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Current Opinion in Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915378/revisiting-murine-models-for-atopic-dermatitis-and-psoriasis-with-multipolar-cytokine-axes
#1
REVIEW
Kenji Kabashima, Takashi Nomura
Atopic dermatitis (AD) and psoriasis are one of the common skin diseases. Animal models are a powerful tool to analyze these diseases, which are complicated by multiple cytokine pathways. However, many discrepancies between the human diseases and murine models have been noticed. Therefore, investigators should be aware of the differences between the murine AD models and human AD when translating murine data to human skin diseases. This review highlights the differences between the inflammatory profiles between murine models and human diseases focusing on AD and psoriasis...
September 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892729/immune-mechanisms-of-food-allergy-and-its-prevention-by-early-intervention
#2
REVIEW
Victor Turcanu, Helen A Brough, George Du Toit, Ru-Xin Foong, Tom Marrs, Alexandra F Santos, Gideon Lack
The environmental factors driving the increase in food allergies are unclear and possibly involve dual exposure to allergens, microbiome-driven effects or other mechanisms. Until they can be better understood, early intervention aiming at establishing oral tolerance provides an effective way to decrease the window-of-risk when children may develop allergic sensitisation to foods due to the absence of a protective immune response. Thus, the recent LEAP (Learning Early About Peanut allergy) and LEAP-On studies achieved a high level of peanut allergy prevention by early introduction of peanuts in the infants diet and conveyed more information regarding the evolution of IgE and IgG4 antibody responses to food antigens over time...
September 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889067/immune-monitoring-for-precision-medicine-in-allergy-and-asthma
#3
REVIEW
Scott Dexter Boyd, Ramona Amy Hoh, Kari Christine Nadeau, Stephen Joseph Galli
'Precision Medicine' embodies the analyses of extensive data collected from patients and their environments to identify and apply patient-specific prophylactic strategies and medical treatments to improve clinical outcomes and healthcare cost-effectiveness. Many new methods have been developed for evaluating the activity of the human immune system. Such 'immune monitoring' approaches are now being used in studies of allergy and asthma in the hope of identifying better correlates of disease status, predictors of therapeutic outcomes, and potential side-effects of treatment...
September 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888176/novel-mechanisms-in-immune-tolerance-to-allergens-during-natural-allergen-exposure-and-allergen-specific-immunotherapy
#4
REVIEW
Willem van de Veen, Oliver F Wirz, Anna Globinska, Mübeccel Akdis
Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) has been used for more than 100 years as a clinical tolerance-inducing and immune tolerance-inducing therapy for allergic diseases and represents a potentially curative method of treatment. AIT functions through multiple mechanisms including early desensitization of basophils and mast cells, regulating T-cell and B-cell responses, changing antibody isotypes, and decreasing activation, mediator release and affected tissue migration of eosinophils, basophils, and mast cells...
September 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888129/leveraging-blood-and-tissue-cd4-t-cell-heterogeneity-at-the-single-cell-level-to-identify-mechanisms-of-disease-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#5
REVIEW
Chamith Y Fonseka, Deepak A Rao, Soumya Raychaudhuri
CD4+ T cells have been long known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but the specific cell populations and states that drive the disease have been challenging to identify with low dimensional single cell data and bulk assays. The advent of high dimensional single cell technologies-like single cell RNA-seq or mass cytometry-has offered promise to defining key populations, but brings new methodological and statistical challenges. Recent single cell profiling studies have revealed a broad diversity of cell types among CD4+ T cells, identifying novel populations that are expanded or altered in RA...
September 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869867/atopic-dermatitis-and-psoriasis-two-different-immune-diseases-or-one-spectrum
#6
REVIEW
Emma Guttman-Yassky, James G Krueger
Psoriasis and atopic dermatitis (AD) are common T-cell mediated inflammatory diseases of the skin that can be treated by specific cytokine antagonists or more broad immunosuppressive drugs. The diseases are similar in that epidermal keratinocytes respond to T-cell derived cytokines by altering growth and differentiation responses, accounting for major parts of the overall disease phenotype. When studied across European-American populations, psoriasis and AD display differing T-cell polarity and different arrays of cytokines...
September 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866302/hemophagocytic-syndrome-primary-forms-and-predisposing-conditions
#7
REVIEW
Fernando E Sepulveda, Geneviève de Saint Basile
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH, also referred to a hemophagocytic syndrome) is a life-threatening condition in which uncontrolled activation of lymphocytes and macrophages, and thus the secretion of large amounts of inflammatory cytokines, leads to a severe hyperinflammatory state. Over the last few decades, researchers have characterized primary forms of HLH caused by genetic defects that impair lymphocytes' cytotoxic machinery. Other genetic causes of HLH not related to impaired cytotoxicity have also recently been identified...
