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Molecular Neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534275/sex-bias-in-pathogenesis-of-autoimmune-neuroinflammation-relevance-for-dimethyl-fumarate-immunomodulatory-anti-oxidant-action
#1
Zorica Stojić-Vukanić, Jelena Kotur-Stevuljević, Mirjana Nacka-Aleksić, Duško Kosec, Ivana Vujnović, Ivan Pilipović, Mirjana Dimitrijević, Gordana Leposavić
In the present study, upon showing sexual dimorphism in dimethyl fumarate (DMF) efficacy to moderate the clinical severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Dark Agouti rats, cellular and molecular substrate of this dimorphism was explored. In rats of both sexes, DMF administration from the day of immunization attenuated EAE severity, but this effect was more prominent in males leading to loss of the sexual dimorphism observed in vehicle-administered controls. Consistently, in male rats, DMF was more efficient in diminishing the number of CD4+ T lymphocytes infiltrating spinal cord (SC) and their reactivation, the number of IL-17+ T lymphocytes and particularly cellularity of their highly pathogenic IFN-γ+GM-CSF+IL-17+ subset...
May 22, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534274/exploring-the-validity-of-proposed-transgenic-animal-models-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd
#2
REVIEW
June Bryan de la Peña, Irene Joy Dela Peña, Raly James Custodio, Chrislean Jun Botanas, Hee Jin Kim, Jae Hoon Cheong
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, behavioral, and heterogeneous neurodevelopmental condition characterized by hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Symptoms of this disorder are managed by treatment with methylphenidate, amphetamine, and/or atomoxetine. The cause of ADHD is unknown, but substantial evidence indicates that this disorder has a significant genetic component. Transgenic animals have become an essential tool in uncovering the genetic factors underlying ADHD. Although they cannot accurately reflect the human condition, they can provide insights into the disorder that cannot be obtained from human studies due to various limitations...
May 22, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534273/tauroursodeoxycholic-acid-enhances-mitochondrial-biogenesis-neural-stem-cell-pool-and-early-neurogenesis-in-adult-rats
#3
Rita Soares, Filipa F Ribeiro, Sara Xapelli, Tânia Genebra, Maria F Ribeiro, Ana M Sebastião, Cecília M P Rodrigues, Susana Solá
Although neurogenesis occurs in restricted regions of the adult mammalian brain, neural stem cells (NSCs) produce very few neurons during ageing or after injury. We have recently discovered that the endogenous bile acid tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a strong inhibitor of mitochondrial apoptosis and a neuroprotective in animal models of neurodegenerative disorders, also enhances NSC proliferation, self-renewal, and neuronal conversion by improving mitochondrial integrity and function of NSCs. In the present study, we explore the effect of TUDCA on regulation of NSC fate in neurogenic niches, the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), using rat postnatal neurospheres and adult rats exposed to the bile acid...
May 22, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534272/braf-mutation-is-associated-with-an-improved-survival-in-glioma-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Huy Gia Vuong, Ahmed M A Altibi, Uyen N P Duong, Hanh T T Ngo, Thong Quang Pham, Kar-Ming Fung, Lewis Hassell
Newly emerged molecular markers in gliomas provide prognostic values beyond the capabilities of histologic classification. BRAF mutation, especially BRAF V600E, is common in a subset of gliomas and may represent a potential prognostic marker. The aim of our study is to investigate the potential use of BRAF mutations on prognosis of glioma patients. Four electronic databases were searched for potential articles, including PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, and Virtual Health Library (VHL). Data of hazard ratio (HR) for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were directly obtained from original papers or indirectly estimated from Kaplan Meier curve (KMC)...
