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Journal of Evolutionary Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746729/the-evolution-of-colour-polymorphism-in-british-winter-active-lepidoptera-in-response-to-search-image-use-by-avian-predators
#1
Jamie Conor Weir
Phenotypic polymorphism in cryptic species is widespread. This may evolve in response to search image use by predators exerting negative frequency-dependent selection on intraspecific colour morphs, "apostatic selection". Evidence exists to indicate search image formation by predators and apostatic selection operating on wild prey populations, though not to demonstrate search image use directly resulting in apostatic selection. The present study attempted to address this deficiency, using British Lepidoptera active in winter as a model system...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746704/the-evolutionary-history-of-colour-polymorphism-in-ischnura-damselflies
#2
Rosa A Sánchez-Guillén, Adolfo Cordero-Rivera, Anais Rivas-Torres, Maren Wellenreuther, Seth Bybee, Bengt Hansson, María I Velasquez-Vélez, Emilio Realpe, Jesús R Chávez-Ríos, Fabricio Villalobos, Henri Dumont
A major challenge in evolutionary biology consists of understanding how genetic and phenotypic variation is created and maintained. In the present study, we investigated the origin(s) and evolutionary patterns of the female-limited colour polymorphism in ischnuran damselflies. These consist of the presence of one to three colour morphs: one androchrome morph with a colouration that is similar to the male, and two gynochrome morphs (infuscans and aurantiaca) with female-specific colouration. We (i) documented the colour and mating system of 44 of the 75 taxa within the genus Ischnura, (ii) reconstructed the evolutionary history of colour and mating system to identify the ancestral state, (iii) evaluated the stability of the colour morph status over time, and (iv) tested for a correlation between colour and mating system...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742313/phylogenetic-comparative-analysis-supports-aposematic-colouration-body-size-association-in-millipede-assassins-hemiptera-reduviidae-ectrichodiinae
#3
Michael Forthman, Christiane Weirauch
The diversity of colour patterns and its importance in interactions with the environment make colouration in animals an intriguing research focus. Aposematic colouration is positively correlated with body size in certain groups of animals, suggesting that warning colours are more effective or that crypsis is harder to achieve in larger animals. Surprisingly, this relationship has not been recovered in studies investigating insects, which may have been confounded by a focus on aposematic taxa that are also gregarious...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701882/an-empirical-test-for-a-zone-of-canalization-in-thermal-reaction-norms
#4
Erlend I F Fossen, Christophe Pélabon, Sigurd Einum
Theoretical models on the evolution of phenotypic plasticity predict a zone of canalization where reaction norms cross and genetic variation is minimized in the environment a population most frequently encounter. Empirical tests of this prediction are largely missing, in particular for life-history traits. We addressed this prediction by quantifying thermal reaction norms of three life-history traits (somatic growth rate, age and size at maturation) of a Norwegian population of Daphnia magna and testing for the occurrence of an intermediate temperature (Tm ) at which genetic variance in the traits is minimized...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679501/ecological-and-demographic-correlates-of-cooperation-from-individual-to-budding-dispersal
#5
António M M Rodrigues, Tiffany B Taylor
Identifying the ecological and demographic factors that promote the evolution of cooperation is a major challenge for evolutionary biologists. Explanations for the adaptive evolution of cooperation seek to determine which factors make reproduction in cooperative groups more favourable than independent breeding or other selfish strategies. A vast majority of the hypotheses posit that cooperative groups emerge in the context of philopatry, high costs of dispersal, high population density, and environmental stability...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676514/differential-effects-of-offspring-and-maternal-inbreeding-on-egg-laying-and-offspring-performance-in-the-burying-beetle-nicrophorus-vespilloides
#6
Lucy E Ford, Kirsten J Henderson, Per T Smiseth
We investigate the effect of offspring and maternal inbreeding on maternal and offspring traits associated with early offspring fitness in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides. We conducted two experiments. In the first experiment, we manipulated maternal inbreeding only (keeping offspring outbred) by generating mothers that were outbred, moderately inbred or highly inbred. Meanwhile, in the second experiment, we manipulated offspring inbreeding only (keeping females outbred) by generating offspring that were outbred, moderately inbred or highly inbred...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676060/resource-availability-mating-opportunity-and-sexual-selection-intensity-influence-the-expression-of-male-alternative-reproductive-tactics
#7
Paolo Giovanni Ghislandi, Stano Pekár, Magdalena Matzke, Sarah Schulte-Döinghaus, Trine Bilde, Cristina Tuni
