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FEMS Microbiology Ecology

Samir Fakhour, Jérôme Ambroise, François Renoz, Vincent Foray, Jean-Luc Gala, Thierry Hance
Insects are frequently associated with bacteria that can have significant ecological and evolutionary impacts on their hosts. To date, few studies have examined the influence of environmental factors to microbiome composition of aphids. The current work assessed the diversity of bacterial communities of five cereal aphid species (Sitobion avenae, Rhopalosiphum padi, R. maidis, Sipha maydis and Diuraphis noxia) collected across Morocco and covering a wide range of environmental conditions. We aimed to test whether symbiont combinations are host or environment specific...
January 16, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Pablo Aguilar, Cristina Dorador, Irma Vila, Ruben Sommaruga
High-elevation lakes in the tropics are subject to extreme environmental fluctuations and microbes may harbour a unique genomic repertoire, but their composition and diversity are largely unknown. Here we compared the planktonic bacterial community composition (BCC) and diversity of three tropical lakes located in the high Andean plateau (???4400 m above sea level) during the dry and wet season. Diversity in these lakes was higher in the cool and wet season than in the warm and dry one. OTUs composition was significantly different among lakes and between seasons...
January 16, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Jinlyung Choi, Elizabeth L Rieke, Thomas B Moorman, Michelle L Soupir, Heather K Allen, Schuyler D Smith, Adina Howe
Use of antibiotics in human and animal medicine has applied selective pressure for the global dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Therefore, it is of interest to develop strategies to mitigate the continued amplification and transmission of resistance genes in environmental reservoirs such as farms, hospitals, and watersheds. However, the efficacy of mitigation strategies is difficult to evaluate because it is unclear which resistance genes are important to monitor, and which primers to use to detect those genes...
January 15, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Katherine Graham, Linsey C Marr, Lauren M Sassoubre, Alexandria B Boehm
We characterized the microbial communities in SSA, water, and sand of three beaches in central California (Cowell Beach, Baker Beach, and Lovers Point) by sequencing the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Average concentrations of 16S rRNA genes in SSA ranged from 2.4 × 104 to 1.4 × 105 gene copies per m3 of air. A total of 9,781 distinct OTUs were identified in SSA and of these, 1,042 OTUs were found in SSA of all beaches. SSA microbial communities included marine taxa, as well as some associated with the terrestrial environment...
January 15, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Roman J Dial, Gerard Q Ganey, S McKenzie Skiles
Red-colored secondary pigments in glacier algae play an adaptive role in melting snow and ice. We advance this hypothesis using a model of color-based absorption of irradiance, an experiment with colored particles in snow, and the natural history of glacier algae. Carotenoids and phenols-astaxanthin in snow-algae and purpurogallin in ice-algae-shield photosynthetic apparatus by absorbing over-abundant visible wavelengths, then dissipating the excess radiant energy as heat. This heat melts proximal ice crystals, providing liquid-water in a 0°C environment and freeing-up nutrients bound in frozen water...
January 15, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Bonnie Waring, Christine V Hawkes
Changes in the structure and function of soil microbial communities can drive substantial ecosystem feedbacks to altered precipitation. However, the ecological mechanisms underlying community responses to environmental change are not well understood. We used an 18-month soil reciprocal transplant experiment along a steep precipitation gradient to quantify how changes in rainfall affected bacterial community structure. We also conducted an enhanced dispersal treatment to ask whether higher immigration rates of taxa from the surrounding environment would accelerate community responses to climate change...
January 9, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Tania Rosas, Carlos García-Ferris, Rebeca Domínguez-Santos, Pablo Llop, Amparo Latorre, Andrés Moya
Eukaryotes have established symbiotic relationship with microorganisms, which enables them to accomplish functions that they cannot perform alone. In the German cockroach Blattella germanica, the obligate endosymbiont Blattabacterium coexists with a rich gut microbiota. The transmission of Blattabacterium is vertical but little is known about how the gut microbiota colonizes newborn individuals. In this study, we treated B. germanica populations with rifampicin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, during two generations and analyzed gut bacterial composition and the Blattabacterium load in control and rifampicin-treated populations...
