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Journal of Evolutionary Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543965/joint-evolution-of-differential-seed-dispersal-and-self-fertilization
#1
Ryosuke Iritani, Pierre-Olivier Cheptou
Differential seed dispersal, in which selfed and outcrossed seeds possess different dispersal propensities, represents a potentially important individual-level association. A variety of traits can mediate differential seed dispersal, including inflorescence and seed size variation. However, how natural selection shapes such associations is poorly known. Here, we developed theoretical models for the evolution of mating system and differential seed dispersal in metapopulations, incorporating heterogeneous pollination, dispersal cost, cost of outcrossing, and environment-dependent inbreeding depression...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524249/telomere-attrition-and-growth-a-life-history-framework-and-case-study-in-common-terns
#2
Oscar Vedder, Simon Verhulst, Christina Bauch, Sandra Bouwhuis
The relationship between growth and age-specific telomere length, as a proxy of somatic state, is increasingly investigated, but observed patterns vary and a predictive framework is lacking. We outline expectations based on the assumption that telomere maintenance is costly and argue that individual heterogeneity in resource acquisition is predicted to lead to positive covariance between growth and telomere length. However, canalization of resource allocation to the trait with a larger effect on fitness, rendering that trait relatively invariant, can cause the absence of covariance...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510293/a-test-for-y-linked-additive-and-epistatic-effects-on-surviving-bacterial-infections-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#3
Ian C Kutch, Kenneth M Fedorka
Y and W chromosomes offer a theoretically powerful way for sexual dimorphism to evolve. Consistent with this possibility, Drosophila melanogaster Y-chromosomes can influence gene regulation throughout the genome; particularly immune-related genes. In order for Y-linked regulatory variation (YRV) to contribute to adaptive evolution it must be comprised of additive genetic variance, such that variable Ys induce consistent phenotypic effects within the local gene pool. We assessed the potential for Y-chromosomes to adaptively shape gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial defense by introgressing Ys across multiple genetic haplotypes from the same population...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504469/subtle-but-ubiquitous-selection-on-body-size-in-a-natural-population-of-collared-flycatchers-over-33-years
#4
Mats Björklund, Lars Gustafsson
Understanding the magnitude and long-term patterns of selection in natural populations is of importance, for example, when analyzing the evolutionary impact of climate change. We estimated univariate and multivariate directional, quadratic and correlational selection on four morphological traits (adult wing, tarsus and tail length, body mass) over a time period of 33 years (≈ 19 000 observations) in a nest-box breeding population of collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis). In general, selection was weak in both males and females over the years regardless of fitness measure (fledged young, recruits and survival) with only few cases with statistically significant selection...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485061/the-combined-effects-of-temporal-autocorrelation-and-the-costs-of-plasticity-on-the-evolution-of-plasticity
#5
Mattias Siljestam, Örjan Östman
Adaptive phenotypic plasticity is an important source of intraspecific variation, and for many plastic traits the costs or factors limiting plasticity seem cryptic. However, there are several different factors that may constrain the evolution of plasticity, but few models have considered costs and limiting factors simultaneously. Here we use a simulation model to investigate how the optimal level of plasticity in a population depends on a fixed fitness cost for maintaining a potential for plasticity or an incremental fitness cost for producing a plastic response in combination with environmental unpredictability (environmental fluctuation speed) limiting plasticity...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485028/the-evolution-of-a-complex-trait-cuticular-hydrocarbons-in-ants-evolve-independent-from-phylogenetic-constraints
#6
Florian Menzel, Thomas Schmitt, Bonnie B Blaimer
Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) are ubiquitous and highly diverse in insects, serving as communication signal and waterproofing agent. Despite their vital function, the causes, mechanisms and constraints on CHC diversification are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated phylogenetic constraints on the evolution of CHC profiles, using a global dataset of the species-rich and chemically diverse ant genus Crematogaster. We decomposed CHC profiles into quantitative (relative abundances, chain length) and qualitative traits (presence/absence of CHC classes)...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474387/parasite-escape-through-trophic-specialization-in-a-species-flock
#7
Pascal I Hablützel, Maarten P M Vanhove, Pablo Deschepper, Arnout F Grégoir, Anna K Roose, Filip A M Volckaert, Joost A M Raeymaekers
