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Molecular Carcinogenesis

Yun Bai, Jia Wang, Jing Han, Xiao-Li Xie, Cheng-Guang Ji, Jie Yin, Lei Chen, Cun-Kai Wang, Xiao-Yu Jiang, Wei Qi, Hui-Qing Jiang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: BCL2L10 is an apoptosis-related member of the BCL-2 protein family. The role of BCL2L10 in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poorly understood. This study was aimed to investigate the function and underlying mechanisms of BCL2L10 in HCC. METHODS: BCL2L10 expression in human HCC and corresponding adjacent normal tissues was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot. The biological functions of BCL2L10 in HCC cell lines were determined by cell viability, colony formation, cell apoptosis, cell cycle and cell metastasis assays, and in vivo by tumorigenicity and lung metastasis assays in nude mice...
October 22, 2016: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Hongfang Zhang, Conghua Xie, Jing Yue, Zhenzhen Jiang, Rongjing Zhou, Ruifei Xie, Yan Wang, Shixiu Wu
Previous studies on the mechanisms underlying ESCC (esophageal squamous cell carcinoma) chemoresistance only focused on tumor cells while tumor microenvironment has been completely ignored. Our study aimed to clarify the effect of CAFs (cancer-associated fibroblasts), one major component of tumor microenvironment, on the chemoresistance of ESCC. By primary culture, two pairs of CAFs and matched NFs (normal fibroblasts) were isolated from tumor tissues of ESCC patients and matched normal esophageal epithelial tissues, respectively...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Deeksha Pal, Venkatesh Kolluru, Balaji Chanderashekar, Becca V Baby, Mazzy Aman, Suman Suman, Suman Sirimulla, Mary Ann Sanders, Praveen Seshabhatter, Houda Alatassi, Murali K Ankem, Chendil Damodaran
We have previously reported that high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzyme activity in breast cancer cells results in breast cancer stem cell (BCSC) properties by upregualting Notch-1 and epithelial mesenchymal markers. This results in chemoresistance in breast cancer. Here, we examined the functional and clinical significance of ALDH expression by measuring the ALDH levels in breast cancer tissues by immunohistochemistry. There was a significantly higher ALDH expression in higher grade breast cancer tumor tissues (Grade- II and III) versus normal breast tissues...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Gianandrea Traversi, Mario Fiore, Zulema Percario, Francesca Degrassi, Renata Cozzi
Natural compounds are extensively studied for their potential use in traditional and non-traditional medicine. Several natural and synthetic Resveratrol analogues have shown interesting biological activities in the field of cancer chemoprevention. In the present study, we have focused on the ability of Resveratrol and two methoxylated derivatives (Trimethoxystilbene and Pterostilbene) to inhibit human cancer cell growth particularly analyzing their ability to interfere with tubulin dynamics at mitosis. We show that Trimethoxystilbene, differently from Resveratrol and Pterostilbene, alters microtubule polymerization dynamics in HeLa cells specifically inducing multipolar spindles and mitotic arrest coupled to a reduction of cell growth and an increase in apoptotic death by mitotic catastrophe...
October 14, 2016: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Kiyoshi Misawa, Daiki Mochizuki, Shiori Endo, Masato Mima, Yuki Misawa, Atsushi Imai, Kazuya Shinmura, Takeharu Kanazawa, Thomas E Carey, Hiroyuki Mineta
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of the promoter methylation status of galanin (GAL) and galanin receptor 1/2 (GALR1/2) by assessing their association with disease-free survival and known prognostic factors in head and neck cancer. METHODS: We generated methylation profiles of GAL and GALR1/2 in tumor samples obtained from 202 patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC); these included 43 hypopharynx, 42 larynx, 59 oral cavity, and 58 oropharynx tumor samples...
September 29, 2016: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Ying Yuan, Erich M Sturgis, Lijun Zhu, Meixia Lu, Yuncheng Li, Qingyi Wei, Guojun Li
Human papillomavirus (HPV) activates E2F1-driven transcription via the E7-RB1-E2F pathway. Genetic polymorphisms in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) targeted by miRNAs can affect the regulation of target genes and individual cancer risk. Thus, we hypothesized that a polymorphism at the 3'UTR miRNA binding site of E2F1 gene (rs3213180) was associated with risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and tumor HPV status of oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). We determined the E2F1rs3213180 polymorphism and HPV16 L1 serology of 325 OSCC patients and 335 controls, and tumor HPV16 status of 552 OPSCC...
September 28, 2016: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Amira Ouanouki, Sylvie Lamy, Borhane Annabi
Epidemiological studies have convincingly demonstrated that diets rich in fruits and vegetables play an important role in preventing cancer due to their polyphenol content. Among polyphenols, the anthocyanidins are known to possess anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, anti-angiogenic, and anti-carcinogenic properties. Despite the well-known role of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in high grade gliomas, the impact of anthocyanidins on TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process that allows benign tumor cells to infiltrate surrounding tissues, remains poorly understood...