January 9, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
María Carla Martini, María Paula Quiroga, Mariano Pistorio, Antonio Lagares, Daniela Centrón, María Florencia Del Papa
Rapid dissemination and emergence of novel antibiotic resistance genes among bacteria are rising problems worldwide. Since their discovery in clinical isolates in the late 1980s, class 1 integrons have been found in a wide range of bacterial genera and have been extensively studied as contributors to dissemination of antibiotic resistance.The present study aimed to investigate the presence and structure of class 1 integrons in plasmid-carrying bacterial isolates obtained from a biopurification system used for decontamination of pesticide-contaminated water as well as their possible role as reservoir of antimicrobial-resistance gene cassettes...
December 27, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
An-Dong Li, Jacob W Metch, Yulin Wang, Emily Garner, An Ni Zhang, Maria V Riquelme, Peter J Vikesland, Amy Pruden, Tong Zhang
With the growing application of high-throughput sequencing-based metagenomics for profiling antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), comparison of sample pretreatment and DNA extraction methods are needed to move towards standardized comparisons among laboratories. Three widely employed DNA extraction methods (FastDNA® Spin Kit for Soil, PowerSoil® DNA Isolation Kit, and ZR Fecal DNA MiniPrep™), with and without preservation in 50% ethanol and freezing, were applied to the influent, activated sludge and effluent of two WWTPs, in Hong Kong and in the USA...
December 27, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Laura Baldo, Joan Lluís Riera, Konstantina Mitsi, Joan Lluís Pretus
Compositional variation of the gut microbiota across host allopatric populations can reflect both adaptation and stochasticity since the time of separation. Major factors shaping this variation include the host phylogeographic and demographic history, the microbiota inheritance, environmental inputs and dispersal of bacteria. Here we explored the impact of these factors in driving gut community diversity in seven allopatric populations of the omnivorous lizard Podarcis lilfordi from the Menorcan coastal islets, all descending from an ancestral mainland population...
December 27, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Zhiwei Liang, Michael Siegert, Wenwen Fang, Yu Sun, Feng Jiang, Hui Lu, Guang-Hao Chen, Shanquan Wang
Urban rivers constitute a major part of urban drainage systems, and play critical roles in connecting other surface waters in urban areas. Black-odorous urban rivers are widely found in the developing countries experiencing rapid urbanization. The mismatch between urbanization and sewage treatment is thought to be the reason of the blackening and odorization phenomenon. This phenomenon is likely a complex bio-geochemical process of which the microbial interactions with the environment are not fully understood...
December 27, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Jennifer Yuet Ha Lai, Hao Zhang, Miranda Hei Yin Chiang, Clare Hau In Lun, Rui Zhang, Stanley Chun Kwan Lau
E. coli colonizes various body parts of animal hosts as a commensal and a pathogen. It can also persist in the external environment in the absence of fecal pollution. It remains unclear how this species has evolved to adapt to such contrasting habitats. Lysogeny plays pivotal roles in the diversification of the phenotypic and ecologic characters of E. coli as a symbiont. We hypothesized that lysogeny could also confer fitness to survival in the external environment. To test this hypothesis, we used the induced phages of an E...
December 27, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Edward Topp, Joakim Larsson, Daniel Miller, Christel Van den Eede, Marko Virta
A roundtable discussion held at the 4th international symposium on the Environmental Dimension of Antibiotic Resistance (EDAR4) considered key issues concerning the impact on the environment of antibiotic use in agriculture and aquaculture, and emissions from antibiotic manufacturing. The critical control points for reducing emissions of antibiotics from agriculture are antibiotic stewardship, and the pre-treatment of manure and sludge to abate antibiotic resistant bacteria. Antibiotics are sometimes added to fish and shellfish production sites via the feed, representing a direct route of contamination of the aquatic environment...
December 22, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Vicente Pérez-Brocal, Antoine Andremont, Andrés Moya
The isolated community of the Wayampi Amerindians has been extensively studied for the presence of beta lactamase-producing enterobacteria and their gut microbiota. However, no information about their virome was available. This study tries to establish potential associations between the virome and diverse epidemiological data, through the metagenomic study of the faecal prophages and DNA viruses from 31 samples collected in 2010. Taxonomic assignments, composition, abundance and diversity analyses were obtained to characterize the virome and were compared between groups according to several demographic, environmental and medical data...
