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Journal of Autoimmunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739356/development-of-autoantibodies-precedes-clinical-manifestations-of-autoimmune-diseases-a-comprehensive-review
#1
REVIEW
Wen-Tao Ma, Christopher Chang, M Eric Gershwin, Zhe-Xiong Lian
The etiology of autoimmune diseases is due to a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental factors that alter the expression of immune regulatory genes through various mechanisms including epigenetics. Both humoral and cellular elements of the adaptive immune system play a role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and the presence of autoantibodies have been detected in most but not all autoimmune diseases before the appearance of clinical symptoms. In some cases, the presence or levels of these autoantibodies portends not only the risk of developing a corresponding autoimmune disease, but occasionally the severity as well...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733125/modulation-of-inflammatory-and-immune-responses-by-vitamin-d
#2
REVIEW
Francesco Colotta, Birger Jansson, Fabrizio Bonelli
Vitamin D (VitD) is a prohormone most noted for the regulation of calcium and phosphate levels in circulation, and thus of bone metabolism. Inflammatory and immune cells not only convert inactive VitD metabolites into calcitriol, the active form of VitD, but also express the nuclear receptor of VitD that modulates differentiation, activation and proliferation of these cells. In vitro, calcitriol upregulates different anti-inflammatory pathways and downregulates molecules that activate immune and inflammatory cells...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728794/myeloid-suppressor-cells-in-cancer-and-autoimmunity
#3
REVIEW
Antonio Sica, Marco Massarotti
A bottleneck for immunotherapy of cancer is the immunosuppressive microenvironment in which the tumor cells proliferate. Cancers harness the immune regulatory mechanism that prevents autoimmunity from evading immunosurveillance and promoting immune destruction. Regulatory T cells, myeloid suppressor cells, inhibitory cytokines and immune checkpoint receptors are the major components of the immune system acting in concert with cancer cells and causing the subversion of anti-tumor immunity. This redundant immunosuppressive network poses an impediment to efficacious immunotherapy by facilitating tumor progression...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724503/twenty-five-years-of-gene-therapy-for-genetic-diseases-and-leukemia-the-road-to-marketing-authorization-of-the-first-ex%C3%A2-vivo-gene-therapies
#4
REVIEW
Claudio Bordignon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 16, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711286/novel-therapeutic-targets-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#5
REVIEW
Marjorie Argollo, Gionata Fiorino, Pieter Hindryck, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet, Silvio Danese
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease (CD) and Ulcerative Colitis (UC), are immune mediated conditions associated with progressive damage of the inflamed gut tissue, and have a considerable impact on the patient's quality of life. The pathogenesis remains uncertain, but it is clear that complex mechanisms associated with host and luminal factors are involved, generating an unbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory signaling. It is well established that the purpose of an adequate and complete control of the intestinal inflammation measured not only by clinical symptoms, but also with more objective data such as fecal biomarkers (calprotectin) and endoscopy...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711285/anti-il-21-monoclonal-antibody-combined-with-liraglutide-effectively-reverses-established-hyperglycemia-in-mouse-models-of-type-1-diabetes
#6
Anna K Rydén, Nikole R Perdue, Philippe P Pagni, Claire B Gibson, Sowbarnika S Ratliff, Rikke K Kirk, Travis J Friesen, Claus Haase, Ken Coppieters, Matthias G von Herrath, Tamar E Boursalian
Immunotherapy for type 1 diabetes (T1D) has previously focused on suppressing the autoimmune response against pancreatic beta cells to preserve endogenous insulin production and regulate glucose levels. With increased attention toward combination therapy strategies, studies indicate the multifunctional cytokine interleukin-21 (IL-21) may be a suitable target as an immuno-modulatory arm, while glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists may be appropriate as a beta cell protective arm in combination therapy for T1D...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709726/induction-and-maintenance-of-regulatory-t-cells-by-transcription-factors-and-epigenetic-modifications
#7
REVIEW
Mana Iizuka-Koga, Hiroko Nakatsukasa, Minako Ito, Takashi Akanuma, Qianjin Lu, Akihiko Yoshimura
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are an essential cell subset for the maintenance of immune homeostasis. Foxp3 (Forkhead box P3) is the Treg master gene which is essential for immune suppressing activity. In addition, Tregs are characterized by a distinct pattern of gene expression, including upregulation of immune-suppressive genes and silencing of inflammatory genes. The molecular mechanisms of Treg development and maintenance have been intensively investigated. Tregs are characterized by expression of the transcription factor Foxp3...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701277/the-epigenetic-architecture-at-gene-promoters-determines-cell-type-specific-lps-tolerance
#8
Kerstin Klein, Mojca Frank-Bertoncelj, Emmanuel Karouzakis, Renate E Gay, Christoph Kolling, Adrian Ciurea, Nagihan Bostanci, Georgios N Belibasakis, Lih-Ling Lin, Oliver Distler, Steffen Gay, Caroline Ospelt
Synovial fibroblasts (SF) drive inflammation and joint destruction in chronic arthritis. Here we show that SF possess a distinct type of LPS tolerance compared to macrophages and other types of fibroblasts. In SF and dermal fibroblasts, genes that were non-tolerizable after repeated LPS stimulation included pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases, whereas anti-viral genes were tolerizable. In macrophages, all measured genes were tolerizable, whereas in gingival and foreskin fibroblasts these genes were non-tolerizable...