September 20, 2016: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Ayman Oweida, Shilpa Bhatia, Kellen Hirsch, Dylan Calame, Anastacia Griego, Steve Keysar, Todd Pitts, Jaspreet Sharma, Gail Eckhardt, Antonio Jimeno, Xiao Jing Wang, Gill Parkash, Joseph Califano, Sana Karam
Ephrin B2 is variably expressed on tumor cells and its blockade has been shown to inhibit angiogenesis in animal models of pancreatic, colorectal, lung and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. However, the implications of ephrinB2 expression in cancer patients have remained elusive. In this study, we analyzed the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) for ephrinB2 expression. We report significant correlations between EFNB2 expression, overall survival and disease-free survival in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC, n = 519), pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n = 186) and bladder urothelial carcinoma (n = 410)...
September 20, 2016: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Jiangjiang Li, Jingchen Lu, Ya He, Yong Wu, Yuan Wu, Xin Song, Yuee Jiang, Min Tang, Xinxian Weng, Wei Yi, Xiangjian Luo, Lunquan Sun, Ann M Bode, Ya Cao
Recently, mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 (IDH1/2) were discovered in 70% of low-grade glioma and secondary glioblastoma multiforme. The discovery of an oncogenic function and the identification of onco-metabolites of IDH1/2 support new roles for metabolism in cancer. For example, some evidence indicates that IDH2 might also exhibit oncogenic functions by promoting cellular metabolism and cancer cell growth. We examined the association between IDH2 rs11540478 and lung cancer risk in 262 lung cancer patient cases and 602 healthy control subjects and also investigated the biological function of rs11540478 in vivo...
September 20, 2016: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Eun Gene Sun, Kyung Hwa Lee, Yoo-Seung Ko, Hui Jeong Choi, Jung-In Yang, Jae Hyuk Lee, Ik Joo Chung, Yun-Woong Paek, Hangun Kim, Jeong A Bae, Kyung Keun Kim
Understanding the complex biological functions of E3-ubiquitin ligases may facilitate the development of mechanism-based anti-cancer drugs. We recently identified that the KITENIN/ErbB4-Dvl2-c-Jun axis works as a novel unconventional downstream signal of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues. Here we addressed whether E3-ubiquitin ligases are required for operation of this axis. We found that Nrdp1, an E3-ligase for ErbB3/ErbB4, interacted with KITENIN (KAI1 C-terminal interacting tetraspanin) to form a functional KITENIN/ErbB4/Nrdp1 complex and is responsible for down-regulating Dvl2 within this complex...
September 20, 2016: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Ishan Roy, Anthony E Getschman, Brian F Volkman, Michael B Dwinell
As knowledge of growth-independent functions of cancer cells is expanding, exploration into the role of chemokines in modulating cancer pathogenesis, particularly metastasis, continues to develop. However, more study into the mechanisms whereby chemokines direct the migration of cancer cells is needed before specific therapies can be generated to target metastasis. Herein, we draw attention to the longstanding conundrum in the field of chemokine biology that chemokines stimulate migration in a biphasic manner; and explore this phenomenon's impact on chemokine function in the context of cancer...
September 20, 2016: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Cheng-Hong Hsieh, Hsi-Hsien Hsu, Marthandam Asokan Shibu, Cecilia-Hsuan Day, Da-Tian Bau, Chih-Chu Ho, Yueh-Min Lin, Ming-Cheng Chen, Shu-Huai Wang, Chih-Yang Huang
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) accounts for almost a sixth of all reported cancers. Arecoline, from areca nut is known to enhance carcinogenesis in oral squamous cells. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of Taiwanin C, from Taiwania cryptomerioides Hayata against Arecoline-associated carcinogenesis. An OSCC model was created in C57BL/6J Narl mice by administrating 0.5 mg mL(-1) arecoline with 0.2 mg mL(-1) 4-NQO carcinogen for 8 and 28 wk to mimic the etiology of oral cancer patients in Asia...
September 20, 2016: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Wing-Po Chak, Raymond Wai-Ming Lung, Joanna Hung-Man Tong, Sylvia Yat-Yee Chan, Samantha Wei-Man Lun, Sai-Wah Tsao, Kwok-Wai Lo, Ka-Fai To
In our previous whole-transcriptome sequencing analysis, downregulation of a long non-coding RNA, maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3), was identified in NPC samples. This finding suggests the possible role of MEG3 as a tumor suppressor in this distinctive disease. In the present study, two MEG3 variants, AF119863 (MEG3-AF) and BX247998 (MEG3-BX), were found abundantly expressed in a normal nasopharyngeal epithelial cell line, NP69. Significant downregulation of MEG3-AF was further verified in a panel of NPC samples including xenografts and primary biopsies...
