macronuclear symbionts...
April 26, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718191/metacompare-a-computational-pipeline-for-prioritizing-environmental-resistome-risk
#16
Min Oh, Amy Pruden, Chaoqi Chen, Lenwood S Heath, Kang Xia, Liqing Zhang
The spread of antibiotic resistance is a growing public health concern. While numerous studies have highlighted the importance of environmental sources and pathways of the spread of antibiotic resistance, a systematic means of comparing and prioritizing risks represented by various environmental compartments is lacking. Here we introduce MetaCompare, a publicly-available tool for ranking 'resistome risk,' which we define as the potential for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) to be associated with mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and mobilize to pathogens based on metagenomic data...
April 26, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718181/the-role-of-bacteria-in-pine-wilt-disease-insights-from-microbiome-analysis
#17
Marta Alves, Anabela Pereira, Cláudia Vicente, Patrícia Matos, Joana Henriques, Helena Lopes, Francisco Nascimento, Manuel Mota, António Correia, Isabel Henriques
Pine Wilt Disease (PWD) has a significant impact on Eurasia pine forests. The microbiome of the nematode (the primary cause of the disease), its insect vector, and the host tree may be relevant for the disease mechanism. The aim of this study was to characterize these microbiomes, from three PWD-affected areas in Portugal, using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis, 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, and a functional inference-based approach (PICRUSt). The bacterial community structure of the nematode was significantly different from the infected trees but closely related to the insect vector, supporting the hypothesis that nematode microbiome might be in part inherited from the insect...
April 26, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701793/conservation-tillage-and-organic-farming-induce-minor-variations-in-pseudomonas-abundance-their-antimicrobial-function-and-soil-disease-resistance
#18
Francesca Dennert, Nicola Imperiali, Cornelia Staub, Jana Schneider, Titouan Laessle, Tao Zhang, Raphaël Wittwer, Marcel G A van der Heijden, Theo H M Smits, Klaus Schlaeppi, Christoph Keel, Monika Maurhofer
Conservation tillage and organic farming are strategies used worldwide to preserve the stability and fertility of soils. While positive effects on soil structure have been extensively reported, the effects on specific root- and soil-associated microorganisms are less known. The aim of this study was to investigate how conservation tillage and organic farming influence the frequency and activity of plant-beneficial pseudomonads. Amplicon sequencing using the 16S rRNA gene revealed that Pseudomonas is among the most abundant bacterial taxa in the root microbiome of field-grown wheat, independent of agronomical practices...
April 25, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701776/metagenomic-binning-reveals-versatile-nutrient-cycling-and-distinct-adaptive-features-in-alphaproteobacterial-symbionts-of-marine-sponges
#19
Elham Karimi, Beate M Slaby, André R Soares, Jochen Blom, Ute Hentschel, Rodrigo Costa
Marine sponges are early-branched metazoans known to harbor dense and diverse microbial communities. Yet the role of the so far uncultivable alphaproteobacterial lineages that populate these sessile invertebrates remains unclear. We applied a sequence composition-dependent binning approach to assemble one Rhodospirillaceae genome from the Spongia officinalis microbial metagenome and contrast its functional features with those of closely-related sponge-associated and free-living genomes. Both symbiotic and free-living Rhodospirillaceae shared a suite of common features, possessing versatile carbon, nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorus metabolisms...
April 25, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688454/gene-expression-of-terminal-oxidases-in-two-marine-bacterial-strains-exposed-to-nanomolar-oxygen-concentrations
#20
Xianzhe Gong, Emilio Garcia-Robledo, Marie Braad Lund, Philipp Lehner, Sergey M Borisov, Ingo Klimant, Niels Peter Revsbech, Andreas Schramm
The final step of aerobic respiration is carried out by a terminal oxidase transporting electrons to oxygen (O2). Prokaryotes harbor diverse terminal oxidases that differ in phylogenetic origin, structure, biochemical function, and affinity for O2. Here we report on the expression of high- (cytochrome cbb3 oxidase), low-affinity (cytochrome aa3 oxidase), and putative low-affinity (cyanide-insensitive oxidase (CIO)) terminal oxidases in the marine bacteria Idiomarina loihiensis L2-TR and Marinobacter daepoensis SW-156 upon transition to very low O2 concentrations (< 200 nM), measured by RT-qPCR...
April 24, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
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