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Journal of Evolutionary Biology

Josianne Lachapelle, Nick Colegrave, Graham Bell
Environments rarely remain the same over time, and populations are therefore frequently at risk of going extinct when changes are significant enough to reduce fitness. While many studies have investigated what attributes of the new environments and of the populations experiencing these changes will affect their probability of going extinct, limited work has been directed toward determining the role of population history on the probability of going extinct during severe environmental change. Here we compare the extinction risk of populations with a history of selection in a benign environment, to populations with a history of selection in one or two stressful environments...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
R D Phillips, G R Brown, K W Dixon, C Hayes, C C Linde, R Peakall
The mechanism of pollinator attraction is predicted to strongly influence both plant diversification and the extent of pollinator sharing between species. Sexually deceptive orchids rely on mimicry of species-specific sex pheromones to attract their insect pollinators. Given that sex pheromones tend to be conserved among related species, we predicted that in sexually deceptive orchids, (i) pollinator sharing is rare, (ii) closely related orchids use closely related pollinators and (iii) there is strong bias in the wasp lineages exploited by orchids...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Tess Driessens, Simon Baeckens, Manuela Balzarolo, Bieke Vanhooydonck, Katleen Huyghe, Raoul Van Damme
Animals communicate using a variety of signals that differ dramatically among and within species. The astonishing dewlap diversity in anoles has attracted considerable attention in this respect. Yet, the evolutionary processes behind it remain elusive and have mostly been explored for males only. Here, we considered Anolis sagrei males and females to study signal divergence among populations. First, we assessed the degree of variation in dewlap design (size, pattern, colour) and displays by comparing 17 populations distributed across the Caribbean...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
M B Graça, P A C L Pequeno, E Franklin, J W Morais
Occurrence patterns are partly shaped by the affinity of species with habitat conditions. For winged organisms, flight-related attributes are vital for ecological performance. However, due to the different reproductive roles of each sex, we expect divergence in flight energy budget, and consequently different selection responses between sexes. We used tropical frugivorous butterflies as models to investigate coevolution between flight morphology, sex dimorphism and vertical stratification. We studied 94 species of Amazonian fruit-feeing butterflies sampled in seven sites across 3341 ha...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Morgane Tidière, Jean-François Lemaître, Christophe Pélabon, Olivier Gimenez, Jean-Michel Gaillard
How selection pressures acting within species interact with developmental constraints to shape macro-evolutionary patterns of species divergence is still poorly understood. In particular, whether or not sexual selection affects evolutionary allometry, the increase in trait size with body size across species, of secondary sexual characters, remains largely unknown. In this context, bovid horn size is an especially relevant trait to study because horns are present in both sexes, but the intensity of sexual selection acting on them is expected to vary both among species and between sexes...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
C Ruth Archer, Robert M Stephens, Manmohan D Sharma, David J Hosken
The Y chromosome should degenerate because it cannot recombine. However, male limited transmission increases selection efficiency for male benefit alleles on the Y, and therefore Y-chromosomes should contribute significantly to variation in male-fitness. This means that although the Drosophila Y chromosome is small and gene-poor, Y-linked genes are vital for male fertility in D. melanogaster and the Y chromosome has large male-fitness effects. It is unclear if the same pattern is seen in the closely related D...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Kimberly A Paczolt, Josephine A Reinhardt, Gerald S Wilkinson
Sex-linked segregation distorters cause offspring sex ratios to differ from equality. Theory predicts that such selfish alleles may either go to fixation and cause extinction, reach a stable polymorphism, or initiate an evolutionary arms race with genetic modifiers. The extent to which a sex ratio distorter follows any of these trajectories in nature is poorly known. Here we used X-linked sequence and simple tandem repeat data for three sympatric species of stalk-eyed flies (Teleopsis whitei and two cryptic species of T...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Kathryn B McNamara, Leigh W Simmons
Group living can select for increased immunity, given the heightened risk of parasite transmission. Yet, it also may select for increased male reproductive investment, given the elevated risk of female multiple mating. Trade-offs between immunity and reproduction are well documented. Phenotypically, population density mediates both reproductive investment and immune function in the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella. However, the evolutionary response of populations to these traits is unknown. We created two replicated populations of P...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Jeanne M Serb, Emma Sherratt, Alvin Alejandrino, Dean C Adams
An important question in evolutionary biology is how often, and to what extent, do similar ecologies elicit distantly related taxa to evolve towards the same phenotype? In some scenarios, the repeated evolution of particular phenotypes may be expected, for instance when species are exposed to common selective forces that result from strong functional demands. In bivalved scallops (Pectinidae), some species exhibit a distinct swimming behavior (gliding), which requires specific biomechanical attributes to generate lift and reduce drag during locomotive events...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Hoang Luu, Ann T Tate
In response to parasite exposure, organisms from a variety of taxa undergo a shift in reproductive investment that may trade off with other life history traits including survival and immunity. By suppressing reproduction in favor of somatic and immunological maintenance, hosts can enhance the probability of survival and recovery from infection. By plastically enhancing reproduction through terminal investment, on the other hand, hosts under the threat of disease-induced mortality could enhance their lifetime reproductive fitness through reproduction rather than survival...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Jocelyn M Stedman, Kelly K Hallinger, David W Winkler, Maren N Vitousek