May 22, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528366/cdk5-mediated-phosphorylation-dependent-ubiquitination-and-degradation-of-e3-ubiquitin-ligases-gp78-accelerates-neuronal-death-in-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Qingzhi Wang, Fengjuan Jiao, Pei Zhang, Jianguo Yan, Zheng Zhang, Feng He, Qian Zhang, Zexi Lv, Xiang Peng, Hongwei Cai, Bo Tian
The molecular mechanisms responsible for the loss of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD) remain obscure. Loss of function of E3 ubiquitin ligases is associated with mitochondria dysfunction, dysfunction of protein degradation, and α-synuclein aggregation, which are major contributors to neurodegeneration in PD. Recent research has thus focused on E3 ubiquitin ligase glycoprotein 78 (GP78); however, the role of GP78 in PD pathogenesis remains unclear. Notably, cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) controls multiple cellular events in postmitotic neurons, and CDK5 activity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of PD...
May 20, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527108/increased-expression-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-transcripts-i-and-vi-camp-response-element-binding-and-glucocorticoid-receptor-in-the-cortex-of-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#6
G A Martínez-Levy, L Rocha, F Rodríguez-Pineda, M A Alonso-Vanegas, A Nani, R M Buentello-García, M Briones-Velasco, D San-Juan, J Cienfuegos, C S Cruz-Fuentes
A body of evidence supports a relevant role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Magnetic resonance data reveal that the cerebral atrophy extends to regions that are functionally and anatomically connected with the hippocampus, especially the temporal cortex. We previously reported an increased expression of BDNF messenger for the exon VI in the hippocampus of temporal lobe epilepsy patients compared to an autopsy control group. Altered levels of this particular transcript were also associated with pre-surgical use of certain psychotropic...
May 19, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527107/an-immune-related-six-lncrna-signature-to-improve-prognosis-prediction-of-glioblastoma-multiforme
#7
Meng Zhou, Zhaoyue Zhang, Hengqiang Zhao, Siqi Bao, Liang Cheng, Jie Sun
Recent studies have demonstrated the utility and superiority of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) as novel biomarkers for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy. In the present study, the prognostic value of lncRNAs in glioblastoma multiforme was systematically investigated by performing a genome-wide analysis of lncRNA expression profiles in 419 glioblastoma patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. Using survival analysis and Cox regression model, we identified a set of six lncRNAs (AC005013.5, UBE2R2-AS1, ENTPD1-AS1, RP11-89C21...
May 19, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527106/a-trans-acting-factor-may-modify-age-at-onset-in-familial-amyloid-polyneuropathy-attrv30m-in-portugal
#8
Miguel Alves-Ferreira, Teresa Coelho, Diana Santos, Jorge Sequeiros, Isabel Alonso, Alda Sousa, Carolina Lemos
Although all familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) ATTRV30M patients carry the same causative mutation, early (<40) and late-onset forms (≥50 years) of FAP may coexist in the same family. However, this variability in age at onset is still unexplained. To identify modifiers closely linked to the TTR locus that may in part be associated with age at onset of FAP ATTRV30M, in particular in a group of very early-onset patients (≤30 years) when compared with late-onset individuals. A clinical genetic study at a referral center comprising a sample of 910 Portuguese individuals includes 589 Val30Met carriers, 102 spouses, and 189 controls from the general population...
