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Current Opinion in Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30240964/induction-of-innate-immune-memory-the-role-of-cellular-metabolism
#1
REVIEW
Jorge Domínguez-Andrés, Leo Ab Joosten, Mihai G Netea
The paradigm that only adaptive immunity can develop immunological memory has recently been challenged by studies showing that cells from the innate immune system can undergo functional reprogramming, facilitating a faster and enhanced response to secondary infections. This improved secondary response is not always specific, as it can also protect from infections caused by non-related pathogens. This has been termed innate immune memory or trained immunity. Trained immunity not only involves rewiring the intracellular immune signaling of innate immune cells, but also induces profound changes in cellular metabolic pathways such as glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, fatty acid and amino acid metabolism, increasing the capacity of the innate immune cells to respond to a secondary stimulation...
September 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30205357/modulation-of-the-gut-microbiota-to-improve-innate-resistance
#2
REVIEW
Pamela Schnupf, Valérie Gaboriau-Routhiau, Nadine Cerf-Bensussan
One major benefit from the association of hosts with the complex microbial communities that establish at body surfaces is the resistance to pathogen infection. This protective role of symbiotic microbes is becoming ever more relevant, given the alarming rise of multidrug-resistant pathogens and severe infections in patients following extensive antibiotic treatment. Herein, we highlight some recent mechanistic studies that have provided insights into how the highly dynamic dialogue amongst intestinal bacteria and between intestinal bacteria and their host can contribute to protect the host against pathogens in and outside the gut...
September 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30190230/when-designing-vaccines-consider-the-starting-material-the-human-b-cell-repertoire
#3
REVIEW
Colin Havenar-Daughton, Robert K Abbott, William R Schief, Shane Crotty
Most viral vaccines provide protection from infection through the generation of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs). The repertoire of B cells responding to immunization is the starting material from which nAbs eventually arise. Immunization strategies are increasingly targeting precise B cell specificities to mimic nAbs generated during natural infection, in an effort to maximize the potency of the vaccine-elicited Ab response. An understanding of the human B cell specificities capable of immunogen recognition can aid in immunogen design and inform decision-making for clinical advancement...
September 3, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30172069/loss-of-sterol-metabolic-homeostasis-triggers-inflammasomes-how-and-why
#4
REVIEW
Eric V Dang, Jason G Cyster
Proper regulation of sterol biosynthesis is critical for eukaryotic cellular homeostasis. Cholesterol and isoprenoids serve key roles in eukaryotic cells by regulating membrane fluidity and correct localization of proteins. It is becoming increasingly appreciated that dysregulated sterol metabolism engages pathways that lead to inflammation. Of particular importance are inflammasomes, which are multiplatform protein complexes that activate caspase-1 in order to process the pro-inflammatory and pyrogenic cytokines IL-1β and IL-18...
August 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30056335/harnessing-crispr-to-combat-human-viral-infections
#5
REVIEW
Hendrik de Buhr, Robert Jan Lebbink
CRISPR/Cas9 is a technology that allows for targeted and precise genome editing in eukaryotic cells. The technique has changed the landscape of molecular biology and may be applied to repair genetic disorders in future therapies. Besides targeting the human genome, it can be used to cleave and edit viral DNA present in infected cells, and as such provides a promising new strategy for anti-viral therapy. Here, we discuss recent studies on the use of anti-viral CRISPRs to target pathogenic human viruses, with a focus on in vivo studies, challenges, and potential for future clinical applications...
July 26, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30031363/new-perspectives-on-the-initiation-of-allergic-immune-responses-at-barrier-sites
#6
REVIEW
Mario Noti
Although allergies exert a devastating global impact and often lack effective treatment strategies, our knowledge on the mechanisms that initiate and propagate type-2 immune responses remain enigmatic. Recent advances have highlighted additional roles for epithelial cells (e.g. tuft cells) and sensory neurons as initiators and amplifiers of type-2 immune responses. In response to protease activity of allergens, Toll-like receptor stimulation or cellular damage, these type-2 sentinels can release cytokines, alarmins or neuropeptides capable of (i) activating and expanding innate immune cells, (ii) polarizing T helper type-2 cells and (iii) promoting allergic inflammation...
