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Molecular Neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914011/activation-of-alpha-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-reduces-brain-edema-in-mice-with-ischemic-stroke-and-bone-fracture
#1
Dingquan Zou, Man Luo, Zhenying Han, Lei Zhan, Wan Zhu, Shuai Kang, Chen Bao, Zhao Li, Jeffrey Nelson, Rui Zhang, Hua Su
Stroke is an important risk factor for bone fracture. We showed previously that bone fracture at the acute stage of ischemic stroke worsens, and activation of α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α-7 nAchR) improves, stroke recovery by attenuating inflammation. We hypothesized that activation of α-7 nAchR also improves the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. Permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) was performed on C57BL/6J mice followed by tibia fracture 1 day later. Mice were treated with 0...
December 2, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914010/recruitment-by-the-repressor-freud-1-of-histone-deacetylase-brg1-chromatin-remodeling-complexes-to-strengthen-htr1a-gene-repression
#2
Tatiana Souslova, Kim Mirédin, Anne M Millar, Paul R Albert
Five-prime repressor element under dual repression binding protein-1 (Freud-1)/CC2D1A is genetically linked to intellectual disability and implicated in neuronal development. Freud-1 represses the serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) receptor gene HTR1A by histone deacetylase (HDAC)-dependent or HDAC-independent mechanisms in 5-HT1A-negative (e.g., HEK-293) or 5-HT1A-expressing cells (SK-N-SH), respectively. To identify the underlying mechanisms, Freud-1-associated proteins were affinity-purified from HEK-293 nuclear extracts and members of the Brg1/SMARCCA chromatin remodeling and Sin3A-HDAC corepressor complexes were identified...
December 2, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914009/serum-response-factor-srf-ablation-interferes-with-acute-stress-associated-immediate-and-long-term-coping-mechanisms
#3
Annemarie Zimprich, Gabi Mroz, Christopher Meyer Zu Reckendorf, Sofia Anastasiadou, Philip Förstner, Lillian Garrett, Sabine M Hölter, Lore Becker, Jan Rozman, Cornelia Prehn, Birgit Rathkolb, Kristin Moreth, Wolfgang Wurst, Thomas Klopstock, Martin Klingenspor, Jerzy Adamski, Eckhard Wolf, Raffi Bekeredjian, Helmut Fuchs, Valerie Gailus-Durner, Martin Hrabe de Angelis, Bernd Knöll
Stress experience modulates behavior, metabolism, and energy expenditure of organisms. One molecular hallmark of an acute stress response is a rapid induction of immediate early genes (IEGs) such as c-Fos and Egr family members. IEG transcription in neurons is mediated by the neuronal activity-driven gene regulator serum response factor (SRF). We show a first role of SRF in immediate and long-lasting acute restraint stress (AS) responses. For this, we employed a standardized mouse phenotyping protocol at the German Mouse Clinic (GMC) including behavioral, metabolic, and cardiologic tests as well as gene expression profiling to analyze the consequences of forebrain-specific SRF deletion in mice exposed to AS...
December 2, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914008/igf1r-dental-pulp-stem-cells-enhanced-neuroplasticity-in-hypoxia-ischemia-model
#4
Hsiao-Yu Chiu, Chen-Huan Lin, Chung Y Hsu, John Yu, Chia-Hung Hsieh, Woei-Cherng Shyu
Until now, the surface markers of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) had not been fully identified. Here, we found that the IGF1 receptor (IGF1R), regarded as a pluripotent marker of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), was also expressed in human dental pulp derived-mesenchymal stem cells (hDSCs), which displayed a potential for both self-renewal and multipotency. hDSC-secreted IGF1 interacted with IGF1R through an autocrine signaling pathway to maintain this self-renewal and proliferation potential. Stereotaxic implantation of immunosorted IGF1R(+) hDSCs in rats with neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (NHI) promoted neuroplasticity, improving the neurological outcome by increasing expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, which enhanced both neurogenesis and angiogenesis...
