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Molecular Neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634861/retraction-note-to-the-critical-role-of-srpk1-in-emt-of-human-glioblastoma-in-the-spinal-cord
#1
Zhengbu Liao, Jing Wu, Mingjun Wu, Yi Yan, Haiquan Wang, Chongjie Cheng, Wenyuan Tang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634860/molecular-chaperone-hsp70-and-its-constitutively-active-form-hsc70-play-an-indispensable-role-during-eye-development-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#2
Ajay Kumar, Anand K Tiwari
In the present study, we demonstrate that molecular chaperone Hsp70 and Hsc70 is essential for normal organization and development of ommatidial cells in Drosophila melanogaster eye. An exogenously expressed dominant negative mutant of Hsp70 (K71E) and Hsc70.4 (K71S and D206S) in an eye-specific manner resulted in eye degeneration that includes loss of eye pigment, disorganized ommatidia, abnormality in bristle cell arrangement and reduction in the eye size. The developmental organization of ommatidial cells (cone, photoreceptor, pigment, and bristle cell complex) was disturbed in Hsp70 and Hsc70 mutants...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634859/erratum-to-erythropoietin-rescues-memory-impairment-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-via-the-epo-r-jak2-stat5-pi3k-akt-gsk-3%C3%AE-pathway
#3
Shengli Ma, Juwu Chen, Chen Chen, Na Wei, Jingjing Xu, Guohui Yang, Nan Wang, Yu Meng, Jia Ren, Zongchao Xu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631188/role-of-clu-picalm-and-tnk1-genotypes-in-aging-with-and-without-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Davide Seripa, Francesco Panza, Giulia Paroni, Grazia D'Onofrio, Paola Bisceglia, Carolina Gravina, Maria Urbano, Madia Lozupone, Vincenzo Solfrizzi, Alessandra Bizzarro, Virginia Boccardi, Chiara Piccininni, Antonio Daniele, Giancarlo Logroscino, Patrizia Mecocci, Carlo Masullo, Antonio Greco
Healthy and impaired cognitive aging may be associated to different prevalences of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In a multicenter case-control association study, we studied the SNPs rs11136000 (clusterin, CLU), rs541458 (phosphatidylinositol binding clatrin assembly protein, PICALM), and rs1554948 (transcription factor A, and tyrosine kinase, non-receptor, 1, TNK1) according to the three age groups 50-65 years (group 1), 66-80 years (group 2), and 80+ years (group 3) in 569 older subjects without cognitive impairment (NoCI) and 520 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624895/semaphorin4d-plexinb1-signaling-attenuates-photoreceptor-outer-segment-phagocytosis-by-reducing-rac1-activity-of-rpe-cells
#5
Ayelen Bulloj, Arvydas Maminishkis, Masayuki Mizui, Silvia C Finnemann
Semaphorins form a family of secreted and membrane-bound molecules that were identified originally as axonal guidance factors during neuronal development. Given their wide distribution in many including mature tissues, semaphorin 4D (sema4D) and its main functional receptor plexin B1 (plxnB1) are expected to fulfill additional functions that remain to be uncovered. A main characteristic of the plexin receptor family is its ability to reorganize the cytoskeleton. PlxnB1 specifically may directly interact with Rho family GTPases to regulate F-actin driven pathways in cells in culture...
June 17, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624894/suppression-of-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-improves-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats
#6
Hang Zhao, Zhuo Chen, Li-Juan Xie, Gui-Feng Liu
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-ҡB) signaling pathway in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. A total of 125 male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were selected for this study. Fifty SD rats were randomly divided into the control, sham injury, 0.5 h perfusion, 2 h perfusion, and 6 h perfusion groups to establish the model of ischemia-reperfusion. The rat brain injury model was established using the other 75 male SD rats, and different model groups with different treatments were established (15 rats per group): model control group (injected with 10 μL of saline solution), model + TAK-242 group (injected with resatorvid), model + PDTC group (injected with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate), model + LPS group (injected with lipopolysaccharide), and sham injury group (incision to the neck skin and injected with 10 μL of saline solution for normal rats)...
