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Social History of Medicine: the Journal of the Society for the Social History of Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482147/transnational-nationalism-and-idealistic-science-the-alcohol-question-between-the-wars
#1
Johan Edman
This article studies the interwar international conferences on the alcohol problem. How did they view the alcohol problem and its causes; what were the consequences for the individual and the society as a whole; and which solutions merited discussion? The first post-war conferences enjoyed an optimistic and internationalistic atmosphere, added to by American prohibition, which had given the temperance movement plenty to be hopeful about. But when the 1920s turned to the 1930s, the conferences were transformed into arenas for national solutions and into outright propaganda pieces...
August 2016: Social History of Medicine: the Journal of the Society for the Social History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482146/immigration-statecraft-and-public-health-the-1920-aliens-order-medical-examinations-and-the-limitations-of-the-state-in-england
#2
Becky Taylor
This article considers the medical measures of the 1920 Aliens Order barring aliens from Britain. Building on existing local and port public health inspection, the requirement for aliens to be medically inspected before landing significantly expanded the duties of these state agencies and necessitated the creation of a new level of physical infrastructure and administrative machinery. This article closely examines the workings and limitations of alien medical inspection in two of England's major ports-Liverpool and London-and sheds light on the everyday working of the Act...
August 2016: Social History of Medicine: the Journal of the Society for the Social History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482145/medicine-and-charity-in-eighteenth-century-northumberland-the-early-years-of-the-bamburgh-castle-dispensary-and-surgery-c-1772-1802
#3
Alun Withey
In 1772 in Bamburgh Castle, Northumberland, a charitable institution was established by Dr John Sharp to offer medical provision to the poor of the parish, which was remote from the Newcastle and Edinburgh Infirmaries. Unlike urban institutions, which have dominated hospital historiography, the Bamburgh dispensary was small, occupying only a few rooms in the castle, and situated in a remote, coastal location. And yet, at its height, the Bamburgh dispensary treated thousands of patients per year, often exceeding dispensaries in large towns, and was equipped with the latest medical technologies...
August 2016: Social History of Medicine: the Journal of the Society for the Social History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26858515/british-romantic-generalism-in-the-age-of-specialism-1870-1990
#4
Stephen T Casper, Rick Welsh
This essay explores the impact of 'generalism' and 'general practice' on the specialisation of British medicine using the case of neurology in Britain to reveal characteristics of British 'generalist medical culture' from 1870 to 1990. It argues that 'generalism' represented a particular epistemological position in Victorian medicine, one that then created a natural bridge between science and medicine over which almost all physicians and scientists were comfortable walking. The legacies of that Victorian 'generalist preference' exerted an enduring impact on the specialisation process as physicians experienced it in the twentieth century and as this case of neurology reveals so clearly...
February 2016: Social History of Medicine: the Journal of the Society for the Social History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26858514/accidents-and-apathy-the-construction-of-the-robens-philosophy-of-occupational-safety-and-health-regulation-in-britain-1961-1974
#5
Christopher Sirrs
The 1972 Robens Report is widely regarded to have provided the underlying rationale for the 'modern' system of occupational health and safety regulation in Britain, embodied in the Health and Safety at Work Act (HSW Act) 1974. The HSW Act advanced a new, more flexible system of regulation, premised on the ideal of self-regulation by industry. This article advances a more nuanced historical understanding of the Report and its ethos-the 'Robens philosophy'-than hitherto developed, situating its assumptions about accidents, regulation and the role of the state in the social, economic and political context of Britain in the 1960s and early 1970s...
February 2016: Social History of Medicine: the Journal of the Society for the Social History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26516299/-the-bones-tell-a-story-the-child-is-too-young-or-too-frightened-to-tell-the-battered-child-syndrome-in-post-war-britain-and-america
#6
Jennifer Crane
This article traces the emergence of child abuse as a medical concern in post-war Britain and America. In the early 1960s American paediatricians and radiologists defined the 'battered child syndrome' to characterise infants subjected to serious physical abuse. In the British context, paediatricians and radiologists, but also dermatologists and ophthalmologists, drew upon this work and sought to identify clear diagnostic signs of child maltreatment. For a time, the x-ray seemed to provide a reliable and objective visualisation of child maltreatment...
November 2015: Social History of Medicine: the Journal of the Society for the Social History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26516298/-a-virtue-beyond-all-medicine-the-hanged-man-s-hand-gallows-tradition-and-healing-in-eighteenth-and-nineteenth-century-england
#7
Owen Davies, Francesca Matteoni
From the eighteenth century through to the abolition of public executions in England in 1868, the touch of a freshly hanged man's hand was sought after to cure a variety of swellings, wens in particular. While the healing properties of corpse hands in general were acknowledged and experimented with in early modern medicine, the gallows cure achieved prominence during the second half of the eighteenth century. What was it about the hanged man's hand (and it always was a male appendage) that gave it such potency? While frequently denounced as a disgusting 'superstition' in the press, this popular medical practice was inadvertently legitimised and institutionalised by the authorities through changes in execution procedure...