July 9, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689639/regulation-of-inflammation-by-members-of-the-formyl-peptide-receptor-family
#9
REVIEW
Keqiang Chen, Zhiyao Bao, Wanghua Gong, Peng Tang, Teizo Yoshimura, Ji Ming Wang
Inflammation is associated with a variety of diseases. The hallmark of inflammation is leukocyte infiltration at disease sites in response to pathogen- or damage-associated chemotactic molecular patterns (PAMPs and MAMPs), which are recognized by a superfamily of seven transmembrane, Gi-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) on cell surface. Chemotactic GPCRs are composed of two major subfamilies: the classical GPCRs and chemokine GPCRs. Formyl-peptide receptors (FPRs) belong to the classical chemotactic GPCR subfamily with unique properties that are increasingly appreciated for their expression on diverse host cell types and the capacity to interact with a plethora of chemotactic PAMPs and MAMPs...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684129/chemokine-isoforms-and-processing-in-inflammation-and-immunity
#10
REVIEW
Paul Proost, Sofie Struyf, Jo Van Damme, Pierre Fiten, Estefania Ugarte-Berzal, Ghislain Opdenakker
The first dimension of chemokine heterogeneity is reflected by their discovery and purification as natural proteins. Each of those chemokines attracted a specific inflammatory leukocyte type. With the introduction of genomic technologies, a second wave of chemokine heterogeneity was established by the discovery of putative chemokine-like sequences and by demonstrating chemotactic activity of the gene products in physiological leukocyte homing. In the postgenomic era, the third dimension of chemokine heterogeneity is the description of posttranslational modifications on most chemokines...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679475/cik-as-therapeutic-agents-against-tumors
#11
REVIEW
M Introna
Cytokine Induced Killer (CIK) cells are ex vivo expanded and activated T lymphocytes obtained by sequential incubation of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear cells (PBMNC) with Interferon γ (IFNG), anti CD3 monoclonal antibody OKT3 and IL2. These cells, while retaining few characteristics of the Effector memory T cells subpopulation, acquired during culture CD56 expression, as well as non specific, Natural Killer like, anti tumoral cytotoxicity. CIK cells from human are equivalent to expanded NKT cells in mouse...
July 2, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676205/small-molecules-to-the-rescue-inhibition-of-cytokine-signaling-in-immune-mediated-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Massimo Gadina, Nathalia Gazaniga, Laura Vian, Yasuko Furumoto
Cytokines are small, secreted proteins associated with the maintenance of immune homeostasis but also implicated with the pathogenesis of several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Biologic agents blocking cytokines or their receptors have revolutionized the treatment of such pathologies. Nonetheless, some patients fail to respond to these drugs or do not achieve complete remission. The signal transduction originating from membrane-bound cytokine receptors is an intricate network of events that lead to gene expression and ultimately regulate cellular functionality...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669446/inflammation-and-myeloproliferative-neoplasms
#13
REVIEW
Federico Lussana, Alessandro Rambaldi
Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) include three main entities: Polycythemia Vera (PV), Essential Thrombocythemia (ET), and Myelofibrosis (MF). MPN represent a unique model of the relationship between the clonal development of a hematologic malignancy and chronic inflammation. The neoplastic clone is the main driver of this inflammatory reaction as demonstrated by the curative effect of allogeneic stem cell transplantation which leads not only to a complete restore of the hematopoiesis, but also to regression of bone marrow fibrosis...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666691/direct-targeting-of-cancer-cells-with-antibodies-what-can-we-learn-from-the-successes-and-failure-of-unconjugated-antibodies-for-lymphoid-neoplasias
#14
REVIEW
Josée Golay
Following approval in 1997 of the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab for the treatment of B-NHL and CLL, many other unconjugated IgG1 MAbs have been tested in pre-clinical and clinical trials for the treatment of lymphoid neoplasms. Relatively few have been approved however and these are directed against a limited number of target antigens (CD20, CD52, CCR4, CD38, CD319). We review here the known biological properties of these antibodies and discuss which factors may have led to their success or may, on the contrary, limit their clinical application...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663002/autoantibodies-in-juvenile-onset-myositis-their-diagnostic-value-and-associated-clinical-phenotype-in-a-large-uk-cohort
#15
Sarah L Tansley, Stefania Simou, Gavin Shaddick, Zoe E Betteridge, Beverley Almeida, Harsha Gunawardena, Wendy Thomson, Michael W Beresford, Angela Midgley, Francesco Muntoni, Lucy R Wedderburn, Neil J McHugh