May 19, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523566/radial-glia-cells-control-angiogenesis-in-the-developing-cerebral-cortex-through-tgf-%C3%AE-1-signaling
#9
Michele Siqueira, Daniel Francis, Diego Gisbert, Flávia Carvalho Alcantara Gomes, Joice Stipursky
Neuroangiogenesis in the developing central nervous system is controlled by interactions between endothelial cells (ECs) and radial glia (RG) neural stem cells, although RG-derived molecules implicated in these events are not fully known. Here, we investigated the role of RG-secreted TGF-β1, in angiogenesis in the developing cerebral cortex. By isolation of murine microcapillary brain endothelial cells (MBECs), we demonstrate that conditioned medium from RG cultures (RG-CM) promoted MBEC migration and formation of vessel-like structures in vitro, in a TGF-β1-dependent manner...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523565/blood-brain-barrier-permeability-is-exacerbated-in-experimental-model-of-hepatic-encephalopathy-via-mmp-9-activation-and-downregulation-of-tight-junction-proteins
#10
Saurabh Dhanda, Rajat Sandhir
The present study was designed to investigate the mechanisms involved in blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in bile duct ligation (BDL) model of chronic hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Four weeks after BDL surgery, a significant increase was observed in serum bilirubin levels. Masson trichrome staining revealed severe hepatic fibrosis in the BDL rats. (99m)Tc-mebrofenin retention was increased in the liver of BDL rats suggesting impaired hepatobiliary transport. An increase in permeability to sodium fluorescein, Evans blue, and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran along with increase in water and electrolyte content was observed in brain regions of BDL rats suggesting disrupted BBB...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523564/prenatal-and-early-postnatal-environmental-enrichment-reduce-acute-cell-death-and-prevent-neurodevelopment-and-memory-impairments-in-rats-submitted-to-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia
#11
L E Durán-Carabali, D M Arcego, F K Odorcyk, L Reichert, J L Cordeiro, E F Sanches, L D Freitas, C Dalmaz, A Pagnussat, C A Netto
Environmental enrichment (EE) is an experimental strategy to attenuate the negative effects of different neurological conditions including neonatal hypoxia ischemia encephalopathy (HIE). The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of prenatal and early postnatal EE in animals submitted to neonatal HIE model at postnatal day (PND) 3. Wistar rats were housed in EE or standard conditions (SC) during pregnancy and lactation periods. Pups of both sexes were assigned to one of four experimental groups, considering the early environmental conditions and the injury: SC-Sham, SC-HIE, EE-sham, and EE-HIE...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516431/a-comparison-of-neuroimaging-abnormalities-in-multiple-sclerosis-major-depression-and-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-is-there-a-common-cause
#12
REVIEW
Gerwyn Morris, Michael Berk, Basant K Puri
There is copious evidence of abnormalities in resting-state functional network connectivity states, grey and white matter pathology and impaired cerebral perfusion in patients afforded a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis, major depression or chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) (myalgic encephalomyelitis). Systemic inflammation may well be a major element explaining such findings. Inter-patient and inter-illness variations in neuroimaging findings may arise at least in part from regional genetic, epigenetic and environmental variations in the functions of microglia and astrocytes...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516430/ramelteon-improves-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-like-behaviors-exhibited-by-fatty-acid-binding-protein-3-null-mice
#13
Yasushi Yabuki, Ibuki Takahata, Kazuya Matsuo, Yuji Owada, Kohji Fukunaga
We previously reported that fatty acid-binding protein 3 (FABP3) knockout (Fabp3 (-/-)) mice exhibit abnormal dopamine-related behaviors such as enhanced dopamine D2 receptor antagonist-induced catalepsy behaviors. Here, we report that Fabp3 null mice exhibit cognitive deficits, hyperlocomotion and impaired fear extinction, and thus show post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-like behaviors. Notably, chronic administration of ramelteon (1.0 mg/kg, p.o.), a melatonin receptor agonist, improved all PTSD-like behaviors tested in Fabp3 (-/-) mice...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516429/cardinal-epigenetic-role-of-non-coding-regulatory-rnas-in-circadian-rhythm
#14
REVIEW
Utpal Bhadra, Pradipta Patra, Manika Pal-Bhadra
Circadian rhythm which governs basic physiological activities like sleeping, feeding and energy consumption is regulated by light-controlled central clock genes in the pacemaker neuron. The timekeeping machinery with unique transcriptional and post-transcriptional feedback loops is controlled by different small regulatory RNAs in the brain. Roles of the multiple neuronal genes, especially post-transcriptional regulation, splicing, polyadenylation, mature mRNA editing, and stability of translation products, are controlled by epigenetic activities orchestrated via small RNAs...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516428/cerebrovascular-angiogenic-reprogramming-upon-lrp1-repression-impact-on-sphingosine-1-phosphate-mediated-signaling-in-brain-endothelial-cell-chemotactism