November 2015: Social History of Medicine: the Journal of the Society for the Social History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26217072/sources-and-resources-into-the-dark-domain-the-uk-web-archive-as-a-source-for-the-contemporary-history-of-public-health
#8
Martin Gorsky
With the migration of the written record from paper to digital format, archivists and historians must urgently consider how web content should be conserved, retrieved and analysed. The British Library has recently acquired a large number of UK domain websites, captured 1996-2010, which is colloquially termed the Dark Domain Archive while technical issues surrounding user access are resolved. This article reports the results of an invited pilot project that explores methodological issues surrounding use of this archive...
August 2015: Social History of Medicine: the Journal of the Society for the Social History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26217071/inhaling-democracy-cigarette-advertising-and-health-education-in-post-war-west-germany-1950s-1975
#9
Rosemary Elliot
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the West German government was faced with the challenge of addressing a damaging health behaviour, smoking, in the context of an emerging late modern democracy, when the precedent for addressing that behaviour was set in the Nazi past. This paper details the two-pronged approach which the government took: seeking restrictions on cigarette advertising, whilst educating young people to adopt positive health behaviours in the face of pressure to smoke. This approach can be understood in the social and economic context of the time: an economic commitment to the social market economy worked against restrictions on the sale of cigarettes; whilst concerns about past authoritarian structures prompted the health authorities to seek novel ways of addressing smoking, emphasising choice...
August 2015: Social History of Medicine: the Journal of the Society for the Social History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26217070/ignored-disease-or-diagnostic-dustbin-sudden-infant-death-syndrome-in-the-british-context
#10
Angus H Ferguson
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) was defined in 1969 and incorporated into the International Classification of Diseases a decade later. To advocates of SIDS as a diagnosis, medical interest in sudden infant death was long overdue. However, the definition of SIDS lacked positive diagnostic criteria, provoking some to view it as a 'diagnostic dustbin' for the disposal of problematic cases where cause of death was unclear. This paper examines the development of medical interest in sudden infant death in Britain during the middle decades of the twentieth century...
August 2015: Social History of Medicine: the Journal of the Society for the Social History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26217069/-nature-concocts-expels-the-agents-and-processes-of-recovery-from-disease-in-early-modern-england
#11
Hannah Newton
The 'golden saying' in early modern medicine was 'Nature is the healer of disease'. This article uncovers the meaning and significance of this forgotten axiom by investigating perceptions of the agents and physiological processes of recovery from illness in England, c.1580-1720. Drawing on sources such as medical texts and diaries, it shows that doctors and laypeople attributed recovery to three agents-God, Nature and the practitioner. While scholars are familiar with the roles of providence and medicine, the vital agency of Nature has been overlooked...
August 2015: Social History of Medicine: the Journal of the Society for the Social History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25931775/-a-burden-on-the-county-madness-institutions-of-confinement-and-the-irish-patient-in-victorian-lancashire
#12
Catherine Cox, Hilary Marland
This article explores the responses of the Poor Law authorities, asylum superintendents and Lunacy Commissioners to the huge influx of Irish patients into the Lancashire public asylum system, a system facing intense pressure in terms of numbers and costs, in the latter half of the nineteenth century. In particular, it examines the ways in which patients were passed, bartered and exchanged between two sets of institution-workhouses and asylums. In the mid-nineteenth century removal to asylums was advocated for all cases of mental disorder by asylum medical superintendents and the Lunacy Commissioners; by its end, asylum doctors were resisting the attempts of Poor Law officials to 'dump' increasing numbers of chronic cases into their wards...
May 2015: Social History of Medicine: the Journal of the Society for the Social History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25352721/-a-plentiful-crop-of-cripples-made-by-all-this-progress-disability-artificial-limbs-and-working-class-mutualism-in-the-south-wales-coalfield-1890-1948-1
#13
Ben Curtis, Steven Thompson
Historians of orthopaedics, artificial limbs and disability have devoted a great deal of attention to children and soldiers but have neglected to give sufficient space in their studies to industrial workers, the other patient group that has been identified as crucial to the development of these areas. Furthermore, this attention has led to an imbalanced focus on charitable and philanthropic activities as the main means of assistance and the neglect of a significant part of the voluntary sphere, the labour movement...