July 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30015087/regulation-of-neutrophils-in-type-2-immune-responses
#7
REVIEW
Lukas E M Heeb, Cecilie Egholm, Daniela Impellizzieri, Frederike Ridder, Onur Boyman
Type 2 immune responses contribute to the resistance to helminths and toxins as well as several physiological processes. Although they usually do not participate in type 2 immune responses, neutrophils have been shown in mice to enhance the anti-helminth response, but they also contribute to increased target tissue damage. Increased pathology and morbidity is also observed in type 2 immune-mediated disorders, such as allergic asthma, when neutrophils become a predominant subset of the infiltrate. How neutrophil recruitment is regulated during type 2 immune responses is now starting to become clear, with recent data showing that signaling via the prototypic type 2 cytokine interleukin-4 receptor mediates direct and indirect inhibitory actions on neutrophils in mice and humans...
July 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30015086/antiviral-rna-interference-in-mammals
#8
REVIEW
Shou-Wei Ding, Qingxia Han, Jinyan Wang, Wan-Xiang Li
Infection of plants and insects with RNA and DNA viruses triggers Dicer-dependent production of virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs), which subsequently guide specific virus clearance by RNA interference (RNAi). Consistent with a major antiviral function of RNAi, productive virus infection in these eukaryotic hosts depends on the expression of virus-encoded suppressors of RNAi (VSRs). The eukaryotic RNAi pathway is highly conserved, particularly between insects and mammals. This review will discuss key recent findings that indicate a natural antiviral function of the RNAi pathway in mammalian cells...
July 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29986301/the-hygiene-hypothesis-immunological-mechanisms-of-airway-tolerance
#9
REVIEW
Eline Haspeslagh, Ines Heyndrickx, Hamida Hammad, Bart N Lambrecht
The hygiene hypothesis was initially proposed as an explanation for the alarming rise in allergy prevalence in the last century. The immunological idea behind this hypothesis was a lack of infections associated with a Western lifestyle and a consequential reduction in type 1 immune responses. It is now understood that the development of tolerance to allergens depends on microbial colonization and immunostimulatory environmental signals during early-life or passed on by the mother. These environmental cues are sensed and integrated by barrier epithelial cells of the lungs and possibly skin, which in turn instruct dendritic cells to regulate or impede adaptive T cell responses...
July 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29986303/partners-in-anti-crime-how-interferon-inducible-gtpases-and-autophagy-proteins-team-up-in-cell-intrinsic-host-defense
#10
REVIEW
Jörn Coers, Hailey M Brown, Seungmin Hwang, Gregory A Taylor
Once pathogens have breached the mechanical barriers to infection, survived extracellular immunity and successfully invaded host cells, cell-intrinsic immunity becomes the last line of defense to protect the mammalian host against viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa. Many cell-intrinsic defense programs act as high-precision weapons that specifically target intracellular microbes or cytoplasmic sites of microbial replication while leaving endogenous organelles unharmed. Critical executioners of cell-autonomous immunity include interferon-inducible dynamin-like GTPases and autophagy proteins, which often act cooperatively in locating and antagonizing intracellular pathogens...
July 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29986302/targeting-ige-in-allergic-disease
#11
REVIEW
Pascal Gasser, Alexander Eggel
Immunoglobulin E (IgE) represents the least abundant antibody isotype in human serum. Nevertheless, it has the ability to induce potent allergic reactions. As a key component in the development and manifestation of hypersensitivity responses against usually non-hazardous foreign substances, IgE has become a major target of investigation and the subject of multiple therapeutic approaches for the treatment of allergies. Recent advances in the understanding of pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying IgE-associated allergic disorders have led to the generation of new drug candidates that are currently in development or under clinical evaluation...
July 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29986838/an-update-on-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-and-influenza-the-road-to-redemption-or-perdition
#12
REVIEW
Tate Michelle D, Mansell Ashley
Inflammation is an integral aspect of influenza A virus (IAV) infection. It is critical to induce an antiviral environment to reduce viral replication and dissemination, while also being essential to the development and maturation of adaptive immunity, which ultimately resolves infection. Conversely, excessive pulmonary inflammation and cellular influx are characteristic of lethal IAV infections. It has become increasingly apparent that the innate immune inflammasome complex is a crucial moderator in IAV disease pathogenesis...