Adaptive radiation occurs when species diversify rapidly to occupy an array of ecological niches. Since opportunities for parasite infection and transmission may greatly vary among these niches, adaptive radiation is expected to be associated with a turnover of the parasite community. As major agents of natural and sexual selection, parasites may play a central role in host diversification. The study of parasite turnover may thus be of general relevance and could significantly improve our understanding of adaptive radiation...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452079/frequency-dependent-selection-acting-on-the-widely-fluctuating-sex-ratio-of-the-aphid-prociphilus-oriens
#8
Y Li, S Akimoto
Frequency-dependent selection is a fundamental principle of adaptive sex-ratio evolution in all sex ratio theories but has rarely been detected in the wild. Through long-term censuses, we confirmed large fluctuations in the population sex ratio of the aphid Prociphilus oriens and detected frequency-dependent selection acting on these fluctuations. Fluctuations in the population sex ratio were partly attributable to climatic factors during the growing season. Climatic factors likely affected the growth conditions of host plants, which in turn led to yearly fluctuations in maternal conditions and sex ratios...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434199/repeated-evolution-of-digital-adhesion-in-geckos-a-reply-to-harrington-and-reeder
#9
Tony Gamble, Eli Greenbaum, Todd R Jackman, Anthony P Russell, Aaron M Bauer
We published a phylogenetic comparative analysis that found geckos had gained and lost adhesive toepads multiple times over their long evolutionary history (Gamble et al. 2012). This was consistent with decades of morphological studies showing geckos had evolved adhesive toepads on multiple occasions and that the morphology of geckos with ancestrally padless digits can be distinguished from secondarily padless forms. Recently, Harrington and Reeder (2017) reanalyzed data from Gamble et al. (2012) and found little support for the multiple origins hypothesis...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434197/multi-modal-signalling-in-estrildid-finches-song-dance-and-colour-are-associated-with-different-ecological-and-life-history-traits
#10
Ana Cristina R Gomes, Caterina Funghi, Masayo Soma, Michael D Sorenson, Gonçalo C Cardoso
Sexual traits (e.g., visual ornaments, acoustic signals, courtship behaviour) are often displayed together as multi-modal signals. Some hypotheses predict joint evolution of different sexual signals (e.g., to increase the efficiency of communication), or that different signals trade-off with each other (e.g., due to limited resources). Alternatively, multiple signals may evolve independently for different functions, or to communicate different information (multiple message hypothesis). We evaluated these hypotheses with a comparative study in the family Estrildidae, one of the largest songbird radiations, and one that includes many model species for research in sexual selection and communication...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430382/mixed-evidence-for-the-erosion-of-intertactical-genetic-correlations-through-intralocus-tactical-conflict
#11
K N Pike, J L Tomkins, B A Buzatto
Alternative reproductive tactics, whereby members of the same sex use different tactics to secure matings, are often associated with conditional intrasexual dimorphisms. Given the different selective pressures on males adopting each mating tactic, intrasexual dimorphism is more likely to arise if phenotypes are genetically uncoupled and free to evolve towards their phenotypic optima. However, in this context, genetic correlations between male morphs could result in intralocus tactical conflict (ITC). We investigated the genetic architecture of male dimorphism in bulb mites (Rhizoglyphus echinopus) and earwigs (Forficula auricularia)...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425174/costs-and-benefits-of-sublethal-drosophila-c-virus-infection
#12
V Gupta, C O Stewart, S S C Rund, K Monteith, P F Vale
Viruses are major evolutionary drivers of insect immune systems. Much of our knowledge of insect immune responses derives from experimental infections using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Most experiments, however, employ lethal pathogen doses through septic injury, frequently overwhelming host physiology. While this approach has revealed several immune mechanisms, it is less informative about the fitness costs hosts may experience during infection in the wild. Using both systemic and oral infection routes, we find that even apparently benign, sublethal infections with the horizontally transmitted Drosophila C virus (DCV) can cause significant physiological and behavioural morbidity that is relevant for host fitness...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425158/sexual-colouration-and-sperm-performance-in-the-australian-painted-dragon-lizard-ctenophorus-pictus
#13
Callum S McDiarmid, Christopher R Friesen, Cissy Ballen, Mats Olsson
Theory predicts trade-offs between pre- and postcopulatory sexually selected traits. This relationship may be mediated by the degree to which males are able to monopolise access to females, as this will place an upper limit on the strength of postcopulatory selection. Furthermore, traits that aid in mate monopolization may be costly to maintain and may limit investment in postcopulatory traits, such as sperm performance. Australian painted dragons are polymorphic for the presence or absence of a yellow gular patch ('bibs'), which may aid them to monopolise access to females...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425157/geographic-variation-in-mimetic-precision-among-different-species-of-coral-snake-mimics
#14
Christopher K Akcali, David W Pfennig
