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Journal of Evolutionary Biology

Trinh T X Nguyen, Amanda J Moehring
Polyandrous females allow for sexual selection to persist after mating. In the event that females successfully mate with more than one male, sperm competition can occur. Seminal fluid proteins can indirectly affect a male's success in sperm competition through reducing the remating behaviour of females, and can directly influence sperm competition through directly displacing competitor sperm or inducing females to eject it. These direct effects on competitor sperm are thought to contribute to the 'second male advantage', whereby the second male to mate sires the majority of offspring...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Devin Arbuthnott, Michael C Whitlock
A common intuition among evolutionary biologists and ecologists is that environmental stress will increase the strength of selection against deleterious alleles and among alternate genotypes. However, the strength of selection is determined by the relative fitness differences among genotypes, and there is no theoretical reason why these differences should be exaggerated as mean fitness decreases. We update a recent review of the empirical results pertaining to environmental stress and the strength of selection and find that there is no overall trend towards increased selection under stress...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Sami Merilaita, Jennifer L Kelley
Clownfishes, with their showy colouration, are well known for their symbiosis with sea anemones and for their hierarchical reproductive system, but the function of their colouration is unclear. We used a phylogeny of 27 clownfish species to test whether fish colouration: (1) serves a protective function that involves their anemone hosts, or (2) signals species identity in species with overlapping host ranges that can potentially share the same host. We tested for an association between fish colour pattern traits, host morphology and host toxicity and examined coloration in relation to host sharing and geographic proximity...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
L A Whittingham, P O Dunn, C R Freeman-Gallant, C C Taff, J A Johnson
Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are a critical part of the adaptive immune response, and the most polymorphic genes in the vertebrate genome, especially in passerine birds. This diversity is thought to be influenced by exposure to pathogens which can vary in relation to numerous factors. Migratory behaviour may be a particularly important trait to consider because migratory birds are exposed to a greater number of different pathogens and parasites at both breeding (i.e. temperate) and overwintering (i...
July 2, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Tanya J Kerr, Sonja Matthee, Danny Govender, Gerard Tromp, Susan Engelbrecht, Conrad Matthee
Measuring contemporary dispersal in highly mobile terrestrial species is challenging, especially when species are characterized by low levels of population differentiation. Directly transmitted viruses can be used as a surrogate for traditional methods of tracking host movement. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) is a species-specific lentivirus, which has an exceptionally high mutation rate and circulates naturally in wild felids. Using samples derived from 35 lion (Panthera leo) prides, we tested the prediction that FIV in lions (FIVP le ) can be used to track the dispersal of individuals between prides...
July 2, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Oliver D Franklin, Skúli Skúlason, Michael B Morrissey, Moira M Ferguson
Resource polymorphisms exhibit remarkable intraspecific diversity and in many cases are expected to be maintained by diversifying selection. Phenotypic trade-offs can constrain morphologically intermediate individuals from effectively exploiting both alternate resources, resulting in ecological barriers to gene flow. Determining if and how phenotypic trade-offs cause fitness variation in the wild is challenging because of phenotypic and environmental correlations associated with alternative resource strategies...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Matthew L Holding, Mark J Margres, Darin R Rokyta, H Lisle Gibbs
Identifying the environmental correlates of divergence in functional traits between populations can provide insights into the evolutionary mechanisms that generate local adaptation. Here, we assess patterns of population differentiation in expressed venom proteins in Northern Pacific rattlesnakes (Crotalus oreganus) from 13 locations across California. We evaluate the relative importance of major biotic (prey species community composition), abiotic (temperature, precipitation, and elevation) and genetic factors (genetic distance based on RADseq loci) as correlates of population divergence in venom phenotypes...
June 30, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Carlos G Schrago, Barbara O Aguiar, Beatriz Mello
The use of discrete morphological data in Bayesian phylogenetics has increased significantly over the last years with the proposal of total evidence analysis and the treatment of fossils as terminal taxa in Bayesian molecular dating. Both approaches rely on the assumption that probabilistic Markov models reasonably accommodate all the complexity of morphological evolution of discrete traits. The performance of such morphological models used in Bayesian phylogenetics has been thoroughly investigated, but conclusions so far were based mostly on simulated data...
June 29, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Katariina Kangassalo, Terhi M Valtonen, Jouni Sorvari, Sanita Kecko, Mari Pölkki, Indrikis Krams, Tatjana Krama, Markus J Rantala
Organisms in the wild are likely to face multiple immune challenges as well as additional ecological stressors, yet their interactive effects on immune function are poorly understood. Insects are found to respond to cues of increased infection risk by enhancing their immune capacity. However, such adaptive plasticity in immune function may be limited by physiological and environmental constraints. Here, we investigated the effects of two environmental stressors - poor larval diet and an artificial parasite-like immune challenge at the pupal stage - on adult immune function, growth and development in the greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella)...
June 29, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Bernardo F Santos, Adrien Perrard
Common life history aspects among independent lineages often result in the repeated evolution of suites of adaptive traits, or "syndromes". Such syndromes can be key avenues to understand relationships between morphological and ecological traits, but are rarely tested due to insufficient trait shift repetitions. We use a hyperdiverse lineage to investigate the evolution of a syndrome. Cryptine ichneumonid wasps that parasitize insects concealed in hard substrates display several traits that are putative adaptations to that end...