December 2, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905012/microbial-proteins-as-novel-industrial-biotechnology-hosts-to-treat-epilepsy
#5
REVIEW
Zareen Amtul, Amal A Aziz
Epilepsy is characterized by the hyperexcitability of various neuronal circuits that results due to the imbalance between glutamate-mediated excitation of voltage-gated cation channels and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibition of anion channels leading to aberrant, sporadic oscillations or fluctuations in neuronal electrical activity. Epilepsy with a risk of mortality and around 65 million sufferers of all ages all over the world is limited therapeutically with high rates of adverse reactions, lack of complete seizure control, and over 30% patients with refractory epilepsy...
December 1, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900679/bioinformatic-profiling-identifies-a-glucose-related-risk-signature-for-the-malignancy-of-glioma-and-the-survival-of-patients
#6
Shihong Zhao, Jinquan Cai, Jianlong Li, Guiqiu Bao, Di Li, Yongli Li, Xiuwei Zhai, Chuanlu Jiang, Lihua Fan
The aim of this study is to investigate the glucose metabolic status and its prognostic value in glioma. The Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA), The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and GSE16011 datasets were used to develop the glucose-related signature. A cohort of 305 glioma samples with whole genome microarray expression data from the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas database was included for discovery. TCGA and GSE16011 datasets were used for validation. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and Cytoscape were used to explore the bioinformatic implication...
November 29, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900678/a-customized-quantitative-pcr-microrna-panel-provides-a-technically-robust-context-for-studying-neurodegenerative-disease-biomarkers-and-indicates-a-high-correlation-between-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-choroid-plexus-microrna-expression
#7
Wang-Xia Wang, David W Fardo, Gregory A Jicha, Peter T Nelson
MicroRNA (miRNA) expression varies in association with different tissue types and in diseases. Having been found in body fluids including blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), miRNAs constitute potential biomarkers. CSF miRNAs have been proposed as biomarkers for neurodegenerative diseases; however, there is a lack of consensus about the best candidate miRNA biomarkers and there has been variability in results from different research centers, perhaps due to technical factors. Here, we sought to optimize technical parameters for CSF miRNA studies...
November 29, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900677/downregulation-of-the-long-non-coding-rna-meg3-promotes-angiogenesis-after-ischemic-brain-injury-by-activating-notch-signaling
#8
Juan Liu, Qing Li, Kun-Shan Zhang, Bin Hu, Xin Niu, Shu-Min Zhou, Si-Guang Li, Yu-Ping Luo, Yang Wang, Zhi-Feng Deng
Angiogenesis after ischemic brain injury contributes to the restoration of blood supply in the ischemic zone. Strategies to improve angiogenesis may facilitate the function recovery after stroke. Recent researches have demonstrated that dysfunction of long non-coding RNAs are associated with angiogenesis. We have previously reported that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are aberrantly expressed in ischemic stroke. However, little is known about long non-coding RNAs and theirs role in angiogenesis after stroke...
November 29, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900676/functional-implications-of-the-il-23-il-17-immune-axis-in-schizophrenia
#9
REVIEW
Monojit Debnath, Michael Berk
The aetiology of schizophrenia seems to stem from complex interactions amongst environmental, genetic, metabolic, immunologic and oxidative components. Chronic low-grade inflammation has been persistently linked to schizophrenia, and this has primarily been based on the findings derived from Th1/Th2 cytokine balance. While the IL-23/IL-17 axis plays crucial role in the pathogenesis of several immune-mediated disorders, it has remained relatively unexplored in neuropsychiatric disorders. Altered levels of cytokines related to IL-23/IL-17 axis have been observed in schizophrenia patients in a few studies...
November 29, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900675/sirp-alpha-protein-downregulates-in-human-astrocytoma-presumptive-involvement-of-hsa-mir-520d-5p-and-hsa-mir-520d-3p
#10
Ravindra Pramod Deshpande, Y B V K Chandra Sekhar, Manas Panigrahi, Phanithi Prakash Babu
Astrocytomas are the most common brain tumors with poor survival in malignant forms. Signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRP alpha) is a transmembrane protein expressed on immune cells and macrophages and is reported to modulate tumor cell phagocytosis. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of miR-520d-5p and miR-520d-3p in regulation of SIRP alpha expression. Here, we report mRNA and protein expression profile of SIRP alpha in 39 surgically resected human astrocytoma tissue samples and 14 control brain tissue samples...