June 17, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623618/endothelin-1-decreases-excitability-of-the-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-via-etb-receptor
#7
Nandkishor K Mule, Jitendra N Singh, Kunal U Shah, Anil Gulati, Shyam S Sharma
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been demonstrated to be a pro-nociceptive as well as an anti-nociceptive agent. However, underlying molecular mechanisms for these pain modulatory actions remain unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of ET-1 to alter the nociceptor excitability using a patch clamp technique in acutely dissociated rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. ET-1 produced an increase in threshold current to evoke an action potential (I threshold) and hyperpolarization of resting membrane potential (RMP) indicating decreased excitability of DRG neurons...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623617/decrease-in-adult-neurogenesis-and-neuroinflammation-are-involved-in-spatial-memory-impairment-in-the-streptozotocin-induced-model-of-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease-in-rats
#8
Taysa Bervian Bassani, Jéssica M Bonato, Meira M F Machado, Valentín Cóppola-Segovia, Eric L R Moura, Silvio M Zanata, Rúbia M M W Oliveira, Maria A B F Vital
Early impairments in cerebral glucose metabolism and insulin signaling pathways may participate in the pathogenesis of the sporadic form of Alzheimer's disease (sAD). Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of low doses of streptozotocin (STZ) are used to mimic sAD and study these alterations in rodents. Streptozotocin causes impairments in insulin signaling and has been reported to trigger several alterations in the brain, such as oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and dysfunctions in adult neurogenesis, which may be involved in cognitive decline and are features of human AD...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623616/cyclosporine-a-mediated-il-6-expression-promotes-neural-induction-in-pluripotent-stem-cells
#9
Ashwathnarayan Ashwini, Sushma S Naganur, Bhaskar Smitha, Preethi Sheshadri, Jyothi Prasanna, Anujith Kumar
Differentiation of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) to neural lineages has gathered huge attention in both basic research and regenerative medicine. The major hurdle lies in the efficiency of differentiation and identification of small molecules that facilitate neurogenesis would partly circumvent this limitation. The small molecule Cyclosporine A (CsA), a commonly used immunosuppressive drug, has been shown to enhance in vivo neurogenesis. To extend the information to in vitro neurogenesis, we examined the effect of CsA on neural differentiation of PSCs...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620701/chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-induced-synaptic-proteome-changes-in-the-rat-cerebral-cortex
#10
Katalin Völgyi, Péter Gulyássy, Mihail Ivilinov Todorov, Gina Puska, Kata Badics, Dávid Hlatky, Katalin Adrienna Kékesi, Gabriella Nyitrai, András Czurkó, László Drahos, Arpád Dobolyi
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) evokes mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and contributes to the progression of vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). How CCH induces these neurodegenerative processes that may spread along the synaptic network and whether they are detectable at the synaptic proteome level of the cerebral cortex remains to be established. In the present study, we report the synaptic protein changes in the cerebral cortex after stepwise bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) induced CCH in the rat...
June 15, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616718/effect-of-intrastriatal-6-ohda-lesions-on-extrastriatal-brain-structures-in-the-mouse
#11
Birte Becker, Melek Demirbas, Sonja Johann, Adib Zendedel, Cordian Beyer, Hans Clusmann, Stefan Jean-Pierre Haas, Andreas Wree, Sonny Kian Hwie Tan, Markus Kipp
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons, resulting in motor and non-motor symptoms. The underlying pathology of non-motor symptoms is poorly understood. Discussed are pathological changes of extrastriatal brain structures. In this study, we characterized histopathological alterations of extrastriatal brain structures in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) PD animal model. Lesions were induced by unilateral stereotactic injections of 6-OHDA into the striatum or medial forebrain bundle of adult male mice...
