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Molecular Neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299574/physiological-and-pathological-roles-of-15-deoxy-%C3%AE-12-14-prostaglandin-j2-in-the-central-nervous-system-and-neurological-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Tatsurou Yagami, Yasuhiro Yamamoto, Hiromi Koma
Prostaglandins (PGs) are divided into conventional PGs, e.g., PGD2, and cyclopentenone-type PGs, e.g., 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14) prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2). PGD2 is non-enzymatically metabolized to PGJ2, Δ(12)-PGJ2, and 15d-PGJ2. In the central nervous system, 15d-PGJ2 differentiates embryonic midbrain cells into dopaminergic neuronal cells via its nuclear peroxysome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). 15d-PGJ2 exerts conflict actions: proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory activities. In the brain, 15d-PGJ2 possesses opposite functions as a neuroprotectant at low concentrations and a neurotoxicant at high concentrations in the brain...
March 16, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290152/vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-isoform-b-stimulates-neurovascular-repair-after-ischemic-stroke-by-promoting-the-function-of-pericytes-via-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-receptor-1
#2
Noëmie Jean LeBlanc, Revathy Guruswamy, Ayman ElAli
Ischemic stroke triggers endogenous angiogenic mechanisms, which correlates with longer survival in patients. As such, promoting angiogenesis appears to be a promising approach. Experimental studies investigated mostly the potent angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor isoform-A (VEGF-A). However, VEGF-A increases the risk of destabilizing the brain microvasculature, thus hindering the translation of its usage in clinics. An attractive alternative VEGF isoform-B (VEGF-B) was recently reported to act as a survival factor rather than a potent angiogenic factor...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290151/deficit-schizophrenia-is-characterized-by-defects-in-igm-mediated-responses-to-tryptophan-catabolites-trycats-a-paradigm-shift-towards-defects-in-natural-self-regulatory-immune-responses-coupled-with-mucosa-derived-trycat-pathway-activation
#3
Buranee Kanchanatawan, Sunee Sirivichayakul, Kiat Ruxrungtham, André F Carvalho, Michel Geffard, George Anderson, Michael Maes
Deficit schizophrenia is accompanied by mucosa-associated activation of the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway, as indicated by increased IgA responses to noxious (NOX) TRYCATs, but not regulatory or protective (PRO) TRYCATs, suggesting increased neurotoxic, excitotoxic, inflammatory, and oxidative potential. No previous studies examined IgM-mediated autoimmune responses to the TRYCAT pathway in deficit versus nondeficit schizophrenia. We measured IgM responses to NOX TRYCATs, namely, quinolinic acid (QA), 3-OH-kynurenine (3HK), picolinic acid (PA), and xanthurenic (XA) acid, and PRO TRYCATs, including kynurenic acid (KA) and anthranilic acid (AA), in 40 healthy controls and 40 deficit and 40 nondeficit schizophrenic patients...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290150/extracellular-matrix-modulation-is-driven-by-experience-dependent-plasticity-during-stroke-recovery
#4
Miriana Jlenia Quattromani, Mathilde Pruvost, Carla Guerreiro, Fredrik Backlund, Elisabet Englund, Anders Aspberg, Tomasz Jaworski, Jakob Hakon, Karsten Ruscher, Leszek Kaczmarek, Denis Vivien, Tadeusz Wieloch
Following stroke, complete cellular death in the ischemic brain area may ensue, with remaining brain areas undergoing tissue remodelling to various degrees. Experience-dependent brain plasticity exerted through an enriched environment (EE) promotes remodelling after central nervous system injury, such as stroke. Post-stroke tissue reorganization is modulated by growth inhibitory molecules differentially expressed within the ischemic hemisphere, like chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans found in perineuronal nets (PNNs)...
March 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290149/characteristic-of-extracellular-zn-2-influx-in-the-middle-aged-dentate-gyrus-and-its-involvement-in-attenuation-of-ltp
#5
Atsushi Takeda, Yuta Koike, Misa Osaw, Haruna Tamano
An increased influx of extracellular Zn(2+) into neurons is a cause of cognitive decline. The influx of extracellular Zn(2+) into dentate granule cells was compared between young and middle-aged rats because of vulnerability of the dentate gyrus to aging. The influx of extracellular Zn(2+) into dentate granule cells was increased in middle-aged rats after injection of AMPA and high K(+) into the dentate gyrus, but not in young rats. Simultaneously, high K(+)-induced attenuation of LTP was observed in middle-aged rats, but not in young rats...