OBJECTIVES: Juvenile myositis is a rare and heterogeneous disease. Diagnosis is often difficult but early treatment is important in reducing the risk of associated morbidity and poor outcomes. Myositis specific autoantibodies have been described in both juvenile and adult patients with myositis and can be helpful in dividing patients into clinically homogenous groups. We aimed to explore the utility of myositis specific autoantibodies as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in patients with juvenile-onset disease...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647488/autoreactivity-to-malondialdehyde-modifications-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-is-linked-to-disease-activity-and-synovial-pathogenesis
#16
Caroline Grönwall, Khaled Amara, Uta Hardt, Akilan Krishnamurthy, Johanna Steen, Marianne Engström, Meng Sun, A Jimmy Ytterberg, Roman A Zubarev, Dagmar Scheel-Toellner, Jeffrey D Greenberg, Lars Klareskog, Anca I Catrina, Vivianne Malmström, Gregg J Silverman
Oxidation-associated malondialdehyde (MDA) modification of proteins can generate immunogenic neo-epitopes that are recognized by autoantibodies. In health, IgM antibodies to MDA-adducts are part of the natural antibody pool, while elevated levels of IgG anti-MDA antibodies are associated with inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. Yet, in human autoimmune disease IgG anti-MDA responses have not been well characterized and their potential contribution to disease pathogenesis is not known. Here, we investigate MDA-modifications and anti-MDA-modified protein autoreactivity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647487/does-pregnancy-have-any-impact-on-long-term-damage-accrual-and-on-the-outcome-of-lupus-nephritis
#17
Davide Gianfreda, Silvana Quaglini, Giulia Frontini, Francesca Raffiotta, Piergiorgio Messa, Gabriella Moroni
No data are available about the impact of pregnancy on the long-term outcome of lupus nephritis. Thirty-two women with lupus nephritis with a 10-year follow-up after their first pregnancy ("women who gave birth") and 64 matched controls with the same follow-up and who never had pregnancies ("controls") were compared for the occurrence of SLE flares, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and SLICC/ACR Damage Index (SDI) in the post pregnancy period. The same evaluations were done before and after pregnancy in women who gave birth...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641926/targeting-the-gm-csf-receptor-for-the-treatment-of-cns-autoimmunity
#18
Igal Ifergan, Todd S Davidson, Hania Kebir, Dan Xu, Daphne Palacios-Macapagal, Jennifer Cann, Jane M Rodgers, Zoe N Hunter, Camille L Pittet, Sara Beddow, Clare A Jones, Alexandre Prat, Matthew A Sleeman, Stephen D Miller
In multiple sclerosis (MS), there is a growing interest in inhibiting the pro-inflammatory effects of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). We sought to evaluate the therapeutic potential and underlying mechanisms of GM-CSF receptor alpha (Rα) blockade in animal models of MS. We show that GM-CSF signaling inhibition at peak of chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) results in amelioration of disease progression. Similarly, GM-CSF Rα blockade in relapsing-remitting (RR)-EAE model prevented disease relapses and inhibited T cell responses specific for both the inducing and spread myelin peptides, while reducing activation of mDCs and inflammatory monocytes...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624334/seasonality-and-autoimmune-diseases-the-contribution-of-the-four-seasons-to-the-mosaic-of-autoimmunity
#19
REVIEW
Abdulla Watad, Shir Azrielant, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Kassem Sharif, Paula David, Itay Katz, Gali Aljadeff, Mariana Quaresma, Galya Tanay, Mohammad Adawi, Howard Amital, Yehuda Shoenfeld
Autoimmune diseases (ADs) are a heterogeneous groups of diseases that occur as a results of loss of tolerance to self antigens. While the etiopathogeneis remain obscure, different environmental factors were suggested to have a role in the development of autoimmunity, including infections, low vitamin D levels, UV radiation, and melatonin. Interestingly, such factors possess seasonal variation patterns that could influence disease development, severity and progression. Vitamin D levels which reach a nadir during late winter and early spring is correlated with increased disease activity, clinical severity as well as relapse rates in several disease entities including multiple sclerosis (MS), non-cutaneous flares of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606749/cardiovascular-disease-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-comprehensive-update
#20
REVIEW
Mayra Giannelou, Clio P Mavragani
Heightened rates of both cardiovascular (CV) events and subclinical atherosclerosis, documented by imaging and vascular function techniques are well established in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). While traditional CV factors such as smoking, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension, central obesity and hyperhomocysteinemia have been reported to be prevalent in lupus patients, they do not fully explain the high rates of ischemic events so far reported, implying that other factors inherent to disease itself could account for the enhanced risk, including disease duration, activity and chronicity, psychosocial factors, medications, genetic variants and altered immunological mechanisms...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
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