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Journal of Evolutionary Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345277/evolution-of-antigenic-diversity-in-the-tick-transmitted-bacterium-borrelia-afzelii-a-role-for-host-specialization
#1
Lars Råberg, Åsa Hagström, Martin Andersson, Simona Bartkova, Kristin Scherman, Maria Strandh, Barbara Tschirren
Antigenic diversity in pathogenic microbes can be a result of at least three different processes: diversifying selection by acquired immunity, host-pathogen coevolution, and/or host specialization. Here, we investigate if host specialization drives diversity at ospC (which encodes an immunodominant surface protein) in the tick-transmitted bacterium Borrelia afzelii. We determined prevalence and infection intensity of ospC strains in naturally infected wild mammals (rodents and shrews) by 454 amplicon sequencing in combination with qPCR...
March 26, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338250/diversity-in-warning-coloration-is-easily-recognised-by-avian-predators
#2
Lina María Arenas, Martin Stevens
Warning coloration is a widespread strategy to alert predators about prey unprofitability. The success of this strategy partly depends on predators being able to learn and recognise certain signals as indicators of toxicity, and theory predicts that this is easier if signals converge on similar colours. However, the diversity in warning signal form is astonishing, contradicting predictions. Here, we quantified ladybird signal diversity with respect to avian vision, measuring how unique and discernable each signal is from one another...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321941/tadpole-begging-reveals-high-quality
#3
Matthew B Dugas, Stephanie A Strickler, Jennifer L Stynoski
Parents can benefit from allocating limited resources non-randomly among offspring, and offspring solicitation (i.e., begging) is often hypothesized to evolve because it contains information valuable to choosy parents. We tested the predictions of three 'honest begging' hypotheses -Signal of Need, Signal of Quality, and Signal of Hunger - in the tadpoles of a terrestrial frog (Oophaga pumilio). In this frog, mothers provision tadpoles with trophic eggs, and when mothers visit, tadpoles perform a putative begging signal by stiffening their bodies and vibrating rapidly...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306172/genetic-divergence-with-ongoing-gene-flow-is-maintained-by-the-use-of-different-hosts-in-phytophagous-ladybird-beetles-genus-henosepilachna
#4
Kei W Matsubayashi, Tetsuo I Kohyama, Norio Kobayashi, Satoko Yamasaki, Masakazu Kuwajima, Haruo Katakura
Adaptation to different environments can promote population divergence via natural selection even in the presence of gene flow-a phenomenon that typically occurs during ecological speciation. To elucidate how natural selection promotes and maintains population divergence during speciation, we investigated the population genetic structure, degree of gene flow and heterogeneous genomic divergence in three closely related Japanese phytophagous ladybird beetles: Henosepilachna pustulosa, H. niponica and H. yasutomii...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299861/patterns-and-mechanisms-in-instances-of-endosymbiont-induced-parthenogenesis
#5
REVIEW
Wen-Juan Ma, Tanja Schwander
Female-producing parthenogenesis can be induced by endosymbionts that increase their transmission by manipulating host reproduction. Our literature survey indicates that such endosymbiont-induced parthenogenesis is known or suspected in 124 host species from seven different arthropod taxa, with Wolbachia as the most frequent endosymbiont (in 56-75% of host species). Most host species (81%, 100 out of 124) are characterized by haplo-diploid sex determination, but a strong ascertainment bias likely underestimates the frequency of endosymbiont-induced parthenogenesis in hosts with other sex determination systems...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295769/hill-robertson-interference-maintained-by-red-queen-dynamics-favours-the-evolution-of-sex
#6
Jack da Silva, James D Galbraith
Although it is well established theoretically that selective interference among mutations (Hill-Robertson interference) favours meiotic recombination, genome-wide mean rates of mutation and strengths of selection appear too low to support this as the mechanism favouring recombination in nature. A possible solution to this discrepancy between theory and observation is that selection is at least intermittently very strong due to the antagonistic coevolution between a host and its parasites. The Red Queen theory posits that such coevolution generates fitness epistasis among loci, which generates negative linkage disequilibrium among beneficial mutations, which in turn favours recombination...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294452/phylogenetic-relationships-and-divergence-dates-of-softshell-turtles-testudines-trionychidae-inferred-from-complete-mitochondrial-genomes
#7
Haifeng Li, Juanjuan Liu, Lei Xiong, Huanhuan Zhang, Huaxing Zhou, Huazong Yin, Wanxing Jing, Jun Li, Qiong Shi, Yuqin Wang, Jianjun Liu, Liuwang Nie
The softshell turtles (Trionychidae) are one of the most widely distributed reptile groups in the world, and fossils have been found on all continents except Antarctica. The phylogenetic relationships among members of this group have been previously studied; however, there are disagreements regarding its taxonomy, its phylogeography and divergence times are still poorly understood as well. Here we present a comprehensive mitogenomic study of softshell turtles. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes of 10 softshell turtles, in addition to the GenBank sequence of Dogania subplana, Lissemys punctata, Trionyx triunguis, which cover all extant genera within Trionychidae except for Cyclanorbis and Cycloderma...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294448/does-high-relatedness-promote-cheater-free-multicellularity-in-synthetic-lifecycles
