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Journal of Evolutionary Biology

Cameron J Weadick, Ralf J Sommer
Characterizing the genetic basis of among-species variation in lifespan is a major goal of evolutionary gerontology research, but the very feature that defines separate species-the inability to interbreed-makes achieving this goal impractical, if not impossible, for most taxa. Pristionchus nematodes provide an intriguing system for tackling this problem, as female lifespan varies among species that can be crossed to form viable (though infertile) hybrids. By conducting reciprocal crosses among three species-two dioecious (long-lived P...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Francisca C Almeida, Rob DeSalle
Accessory gland proteins (Acps) are part of the seminal fluid of male Drosophila flies. Some Acps have exceptionally high evolutionary rates and evolve under positive selection. Proper interactions between Acps and female reproductive molecules are essential for fertilization. These observations lead to suggestions that fast evolving Acps could be involved in speciation by promoting reproductive incompatibilities between emerging species. To test this hypothesis, we used population genetics data for three sibling species: D...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Simon T Segar, Martin Volf, Jan Zima, Brus Isua, Mentap Sisol, Legi Sam, Katerina Sam, Daniel Souto-Vilarós, Vojtech Novotny
Much of the world's insect and plant biodiversity is found in tropical and subtropical 'hotspots', which often include long elevational gradients. These gradients may function as 'diversity pumps' and contribute to both regional and local species richness. Climactic conditions on such gradients often change rapidly along short vertical distances, and may result in local adaptation and high levels of population genetic structure in plants and insects. We investigated the population genetic structure of two species of Ficus (Moraceae) along a continuously forested elevational gradient in Papua New Guinea...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Kathryn A Stewart, Cameron M Hudson, Stephen C Lougheed
Reproductive barriers and divergence in species' mate recognition systems underlie major models of speciation. However, hybridization between divergent species is common, and classic mechanisms to explain permeable reproductive barriers rarely consider how an individual may attain reproductive success. Alternative mating tactics exist in various forms across animal taxa. Such tactics may allow poorer quality individuals to gain mating opportunities and facilitate introgression either through asymmetrical positive selection, or by circumventing female choice altogether in areas of secondary contact...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
D Porcelli, K J Gaston, R K Butlin, R R Snook
Considerable evidence exists for local adaptation of critical thermal limits in ectotherms following adult temperature stress, but fewer studies have tested for local adaptation of sublethal heat stress effects across life-history stages. In organisms with complex life cycles, such as holometabolous insects, heat stress during juvenile stages may severely impact gametogenesis, having downstream consequences on reproductive performance that may be mediated by local adaptation, although this is rarely studied...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Daniel Berner, Matthias Ammann, Eleanor Spencer, Attila Rüegg, Daniel Luescher, Dario Moser
Speciation can be initiated by adaptive divergence between populations in ecologically different habitats, but how sexually based reproductive barriers contribute to this process is less well understood. We here test for sexual isolation between ecotypes of threespine stickleback fish residing in adjacent lake and stream habitats in the Lake Constance basin, Central Europe. Mating trials in outdoor mesocosms allowing for natural reproductive behavior reveal that mating occurs preferentially between partners of the same than of the opposed ecotype...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Edina Prondvai
Medullary bone (MB) is a special endosteal tissue forming in the bones of female birds during egg-laying to serve as a labile calcium reservoir for building the hard eggshell. Therefore, the presence of MB reported in multiple non-avian dinosaurs is currently considered as evidence that those specimens were sexually mature females in their reproductive period. This interpretation has led to further inferences on species-specific growth strategies and related life history aspects of these extinct vertebrates...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Manar S Maraqa, Robert Griffin, M D Sharma, Alastair J Wilson, John Hunt, David J Hosken, Clarissa M House
Male fitness is dependent on sexual traits that influence mate acquisition (pre-copulatory sexual selection) and paternity (post-copulatory sexual selection), and while many studies have documented the form of selection in one or the other of these arenas, fewer have done it for both. Nonetheless, it appears that the dominant form of sexual selection is directional, although theoretically, populations should converge on peaks in the fitness surface, where selection is stabilizing. Many factors, however, can prevent populations from reaching adaptive peaks...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Marcel E Dorken, L E Perry
Indirect measures of sexual selection have been criticized because they can overestimate the magnitude of selection. In particular, they do not account for the degree to which mating opportunities can be monopolized by individuals of the sex that compete for mates. We introduce a measure of mate monopolization (m) based on the magnitude of correlated paternity and evaluate its ability to track changes in the magnitude of sexual selection. Simulation models were used to compare how well m tracked changes in the selection differential (s) for a trait regulating mating success...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Luigi Pontieri, Anna M Schmidt, Rohini Singh, Jes Søe Pedersen, Timothy A Linksvayer
Social insect sex and caste ratios are well-studied targets of evolutionary conflicts, but the heritable factors affecting these traits remain unknown. To elucidate these factors, we carried out a short-term artificial selection study on female caste ratio in the ant Monomorium pharaonis. Across three generations of bidirectional selection, we observed no response for caste ratio, but sex ratios rapidly became more female-biased in the two replicate high selection lines and less female-biased in the two replicate low selection lines...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Charles G Willis, Kathleen Donohue