Phenotypic flexibility is a central way that organisms cope with challenging and changing environments. As endocrine signals mediate many phenotypic traits, heritable variation in hormone levels, or their context-dependent flexibility, could present an important target for selection. Several studies have estimated the heritability of circulating glucocorticoid levels under acute stress conditions, but little is known about the potential for either baseline hormone levels or rapid endocrine flexibility to evolve...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Erin S Morrison, Alexander V Badyaev
Interactions between the structure of a metabolic network and its functional properties underlie its evolutionary diversification, but the mechanism by which such interactions arise remains elusive. Particularly unclear is whether metabolic fluxes that determine the concentrations of compounds produced by a metabolic network, are causally linked to a network's structure or emerge independently of it. A direct empirical study of populations where both structural and functional properties vary among individuals' metabolic networks is required to establish whether changes in structure affect the distribution of metabolic flux...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Nicholas A Levis, Antonio Serrato-Capuchina, David W Pfennig
Ecological character displacement is considered crucial in promoting diversification, yet relatively little is known of its underlying mechanisms. We examined whether evolutionary shifts in gene expression plasticity ('genetic accommodation') mediate character displacement in spadefoot toads. Where Spea bombifrons and S. multiplicata occur separately in allopatry (the ancestral condition), each produces alternative, diet-induced, larval ecomorphs: omnivores, which eat detritus, and carnivores, which specialize on shrimp...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
H-Y Chu, K Sprouffske, A Wagner
The benefits and detriments of recombination for adaptive evolution have been studied both theoretically and experimentally, with conflicting predictions and observations. Most pertinent experiments examine recombination's effects in an unchanging environment and do not study its genomewide effects. Here, we evolved six replicate populations of either highly recombining R(+) or lowly recombining R(-) E. coli strains in a changing environment, by introducing the novel nutrients L-arabinose or indole into the environment...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Vicente García-Navas, Víctor Noguerales, Pedro J Cordero, Joaquín Ortego
Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is widespread and variable in nature. Although female-biased SSD predominates among insects, the proximate ecological and evolutionary factors promoting this phenomenon remain largely unstudied. Here, we employ modern phylogenetic comparative methods on 8 subfamilies of Iberian grasshoppers (85 species) to examine the validity of different models of evolution of body size and SSD and explore how they are shaped by a suite of ecological variables (habitat specialization, substrate use, altitude) and/or constrained by different evolutionary pressures (female fecundity, strength of sexual selection, length of the breeding season)...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Juntao Hu, Rowan D H Barrett
Rapid climate change produces a range of new selection pressures on natural populations. While populations may respond by shifting their geographical range or the timing of growth or reproduction; these strategies can be interrupted by habitat fragmentation, natural barriers, or an inadequate ability to keep pace with the speed and magnitude of climate change. As a result, many species are vulnerable to decline and extinction (Hoffmann & Sgrò, 2011). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Ane Marlene Myhre, Steinar Engen, Bernt-Erik Saether
Density dependence in vital rates is a key feature affecting temporal fluctuations of natural populations. This has important implications for the rate of random genetic drift. Mating systems also greatly affect effective population sizes, but knowledge of how mating system and density regulation interact to affect random genetic drift is poor. Using theoretical models and simulations, we compare Ne in short-lived, density dependent animal populations with different mating systems. We study the impact of a fluctuating, density dependent sex ratio and consider both a stable and a fluctuating environment...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
W M C Jarvis, S M Comeau, S F Colborne, B W Robinson
Gene flow is expected to limit adaptive divergence but the ecological and behavioural factors that govern gene flow are still poorly understood, particularly at the earliest stages of population divergence. Reduced gene flow through mate choice (sexual isolation) can evolve even under conditions of subtle population divergence if intermediate phenotypes have reduced fitness. We indirectly tested the hypothesis that mate choice has evolved between coexisting littoral and pelagic ecotypes of polyphenic pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus) that have diverged in morphology and resource use and where intermediate phenotypes have reduced performance...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Kim Nadine Kirchhoff, Torsten Hauffe, Björn Stelbrink, Christian Albrecht, Thomas Wilke
Species richness in freshwater bony fishes depends on two main processes: the transition into and the diversification within freshwater habitats. In contrast to bony fishes, only few cartilaginous fishes, mostly stingrays (Myliobatoidei), were able to colonize fresh water. Respective transition processes have been mainly assessed from a physiological and morphological perspective, indicating that the freshwater lifestyle is strongly limited by the ability to perform osmoregulatory adaptations. However, the transition history and the effect of physiological constraints on the diversification in stingrays remain poorly understood...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
M Rafajlović, D Kleinhans, C Gulliksson, J Fries, D Johansson, A Ardehed, L Sundqvist, R T Pereyra, B Mehlig, P R Jonsson, K Johannesson
In species reproducing both sexually and asexually clones are often more common in recently established populations. Earlier studies have suggested that this pattern arises due to natural selection favouring generally or locally successful genotypes in new environments. Alternatively, as we show here, this pattern may result from neutral processes during species' range expansions. We model a dioecious species expanding into a new area in which all individuals are capable of both sexual and asexual reproduction, and all individuals have equal survival rates and dispersal distances...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
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