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FEMS Microbiology Ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541458/microbiome-analysis-of-a-disease-affecting-the-deep-sea-sponge-geodia-barretti
#1
Heidi M Luter, Raymond J Bannister, Steve Whalan, Tina Kutti, Mari-Carmen Pineda, Nicole S Webster
Reports of sponge disease are becoming increasingly frequent, although almost all instances involve shallow-water, tropical species. Here, we describe the first disease affecting the deep-water sponge, Geodia barretti. The disease is characterised by brown/black discolouration of the sponge tissue, extensive levels of tissue disintegration and increased levels of fouling. Disease prevalence was quantified using video survey transects conducted between 100 and 220 meters in Korsfjorden, Norway and the microbial communities of healthy and diseased sponges were compared using 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
May 24, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531284/different-abundance-and-correlational-patterns-exist-between-total-and-presumed-pathogenic-v-vulnificus-and-v-parahaemolyticus-in-shellfish-and-waters-along-the-north-carolina-coast
#2
Tiffany C Williams, Brett A Froelich, Britney Phippen, Patricia Fowler, Rachel T Noble, James D Oliver
Monitoring of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus abundance is pertinent due to the ability of these species to cause disease in humans through aquatic vectors. Previously, we performed a multiyear investigation tracking Vibrio spp. levels in five sites along the southeastern North Carolina coast. From February 2013 to October 2015 total V. vulnificus, and V. parahaemolyticus abundance was measured in water, oysters, and clams. In the current study, pathogenic subpopulations were identified in these isolates using molecular markers, revealing that 5...
May 20, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531262/biogeography-of-cryoconite-bacterial-communities-on-glaciers-of-the-tibetan-plateau
#3
Yongqin Liu, Trista J Vick-Majors, John C Priscu, Tandong Yao, Shichang Kang, Keshao Liu, Ziyuang Cong, Jingbo Xiong, Yang Li
Cryoconite holes, water-filled pockets containing biological and mineralogical deposits that form on glacier surfaces, play important roles in glacier mass balance, glacial geochemistry, and carbon cycling. The presence of cryoconite material decreases surface albedo and accelerates glacier mass loss, a problem of particular importance in the rapidly melting Tibetan Plateau. No studies have addressed the microbial community composition of cryoconite holes and their associated ecosystem processes on Tibetan glaciers...
May 20, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520877/abundance-and-molecular-diversity-of-thraustochytrids-in-coastal-waters-of-southern-china
#4
Ying Liu, Purnima Singh, Yuanmei Liang, Jingjing Li, Ningdong Xie, Zhiquan Song, Maurycy Daroch, Keming Leng, Zackary I Johnson, Guangyi Wang
Thraustochytrids are unicellular fungi-like (heterotrophic) marine protists and have long been considered to play an important role in the biogeochemical cycles of the coastal oceans. However, the significance of their ecological functions and diversity in marine ecosystems remain largely unknown. In this report, we examined the spatial and temporal variations of planktonic thraustochytrids, their relationship with other environmental factors, and their diversity in the subtropical coastal waters of China. The abundance of planktonic thraustochytrids ranged from 2...
May 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505366/bacterioplankton-assemblages-in-coastal-ponds-reflect-the-influence-of-hydrology-and-geomorphological-setting
#5
Megan J Huggett, Christopher R J Kavazos, Rachele Bernasconi, Robert Czarnik, Pierre Horwitz
The factors that shape microbial community assembly in aquatic ecosystems have been widely studied yet it is still unclear how distinct communities within a connected landscape influence one another. Coastal lakes are recipients of, and thus are connected to, both marine and terrestrial environments. Thus they may host microbial assemblages that reflect the relative degree of influence by, and connectivity to, either system. In order to address this idea we interrogated microbial community diversity at 49 sites in seven ponds in two seasons in the Lake MacLeod basin, a system fed by seawater flowing inland through underground karst...