In theory, adaptive divergence can increase intrinsic post-zygotic reproductive isolation (RI), either directly via selection on loci associated with RI, or indirectly via linkage of incompatibility loci with loci under selection. To test this hypothesis, we measured RI at five intrinsic post-zygotic reproductive barriers between 18 taxa from the genera Cakile and Erucaria (Brassicaceae). Using a comparative framework, we tested whether the magnitude of RI was associated with genetic distance, geographic distance, ecological divergence, and parental mating system...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
L Woestmann, J Kvist, M Saastamoinen
Flight represents a key trait in most insects, being energetically extremely demanding, yet often necessary for foraging and reproduction. Additionally, dispersal via flight is especially important for species living in fragmented landscapes. Even though, based on life-history theory, a negative relationship may be expected between flight and immunity, a number of previous studies have indicated flight to induce an increased immune response. In this study, we assessed whether induced immunity (i.e. immune gene expression) in response to 15-min forced flight treatment impacts individual survival of bacterial infection in the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia)...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Torbjørn Ergon, Rolf Ergon
Genetic assimilation emerges from selection on phenotypic plasticity. Yet, commonly used quantitative genetics models of linear reaction norms considering intercept and slope as traits do not mimic the full process of genetic assimilation. We argue that intercept-slope reaction norm models are insufficient representations of genetic effects on linear reaction norms, and that considering reaction norm intercept as a trait is unfortunate because the definition of this trait relates to a specific environmental value (zero) and confounds genetic effects on reaction norm elevation with genetic effects on environmental perception...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
V Valette, S Durand, N Bech, F Grandjean, S Beltran-Bech
Female multiple mating has been extensively studied to understand how nonobvious benefits, generally thought to be of genetic nature, could overcome heavy costs such as an increased risk of infection during mating. However, the impact of infection itself on multiple mating has rarely been addressed. The interaction between the bacterium Wolbachia and its terrestrial crustacean host, Armadillidium vulgare, is a relevant model to investigate this question. In this association, Wolbachia is able to turn genetic males into functional females (i...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Ailene MacPherson, Scott L Nuismer
Parallel evolution is often assumed to result from repeated adaptation to novel, yet ecologically similar, environments. Here we develop and analyze a mathematical model that predicts the probability of parallel genetic evolution from standing genetic variation as a function of the strength of phenotypic selection and constraints imposed by genetic architecture. Our results show that the probability of parallel genetic evolution increases with the strength of natural selection and effective population size, and is particularly likely to occur for genes with large phenotypic effects...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Kristal E Cain, Sarah R Pryke
Testosterone (T) is an important mediator of reproductive behaviours and potential target for selection. However, there are few data relating natural variation in T to fitness estimates. Here, we use the GnRH challenge (an injection of gonadotropin-releasing hormone which stimulates maximal T release), to examine how individual differences in T relate to reproductive success and how T changes across date and breeding stage. We measured pre and post-challenge T, in captive male Gouldian finch (Erythrura gouldiae), before and after introducing females, and across breeding stage...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Sean Harrington, Tod W Reeder
The binary-state speciation and extinction (BiSSE) model has been used in many instances to identify state-dependent diversification and reconstruct ancestral states. However, recent studies have shown that the standard procedure of comparing the fit of the BiSSE model to constant-rate birth-death models often inappropriately favors the BiSSE model when diversification rates vary in a state-independent fashion. The newly-developed HiSSE model enables researchers to identify state-dependent diversification rates while accounting for state-independent diversification at the same time...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Elise Huchard, Susanne Schliehe-Diecks, Peter M Kappeler, Cornelia Kraus
Inbreeding depression may be common in nature, reflecting either the failure of inbreeding avoidance strategies, or inbreeding tolerance when avoidance is costly. The combined assessment of inbreeding risk, avoidance and depression is therefore fundamental to evaluate the inbreeding strategy of a population, i.e., how individuals respond to the risk of inbreeding. Here, we use the demographic and genetic monitoring of 10 generations of wild grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus), small primates from Madagascar with overlapping generations, to examine their inbreeding strategy...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
M J Janeiro, D W Coltman, M Festa-Bianchet, F Pelletier, M B Morrissey
Integral projection models (IPMs) are extremely flexible tools for ecological and evolutionary inference. IPMs track the distribution of phenotype in populations through time, using functions describing phenotype-dependent development, inheritance, survival and fecundity. For evolutionary inference, two important features of any model are the ability to (i) characterize relationships among traits (including values of the same traits across ages) within individuals, and (ii) characterize similarity between individuals and their descendants...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Evan C Palmer-Young, Ben M Sadd, Lynn S Adler
Repeated exposure to inhibitory compounds can drive the evolution of resistance, which weakens chemical defense against antagonists. Floral phytochemicals in nectar and pollen have antimicrobial properties that can ameliorate infection in pollinators, but evolved resistance among parasites could diminish the medicinal efficacy of phytochemicals. However, multi-compound blends, which occur in nectar and pollen, present simultaneous chemical challenges that may slow resistance evolution. We assessed evolution of resistance by the common bumble bee gut parasite Crithidia bombi to two floral phytochemicals, singly and combined, over six weeks (~100 generations) of chronic exposure...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
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