June 14, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612259/apoptosis-following-cortical-spreading-depression-in-juvenile-rats
#12
Ali Jahanbazi Jahan-Abad, Leila Alizadeh, Sajad Sahab Negah, Parastoo Barati, Maryam Khaleghi Ghadiri, Sven G Meuth, Stjepana Kovac, Ali Gorji
Repetitive cortical spreading depression (CSD) can lead to cell death in immature brain tissue. Caspases are involved in neuronal cell death in several CSD-related neurological disorders, such as stroke and epilepsy. Yet, whether repetitive CSD itself can induce caspase activation in adult or juvenile tissue remains unknown. Inducing repetitive CSD in somatosensory cortices of juvenile and adult rats in vivo, we thus aimed to investigate the effect of repetitive CSD on the expression caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-12 in different brain regions using immunohistochemistry and western blotting techniques...
June 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612258/downregulated-glia-interplay-and-increased-mirna-155-as-promising-markers-to-track-als-at-an%C3%A2-early-stage
#13
Carolina Cunha, Catarina Santos, Cátia Gomes, Adelaide Fernandes, Alexandra Marçal Correia, Ana Maria Sebastião, Ana Rita Vaz, Dora Brites
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease of unknown cause. Absence of specific targets and biomarkers compromise the development of new therapeutic strategies and of innovative tools to stratify patients and assess their responses to treatment. Here, we investigate changes in neuroprotective-neuroinflammatory actions in the spinal cord of SOD1 (G93A) mice, at presymptomatic and symptomatic stages to identify stage-specific biomarkers and potential targets. Results showed that in the presymptomatic stage, there are alterations in both astrocytes and microglia, which comprise decreased expression of GFAP and S100B and upregulation of GLT-1, as well as reduced expression of CD11b, M2-phenotype markers, and a set of inflammatory mediators...
June 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612257/peripheral-alterations-in-cytokine-and-chemokine-levels-after-antidepressant-drug-treatment-for-major-depressive-disorder-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Cristiano A Köhler, Thiago H Freitas, Brendon Stubbs, Michael Maes, Marco Solmi, Nicola Veronese, Nayanna Q de Andrade, Gerwyn Morris, Brisa S Fernandes, André R Brunoni, Nathan Herrmann, Charles L Raison, Brian J Miller, Krista L Lanctôt, André F Carvalho
Mounting evidence suggests that aberrations in immune-inflammatory pathways contribute to the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD), and individuals with MDD may have elevated levels of predominantly pro-inflammatory cytokines and C-reactive protein. In addition, previous meta-analyses suggest that antidepressant drug treatment may decrease peripheral levels of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and IL-6. Recently, several new studies examining the effect of antidepressants on these cytokines have been published, and so we performed an updated meta-analysis of studies that measured peripheral levels of cytokines and chemokines during antidepressant treatment in patients with MDD...
June 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612256/low-dose-of-doxorubicin-potentiates-the-effect-of-temozolomide-in-glioblastoma-cells
#15
Emilly Schlee Villodre, Franciele Cristina Kipper, Andrew Oliveira Silva, Guido Lenz, Patrícia Luciana da Costa Lopez
Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive brain tumor with temozolomide (TMZ)-based chemotherapy as the main therapeutic strategy. Doxorubicin (DOX) is not used in gliomas due to its low bioavailability in the brain; however, new delivery strategies and low doses may be effective in the long term, especially as part of a drug cocktail. Our aim was to evaluate the chronic effects of low doses of DOX and TMZ in GBM. Human U87-ATCC cells and a primary GBM culture were chronically treated with TMZ (5 μM) and DOX (1 and 10 nM) alone or combined...
June 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601976/zika-virus-as-an-emerging-neuropathogen-mechanisms-of-neurovirulence-and-neuro-immune-interactions
#16
REVIEW
Gerwyn Morris, Tatiana Barichello, Brendon Stubbs, Cristiano A Köhler, André F Carvalho, Michael Maes
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arbovirus of the genus Flaviviridae, which causes a febrile illness and has spread from across the Pacific to the Americas in a short timeframe. Convincing evidence has implicated the ZIKV to incident cases of neonatal microcephaly and a set of neurodevelopmental abnormalities referred to as the congenital Zika virus syndrome. In addition, emerging data points to an association with the ZIKV and the development of the so-called Guillain-Barre syndrome, an acute autoimmune polyneuropathy...