September 6, 2016: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Nancy Lévesque, Karen E Christensen, Lauren Van Der Kraak, Ana F Best, Liyuan Deng, Don Caldwell, Amanda J MacFarlane, Nicole Beauchemin, Rima Rozen
The common R653Q variant (∼20% homozygosity in Caucasians) in the synthetase domain of the folate-metabolizing enzyme MTHFD1 reduces purine synthesis. Although this variant does not appear to affect risk for colorectal cancer, we questioned whether it would affect growth of colorectal tumors. We induced tumor formation in a mouse model for MTHFD1-synthetase deficiency (Mthfd1S(+/-) ) using combined administration of azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in male and female wild-type and Mthfd1S(+/-) mice...
September 6, 2016: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Yue Lu, Caiwang Yan, Jiangbo Du, Yong Ji, Yong Gao, Xun Zhu, Fei Yu, Tongtong Huang, Juncheng Dai, Hongxia Ma, Yue Jiang, Jiaping Chen, Hongbing Shen, Guangfu Jin, Yongmei Yin, Zhibin Hu
Telomeres are essential for maintaining chromosomal stability and are crucial in tumor progression. Previous studies have explored the associations between telomere length and cancer prognosis, but the findings are inconclusive. Genome-wide association studies have identified several genetic variants associated with telomere length in Caucasians. However, the roles of telomere length and related genetic variants on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) prognosis are largely unknown. Therefore, we conducted a case-cohort study with 431 ESCC patients to assess the associations between relative telomere length (RTL), eight known telomere length related variants and the overall survival of ESCC in Chinese population...
September 6, 2016: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Kaushlendra Tripathi, Chinnadurai Mani, Ranganatha R Somasagara, David W Clark, Venkateshwari Ananthapur, Kambappa Vinaya, Komaraiah Palle
The normal female reproductive hormone estrogen has been linked with increased risk of breast and many other forms of cancer. This is largely due to metabolic conversion of estrogens into highly reactive catechol estrogen quinones which can interact with DNA and cause a variety of DNA adducts and lesions. Detection and analysis of these adducts and their associated cellular responses involve complex chemical, enzymatic and LC-MS based methods, which are both laborious and require specialized expertise and instrumentation...
September 6, 2016: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Michelle R Roberts, Lara E Sucheston-Campbell, Gary R Zirpoli, Michael Higgins, Jo L Freudenheim, Elisa V Bandera, Christine B Ambrosone, Song Yao
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in pathways influencing lymph node (LN) metastasis and estrogen receptor (ER) status in breast cancer may partially explain inter-patient variability in prognosis. We examined 154 SNPs in 12 metastasis-related genes for associations with breast cancer risk, stratified by LN and ER status, in European-American (EA) and African-American (AA) women. Two-thousand six hundred and seventy-one women enrolled in the Women's Circle of Health Study were genotyped. Pathway analyses were conducted using the adaptive rank truncated product (ARTP) method, with pARTP  ≤ 0...
September 6, 2016: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Huda H Al-Khalaf, Abdelilah Aboussekhra
Senescence and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) processes are under the control of common tumor suppressor proteins, EMT transcription factors, and microRNAs. However, the molecular mechanisms that coordinate the functional link between senescence and EMT are still elusive. We have shown here that p16(INK4A) -reltaed induction of senescence is mediated through miR-141 and miR-146b-5p. These 2 microRNAs are up-regulated in aging human fibroblast and epithelial cells. Furthermore, miR-141 and miR146b-5p trigger cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and induce senescence in primary human fibroblasts and breast cancer cells in the presence and absence of p16(INK4A) ...
September 6, 2016: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Anchuan Li, Dingbo Shi, Benhua Xu, Jingshu Wang, Yan-Lai Tang, WeiWei Xiao, Guanzhu Shen, Wuguo Deng, Chong Zhao
An elevated level of S100A6 is associated with poor outcomes of many tumour types, but how S100A6 contributes to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) progression remains unknown. Here, we investigated the expression and prognostic significance of S100A6 in NPC and explored the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of S100A6 in NPC development. The results showed that S100A6 was markedly up-regulated in NPC tissues and cell lines compared to paired peritumoural normal tissues and a normal nasopharyngeal epithelial cell line, respectively...
September 6, 2016: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Theresa Kreilmeier, Sandra Sampl, Abigail J Deloria, Ingrid Walter, Martin Reifinger, Marlene Hauck, Luke B Borst, Klaus Holzmann, Miriam Kleiter
Alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is a telomere maintenance mechanism (TMM) found in some human tumors such as sarcomas. Canine tumors are not characterized for ALT and the study aim was to identify if the ALT phenotype exists in canine sarcomas. Sixty-four canine sarcoma samples (20 snap-frozen, 44 FFPE) as well as six canine sarcoma cell lines were screened for ALT by C-circle assay. ALT was further evaluated by measuring telomere length via qPCR and telomere restriction-fragments including pulsed-field electrophoresis...
September 1, 2016: Molecular Carcinogenesis
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