#8
R Fredrik Inglis, Erica Ryu, Odion Asikhia, Joan E Strassmann, David C Queller
The evolution of multicellularity is one of the key transitions in evolution and requires extreme levels of cooperation between cells. However, even when cells are genetically identical, non-cooperative cheating mutants can arise that cause a breakdown in cooperation. How then, do multicellular organisms maintain cooperation between cells? A number of mechanisms that increase relatedness amongst cooperative cells have been implicated in the maintenance of cooperative multicellularity including single cell bottlenecks and kin recognition...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295793/evolutionary-diversification-of-the-auditory-organ-sensilla-in-neoconocephalus-katydids-orthoptera-tettigoniidae-correlates-with-acoustic-signal-diversification-over-phylogenetic-relatedness-and-life-history
#9
Johannes Strauß, Joscha A Alt, Klemens Ekschmitt, Johannes Schul, Reinhard Lakes-Harlan
Neoconocephalus tettigoniids are a model for the evolution of acoustic signals as male calls have diversified in temporal structure during the radiation of the genus. Tettigoniidae have hearing organs in the forelegs with species-specific numbers of auditory sensilla in a linear crista acustica. We investigated changes of the hearing organs during an evolutionary radiation with divergence of intraspecific acoustic signals. We compared the neuroanatomy of the crista acustica from 9 Neoconocephalus species with different temporal call features, life histories, and from different phylogenetic positions...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295810/local-adaptation-along-an-environmental-cline-in-a-species-with-an-inversion-polymorphism
#10
Maren Wellenreuther, Hanna Rosenquist, Peter Jaksons, Keith Larson W
Polymorphic inversions are ubiquitous across the animal kingdom and are frequently associated with clines in inversion frequencies across environmental gradients. Such clines are thought to result from selection favouring local adaptation, however, empirical tests are scarce. The seaweed fly Coelopa frigida has an α/β inversion polymorphism and previous work demonstrated that the α inversion frequency declines from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea, and is correlated with changes in tidal range, salinity, algal composition and wrackbed stability...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294451/genetic-population-structure-in-an-equatorial-sparrow-roles-for-culture-and-geography
#11
Julie E Danner, Robert C Fleischer, Raymond M Danner, Ignacio T Moore
Female preference for local cultural traits has been proposed as a barrier to breeding among animal populations. As such, several studies have found correlations between male bird song dialects and population genetics over relatively large distances. To investigate if female choice for local dialects could act as a barrier to breeding between nearby and contiguous populations, we tested if variation in male song dialects explains genetic structure among eight populations of rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis) in Ecuador...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278369/single-and-multiple-mating-reduces-longevity-of-female-dumpling-squid-euprymna-tasmanica
#12
Amanda M Franklin, Devi Stuart-Fox
For many species, mating is a necessary yet costly activity. The costs involved can have an important influence on the evolution of life histories and senescence. Females of many species mate multiply and this behaviour can inflict a longevity cost. Most studies investigating the effects of multiple mating on female survival have been conducted on insects and the effects in other taxa are largely unknown. We investigate the effects of both a single mating and a second mating on longevity in female dumpling squid (Euprymna tasmanica), a species in which both sexes mate multiply...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278362/testing-the-phenotype-linked-fertility-hypothesis-in-the-presence-and-absence-of-inbreeding
#13
Wolfgang Forstmeier, Malika Ihle, Pavlína Opatová, Katrin Martin, Ulrich Knief, Jana Albrechtová, Tomáš Albrecht, Bart Kempenaers
The phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis suggests that females can judge male fertility by inspecting male phenotypic traits. This is because male sexually selected traits might correlate with sperm quality if both are sensitive to factors that influence male condition. A recent meta-analysis found little support for this hypothesis, suggesting little or no shared condition dependence. However, we recently reported that in captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) inbreeding had detrimental effects both on phenotypic traits and on measures of sperm quality, implying that variation in inbreeding could induce positive covariance between indicator traits and sperm quality...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267227/reproductive-suppression-follows-threats-to-child-survival
#14
Katherine B Saxton, Alison Gemmill, Ralph A Catalano