The expression of alternative reproductive tactics can be plastic and occur simultaneously depending on cues that vary spatially or temporally. For example, variation in resources and sexual selection intensity is expected to influence the pay-off of each tactic and shape the decision of which tactic to employ. Males of the nuptial gift-giving spider Pisaura mirabilis can adopt three tactics: offering a genuine prey gift, a 'worthless' non-nutritious gift, or no gift. We hypothesized that resources and/or male body condition, and mating opportunity and sexual selection intensity, vary over the course of the mating season to shape the coexistence of alternative traits...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672994/constraints-on-the-evolution-of-phenotypic-plasticity-in-the-clonal-plant-hydrocotyle-vulgaris
#8
Mozhu Wang, Xiangqi Bu, Lin Li, Bi-Cheng Dong, Hong-Li Li, Fei-Hai Yu
The evolution of phenotypic plasticity of plant traits may be constrained by costs and limits. However, the precise constraints are still unclear for many traits under different ecological contexts. In a greenhouse experiment, we grew ramets of 12 genotypes of a clonal plant Hydrocotyle vulgaris under the control (full light and no flood), shade, and flood conditions, and tested the potential costs and limits of plasticity in 13 morphological and physiological traits in response to light availability and flood variation...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672987/mutation-accumulation-in-populations-of-varying-size-large-effect-mutations-cause-most-mutational-decline-in-the-rotifer-b-calyciflorus-under-uv-c-radiation
#9
Pepijn Luijckx, Eddie K H Ho, Andrijana Stanić, Aneil F Agrawal
Theory predicts that fitness decline via mutation accumulation will depend on population size but there are only a few direct tests of this key idea. To gain a qualitative understanding of the fitness effect of new mutations we performed a mutation accumulation experiment with the facultative sexual rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus at six different population sizes under UV-C radiation. Lifetime reproduction assays conducted after ten and sixteen UV-C radiations showed that while small populations lost fitness, fitness losses diminished rapidly with increasing population size...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672982/juvenile-divergence-in-adaptive-traits-among-seven-sympatric-fish-eco-morphs-arises-before-moving-to-different-lacustrine-habitats
#10
Evgeny V Esin, Grigorii N Markevich, Michail Yu Pichugin
Identifying the mechanisms initiating sympatric diversification in vertebrates has remained a conceptual challenge. Here we analyze an assemblage of sympatric charr (Salvelinus malma) morphs from landlocked Lake Kronotskoe basin as a model to uncover the divergence pathways in freshwater fishes during the early life history stages. All morphs have distinct developmental biology, but a similar developmental rate retardation compared to the ancestor. Our study reveals that adult morphological differences, which acquire functionality at maturation, originate in the early juvenile stages due to heterochrony in skeletogenesis and allometric changes triggered by variation in metabolic activity...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668109/coevolution-of-virulence-and-immunosuppression-in-multiple-infections
#11
Tsukushi Kamiya, Nicole Mideo, Samuel Alizon
Many components of host-parasite interactions have been shown to affect the way virulence (i.e., parasite-induced harm to the host) evolves. However, coevolution of multiple parasite traits is often neglected. We explore how an immunosuppressive mechanism of parasites affects and coevolves with virulence through multiple infections. Applying the adaptive dynamics framework to epidemiological models with coinfection, we show that immunosuppression is a double-edgedsword for the evolution of virulence. On one hand, it amplifies the adaptive benefit of virulence by increasing the abundance of coinfections through epidemiological feedbacks...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658162/web-building-and-silk-properties-functionally-covary-among-species-of-wolf-spider
#12
M Lacava, A Camargo, L F Garcia, M Benamu, M Santana, J Fang, X Wang, S J Blamires
While phylogenetic studies have shown covariation between the properties of spider major ampullate (MA) silk and web building, both spider webs and silks are highly plastic so we cannot be sure whether these traits functionally co-vary or just vary across environments that the spiders occupy. Since MaSp2-like proteins provide MA silk with greater extensibility, their presence is considered necessary for spider webs to effectively capture prey. Wolf spiders (Lycosidae) are predominantly non-web building, but a select few species build webs...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658161/parallel-evolutionary-forces-influence-the-evolution-of-male-and-female-songs-in-a-tropical-songbird
#13
Brendan A Graham, Daniel D Heath, Ryan P Walter, Melissa M Mark, Daniel J Mennill
Given the important role that animal vocalizations play in mate attraction and resource defence, acoustic signals are expected to play a significant role in speciation. Most studies, however, have focused on the acoustic traits of male animals living in the temperate zone. In contrast to temperate environments, in the tropics it is commonplace for both sexes to produce complex acoustic signals. Therefore tropical birds offer the opportunity to compare the sexes and provide a more comprehensive understanding of the evolution of animal signals...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658159/the-influence-of-developmental-environment-on-courtship-song-in-cactophilic-drosophila
#14
P P Iglesias, E M Soto, I M Soto, B Colines, E Hasson