June 30, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29960953/mast-cells-and-basophils-in-allergic-inflammation
#13
REVIEW
Masato Kubo
Mast cells and basophils have similar characteristics in terms of their function and development. They both have detrimental functions, being implicated in pro-inflammatory responses to allergens, but can also provide protection against multicellular parasites such as parasitic worms (helminths). Both cell types express the high affinity Fc receptor for IgE, FcεRI, and allergen cross-linking of this receptor triggers degranulation and release a set of cytokines and biochemical mediators. Although mast cells and basophils are similar in many respects, newly developed antibody reagents and genetically modified mouse models that enable cell type-specific deletion have allowed us to appreciate their independent in vivo roles...
June 28, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30220353/editorial-overview-lymphatic-vessels-more-than-a-draining-pipeline
#14
EDITORIAL
Marco Presta, Silvano Sozzani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30220352/editorial-overview-tough-targets
#15
EDITORIAL
Florian Krammer, Patrick C Wilson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30220351/corrigendum-to-unusual-antigen-presentation-offers-new-insight-into-hiv-vaccine-design-curr-opin-immunol-46-2017-75-81
#16
Andrew J McMichael, Louis J Picker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29940415/the-structural-basis-for-filovirus-neutralization-by-monoclonal-antibodies
#17
REVIEW
Liam B King, Brandyn R West, Sharon L Schendel, Erica Ollmann Saphire
Filoviruses, including ebolaviruses and marburgviruses, are the causative agents of highly lethal disease outbreaks. The 2013-2016 Ebola virus outbreak was responsible for >28000 infections and >11000 deaths. Although there are currently no licensed vaccines or therapeutics for any filovirus-induced disease, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are among the most promising options for therapeutic development. Hundreds of mAbs have been isolated from human survivors of filovirus infections that target the viral spike glycoprotein (GP)...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775847/strategies-for-a-multi-stage-neutralizing-antibody-based-hiv-vaccine
#18
REVIEW
Raiees Andrabi, Jinal N Bhiman, Dennis R Burton
A critical property of a prophylactic HIV vaccine is likely to be its ability to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). BnAbs typically have multiple unusual features and are generated in a fraction of HIV-infected individuals through complex pathways. Current vaccine design approaches seek to trigger rare B cell precursors and then steer affinity maturation toward bnAbs in a multi-stage multi-component immunization approach. These vaccine design strategies have been facilitated by molecular descriptions of bnAb interactions with stabilized HIV trimers, the use of an array of sophisticated approaches for immunogen design, the development of novel animal models for immunogen evaluation and advanced technologies to interrogate antibody responses...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753885/immunological-responses-to-influenza-vaccination-lessons-for-improving-vaccine-efficacy
#19
REVIEW
Taia T Wang, Stylianos Bournazos, Jeffrey V Ravetch
A critical factor in the maturation of influenza vaccine responses is the nearly inevitable binding of vaccine antigens by exiting anti-influenza IgGs. These antigen-IgG immune complexes direct the response to immunization by modulating cellular processes that determine antibody and T-cell repertoires: maturation of dendritic cells, processing and presentation of antigens to T cells, trafficking of antigens to the germinal center, and selection of B cells for antibody production. By focusing on the recent advances in the study of the immunomodulatory processes mediated by IgG immune complexes upon influenza vaccination, we discuss a pathway that is critical for modulating the breadth and potency of anti-HA antibody responses and has previously led to the development of strategies to improve influenza vaccine efficacy...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753210/zika-virus-vaccines-immune-response-current-status-and-future-challenges
#20
REVIEW
Justin M Richner, Michael S Diamond
Zika virus (ZIKV) is the most recent mosquito-transmitted virus to cause a global health crisis following its entrance into a naïve population in the Western Hemisphere. Once the ZIKV outbreak began investigators rapidly established small and large animal models of pathogenesis, developed a number candidate vaccines using different platforms, and defined mechanisms of protection. In this review, we characterize the adaptive immune response elicited by ZIKV infections and vaccines, the status of ongoing clinical trials in humans, and discuss future challenges within the field...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
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