August 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865357/check-point-inhibitors-as-therapies-for-infectious-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Maureen A Cox, Robert Nechanitzky, Tak W Mak
The recent successes of immune check point targeting therapies in treating cancer patients has driven a resurgence of interest in targeting these pathways in chronically infected patients. While still in early stages, basic and clinical data suggest that blockade of CTLA-4 and PD-1 can be beneficial in the treatment of chronic HIV, HBV, and HCV infection, as well as other chronic maladies. Furthermore, novel inhibitory receptors such as Tim-3, LAG-3, and TIGIT are the potential next wave of check points that can be manipulated for the treatment of chronic infection...
August 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843541/immune-development-and-environment-lessons-from-amish-and-hutterite-children
#9
REVIEW
Carole Ober, Anne I Sperling, Erika von Mutius, Donata Vercelli
Children who grow up in traditional farm environments are protected from developing asthma and allergy. This 'farm effect' can be largely explained by the child's early life contact with farm animals, in particular cows, and their microbes. Our studies in Amish and Hutterite school children living on farms in the U.S. have further demonstrated that this protection is mediated through innate immune pathways. Although very similar with respect to ancestry and many lifestyle factors that are associated with asthma risk, Amish and Hutterites follow farming practices that are associated with profound differences in the levels of house dust endotoxin, in the prevalence of asthma and atopy among school children, and in the proportions, phenotypes, and functions of immune cells from these children...
August 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826036/protective-immunity-against-tuberculosis-what-does-it-look-like-and-how-do-we-find-it
#10
REVIEW
Lu Huang, David G Russell
Progress towards the development of an effective vaccine against tuberculosis is hampered by the lack of correlative readouts of immune protection, coupled with our limited understanding of the immune mechanisms that determine disease progression versus containment. In this article we discuss the value of microbial readouts of bacterial fitness to probe the host immune environments and determine those host cell subsets that promote or control bacterial growth. Ultimately, we feel that these bacterial reporters will prove to be key in understanding the immune mechanisms underpinning disease outcome, and that this knowledge is critical to any program developing vaccines or immune-modulatory therapeutics as a means of controlling tuberculosis...
August 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823577/the-nonspecific-face-of-adaptive-immunity
#11
REVIEW
Eric Muraille, Stanislas Goriely
Memory T cells generated by infection or immunization persist in the organism and mediate specific protection upon rechallenge with microbial pathogens expressing the same molecular structures. However, multiple lines of evidence indicate that previously encountered or persisting pathogens influence the immune response to unrelated pathogens. We describe the acquisition of non-antigen specific memory features by both innate and adaptive immune cells explaining these phenomena. We also focus on the different mechanisms (homeostatic or inflammatory cytokine-driven) that lead to acquisition of memory phenotype and functions by antigen-inexperienced T lymphocytes...
August 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818789/immune-mechanisms-of-respiratory-viral-infections-in-asthma
#12
REVIEW
Hugo A Farne, Sebastian L Johnston
The more severe pathology respiratory viral infections produce in asthma sufferers is a result of a dysregulated immune response. Excess type 2 inflammation is a well-described feature of virally induced asthma exacerbations, with growing evidence that production of antiviral interferons may also be impaired. However, the mechanisms underlying these are little understood. This review summarizes the current understanding and recent discoveries of the cellular and molecular events that follow viral infections in asthma...
August 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806603/cancer-vaccines-in-the-era-of-checkpoint-blockade-the-magic-is-in-the-adjuvant
#13
REVIEW
Willem W Overwijk
While T cell checkpoint blockade therapy of various cancers yields impressive clinical benefits, most patients are not cured. This is thought to result from insufficient spontaneous tumor-specific T cell responses, a situation that could be remedied with cancer-specific vaccination. Much work is underway to identify cancer-specific antigens, leaving open the question of how to formulate these antigens in a manner that provokes potent cancer-specific T cell responses. In this review I discuss paradigms guiding adjuvant development, and consider what may constitutes a clinically relevant T cell response...