May 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505340/members-of-microvirga-and-bradyrhizobium-genera-are-native-endosymbiotic-bacteria-nodulating-lupinus-luteus-in-northern-tunisian-soils
#6
A Msaddak, M Rejili, D Durán, L Rey, J Imperial, J Palacios, T Ruiz-Argüeso, M Mars
The genetic diversity of bacterial populations nodulating Lupinus luteus (yellow lupine) in Northern Tunisia was examined. Phylogenetic analyses of forty three isolates based on recA and gyrB partial sequences grouped them in three clusters, two of which belong to genus Bradyrhizobium (41 isolates) and one, remarkably, to Microvirga (2 isolates), a genus never previously described as microsymbiont of this lupine species. Representatives of the three clusters were analysed in-depth by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of five housekeeping genes (rrs, recA, glnII, gyrB and dnaK)...
May 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499007/shifts-in-microbial-trophic-strategy-explain-different-temperature-sensitivity-of-co2-flux-under-constant-and-diurnally-varying-temperature-regimes
#7
Zhen Bai, Hongtu Xie, Jenny Kao-Kniffin, Baodong Chen, Pengshuai Shao, Chao Liang
Understanding soil CO2 flux temperature sensitivity (Q10) is critical for predicting ecosystem-level responses to climate change. Yet, the effects of warming on microbial CO2 respiration still remain poorly understood under current Earth system models, partly as a result of thermal acclimation of organic matter decomposition. We conducted a 117-day incubation experiment under constant and diurnally-varying temperature treatments based on four forest soils varying in vegetation stand and soil horizon. Our results showed that Q10 was greater under varying than constant temperature regimes...
May 11, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498986/sequence-of-inoculation-influences-the-nature-of-exopolymeric-substances-eps-and-biofilm-formation-in-azotobacter-chroococcum-and-trichoderma-viride
#8
Kulandaivelu Velmourougane, Radha Prasanna, Shashi Bala Singh, Rajesh Kumar, Supradip Saha
Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are important structural components of biofilms. In the present study, the EPS in biofilms developed using two agriculturally beneficial organisms- Azotobacter chroococcum (Az) and Trichoderma viride (Tv) were quantified and characterised. Time course experiments were undertaken to optimize the EPS yield of biofilm samples resulting from coculture and staggered inoculation. The EPS produced during biofilm formation was found to differ quantitatively and qualitatively in individual cultures (Az alone, Tv alone), and in treatments differing in the sequence of inoculation of bacterium and fungus (Az+Tv coculture, staggered inoculation of Az followed by Tv-Az-Tv, or Tv followed by Az-Tv-Az)...
May 11, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498948/community-composition-and-assembly-processes-of-the-free-living-and-particle-attached-bacteria-in-taihu-lake
#9
Dayong Zhao, Huimin Xu, Jin Zeng, Xinyi Cao, Rui Huang, Feng Shen, Zhongbo Yu
Although previous studies have compared the diversity and community composition of free-living (FL) and particle-attached (PA) bacterial groups in marine ecosystems, few studies have focused on the FL and PA bacterial communities in large and shallow eutrophic lakes. Furthermore, the assembly processes of the FL and PA bacterial communities have not been investigated. To illustrate the differences between PA (≥ 5.0 μm) and FL (0.22-5.0 μm) bacterial communities, samples were collected from 13 different sites in Taihu Lake, China...
May 11, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498947/aminobacter-sp-msh1-invades-sand-filter-community-biofilms-while-retaining-2-6-dichlorobenzamide-degradation-functionality-under-c-and-n-limiting-conditions
#10
Benjamin Horemans, Joke Vandermaesen, Aswini Sekhar, Caroline Rombouts, Johan Hofkens, Lynn Vanhaecke, Dirk Springael
Aminobacter sp. MSH1 is of interest for bioaugmentation of biofiltration units in drinking water treatment plants (DWTP) due to its ability to degrade the groundwater micropollutant 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM). Using a continuous flow chamber biofilm model, MSH1 was previously shown to colonize surfaces and degrade BAM at trace concentrations as low as 1 μg/L under the oligotrophic conditions found in DWTPs. In DWTP filtration units, MSH1 has to compete with the resident biofilm microbiota for space and nutrients...
