Read by QxMD icon Read

Journal of Evolutionary Biology

Guillaume Wos, Yvonne Willi
Frost and heat events can be challenging for sessile organisms that cannot escape thermal extremes. However, adverse effects of thermal stress on fitness may be reduced by pre-exposure to cold or heat, a process known as acclimation. To understand the ecological and evolutionary implications of acclimation, we investigated (1) the reduction in performance due to stress pre-exposure, (2) the magnitude of increased leaf resistance to subsequent stress, (3) the costs of acclimation, and (4) the genes differing in expression due to stress pre-exposure...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Branka Tucić, Sanja Budečević, Sanja Manitašević Jovanović, Ana Vuleta, Christian Peter Klingenberg
Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) is widely used to quantify developmental instability (DI) in ecological and evolutionary studies. It has long been recognized that FA may not exclusively originate from DI for sessile organisms such as plants, because phenotypic plasticity in response to heterogeneities in the environment might also produce FA. This study provides the first empirical evidence for this hypothesis. We reasoned that solar irradiance, which is greater on the southern side than on the northern side of plants growing in the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere, would cause systematic morphological differences and asymmetry associated with the orientation of plant parts...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Marie Voillemot, Quentin Rougemont, Camille Roux, John R Pannell
Many angiosperms prevent inbreeding through a self-incompatibility (SI) system, but the loss of SI has been frequent in their evolutionary history. The loss of SI may often lead to an increase in the selfing rate, with the purging of inbreeding depression and the ultimate evolution of a selfing syndrome, where plants have smaller flowers with reduced pollen and nectar production. In this study, we used approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) to estimate the timing of divergence between populations of the plant Linaria cavanillesii, whose populations differ in SI status and in which SI is associated with low inbreeding depression but not with a transition to full selfing or a selfing syndrome...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
C M Coakley, E Nestoros, T J Little
Maternal effects are widely observed, but their adaptive nature remains difficult to describe and interpret. We investigated adaptive maternal effects in a clone of the crustacean Daphnia magna, experimentally varying both maternal age and maternal food and subsequently varying food available to offspring. We had two main predictions: that offspring in a food environment matched to their mothers should fare better than offspring in unmatched environments, and that offspring of older mothers would fare better in low food environments...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Tracy E Douglas, David C Queller, Joan E Strassmann
In our paper (Douglas et al. 2017), we tested the hypothesis that mating types differentially contribute to macrocyst production in Dictyostelium discoideum. Macrocysts are the result of the sexual union and subsequent meiosis of any two of the three mating types of D. discoideum. In the macrocyst process, many amoebae of the two mating types come together and all but the first two (together forming what is known as a giant cell) are consumed to increase the size of the growing macrocyst. This article is protected by copyright...
November 5, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Danton H O'Day
As one of the co-discovers of the sexual pheromones of Dictyostelium discoideum and other heterothallic Dictyostelium species, I question the results of Douglas et al (Social amoebae mating types do not invest unequally in sexual offspring. J. Evol. Biol. 30 (2017) 926-937) who argue that physical contact between mating types is essential for macrocyst formation. Our lab is one of the few labs internationally that has been studying all aspects of sexual development in the social amoebozoans for several decades and we reached our conclusions regarding the importance of pheromones as initiating agents through a diversity of techniques carried out by several different researchers (1-6)...
November 5, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
James D Stone, Matthew S Olson
Gynodioecy, the co-occurrence of females and hermaphrodites, is arguably the most common angiosperm gender polymorphism in many florae. Females' ability to invade and persist among hermaphrodites depends, in part, on pollinators providing adequate pollination to females. We directly measured diurnal and nocturnal pollinators' contributions to female and hermaphrodite seed production in artificial populations of gynodioecious Silene vulgaris by experimentally restricting pollinator access. We found that female relative seed production in this system depended strongly on pollination context: females produced more than twice as many seeds as hermaphrodites in the context of abundant, nectar-collecting moths...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
R Shine, E Wapstra, M Olsson
Squamate embryos require weeks of high temperature to complete development, with the result that cool climatic areas are dominated by viviparous taxa (in which gravid females can sun-bask to keep embryos warm) rather than oviparous taxa (which rely on warm soil to incubate their eggs). How, then, can some oviparous taxa reproduce successfully in cool climates - especially late in summer, when soil temperatures are falling? Near the northern limit of their distribution (in Sweden), sand lizards (Lacerta agilis) shift tactics seasonally, such that the eggs in late clutches complete development more quickly (when incubated at a standard temperature) than do those of early clutches...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Nonofo Gotcha, John S Terblanche, Casper Nyamukondiwa
Plastic adjustments of physiological tolerance to a particular stressor can result in fitness benefits for resistance that might manifest not only in that same environment but also be advantageous when faced with alternative environmental stressors, a phenomenon termed 'cross-tolerance'. The nature and magnitude of cross-tolerance responses can provide important insights into the underlying genetic architecture, potential constraints on, or versatility of an organism's stress responses. In this study, we tested for cross-tolerance to a suite of abiotic factors that likely contribute to setting insect population dynamics and geographic range limits: heat, cold, desiccation and starvation resistance in adult Ceratitis rosa following acclimation to all these isolated individual conditions prior to stress assays...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
I Galván
The lipid composition of cell membranes exerts a crucial influence on cell physiology. Indeed, one double bond triggers membrane fluidity, essential for cell functionality, but additional double bonds increase the susceptibilty to peroxidation, which produces reactive compounds that impair the viability of cells. It has therefore been suggested, but never tested in an extensive comparative context, that the composition of membrane fatty acids has been optimized during evolution. A similar prediction has been made for fatty acid chain length, on which susceptibility to peroxidation also depends...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
