Read by QxMD icon Read

Journal of Evolutionary Biology

Tom P G Van den Beuken, Chris C Duinmeijer, Isabel M Smallegange
Morphological structures used as weapons in male-male competition are not only costly to develop but are also probably costly to maintain during adulthood. Therefore, having weapons could reduce the energy available for other fitness-enhancing actions, such as postcopulatory investment. We tested the hypothesis that armed males make lower postcopulatory investments than unarmed males, and that this difference will be most pronounced under food-limited conditions. We performed two experiments using the male-dimorphic bulb mite Rhizoglyphus robini, in which males are either armed 'fighters' or unarmed 'scramblers'...
November 13, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Manuel Schweizer, Vera Warmuth, Niloofar Alaei Kakhki, Mansour Aliabadian, Marc Förschler, Hadoram Shirihai, Alexander Suh, Reto Burri
Genetic and phenotypic mosaics, in which various phenotypes and different genomic regions show discordant patterns of species or population divergence, offer unique opportunities to study the role of ancestral and introgressed genetic variation in phenotypic evolution. Here, we investigated the evolution of discordant phenotypic and genetic divergence in a monophyletic clade of four songbird taxa - pied wheatear (O. pleschanka), Cyprus wheatear (O. cypriaca), and western and eastern subspecies of black-eared wheatear (O...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Andrea S Grunst, Melissa L Grunst, Rusty A Gonser, Elaina M Tuttle
A central objective of evolutionary biology is understanding variation in life-history trajectories and aging rate, or senescence. Senescence can be affected by tradeoffs and behavioral strategies in adults, but may also be affected by developmental stress. Developmental stress can accelerate telomere degradation, with long-term longevity and fitness consequences. Little is known regarding whether variation in developmental stress and telomere dynamics contribute to patterns of senescence during adulthood. We investigated this question in the dimorphic white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis), a species in which adults of the two morphs exhibit established differences in behavioral strategy and patterns of senescence, and also evaluated the relationship between oxidative stress and telomere length...
November 11, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Katrina R Whitlow, Francesco Santini, Chirstopher E Oufiero
Convergent evolution of a novel locomotor strategy implies that a fitness benefit may be associated with the new gait. Opportunities to study this phenomenon are often constrained by a lack of transitional taxa, but teleost fishes offer examples of extant species across such evolutionary shifts in gait. For instance, one species from Osteoglossiformes and the entire order of Gymnotiformes independently evolved a novel gait, gymnotiform locomotion, where thrust is produced by the undulation of an elongate anal fin...
November 10, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Mhairi Miller, Tom Ratz, Jon Richardson, Per T Smiseth
Theory suggests that intraspecific competition associated with direct competition between inbred and outbred individuals should be an important determinant of the severity of inbreeding depression. The reason is that, if outbred individuals are stronger competitors than inbred ones, direct competition should have a disproportionate effect on the fitness of inbred individuals. However, an individual's competitive ability is not only determined by its inbreeding status but also by competitive asymmetries that are independent of an individual's inbreeding status...
November 10, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Nicholas M A Smith, Claire Wade, Michael H Allsopp, Brock A Harpur, Amro Zayed, Stephen A Rose, Jan Engelstädter, Nadine C Chapman, Boris Yagound, Benjamin P Oldroyd
Inbreeding (the mating between closely related individuals) often has detrimental effects that are associated with loss of heterozygosity at overdominant loci, and the expression of deleterious recessive alleles. However, determining which loci are detrimental when homozygous, and the extent of their phenotypic effects, remains poorly understood. Here, we utilise a unique inbred population of clonal (thelytokous) honey bees, Apis mellifera capensis, to determine which loci reduce individual fitness when homozygous...
November 10, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Diego Gil, Sergio Alfonso-Iñiguez, Lorenzo Pérez-Rodríguez, Jaime Muriel, Raquel Monclús
Stress during early development can induce substantial long-term effects in organisms. In the case of birds, despite growth compensations, nestlings reared under harsh conditions typically show reduced survival chances in adulthood. It has been proposed that environmental early-life stressors could affect longevity via effects on telomere length, possibly mediated through oxidative stress. However, the link between these processes is not clear. In this study, we experimentally manipulated brood size in spotless starlings (Sturnus unicolor) to test the causal relationship between early stress, oxidative and corticosterone-mediated stress and telomere shortening...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
João Fabrício Mota Rodrigues, Fabricio Villalobos, John B Iverson, José Alexandre Felizola Diniz-Filho
Understanding how the climatic niche of species evolved has been a topic of high interest in current theoretical and applied macroecological studies. However, little is known regarding how species traits might influence climatic niche evolution. Here we evaluated patterns of climatic niche evolution in turtles (tortoises and freshwater turtles) and whether species habitat (terrestrial or aquatic) influences these patterns. We used phylogenetic, climatic and distribution data for 261 species to estimate their climatic niches...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Meaghan Castledine, Angus Buckling, Daniel Padfield
Community coalescence, the mixing of multiple communities, is ubiquitous in natural microbial communities. During coalescence, theory suggests the success of a population will be enhanced by the presence of species it has coevolved with (relative to foreign species), because coevolution will result in greater resource specialisation to minimise competition. Thus, more coevolved communities should dominate over less coevolved communities during coalescence events. We test these hypotheses using the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens which diversifies into coexisting niche-specialist morphotypes...