Batesian mimicry is widespread, but whether and why different species of mimics vary geographically in resemblance to their model is unclear. We characterized geographic variation in mimetic precision among four Batesian mimics of coral snakes. Each mimic occurs where its model is abundant (i.e., in "deep sympatry"), rare (i.e., at the sympatry/allopatry boundary or "edge sympatry"), and absent (i.e., in allopatry). Geographic variation in mimetic precision was qualitatively different among these mimics. In one mimic, the most precise individuals occurred in edge sympatry; in another, they occurred in deep sympatry; in the third, they occurred in allopatry; and in the fourth, precise mimics were not concentrated anywhere throughout their range...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425150/genetic-basis-for-soma-is-present-in-undifferentiated-volvocine-green-algae
#15
Zachariah I Grochau-Wright, Erik R Hanschen, Patrick J Ferris, Takashi Hamaji, Hisayoshi Nozaki, Bradley J S C Olson, Richard E Michod
Somatic cellular differentiation plays a critical role in the transition from unicellular to multicellular life, but the evolution of its genetic basis remains poorly understood. By definition somatic cells do not reproduce to pass on genes and so constitute an extreme form of altruistic behavior. The volvocine green algae provide an excellent model system to study the evolution of multicellularity and somatic differentiation. In Volvox carteri, somatic cell differentiation is controlled by the regA gene, which is part of a tandem duplication of genes known as the reg cluster...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425140/response-of-parasitoid-egg-load-to-host-dynamics-and-implications-for-egg-load-evolution
#16
Craig B Phillips, John M Kean
A theoretical debate about whether parasitoids should be time- or egg-limited now recognises both as feasible, and interest has turned to determining the circumstances under which each might arise in the field, and their implications for parasitoid behaviour and evolution. Egg loads of parasitoids sampled from the field are predicted to show a negative response to host availability, but empirical support for this relationship is scarce. We measured how a parasitoid's egg load responded to seasonal fluctuations in host population density and recorded the predicted correlation...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419678/secondary-compounds-from-exotic-tree-plantations-change-female-mating-preferences-in-the-palmate-newt-lissotriton-helveticus
#17
Maider Iglesias-Carrasco, Megan L Head, Michael D Jennions, Carlos Cabido
Selection can favor phenotypic plasticity in mate choice in response to environmental factors that alter the costs and benefits of being choosy, or of choosing specific mates. Human-induced environmental change could alter sexual selection by affecting the costs of mate choice, or by impairing the ability of individuals to identify preferred mates. For example, variation in mate choice could be driven by environmentally induced differences in body condition (e.g. health) that change the cost of choosiness, or by environmental effects on the ability to detect or discriminate sexual signals...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402000/x-chromosome-drive-in-a-widespread-palearctic-woodland-fly-drosophila-testacea
#18
Graeme L Keais, Mark A Hanson, Brent E Gowen, Steve J Perlman
Selfish genes that bias their own transmission during meiosis can spread rapidly in populations, even if they contribute negatively to the fitness of their host. Driving X chromosomes provide a clear example of this type of selfish propagation. These chromosomes have important evolutionary and ecological consequences, and can be found in a broad range of taxa including plants, mammals, and insects. Here we report a new case of X chromosome drive (X drive) in a widespread woodland fly, Drosophila testacea. We show that males carrying the driving X (SR males) sire 80-100% female offspring, and possess a diagnostic X chromosome haplotype that is perfectly associated with the sex ratio distortion phenotype...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393424/a-comparative-analysis-of-experimental-selection-on-the-stickleback-pelvis
#19
S E Miller, M Barrueto, D Schluter
Mechanisms of natural selection can be identified using experimental approaches. However, such experiments often yield nonsignificant effects and imprecise estimates of selection due to low power and small sample sizes. Combining results from multiple experimental studies might produce an aggregate estimate of selection that is more revealing than individual studies. For example, bony pelvic armour varies conspicuously among stickleback populations, and predation by vertebrate and insect predators has been hypothesized to be the main driver of this variation...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391616/variation-in-the-post-mating-fitness-landscape-in-fruitflies
#20
Claudia Fricke, Tracey Chapman
Sperm competition is pervasive and fundamental to determining a male's overall fitness. Sperm traits and seminal fluid proteins (Sfps) are key factors. However, studies of sperm competition may often exclude females that fail to remate during a defined period. Hence, the resulting datasets contain fewer data from the potentially fittest males that have most success in preventing female remating. It is also important to consider a male's reproductive success before entering sperm competition, which is a major contributor to fitness...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
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