March 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290148/erratum-to-the-antidepressant-fluoxetine-mobilizes-vesicles-to-the-recycling-pool-of-rat-hippocampal-synapses-during-high-activity
#6
Jasmin Jung, Kristina Loy, Eva-Maria Schilling, Mareike Röther, Jan M Brauner, Tobias Huth, Ursula Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Christian Alzheimer, Johannes Kornhuber, Oliver Welzel, Teja W Groemer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290147/temporal-profile-and-severity-correlation-of-a-panel-of-rat-spinal-cord-injury-protein-biomarkers
#7
Zhihui Yang, Helen M Bramlett, Ahmed Moghieb, Dongnan Yu, Ping Wang, Fan Lin, Carl Bauer, Tyler M Selig, Emily Jaalouk, Amanda S Weissman, Disa S Rathore, Pammela Romo, Zhiqun Zhang, Ronald L Hayes, Michael Y Wang, W Dalton Dietrich, Kevin K W Wang
In the USA, there are approximately 12,000 new cases of spinal cord injury (SCI) each year and some 1.2 million people living with paralysis due to SCI. Seven percent of them are paralyzed due to an accident or injury occurring while serving in the military. Here, we report a systematic study on protein biomarker candidates in a rat SCI model with either moderate or severe injury. Tissue, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and serum samples were obtained at 4 h, 24 h, and 7 days post-injury. The candidate biomarkers included axonal injury markers αII-spectrin breakdown products (SBDP150/145/120), neuronal cell body injury marker ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1), astrogliosis/astroglial injury markers S100 calcium-binding protein-β (S100β), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and GFAP breakdown products (GBDPs), demyelination marker myelin basic protein (MBP), axonal injury marker phosphorylated neurofilament-H (pNF-H), and neuroinflammation marker interleukin-6 (IL-6)...
March 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290146/cyclooxygenase-2-directs-microglial-activation-mediated-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-leading-to-intrinsic-apoptosis-in-zn-induced-parkinsonism
#8
Amit Kumar Chauhan, Namrata Mittra, Devendra Kumar Patel, Chetna Singh
Inflammation is decisive in zinc (Zn)-induced nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration; however, the contribution of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is not yet known. The present study aimed to explore the role of COX-2 in Zn-induced Parkinsonism and its association with the microglial activation. Male Wistar rats were treated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with Zn as zinc sulphate (20 mg/kg) along with respective controls for 2-12 weeks. In a few sets, animals were also treated with/without celecoxcib (CXB, 20 mg/kg, i...
March 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283888/kinin-receptors-sensitize-trpv4-channel-and-induce-mechanical-hyperalgesia-relevance-to-paclitaxel-induced-peripheral-neuropathy-in-mice
#9
Robson Costa, Maíra A Bicca, Marianne N Manjavachi, Gabriela C Segat, Fabiana Chaves Dias, Elizabeth S Fernandes, João B Calixto
Kinin B1 (B1R) and B2 receptors (B2R) and the transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channel are known to play a critical role in the peripheral neuropathy induced by paclitaxel (PTX) in rodents. However, the downstream pathways activated by kinin receptors as well as the sensitizers of the TRPV4 channel involved in this process remain unknown. Herein, we investigated whether kinins sensitize TRPV4 channels in order to maintain PTX-induced peripheral neuropathy in mice. The mechanical hyperalgesia induced by bradykinin (BK, a B2R agonist) or des-Arg(9)-BK (DABK, a B1R agonist) was inhibited by the selective TRPV4 antagonist HC-067047...
March 10, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283887/arsenic-cadmium-and-lead-like-troglitazone-trigger-ppar%C3%AE-dependent-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-expression-and-subsequent-apoptosis-in-rat-brain-astrocytes
#10
Rajesh Kushwaha, Juhi Mishra, Sachin Tripathi, Puneet Khare, Sanghamitra Bandyopadhyay
We previously demonstrated that arsenic, cadmium, and lead mixture at environmentally relevant doses induces astrocyte apoptosis in the developing brain. Here, we investigated the mechanism and contribution of each metal in inducing the apoptosis. We hypothesized participation of transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), reported to affect astrocyte survival. We treated cultured rat astrocytes with single metals and their combinations and performed apoptosis assay and measured PPARγ expression levels...