Closely related species often differ in the signals involved in sexual communication and mate recognition. Determining the factors influencing signal quality (i.e. signal's content and conspicuousness) provides an important insight into the potential pathways by which these interspecific differences evolve. Host specificity could bias the direction of the evolution of sexual communication and the mate recognition system, favoring sensory channels that work best in the different host conditions. In this study, we focus on the cactophilic sibling species Drosophila buzzatii and D...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603471/interspecific-competition-promotes-habitat-and-morphological-divergence-in-a-secondary-contact-zone-between-two-hybridizing-songbirds
#15
Camille Sottas, Jiří Reif, Lechoslaw Kuczynski, Radka Reifová
Interspecific competition is assumed to play an important role in the ecological differentiation of species and speciation. However, empirical evidence for competition's role in speciation remains surprisingly scarce. Here we studied the role of interspecific competition in the ecological differentiation and speciation of two closely related songbird species, the Common Nightingale (Luscinia megarhynchos) and the Thrush Nightingale (L. luscinia). Both species are insectivorous and ecologically very similar...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577502/do-parasites-and-antioxidant-availability-affect-begging-behaviour-growth-rate-and-resistance-to-oxidative-stress
#16
Lea Maronde, Sylvain Losdat, Heinz Richner
Early-life trade-offs faced by developing offspring can have long-term consequences for their future fitness. Young offspring use begging displays to solicit resources from their parents and have been selected to grow fast to maximize survival. However, growth and begging behaviour are generally traded-off against self-maintenance. Oxidative stress, a physiological mediator of life-history trade-offs, may play a major role in this trade-off by constraining, or being costly to, growth and begging behaviour. Yet, despite implications for the evolution of life-history strategies and parent-offspring conflicts, the interplay between growth, begging behaviour and resistance to oxidative stress remains to be investigated...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577500/hybridization-could-be-a-common-phenomenon-within-the-highly-diverse-lizard-genus-liolaemus
#17
Melisa Olave, Luciano J Avila, Jack W Sites, Mariana Morando
Hybridization is likely to occur more often between closely related taxa that have had insufficient time to diverge to the point of reproductive incompatibility; hybridization between deeply divergent lineages is rare. In squamate reptiles, hybridization has been proposed as a possible explanation for the extensive paraphyly observed in mitochondrial gene trees in several species complexes of the South American lizard genus Liolaemus. One of the best-documented cases is within the L. boulengeri and L. rothi complexes, which diverged ~5...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577482/testing-wallace-s-intuition-water-type-reproductive-isolation-and-divergence-in-an-amazonian-fish
#18
T H S Pires, E A Borghezan, V N Machado, D Powell, C P Röpke, C Oliveira, J Zuanon, I P Farias
Alfred Russel Wallace proposed classifying Amazon rivers based on their color and clarity: white, black and clear water. Wallace also proposed that black-waters could mediate diversification and yield distinct fish species. Here, we bring evidence of speciation mediated by water type in the sailfin tetra (Crenuchus spilurus), a fish whose range encompasses rivers of very distinct hydrochemical conditions. Distribution of the two main lineages concord with Wallace's water types: one restricted to the acidic and nutrient-poor waters of the Negro River (herein Rio Negro lineage) and a second widespread throughout the remaining of the species' distribution (herein Amazonas lineage)...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577506/the-role-of-epistatic-interactions-underpinning-resistance-to-parasitic-varroa-mites-in-haploid-honeybee-drones
#19
Benjamin H Conlon, Eva Frey, Peter Rosenkranz, Barbara Locke, Robin F A Moritz, Jarkko Routtu
The Red Queen Hypothesis predicts that host-parasite coevolutionary dynamics can select for host resistance through increased genetic diversity, recombination and evolutionary rates. However, in haplodiploid organisms such as the honey bee (Apis mellifera), models suggest the selective pressure is weaker than in diploids. Haplodiploid sex-determination, found in A. mellifera, can allow deleterious recessive alleles to persist in the population through the diploid sex with negative effects predominantly expressed in the haploid sex...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573021/manipulation-of-parental-nutritional-condition-reveals-competition-among-family-members
#20
Eva M Keppner, Manfred Ayasse, Sandra Steiger
Parental care is thought to be costly, as it consumes time and energy. Such costs might be reduced in animal parents that raise their young on valuable food sources such as dung or carcasses, as parents are able to invest in self-maintenance by feeding from the same resource. However, this might lower the nutritional value for other family members and, as a consequence, food competition might arise. To promote our understanding of the outcome of such competition, we manipulated the necessity of parents to feed from the resource...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
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