August 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806575/lessons-from-ctla-4-deficiency-and-checkpoint-inhibition
#14
REVIEW
Bernice Lo, Ussama M Abdel-Motal
CTLA-4 is a crucial negative regulator of immune responses. Absence of CTLA-4 in mice causes autoimmunity and lethal multiorgan lymphocytic infiltration and tissue destruction. Recently, heterozygous CTLA4 or biallelic LRBA mutations leading to functional CTLA-4 deficiency and autoimmunity have been discovered. LRBA was identified as a novel regulator of steady-state CTLA-4 protein levels in Tregs and activated T cells. CTLA-4 deficiency due to checkpoint blockade cancer immunotherapy has also been found to lead to autoimmune reactions...
August 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756233/organoid-culture-systems-to-study-host-pathogen-interactions
#15
REVIEW
Devanjali Dutta, Hans Clevers
Recent advances in host-microbe interaction studies in organoid cultures have shown great promise and have laid the foundation for much more refined future studies using these systems. Modeling of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in cerebral organoids have helped us understand its association with microcephaly. Similarly, the pathogenesis of bacterial (Helicobacter pylori, Clostridium difficile) and viral (Norovirus, Rotaviruses) infections have been precisely dissected in organoid cultures. Additionally, direct associations between microbial colonization of tissues and diseases like cancer have also been deciphered...
August 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780492/known-unknowns-how-might-the-persistent-herpesvirome-shape-immunity-and-aging
#16
REVIEW
Janko Nikolich-Zugich, Felicia Goodrum, Kenneth Knox, Megan J Smithey
The microbial community that colonizes all living organisms is gaining appreciation for its contributions to both physiologic and pathogenic processes. The virome, a subset of the overall microbiome, large and diverse, including viruses that persistently inhabit host cells, endogenous viral elements genomically or epigenomically integrated into cells, and viruses that infect the other (bacterial, protozoan, fungal, and archaeal) microbiome phylla. These viruses live in the organism for its life, and therefore are to be considered part of the aging process experienced by the organism...
August 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780294/pathophysiology-and-immunological-profile-of-myasthenia-gravis-and-its-subgroups
#17
REVIEW
Fredrik Romi, Yu Hong, Nils Erik Gilhus
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune antibody-mediated disease characterized by muscle weakness and fatigability. It is believed that the initial steps triggering humoral immunity in MG take place inside thymic tissue and thymoma. The immune response against one or several epitopes expressed on thymic tissue cells spills over to neuromuscular junction components sharing the same epitope causing humoral autoimmunity and antibody production. The main cause of MG is acetylcholine receptor antibodies. However, many other neuromuscular junction membrane protein targets, intracellular and extracellular proteins are suggested to participate in MG pathophysiology...
August 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755542/towards-an-evidence-based-approach-for-the-development-of-adjuvanted-vaccines
#18
REVIEW
Derek T O'Hagan, Leonard R Friedland, Emmanuel Hanon, Arnaud M Didierlaurent
In the last two decades, several vaccines formulated with a new generation of adjuvants have been licensed or approved to target diseases such as influenza, hepatitis B, cervical cancer, and malaria. These new generation adjuvants appear to work by delivering a localized activation signal to the innate immune system, which in turn promotes antigen-specific adaptive immunity. Advances in understanding of the innate immune system together with high-throughput discovery of synthetic immune potentiators are now expanding the portfolio of new generation adjuvants available for evaluation...
July 26, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755541/vaccines-targeting-helper-t-cells-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#19
REVIEW
Marit Melssen, Craig L Slingluff
There are compelling arguments for designing cancer vaccines specifically to induce CD4(+) helper T cell responses. Recent studies highlight the crucial role of proliferating, activated effector memory Th1 CD4(+) T cells in effective antitumor immunity and reveal that CD4(+) T cells induce more durable immune-mediated tumor control than CD8(+) T cells. CD4(+) T cells promote antitumor immunity by numerous mechanisms including enhancing antigen presentation, co-stimulation, T cell homing, T cell activation, and effector function...
July 26, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750280/tuberculosis-vaccines-perspectives-from-the-nih-niaid-mycobacteria-vaccine-testing-program
#20
REVIEW
Angelo A Izzo
The development of novel vaccine candidates against infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis has highlighted our limited understanding of immune mechanisms required to kill M. tuberculosis. The induction of a Th1 immunity is vital, but new studies are required to identify other mechanisms that may be necessary. Novel vaccines formulations that invoke effector cells such as innate lymphoid cells may provide an environment that promote effector mechanisms including T cell and B cell mediated immunity. Identifying pathways associated with killing this highly successful infectious agent has become critical to achieving the goal of reducing the global tuberculosis burden...
July 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
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