November 2014: Social History of Medicine: the Journal of the Society for the Social History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25352720/wombs-worms-and-wolves-constructing-cancer-in-early-modern-england
#14
Alanna Skuse
This essay examines medical and popular attitudes to cancer in the early modern period, c.1580-1720. Cancer, it is argued, was understood as a cruel and usually incurable disease, diagnosable by a well-defined set of symptoms understood to correspond to its etymological root, karkinos (the crab). It was primarily understood as produced by an imbalance of the humours, with women being particularly vulnerable. However, such explanations proved inadequate to make sense of the condition's malignancy, and medical writers frequently constructed cancer as quasi-sentient, zoomorphising the disease as an eating worm or wolf...
November 2014: Social History of Medicine: the Journal of the Society for the Social History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25067891/the-machinery-of-authoritarian-care-dramatising-breast-cancer-treatment-in-1970s-britain
#15
Elizabeth Toon
This article examines the professional and public response to the television play Through the Night, which aired on BBC1 in December 1975. One of the first British mass media portrayals of a woman's experience being treated for breast cancer, this play attracted a large audience and considerable attention from both critics and everyday viewers. My analysis of the play draws on sources documenting expert responses to the play in its production stages, as well as critics' and viewers' responses to what the play said about breast cancer treatment in particular, and about Britons' experiences of medical institutions more broadly...
August 2014: Social History of Medicine: the Journal of the Society for the Social History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25067890/the-prevalence-of-syphilis-in-england-and-wales-on-the-eve-of-the-great-war-re-visiting-the-estimates-of-the-royal-commission-on-venereal-diseases-1913-1916
#16
Simon Szreter
Public fears of widespread venereal disease led in 1913 to the appointment of The Royal Commission on Venereal Diseases (RCVD). In 1916 its Final Report offered only a single cautious and somewhat imprecise summary statement about the likely prevalence of venereal diseases in England and Wales. Although the significance of contemporary attitudes to venereal disease has attracted a good deal of historiographic attention, no historian or demographer has since investigated this aspect of the Royal Commission's work...
August 2014: Social History of Medicine: the Journal of the Society for the Social History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25067889/the-dangerous-women-of-animal-welfare-how-british-veterinary-medicine-went-to-the-dogs
#17
Andrew Gardiner
This paper examines the turn toward the small companion animal that occurred in British veterinary medicine in the twentieth century. The change in species emphasis is usually attributed to post-war socioeconomic factors, however this explanation ignores the extensive small animal treatment that was occurring outwith the veterinary profession in the interwar period. The success of this unqualified practice caused the veterinary profession to rethink attitudes to small animals (dogs initially, later cats) upon the decline of horse practice...
August 2014: Social History of Medicine: the Journal of the Society for the Social History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24790389/heroes-and-hysterics-partisan-hysteria-and-communist-state-building-in-yugoslavia-after-1945
#18
Ana Antić
This article investigates a novel type of war neurosis defined by Yugoslav psychiatrists in the aftermath of the Second World War. This uniquely Yugoslav war trauma-'partisan hysteria'-was diagnosed exclusively in Communist resistance soldiers-partisans-and did not manifest itself in the form of battle exhaustion or anxiety, as was the case in other armies. Rather, it demonstrated a heightened willingness to fight, and consisted of simulations of wartime battles. Yugoslav psychiatrists argued that 'partisan hysteria' most frequently affected uneducated and immature partisans, who were given important political responsibilities but experienced severe trauma due to their own inadequacy...
May 2014: Social History of Medicine: the Journal of the Society for the Social History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24778464/christianity-and-eugenics-the-place-of-religion-in-the-british-eugenics-education-society-and-the-american-eugenics-society-c-1907-1940
#19
Graham J Baker
Historians have regularly acknowledged the significance of religious faith to the eugenics movement in Britain and the USA. However, much of this scholarship suggests a polarised relationship of either conflict or consensus. Where Christian believers participated in the eugenics movement this has been represented as an abandonment of 'orthodox' theology, and the impression has been created that eugenics was a secularising force. In contrast, this article explores the impact of religious values on two eugenics organisations: the British Eugenics Education Society, and the American Eugenics Society...
May 2014: Social History of Medicine: the Journal of the Society for the Social History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24771980/appealing-to-the-republic-of-letters-an-autopsy-of-anti-venereal-trials-in-eighteenth-century-mexico
#20
Fiona Clark
This study analyses the narrative elements of a little-known report into anti-venereal trials written by an Irish military physician-surgeon, Daniel O'Sullivan (1760-c.1797). It explores the way in which O'Sullivan as the narrator of the Historico-critical report creates medical heroes and anti-heroes as a means to criticise procedures initiated by staff in the Hospital General de San Andrés, Mexico City. The resulting work depicts a much less positive picture of medical trials and hospital authorities in this period than has been recorded to date, and provides a critical and complicated assessment of one of Spain's leading physicians of the nineteenth century, Francisco Javier Balmis (1753-1819)...
February 2014: Social History of Medicine: the Journal of the Society for the Social History of Medicine
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