March 10, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283886/protein-characterization-of-extracellular-microvesicles-exosomes-released-from-cytotoxin-challenged-rat-cerebrocortical-mixed-culture-and-mouse-n2a-cells
#11
Dhwani Kumar, Rachna Manek, Vijaya Raghavan, Kevin K Wang
A number of neuronal and glial proteins were previously found to be released in free-standing soluble form from cultured brain cells into cell-conditioned media. Here, we sought to examine if similar proteins are also contained in neural and astroglial cell-released extracellular microvesicles/exosomes (MV/E). In this study, MV/E were isolated from cell-conditioned media from control and cytotoxin-challenged rat cerebrocortical mixed culture (CTX) and mouse neuroblastoma N2a cells. Cytotoxin challenges included pro-necrosis calcium ionophore A23187, pro-apoptosis staurosporine (STS), and excitotoxin N-methyl-D-aspartate...
March 10, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283885/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-atorvastatin-by-suppressing-traf3ip2-and-il-17ra-in-human-glioblastoma-spheroids-cultured-in-a-three-dimensional-model-possible-relevance-to-glioblastoma-treatment
#12
Neda Bayat, Somayeh Ebrahimi-Barough, Abbas Norouzi-Javidan, Hooshang Saberi, Mohammad Mehdi Mokhtari Ardakan, Arman Ai, Mostafa Soleimannejad, Jafar Ai
Glioblastoma multiform (GBM) is a primary malignant brain tumor with a few therapeutic targets available for it. The interaction between the immune system and glioma is an important factor that could lead to novel therapeutic approaches to fight glioma. In this study, we investigated in vitro anti-inflammatory and apoptotic activity of atorvastatin in different concentrations 1, 5, and 10 μM on glioma spheroid cells cultured in a three-dimensional model in fibrin gel that indicate the complex in vivo microenvironment better than a simple two-dimensional cell culture...
March 10, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283884/resveratrol-and-brain-mitochondria-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Fernanda Rafaela Jardim, Fernando Tonon de Rossi, Marielle Xavier Nascimento, Renata Gabriele da Silva Barros, Paula Agrizzi Borges, Isabella Cristina Prescilio, Marcos Roberto de Oliveira
Resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene; C14H12O3) is a polyphenolic phytoalexin found in grapes, berries, peanuts, and wines. Resveratrol has been viewed as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and anticancer agent. Moreover, it has been reported that resveratrol modulates mitochondrial function, redox biology, and dynamics in both in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Resveratrol also attenuates mitochondrial impairment induced by certain stressors. Resveratrol upregulates, for example, mitochondria-located antioxidant enzymes, decreasing the production of reactive species by these organelles...
March 10, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283883/a-three-dimensional-culture-system-with-matrigel-promotes-purified-spiral-ganglion-neuron-survival-and-function-in-vitro
#14
Wenqing Yan, Wenwen Liu, Jieyu Qi, Qiaojun Fang, Zhaomin Fan, Gaoying Sun, Yuechen Han, Daogong Zhang, Lei Xu, Mingming Wang, Jianfeng Li, Fangyi Chen, Dong Liu, Renjie Chai, Haibo Wang
In vitro culture of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) is a useful approach to investigate numerous aspects of neuronal behavior and to identify potential therapeutic targets for SGN protection and regeneration. However, the isolation of SGNs and the long-term maintenance of their structure and function in vitro remain challenging. In this study, we isolated SGNs from Bhlhb5-cre and Rosa26-tdTomato mice with fluorescence-activated cell sorting and determined the cell purity. We then encapsulated the pure SGNs in matrigel and cultured the SGNs in vitro...
March 10, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283882/aquaporin-4-as-a-new-target-against-methamphetamine-induced-brain-alterations-focus-on-the-neurogliovascular-unit-and-motivational-behavior
#15
Ricardo Alexandre Leitão, José Sereno, João Miguel Castelhano, Sónia Isabel Gonçalves, Vanessa Coelho-Santos, Carlos Fontes-Ribeiro, Miguel Castelo-Branco, Ana Paula Silva
Methamphetamine (METH) abuse/misuse is a worldwide problem, and despite extensive characterization of its neurotoxicity over the last years, many questions remain unanswered. Recently, it was shown that METH compromises the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and causes a disturbance in the water homeostasis leading to brain edema. Importantly, water transport at BBB is regulated by water channels, aquaporins (AQPs), with AQP4 being expressed in astrocytic end-feet surrounding brain endothelium. Thus, the main goal of this work was to unravel the role of AQP4 under conditions of METH consumption...