May 11, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498940/contribution-of-aerobic-anoxygenic-phototrophic-bacteria-to-total-organic-carbon-pool-in-aquatic-system-of-subtropical-karst-catchments-southwest-china-evidence-from-hydrochemical-and-microbiological-study
#11
Qiang Li, Ang Song, Wenjie Peng, Zhenjiang Jin, Werner E G Müller, Xiaohong Wang
Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria may play a particular role in carbon cycling of aquatic systems. However, little is known about the interaction between aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria and hydrochemistry in groundwater-surface water exchange systems of subtropical karst catchments. We carried out a detailed study on the abundance of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria and bacterioplankton, hydrochemistry and taxonomy of bacterioplankton in the Maocun watershed, Southwest China, an area with karst geological background...
May 11, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486678/the-paleosymbiosis-hypothesis-host-plants-can-be-colonized-by-root-symbionts-that-have-been-inactive-for-centuries-to-millenia
#12
Jason Pither, Brian J Pickles
Paleoecologists have speculated that post-glacial migration of tree species could have been facilitated by mycorrhizal symbionts surviving glaciation as resistant propagules belowground. The general premise of this idea, which we call the 'paleosymbiosis hypothesis', is that host plants can access and be colonized by fungal root symbionts that have been inactive for millennia. Here, we explore the plausibility of this hypothesis by synthesizing relevant findings from a diverse literature. For example, the paleoecology literature provided evidence of modern roots penetrating paleosols containing ancient (> 6000 yr) fungal propagules, though these were of unknown condition...
May 9, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486660/non-redfield-nutrient-synergy-and-flexible-internal-elemental-stoichiometry-in-a-marine-bacterium
#13
Kathleen Trautwein, Christoph Feenders, Reiner Hulsch, Hanna S Ruppersberg, Annemieke Strijkstra, Mirjam Kant, Jannes Vagts, Daniel Wünsch, Bernhard Michalke, Michael Maczka, Stefan Schulz, Helmut Hillebrand, Bernd Blasius, Ralf Rabus
The stoichiometric constraints of algal growth are well understood, whereas there is less knowledge for heterotrophic bacterioplankton. Growth of the marine bacterium Phaeobacter inhibens DSM 17395, belonging to the globally distributed Roseobacter group, was studied across a wide concentration range of NH4+ and PO43-. The unique dataset covers 415 different concentration pairs, corresponding to 207 different molar N: P ratios (from 10-2 to 105). Maximal growth (by growth rate and biomass yield) was observed within a restricted concentration range at N: P ratios (∼50 - 120) markedly above Redfield...
May 9, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486619/comparing-the-responses-of-rumen-ciliate-protozoa-and-bacteria-to-excess-carbohydrate
#14
César R V Teixeira, Rogério de Paula Lana, Junyi Tao, Timothy J Hackmann
When given excess carbohydrate, certain microbial species respond by storing energy (synthesizing reserve carbohydrate), but other species respond by dissipating the energy as heat (spilling energy). To determine the importance of these responses in the rumen microbial community, this study quantified the responses of mixed ciliate protozoa vs. bacteria to glucose. We hypothesized that ciliates would direct more glucose to synthesis of reserve carbohydrate (and less to energy spilling) than would bacteria. Ciliates and bacteria were isolated from rumen fluid using filtration and centrifugation, resuspended in nitrogen-free buffer to limit growth, and dosed with 5 mM glucose...
May 9, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475713/tcdd-influences-reservoir-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-murine-gut-microbiome
#15
Robert D Stedtfeld, Tiffany M Stedtfeld, Kelly A Fader, Maggie R Williams, Prianca Bhaduri, John Quensen, Timothy R Zacharewski, James M Tiedje, Syed A Hashsham
Dysbiosis of the gut microbiome via antibiotics, changes in diet, and infection can select for bacterial groups that more frequently harbor antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs). However, the impact of environmental toxicants on the reservoir of ARGs in the gut microbiome has received less attention. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist with multiple toxic health effects including immune dysfunction. The selective pressure of TCDD on the abundance of ARG and MGE harboring gut populations was examined using C57BL/6 mice exposed to 0-30 μg/kg TCDD for 28 and 92 days with the latter having a 30-day recovery period...