June 29, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Alexandrea M Kranz, Gemma L Cole, Priti Singh, John A Endler
The sensory drive hypothesis predicts that across different light environments sexually selected color patterns will change to increase an animal's visual communication efficiency within different habitats. This is because individuals with more efficient signal components are likely to have more successful matings and hence produce more offspring. However, how color pattern signals change over multiple generations under different light environmental conditions has not been tested experimentally. Here we manipulated colour pattern signal efficiency by providing different ambient light environments over multiple generations to examine if male color pattern components change within large replicated populations of guppies (Poecilia reticulata)...
June 27, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Anssi Karvonen, Catherine E Wagner, Oliver M Selz, Ole Seehausen
Parasitism has been proposed as a factor in host speciation, as an agent affecting coexistence of host species in species rich communities, and as a driver of post-speciation diversification. Young adaptive radiations of closely related host species of varying ecological and genomic differentiation provide interesting opportunities to explore interactions between patterns of parasitism, divergence and coexistence of sympatric host species. Here, we explored patterns in ectoparasitism in a community of 16 fully sympatric cichlid species at Makobe Island in Lake Victoria, a model system of vertebrate adaptive radiation...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Guillermo Reales, Vanessa R Paixão-Côrtes, Gabriela B Cybis, Gislene L Gonçalves, Alcides Pissinatti, Francisco M Salzano, Maria CÁtira Bortolini
Traits that undergo massive natural selection pressure, with multiple events of positive selection, are hard to find. Social behaviour, in social animals, is crucial for survival, and genetic networks involved in behaviour, such as those of serotonin (5-HT) and other neurotransmitters, must be the target of natural selection. Here, we used molecular analyses to search for signals of positive selection in the 5-HT system and found such signals in the M3-M4 intracellular domain of the 5-HT3A serotonin receptor subunit (HTR3A) in primates...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Tegan Krista McDonald, Sam Yeaman
The paradox of high genetic variation observed in traits under stabilizing selection is a longstanding problem in evolutionary theory, as mutation rates appear too low to explain observed levels of standing genetic variation under classic models of mutation-selection balance. Spatially or temporally heterogeneous environments can maintain more standing genetic variation within populations than homogeneous environments, but it is unclear whether such conditions can resolve the above discrepancy between theory and observation...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Thomas Brom, Manuel Massot, David Laloi
Sex-biased dispersal is a much-discussed feature in literature on dispersal. Diverse hypotheses have been proposed to explain the evolution of sex-biased dispersal, a difference in dispersal rate or dispersal distance between males and females. An early hypothesis has indicated that it may rely on the difference in sex chromosomes between males and females. However, this proposal was quickly rejected without a real assessment. We propose a new perspective on this hypothesis by investigating the evolution of sex-biased dispersal when dispersal genes are sex-linked, i...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Shraddha Karve, Devika Bhave, Sutirth Dey
Environmental variability is on the rise in different parts of the earth and the survival of many species depends on how well they cope with these fluctuations. Our current understanding of how organisms adapt to unpredictably fluctuating environments is almost entirely based on studies that investigate fluctuations among different values of a single environmental stressor like temperature or pH. How would unpredictability affect adaptation when the environment fluctuates between qualitatively very different kinds of stresses? To answer this question, we subjected laboratory populations of Escherichia coli to selection over ~260 generations...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Kay Lucek, Irene Keller, Arne W Nolte, Ole Seehausen
Ecological speciation and adaptive radiation are key processes shaping northern temperate freshwater fish diversity. Both often involve parapatric differentiation between stream and lake populations and less often, sympatric intralacustrine diversification into habitat- and resource-associated ecotypes. However, few taxa have been studied, calling for studies of others to investigate the generality of these processes. Here, we test for diversification within catchments in freshwater sculpins in a network of peri-Alpine lakes and streams...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Michael P Moore, Cassandra Lis, Ryan A Martin
While deploying immune defenses early in ontogeny can trade-off with the production and maintenance of other important traits across the entire life cycle, it remains largely unexplored how features of the environment shape the magnitude or presence of these lifetime costs. Greater predation risk during the juvenile stage may particularly influence such costs by 1) magnifying the survival costs that arise from any handicap of juvenile avoidance traits and/or 2) intensifying allocation trade-offs with important adult traits...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Paul A Saunders, Samuel Neuenschwander, Nicolas Perrin
The recent advances of new genomic technologies has enabled to identify and characterize sex chromosomes in an increasing number of non-model species, revealing that many plants and animals undergo frequent sex chromosome turnovers. What evolutionary forces drive these turnovers remains poorly understood, but it was recently proposed that drift might play a more important role than generally assumed. We analyzed the dynamics of different types of turnovers using individual-based simulations, and show that when mediated by genetic drift, turnovers are usually easier to achieve than substitutions at neutral markers, but that their dynamics and relative likelihoods vary with the type of the resident and emergent sex chromosome system (XY and/or ZW), and the dominance relationships among the sex-determining factors...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Marcel E Dorken, Wendy E Van Drunen
Most dioecious plants are perennial and subject to tradeoffs between sexual reproduction and vegetative performance. However, these broader life-history tradeoffs have not usually been incorporated into theoretical analyses of the evolution of separate sexes. One such analysis has indicated that hermaphroditism is favored over unisexuality when female and male sex functions involve the allocation of non-overlapping types of resources to each sex function (e.g. allocations of carbon to female function versus allocations of nitrogen to male function)...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
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