March 10, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271403/combination-treatment-with-methylene-blue-and-hypothermia-in-global-cerebral-ischemia
#16
Lei Li, Rongli Yang, Pingjing Li, Hailong Lu, Jingbo Hao, Liyan Li, Donovan Tucker, Quanguang Zhang
Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is the most potent therapeutic strategy for global cerebral ischemia (GCI), usually induced by cardiac arrest. TH has been shown both to suppress the delayed neuronal cell death in the vulnerable hippocampal CA1 subregion and to improve neurological outcomes in experimental animals after GCI. However, given the multiple adverse effects resulting from TH, application of such a therapy is typically limited. In recent years, methylene blue (MB) has emerged as a potential therapeutic drug for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases...
March 7, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271402/cortical-bilateral-adaptations-in-rats-submitted-to-focal-cerebral-ischemia-emphasis-on-glial-metabolism
#17
Yasmine Nonose, Pedro E Gewehr, Roberto F Almeida, Jussemara S da Silva, Bruna Bellaver, Leo A M Martins, Eduardo R Zimmer, Samuel Greggio, Gianina T Venturin, Jaderson C Da Costa, André Quincozes-Santos, Luc Pellerin, Diogo O de Souza, Adriano M de Assis
This study was performed to evaluate the bilateral effects of focal permanent ischemia (FPI) on glial metabolism in the cerebral cortex. Two and 9 days after FPI induction, we analyze [(18)F]FDG metabolism by micro-PET, astrocyte morphology and reactivity by immunohistochemistry, cytokines and trophic factors by ELISA, glutamate transporters by RT-PCR, monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) by western blot, and substrate uptake and oxidation by ex vivo slices model. The FPI was induced surgically by thermocoagulation of the blood in the pial vessels of the motor and sensorimotor cortices in adult (90 days old) male Wistar rats...
March 7, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271401/variants-of-the-eaat2-glutamate-transporter-gene-promoter-are-associated-with-cerebral-palsy-in-preterm-infants
#18
Shavanthi Rajatileka, David Odd, Matthew T Robinson, Alexandra C Spittle, Louis Dwomoh, Maggie Williams, David Harding, Miles Wagstaff, Marie Owen, Charlene Crosby, Jared Ching, Elek Molnár, Karen Luyt, Anikó Váradi
Preterm delivery is associated with neurodevelopmental impairment caused by environmental and genetic factors. Dysfunction of the excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) and the resultant impaired glutamate uptake can lead to neurological disorders. In this study, we investigated the role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; g.-200C>A and g.-181A>C) in the EAAT2 promoter in susceptibility to brain injury and neurodisability in very preterm infants born at or before 32-week gestation. DNA isolated from newborns' dried blood spots were used for pyrosequencing to detect both SNPs...
March 7, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265857/differences-in-5-ht2a-and-mglu2-receptor-expression-levels-and-repressive-epigenetic-modifications-at-the-5-ht2a-promoter-region-in-the-roman-low-rla-i-and-high-rha-i-avoidance-rat-strains
#19
Luna Fomsgaard, Jose L Moreno, Mario de la Fuente Revenga, Tomasz Brudek, Dea Adamsen, Cristobal Rio-Alamos, Justin Saunders, Anders Bue Klein, Ignasi Oliveras, Toni Cañete, Gloria Blazquez, Adolf Tobeña, Albert Fernandez-Teruel, Javier Gonzalez-Maeso, Susana Aznar
The serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) and metabotropic glutamate 2 (mGlu2) receptors regulate each other and are associated with schizophrenia. The Roman high- (RHA-I) and the Roman low- (RLA-I) avoidance rat strains present well-differentiated behavioral profiles, with the RHA-I strain emerging as a putative genetic rat model of schizophrenia-related features. The RHA-I strain shows increased 5-HT2A and decreased mGlu2 receptor binding levels in prefrontal cortex (PFC). Here, we looked for differences in gene expression and transcriptional regulation of these receptors...
March 6, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265856/dram-is-involved-in-regulating-nucleoside-analog-induced-neuronal-autophagy-in-a-p53-independent-manner
#20
Ziyun Gao, Junqi Shan, Bishi Wang, Luxin Qiao, Dexi Chen, Yulin Zhang
The widespread use of combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART) has not decreased the prevalence of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), a type of neurodegenerative disease, even though cART effectively inhibits virus colonization in the central nervous system. Therefore, anti-retroviral agents cannot be fully excluded from the pathogenesis of HAND. Our previous study reported that long-term nucleoside analogue (NA) exposure induced mitochondrial toxicity in the cortical neurons of HAND patients and mice, but the exact mechanism of NA-associated neurotoxicity has remained unclear...
March 6, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
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