November 29, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896651/postnatal-administration-of-dizocilpine-inhibits-neuronal-excitability-in-pfc-and-induces-social-deficits-detected-by-miceprofiler
#11
Dexiao Zhu, Hui Wang, Jintao Wu, Qian Wang, Ling Xu, Yue Zhao, Kunkun Pang, Qingqing Shi, Wenbo Zhao, Jing Zhang, Jinhao Sun
Schizophrenia is a devastating mental disease with social deficit as its core component of negative symptoms, which could be induced in rodents by dizocilpine (MK-801), a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist. NMDA receptors are highly expressed during the postnatal period. However, less attention has been paid to the effects of postnatal MK-801 administration on social interaction. In this study, we evaluated the effects of postnatal administration of MK-801 on social interaction and explored the possible mechanisms...
November 28, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896650/neuroprotection-by-chlorpromazine-and-promethazine-in-severe-transient-and-permanent-ischemic-stroke
#12
Xiaokun Geng, Fengwu Li, James Yip, Changya Peng, Omar Elmadhoun, Jiamei Shen, Xunming Ji, Yuchuan Ding
Previous studies have demonstrated depressive or hibernation-like roles of phenothiazine neuroleptics [combined chlorpromazine and promethazine (C + P)] in brain activity. This ischemic stroke study aimed to establish neuroprotection by reducing oxidative stress and improving brain metabolism with post-ischemic C + P administration. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to transient (2 or 4 h) middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by 6 or 24 h reperfusion, or permanent (28 h) MCAO without reperfusion...
November 28, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889899/a1-adenosine-receptor-activation-modulates-central-nervous-system-development-and-repair
#13
REVIEW
Shirin Kashfi, Kamran Ghaedi, Hossein Baharvand, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Javan
Adenosine is an endogenous, autacoid purine nucleoside which performs many important biological roles, particularly during stressful events. Adenosine can signal through four adenosine receptor (AR) subtypes: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Of these, adenosine A1 receptor (A1AR) has a broad, wide distribution throughout different vertebrate cell types and the highest affinity to adenosine. The A1AR-dependent action of adenosine is well documented in reports from numerous studies that have used different selective A1AR agonists and antagonists as well as in animals that have a genetically manipulated A1AR gene...
November 26, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889898/the-transcription-factors-ebf1-and-ebf2-are-positive-regulators-of-myelination-in-schwann-cells
#14
Diego Moruzzo, Lucilla Nobbio, Bruno Sterlini, G Giacomo Consalez, Fabio Benfenati, Angelo Schenone, Anna Corradi
Myelin formation by Schwann cells is tightly controlled by multiple pathways and regulatory molecules. The Ebf2 gene, belonging to the Ebf family of transcription factors regulating cell development and differentiation, is expressed in Schwann cells, and Ebf2 knockout mice show peripheral nerve defects. We also found that Ebf1 is expressed in Schwann cells. To investigate Ebf function in myelination, we silenced Ebf genes in myelinating dorsal root ganglia cultures. Combined downregulation of Ebf genes leads to a severe impairment of myelin formation that is completely rescued by their specific overexpression, suggesting that the expression level of Ebf genes strongly influences axon myelination...
November 26, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889897/growth-differentiation-factor-15-is-a-novel-diagnostic-biomarker-of-mitochondrial-diseases
#15
Xinbo Ji, Lizhen Zhao, Kunqian Ji, Yuying Zhao, Wei Li, Rui Zhang, Ying Hou, Jianqiang Lu, Chuanzhu Yan
The present study aimed to investigate whether serum growth differentiation factor 15 concentration is a valuable and reliable diagnostic biomarker of mitochondrial diseases. We examined consecutive patients with mitochondrial diseases, in comparison with patients with non-mitochondrial disease neuromuscular disorders and healthy controls. The serum concentrations of growth differentiation factor 15 were measured by ELISA, and compared with those of FGF21, lactate, and creatine kinase. We also evaluated the correlations between growth differentiation factor 15 concentrations and the Newcastle Mitochondrial Disease Adult Scale, numbers of ragged-red fibers, and COX-negative fibers in the biopsied muscles...