S J Lehnert, L Helou, T E Pitcher, J W Heath, D D Heath
Post-copulatory sexual selection processes, including sperm competition and cryptic female choice (CFC), can operate based on major histocompatibility (MH) genes. We investigated sperm competition between male alternative reproductive tactics (jack (sneaker) and hooknose (guard)) of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Using a full factorial design, we examined in vitro competitive fertilization success of paired jack and hooknose males at three time points after sperm activation (0, 15 and 60 seconds) to test for male competition, CFC and time effects on male fertilization success...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Isabel S Winney, Julia Schroeder, Shinichi Nakagawa, Yu-Hsun Hsu, Mirre Jp Simons, Alfredo Sánchez-Tójar, Maria-Elena Mannarelli, Terry Burke
How has evolution led to the variation in behavioural phenotypes (personalities) in a population? Knowledge of whether personality is heritable, and to what degree it is influenced by the social environment, is crucial to understanding its evolutionary significance, yet few estimates are available from natural populations. We tracked three behavioural traits during different life-history stages in a pedigreed population of wild house sparrows. Using a quantitative genetic approach, we demonstrated heritability in adult exploration, and in nestling activity after accounting for fixed effects, but not in adult boldness...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Alessandro Devigili, John L Fitzpatrick, Clelia Gasparini, Indar W Ramnarine, Andrea Pilastro, Jonathan P Evans
Identifying mechanisms of reproductive isolation is key to understanding speciation. Among the putative mechanisms underlying reproductive isolation, sperm-female interactions (postmating-prezygotic barriers) are arguably the hardest to identify, not least because these are likely to operate at the cellular or molecular level. Yet sperm-female interactions offer great potential to prevent the transfer of genetic information between different populations at the initial stages of speciation. Here we provide a preliminary test for the presence of a putative postmating-prezygotic barrier operating between three populations of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata), an internally fertilizing fish that inhabits streams with different levels of connectivity across Trinidad...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
D N Fisher, A G McAdam
The social environment is both an important agent of selection for most organisms, and an emergent property of their interactions. As an aggregation of interactions among members of a population, the social environment is a product of many sets of relationships and so can be represented as a network or matrix. Social network analysis in animals has focused on why these networks possess the structure they do, and whether individuals' network traits, representing some aspect of their social phenotype, relate to their fitness...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Edward D Burress, Fernando Alda, Alejandro Duarte, Marcelo Loureiro, Jonathan W Armbruster, Prosanta Chakrabarty
The rapid rise of phenotypic and ecological diversity in independent lake-dwelling groups of cichlids is emblematic of the East African Great Lakes. In this study, we show that similar ecologically-based diversification has occurred in pike cichlids (Crenicichla) throughout the Uruguay River drainage of South America. We collected genomic data from nearly 500 ultraconserved element (UCEs) loci and >260,000 base pairs across 33 species, to obtain a phylogenetic hypothesis for the major species-groups and to evaluate the relationships and genetic structure among five closely-related, endemic, co-occurring species (the Uruguay River species flock; URSF)...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Keely E Brown, John K Kelly
Antagonistic pleiotropy (AP) is a genetic tradeoff between different fitness components. In annual plants, a tradeoff between days to flower (DTF) and reproductive capacity often determines how many individuals survive to flower in a short growing season, and also influences the seed set of survivors. We develop a model of viability and fecundity selection informed by many experiments on the yellow monkeyflower, Mimulus guttatus, but applicable to many annual species. A viability/fecundity tradeoff maintains stable polymorphism under surprisingly general conditions...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Tyler J Buchinger, Ugo Bussy, Ke Li, Huiyong Wang, Mar Huertas, Cindy F Baker, Liang Jia, Michael C Hayes, Weiming Li, Nicholas S Johnson
Pheromones are among the most important sexual signals used by organisms throughout the animal kingdom. However, few are identified in vertebrates, leaving the evolutionary mechanisms underlying vertebrate pheromones poorly understood. Pre-existing biases in receivers' perceptual systems shape visual and auditory signaling systems, but studies on how receiver biases influence the evolution of pheromone communication remain sparse. The lamprey Petromyzon marinus uses a relatively well-understood suite of pheromones and offers a unique opportunity to study the evolution of vertebrate pheromone communication...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Emily Ra Cramer, Sara A Kaiser, Michael S Webster, T Scott Sillett, T Brandt Ryder
Our understanding of trait evolution is built upon studies that examine the correlation between traits and fitness, most of which implicitly assume all individuals experience similar selective environments. However, accounting for differences in selective pressures, such as variation in the social environment, can advance our understanding of how selection shapes individual traits and subsequent fitness. In this study, we test whether variation in the social environment affects selection on individual phenotype...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
A Bradley Duthie, Greta Bocedi, Ryan R Germain, Jane M Reid
Inbreeding depression is widely hypothesised to drive adaptive evolution of pre-copulatory and post-copulatory mechanisms of inbreeding avoidance, which in turn are hypothesised to affect evolution of polyandry (i.e., female multiple mating). However, surprisingly little theory or modelling critically examines selection for pre-copulatory or post-copulatory inbreeding avoidance, or both strategies, given evolutionary constraints and direct costs, or examines how evolution of inbreeding avoidance strategies might feed back to affect evolution of polyandry...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Jacqueline R Dillard, Thomas A Maigret
Delayed juvenile dispersal is an important prerequisite for the evolution of family-based social systems, such as cooperative breeding and eusociality. In general, young adults forego dispersal if there are substantial benefits to remaining in the natal nest and/or the likelihood of dispersing and breeding successfully is low. We investigate some general factors thought to drive delayed juvenile dispersal in the horned passalus beetle, a family-living beetle in which young adults remain with their families in their natal nest for several months before dispersing...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"