Natural selection presumably conserved mechanisms that allow females to block or terminate gestation when environmental circumstances threaten the survival of offspring. One example of this adaptive reproductive suppression, the Bruce Effect, has been identified in several species, both in the laboratory and in the wild. Although descriptive epidemiology reports low fertility among women experiencing stressful circumstances, attempts to detect a Bruce Effect in humans have been rare and limited. We contribute to this limited work by examining the relationship between the odds of child death and the sex ratio at birth in Sweden for the years 1751-1840...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252229/life-history-immunity-peto-s-paradox-and-tumors-in-birds
#15
Anders Pape Møller, Johannes Erritzøe, Juan J Soler
Cancer and tumors may evolve in response to life history trade-offs between growth and duration of development on one hand, and between growth and maintenance of immune function on the other. Here we tested whether (i) bird species with slow developmental rates for their body size experience low incidence of tumors because slow development allows for detection of rapid proliferation of cell lineages. We also test whether (ii) species with stronger immune response during development are more efficient at detecting tumor cells and hence suffer lower incidence of tumors...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241390/patterns-of-parental-care-in-neotropical-glassfrogs-fieldwork-alters-hypotheses-of-sex-role-evolution
#16
Jesse Delia, Laura Bravo-Valencia, Karen M Warkentin
Many animals provide parental care to offspring. Parental sex-roles vary extensively across taxa, and such patterns are considered well documented. However, information on amphibians is lacking relative to other vertebrate groups. We combine natural history observations with functional and historical analyses to examine the evolution of egg care in glassfrogs (Centrolenidae). Parental care was considered rare and predominately provided by males. Our field observations of 40 species revealed that care occurs throughout the family, and the caregiving sex changes across lineages...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235138/age-dependent-trajectories-differ-between-within-pair-and-extra-pair-paternity-success
#17
Yu-Hsun Hsu, Mirre J P Simons, Julia Schroeder, Antje Girndt, Isabel S Winney, Terry Burke, Shinichi Nakagawa
Reproductive success is associated with age in many taxa, increasing in early life followed by reproductive senescence. In socially monogamous, but genetically polygamous species, this generates the interesting possibility of differential trajectories of within-pair and extra-pair siring success with age in males. We investigate these relationships simultaneously using within-individual analyses with 13 years of data from an insular house sparrow (Passer domesticus) population. As expected, we found that both within- and extra-pair paternity success increased with age, followed by a senescence-like decline...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211207/social-amoebae-mating-types-do-not-invest-unequally-in-sexual-offspring
#18
Tracy E Douglas, David C Queller, Joan E Strassmann
Unequal investment by different sexes in their progeny is common and includes differential investment in the zygote and differential care of the young. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum has a sexual stage in which isogamous cells of any two of the three mating types fuse to form a zygote which then attracts hundreds of other cells to the macrocyst. The latter cells are cannibalized and so make no genetic contribution to reproduction. Previous literature suggests that this sacrifice may be induced in cells of one mating type by cells of another, resulting in a higher than expected production of macrocysts when the inducing type is rare and a giving a reproductive advantage to this social cheat...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211194/a-field-reciprocal-transplant-experiment-reveals-asymmetric-costs-of-migration-between-lake-and-river-ecotypes-of-three-spined-sticklebacks-gasterosteus-aculeatus
#19
Joshka Kaufmann, Tobias L Lenz, Martin Kalbe, Manfred Milinski, Christophe Eizaguirre
Theory of local adaptation predicts that non-adapted migrants will suffer increased costs compared to local residents. Ultimately this process can result in the reduction of gene flow and culminate in speciation. Here, we experimentally investigated the relative fitness of migrants in foreign habitats, focusing on diverging lake and river ecotypes of three-spined sticklebacks. A reciprocal transplant experiment performed in the field revealed asymmetric costs of migration: while mortality of river fish was increased under lake conditions, lake migrants suffered from reduced growth relative to river residents...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190270/intrinsic-reproductive-isolating-mechanisms-in-the-maintenance-of-a-hybrid-zone-between-ecologically-divergent-subspecies
#20
Jessica L McKenzie, Carol Bucking, Amanda Moreira, Patricia M Schulte
Understanding factors involved in maintaining stable hybrid zones is important for predicting the ultimate fate of the interacting taxa, but the relative importance of mechanisms such as ecological selection and intrinsic reproductive isolation remains unclear. Most studies of reproductive isolation in hybrid zones have focused either on zones with strongly bimodal patterns in genotype or phenotype frequencies, with relatively strong isolation, or unimodal zones with relatively weak isolation, whereas less is known about more intermediate classes of hybrid zone...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
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