October 22, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Benjamin L S Furman, Utkarsh J Dang, Ben J Evans, G Brian Golding
Whole genome duplication (WGD), the doubling of the nuclear DNA of a species, contributes to biological innovation by creating ge-netic redundancy. One mode of WGD is allopolyploidization, wherein each genome from two ancestral species becomes a 'subgenome' of a polyploid descendant species. The evolutionary trajectory of a dupli-cated gene that arises from WGD is influenced both by natural selec-tion, that may favour redundant, new, or partitioned functions, and by gene silencing (pseudogenization). Here, we explored how these two phenomena varied over time and within allopolyploid genomes in several allotetraploid clawed frog species (Xenopus)...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
James S Santangelo, Ken A Thompson, Marc T J Johnson
Pollinators and herbivores can both affect the evolutionary diversification of plant reproductive traits. However, plant defenses frequently alter antagonistic and mutualistic interactions and therefore variation in plant defenses may alter patterns of herbivore- and pollinator-mediated selection on plant traits. We tested this hypothesis by conducting a common garden field experiment using 50 clonal genotypes of white clover (Trifolium repens) that varied in a Mendelian inherited chemical antiherbivore defense-the production of hydrogen cyanide (HCN)...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Casper J van der Kooi, Karim Ghali, David Amptmeijer, Tanja Schwander
Many asexual animal populations comprise a mixture of genetically different lineages, but to what degree this genetic diversity leads to ecological differences remains often unknown. Here, we test whether genetically different clonal lineages of Aptinothrips grass thrips differ in performance on a range of plants used as hosts in natural populations. We find a clear clone-by-plant species interactive effect on reproductive output, meaning that clonal lineages perform differently on different plant species and thus are characterised by disparate ecological niches...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
José C Noguera
The sociosexual environment animals experience through their life can shape the evolution of key life history traits, including longevity. Male-male competition, for instance, may influence the resources allocated to traits involved in male reproductive success. Here, I test whether lifelong exposure to a competitor male influences male investment in pre- and post-copulatory sexual traits (calling effort and sperm quality) and how this affected the oxidative status and longevity of male field crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus)...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Emmanuelle Sophie Briolat, Mika Zagrobelny, Carl Erik Olsen, Jonathan D Blount, Martin Stevens
Many defended species use conspicuous visual warning signals to deter potential predators from attacking. Traditional theory holds that these signals should converge on similar forms, yet variation in visual traits and the levels of defensive chemicals is common, both within and between species. It is currently unclear how the strength of signals and potency of defences might be related: conflicting theories suggest that aposematic signals should be quantitatively honest, or, in contrast, that investment in one component should be prioritized over the other, while empirical tests have yielded contrasting results...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Jon Richardson, Per T Smiseth
Individual variation in resource acquisition should have consequences for life-history traits and trade-offs between them because such variation determines how many resources can be allocated to different life-history functions, such as growth, survival and reproduction. Since resource acquisition can vary across an individual's life cycle, the consequences for life-history traits and trade-offs may depend on when during the life cycle resources are limited. We tested for differential and/or interactive effects of variation in resource acquisition in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Siiri-Lii Sandre, Tanel Kaart, Nathan Morehouse, Toomas Tammaru
The idea that the fitness value of body coloration may be affected by biochemically mediated trade-offs has received much research attention. For example, melanization is believed to interact with other fitness-related traits via competition for substrates, costs associated with the synthesis of melanin or pleiotropic effects of the involved genes. However, genetic correlations between coloration and fitness-related traits remain poorly understood. Here, we present a quantitative-genetic study of a coloration trait correlated to melanin-based cuticular darkness ('darkness', hereafter) in a geometrid moth, Ematurga atomaria...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Alexandre Roulin, Vera Uva, Andrea Romano
Life history traits differ between organisms living in the tropics, Northern and Southern Hemispheres, and sexual selection is thought to be stronger close to the equator than in temperate regions. Although birds are often supposed to be more brightly coloured in the tropics, the current evidence of geographic variation in the intensity of sexual selection and sex-specific natural selection is equivocal. Whether sex-specific traits signal aspects of individual quality better in the tropics than in the temperate regions of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres therefore remains an open question...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Chris J Law, Emma Duran, Nancy Hung, Ekai Richards, Isaac Santillan, Rita S Mehta
Size and shape are often considered important variables that lead to variation in performance. In studies of feeding, size-corrected metrics of the skull are often used as proxies of biting performance; however, few studies have examined the relationship between cranial shape in its entirety and estimated bite force across species and how dietary ecologies may affect these variables differently. Here, we used geometric morphometric and phylogenetic comparative approaches to examine relationships between cranial morphology and estimated bite force in the carnivoran clade Musteloidea...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Erin L Macartney, Philip R Nicovich, Russell Bonduriansky, Angela J Crean
Nutrient availability has been shown to influence investment in many fitness-related traits, including male reproductive success. Many studies have demonstrated that a reduction in nutrient availability alters male post-copulatory trait expression, with some studies demonstrating an effect of developmental nutrients and others, an effect of adult nutrients. However, few studies have manipulated both developmental and adult nutrients in the same experiment. Therefore, it is not clear what life-stage has the greatest effect on post-copulatory trait expression, and if the effects of developmental and adult nutrients can interact...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Mohd Amir, Vijay Kumar, Ravins Dohare, Asimul Islam, Faizan Ahmad, Md Imtaiyaz Hassan
The cold shock domain (CSD) belongs to the to the oligosaccharide/oligonucleotide-binding fold superfamily which is highly conserved from prokaryotes to higher eukaryotes, and appears to function as RNA-chaperones. CSD is involved in diverse cellular processes, including adaptation to low temperatures, nutrient stress, cellular growth and developmental processes. Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) database broadly classifies OB fold proteins into 18 different superfamilies, including nucleic acid-binding superfamily (NAB)...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"