#15
Amélie Vézina, Cyndia Charfi, Alain Zgheib, Borhane Annabi
Switches in sphingolipid metabolism have recently been associated with oncogenic transformation, and a role for the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) in sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) proangiogenic signaling inferred. S1P signaling crosstalk with LRP1 in brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) is however unclear. Transient in vitro siLRP1 gene silencing was compared to stable shLRP1 knockdown. We observed decreased expression of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ), a transcription factor for which multiple binding sites are found within the promoter sequences of all five S1P receptor members, upon stable but not transient LRP1 repression...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509084/whole-exome-sequencing-identifies-a-novel-homozygous-frameshift-mutation-in-the-mtmr2-gene-as-a-causative-mutation-in-a-patient-with-charcot-marie-tooth-disease-type-4b1
#16
Tameemi Abdalla-Moady, Amir Peleg, Orit Sadeh, Khader Badarneh, Fuad Fares
Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease refers to a heterogeneous group of axonal and demyelinating polyneuropathies, characterized by chronic motor and sensory dysfunction. CMT is the most common genetic cause of neuropathy. The present study aimed to identify the gene mutation responsible for CMT in Ashkenazi Jew (AJ) patient. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood leukocytes of affected family and normal subject. Whole-exome sequencing was performed using the Illumina HiSeq2500. The DNA region containing the identified mutation was amplified by PCR and sequenced using dye-terminator chemistry and the forward primer...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509083/detection-of-csf-14-3-3-protein-in-sporadic-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-patients-using-a-new-automated-capillary-western-assay
#17
A Fourier, A Dorey, A Perret-Liaudet, I Quadrio
Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is a fatal rapidly progressive dementia. The detection of 14-3-3 protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is included in the WHO diagnostic criteria for the pre-mortem diagnosis of CJD. The aim of this study is to assess CSF 14-3-3 protein analytical and diagnostic performances using a new automated capillary Western technology (Simple Western technology-SW). For the validation of this assay, samples from a cohort of 268 patients suspected from sCJD were analyzed: 77 sCJD (including 40 definite sCJD) and 191 non-CJD samples were tested using both SW and the current Western Blot (WB) assays...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509082/atg7-mediated-autophagy-is-involved-in-the-neural-crest-cell-generation-in-chick-embryo
#18
Guang Wang, En-Ni Chen, Chang Liang, Jianxin Liang, Lin-Rui Gao, Manli Chuai, Andrea Münsterberg, Yongping Bao, Liu Cao, Xuesong Yang
Autophagy plays a very important role in numerous physiological and pathological events. However, it still remains unclear whether Atg7-induced autophagy is involved in the regulation of neural crest cell production. In this study, we found the co-location of Atg7 and Pax7(+) neural crest cells in early chick embryo development. Upregulation of Atg7 with unilateral transfection of full-length Atg7 increased Pax7(+) and HNK-1(+) cephalic and trunk neural crest cell numbers compared to either Control-GFP transfection or opposite neural tubes, suggesting that Atg7 over-expression in neural tubes could enhance the production of neural crest cells...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509081/interleukin-6-mediated-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-ipsc-derived-neural-differentiation
#19
Yanuar Alan Sulistio, Han Kyu Lee, Sung Jun Jung, Klaus Heese
In an aging society with an increasing threat to higher brain cognitive functions due to dementia, it becomes imperative to identify new molecular remedies for supporting adult neurogenesis. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a promising cytokine that can support neurogenesis under conditions of neurodegeneration, and neuron replacement is eventually possible due to its agonistic acting soluble receptor sIL-6R. Here, we report that activation of the IL-6-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) axis is neurogenic and has potential therapeutic applications for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD)...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508150/exogenous-bdnf-increases-mitochondrial-pcreb-and-alleviates-neuronal-metabolic-defects-following-mechanical-injury-in-a-mptp-dependent-way
#20
Zhen Xu, Xiao-Ai Lv, Qun Dai, Man Lu, Zhang Jin
Metabolic defects are common pathological phenomena following traumatic brain injury (TBI) which contribute to poor prognosis. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important regulator of neuronal survival, development, function, and plasticity. This study was designed to investigate the potential effects of BDNF on TBI-induced metabolic defects and their underlying molecular mechanisms. BDNF was added into cultured neurons to a concentration of 25, 50, and 100 ng/ml, respectively, right after mechanical injury and metabolite levels were analyzed 4 h post injury...
May 15, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
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