November 26, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889896/decreased-anxiety-related-behaviour-but-apparently-unperturbed-numb-function-in-ligand-of-numb-protein-x-lnx-1-2-double-knockout-mice
#16
Joan A Lenihan, Orthis Saha, Victoria Heimer-McGinn, John F Cryan, Guoping Feng, Paul W Young
NUMB is a key regulator of neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation that can be ubiquitinated and targeted for proteasomal degradation by ligand of numb protein-X (LNX) family E3 ubiquitin ligases. However, our understanding of LNX protein function in vivo is very limited. To examine the role of LNX proteins in regulating NUMB function in vivo, we generated mice lacking both LNX1 and LNX2 expression in the brain. Surprisingly, these mice are healthy, exhibit unaltered levels of NUMB protein and do not display any neuroanatomical defects indicative of aberrant NUMB function...
November 26, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889895/inflammatory-response-in-the-cns-friend-or-foe
#17
REVIEW
Marta Sochocka, Breno Satler Diniz, Jerzy Leszek
Inflammatory reactions could be both beneficial and detrimental to the brain, depending on strengths of their activation in various stages of neurodegeneration. Mild activation of microglia and astrocytes usually reveals neuroprotective effects and ameliorates early symptoms of neurodegeneration; for instance, released cytokines help maintain synaptic plasticity and modulate neuronal excitability, and stimulated toll-like receptors (TLRs) promote neurogenesis and neurite outgrowth. However, strong activation of glial cells gives rise to cytokine overexpression/dysregulation, which accelerates neurodegeneration...
November 26, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889894/glucocorticoid-induced-leucine-zipper-in-central-nervous-system-health-and-disease
#18
REVIEW
Mythily Srinivasan, Debomoy K Lahiri
The central nervous system (CNS) is a large network of intercommunicating cells that function to maintain tissue health and homeostasis. Considerable evidence suggests that glucocorticoids exert both neuroprotective and neurodegenerative effects on the CNS. Glucocorticoids act by binding two related receptors in the cytoplasm, the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The glucocorticoid receptor complex mediates cellular responses by transactivating target genes and by protein: protein interactions...
November 26, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878763/enhancement-of-neural-stem-cell-survival-proliferation-migration-and-differentiation-in-a-novel-self-assembly-peptide-nanofibber-scaffold
#19
Sajad Sahab Negah, Zabihollah Khaksar, Hadi Aligholi, Shahin Mohammad Sadeghi, Sayed Mostafa Modarres Mousavi, Hadi Kazemi, Ali Jahanbazi Jahan-Abad, Ali Gorji
Considerable efforts have been made to combine biologically active molecules into the self-assembling peptide in order to improve cells growth, survival, and differentiation. In this study, a novel three-dimensional scaffold (RADA4GGSIKVAV; R-GSIK) was designed by adding glycine and serine between RADA4 and IKVAV to promote the strength of the peptide. The cell adhesion, viability, proliferation, migration, and differentiation of rat embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) in R-GSIK were investigated and compared to laminin-coated, two-dimensional, and Puramatrix cultures...
November 23, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878762/mir-cluster-143-145-directly-targets-nrl-and-regulates-rod-photoreceptor-development
#20
Sreekumaran Sreekanth, Vazhanthodi A Rasheed, Lalitha Soundararajan, Jayesh Antony, Minakshi Saikia, Krishnankutty Chandrika Sivakumar, Ani V Das
Retinal histogenesis requires coordinated and temporal functioning of factors by which different cell types are generated from multipotent progenitors. Development of rod photoreceptors is regulated by multiple transcription factors, and Nrl is one of the major factors involved in their fate specification. Presence or absence of Nrl at the postnatal stages decides the generation of cone photoreceptors or other later retinal cells. This suggests the need for regulated expression of Nrl in order to accelerate the generation of other cell types during retinal development...
November 23, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
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