June 11, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597397/protein-kinase-c%C3%AE-gene-depletion-protects-against-methamphetamine-induced-impairments-in-recognition-memory-and-erk1-2-signaling-via-upregulation-of-glutathione-peroxidase-1-gene
#17
The-Vinh Tran, Eun-Joo Shin, Lan Thuy Ty Nguyen, Youngho Lee, Dae-Joong Kim, Ji Hoon Jeong, Choon-Gon Jang, Seung-Yeol Nah, Kazuya Toriumi, Toshitaka Nabeshima, Kiyofumi Yamada, Hyoung-Chun Kim
Accumulating evidence has suggested that repeated treatment with methamphetamine (MA) resulted in cognitive impairments. Importantly, we show that selective upregulation of protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of wild-type mice persisted for 28 days post withdrawal of MA. On day 28, the MA-induced increase in phospho-PKCδ expression and decrease in phospho-ERK1/2 expression were significantly attenuated by both the Src inhibitor PP2 and the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH 23390. However, neither protein kinase A inhibitor H89 nor calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor KN93 attenuated MA-induced alterations in phospho-PKCδ expression and phospho-ERK1/2 expression...
June 9, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597396/trpv4-activation-contributes-functional-recovery-from-ischemic-stroke-via-angiogenesis-and-neurogenesis
#18
Chun-Kai Chen, Po-Yuan Hsu, Tzu-Ming Wang, Zhi-Feng Miao, Ruey-Tay Lin, Suh-Hang H Juo
The endothelial transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4 (TRPV4) plays a crucial role in vascular remodeling; however, TRPV4-mediated angiogenesis after ischemic neuronal death as a neurorestorative strategy has not yet been thoroughly examined. In this study, we first tested whether TRPV4 activation can improve functional recovery in rats subjected to transient brain ischemia. The possible mechanisms for TRPV4 activation-promoted functional recovery were explored. A TRPV4 agonist, 4α-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate (4α-PDD), was intravenously injected via the tail vein at 6 h and 1, 2, 3, 4 days after ischemic stroke...
June 9, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597200/the-lesion-analysis-of-cholinergic-neurons-in-5xfad-mouse-model-in-the-three-dimensional-level-of-whole-brain
#19
Huanhuan Yan, Pei Pang, Wenqi Chen, Houze Zhu, K A Henok, Hao Li, Zuoze Wu, Xiao Ke, Jianhua Wu, Tongmei Zhang, Kai Pan, Lei Pei, Yunyun Han, Youming Lu
Cholinergic system is very important for many higher brain functions, including learning and memory. Cholinergic neurons, especially those in the basal forebrain, are specifically susceptible in some neurodegenerative diseases, such as in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we studied the cholinergic system lesion effects of five familial AD mutations in 5XFAD mice, a transgenic mouse model of AD. Although the cholinergic system has been studied in this mouse model, the cholinergic deficits in AD mice have never been systematically mapped in a whole-brain three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction...
June 8, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593436/long-term-plasticity-in-amygdala-circuits-implication-of-cb1-dependent-ltd-in-stress
#20
Bingjin Li, Tongtong Ge, Ranji Cui
The amygdala mediates many forms of emotional learning, during which the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) functions as a major output of the amygdala by converging inputs from the basolateral nucleus (BLA) and other amygdalar subregions. However, the contribution of BLA-CeA synaptic transmission and plasticity of this transmission after exposure to emotional stimuli remains to be completely understood. Using paired recording, we simultaneously recorded BLA and CeA neurons, and observed that BLA-CeA transmission was glutamatergic...
June 7, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
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