May 4, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460085/the-janus-face-of-iron-on-anoxic-worlds-iron-oxides-are-both-protective-and-destructive-to-life-on-the-early-earth-and-present-day-mars
#16
Jennifer Wadsworth, Charles S Cockell
The surface of the early Earth was probably subjected to a higher flux of ultraviolet (UV) radiation than today. UV radiation is known to severely damage DNA and other key molecules of life. Using a liquid culture and a rock analogue system we investigated the interplay of protective and deleterious effects of iron oxides under UV radiation on the viability of the model organism, Bacillus subtilis. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide there exists a fine balance between iron oxide's protective effects against this radiation and its deleterious effects caused by Photo-Fenton reactions...
April 28, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459967/survival-and-electrotransformation-of-pseudomonas-syringae-strains-under-simulated-cloud-like-conditions
#17
Laurine S Blanchard, Anaïs Monin, Hounaïda Ouertani, Lamia Touaibia, Elisa Michel, François Buret, Pascal Simonet, Cindy E Morris, Sandrine Demanèche
To diversify their genetic material, and thereby allow adaptation to environmental disturbances and colonization of new ecological niches, bacteria use various evolutionary processes, including the acquisition of new genetic material by horizontal transfer mechanisms such as conjugation, transduction and transformation. Electrotransformation mediated by lightning-related electrical phenomena may constitute an additional gene transfer mechanism occurring in nature. The presence in clouds of bacteria such as Pseudomonas syringae capable of forming ice nuclei that lead to precipitation and that are likely to be involved in triggering lightning, led us to postulate that natural electrotransformation in clouds may contribute to the adaptive potential of these bacteria...
April 28, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449125/saccharomyces-cerevisiae-accumulates-gapdh-derived-peptides-on-its-cell-surface-that-induce-death-of-non-saccharomyces-yeasts-by-cell-to-cell-contact
#18
Patrícia Branco, Varongsiri Kemsawasd, Lara Santos, Mário Diniz, Jorge Caldeira, Maria Gabriela Almeida, Nils Arneborg, Helena Albergaria
During wine fermentations Saccharomyces cerevisiae starts to excrete into the growth medium antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that induce death of non-Saccharomyces yeasts at the end of exponential growth phase (24-48 h). Those AMPs were found to derive from the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). On the other hand, the early death of non-Saccharomyces yeasts during wine fermentations was also found to be mediated by a cell-to-cell contact mechanism. Since GAPDH is a cell wall-associated protein in S...
April 25, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449118/polyphosphate-accumulating-bacterial-community-colonizing-the-calcium-bodies-of-terrestrial-isopod-crustaceans-titanethes-albus-and-hyloniscus-riparius
#19
Rok Kostanjšek, Vittori Miloš, Vesna Srot, Peter A van Aken, Štrus Jasna
Terrestrial isopods from the group Trichoniscidae accumulate calcium in specialized organs, known as the calcium bodies. These consist of two pairs of epithelial sacs located alongside the digestive system. These organs contain various forms of calcium and constantly present bacteria. To elucidate their origin and role, we analyzed the bacteria of the calcium bodies in the cave-dwelling isopod Titanethes albus and the epigean species Hyloniscus riparius, by microscopy, histochemistry, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, 16S rRNA analysis and in situ hybridization...
April 25, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431154/physiological-characterization-of-a-halotolerant-anoxygenic-phototrophic-fe-ii-oxidizing-green-sulfur-bacterium-isolated-from-a-marine-sediment
#20
Katja Laufer, Annika Niemeyer, Verena Nikeleit, Maximilian Halama, James M Byrne, Andreas Kappler
Anoxygenic photoautotrophic bacteria which use light energy and electrons from Fe(II) for growth, so-called photoferrotrophs, are suggested to have been amongst the first phototrophic microorganisms on Earth and to have contributed to the deposition of sedimentary iron mineral deposits, i.e. banded iron formations. To date only two isolates of marine photoferrotrophic bacteria exist, both of which are closely related purple non-sulfur bacteria. Here we present a novel green-sulfur photoautotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizer isolated from a marine coastal sediment, Chlorobium sp...
April 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
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