December 20, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Flávia Viana, Laura-Carlota Paz, Karen Methling, Christian F Damgaard, Michael Lalk, Andreas Schramm, Marie B Lund
Verminephrobacter, the most common specific symbionts in the nephridia (excretory organs) of lumbricid earthworms, have been shown to improve reproduction of the garden earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata under nutrient limitation. It is unknown, how general this beneficial trait is in the Verminephrobacter-earthworm symbiosis, whether other nephridial symbionts also affect host fitness, and what the mechanism of the fitness increase is. Here we report beneficial effects of Verminephrobacter and Candidatus Nephrothrix on life history traits of the compost worm Eisenia andrei, which in addition to these two symbionts also hosts Agromyces-like bacteria in its mixed nephridial community: while growth was identical between control, Verminephrobacter-free, and aposymbiotic worms, control worms produced significantly more cocoons and offspring than both Verminephrobacter-free and aposymbiotic worms, confirming the reproductive benefit of Verminephrobacter in a second host with different ecology and feeding behavior...
December 20, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Yang Song, Nilusha Malmuthuge, Michael A Steele, Le Luo Guan
This study aimed to characterize mucosa- and digesta-associated microbiota in the hindgut (cecum, colon and rectum) of newborn (NB, n = 6), day 7 (n = 6), day 21 (n = 6), and day 42 (n = 6) Holstein bull calves using amplicon sequencing. At birth, the hindgut microbiota was diverse and mucosa-attached microbial community had higher individual variation than that of digesta-associated community. In total, 16 phyla were identified with Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria being the dominant microbial taxa in the hindgut...
December 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Raeid M M Abed, Katharina Kohls, Julie Leloup, Dirk de Beer
Aerobic heterotrophic microorganisms (AH) play a significant role in carbon cycling in cyanobacterial mats, however, little is known about their abundance, diversity and interaction with cyanobacteria. Using catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH), bacterial counts in the mat's oxic layer reached a mean of 2.23 ± 0.4 × 1010 cells g-1. Cultivation of AH yielded strains belonging to Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Gammaproteobacteria and Haloarchaea. 16S rRNA bacterial sequences retrieved from the mat's oxic layer were related to Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi and Proteobacteria, whereas archaeal sequences belonged to Crenarchaeota and Haloarchaea...
December 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
M Inés Bellini, Deepak Kumaresan, Silvana Tarlera, J Colin Murrell, Ana Fernández Scavino
Groundwater reservoirs constitute important freshwater resources. However, these ecosystems are highly vulnerable to contamination and have to rely on the resident microbiota to attenuate the impact of this contamination. Nitrate is one of the main contaminants found in groundwater and denitrification is the main process that removes the compound. In this study, the response to nutrient load on indigenous microbial communities in groundwater from a low impacted aquifer in Uruguay was evaluated. Denitrification rates were measured in groundwater samples from three different sites with nitrate, acetate and pyrite amendments...
December 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Maya Britstein, Kumar Saurav, Roberta Teta, Gerardo Della Sala, Rinat Bar-Shalom, Nausicaa Stoppelli, Luca Zoccarato, Valeria Costantino, Laura Steindler
Marine sponges form symbiotic relationships with complex microbial communities, yet little is known about the mechanisms by which these microbes regulate their behavior through gene expression. Many bacterial communities regulate gene expression using chemical signaling termed quorum sensing. While a few previous studies have shown presence of N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) based quorum sensing in marine sponges, the chemical identity of AHL signals has been published for only two sponge species. In this study we screened for AHLs in extracts from 15 sponge species (109 specimens in total) from the Mediterranean and Red Sea, using a wide-range AHL-biosensor...
December 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Ben Raymond, Brian A Federici
EFSA responded to our perspective article on the safe use of the insect pathogen Bacillus thrurigiensis (Bt). In doing so they admitted that there is no direct evidence to suggest that B. thuringiensis can cause diarrhoea. They nevertheless continue to repeat the assertion that Bt cannot be distinguished from Bacillus cereus, even though nearly all Bt strains, and certainly all biopesticide strains, can be distinguished from B. cereus using multi-locus sequencing typing. EFSA also continue to repeat the unsupported and speculative hypothesis that Bt strains could be capable of causing cryptic infections in humans...
December 12, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
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