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Current Opinion in Psychiatry

Julio Fernandez-Mendoza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It was first proposed in the late 1990s that objective markers of sleep disturbance could serve as an index of the biological severity of insomnia. In 2013, a heuristic model of two insomnia phenotypes based on objective sleep duration was proposed. Herein, we review the studies conducted in the past 3 years on the insomnia with short sleep duration phenotype and its implications for a clinical research agenda. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies have shown that insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with physiologic hyperarousal and cardiometabolic and neurocognitive morbidity, whereas insomnia with normal sleep duration is not...
October 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Vladan Starcevic, Vlasios Brakoulias
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article aims to examine the relationships between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and personality disturbance, with a particular focus on the diagnostic, aetiological and treatment implications of these relationships. RECENT FINDINGS: Personality disorders are common in OCD. They interact in various ways and in accordance with a number of the proposed models. The relationship between OCD and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is the most important, but it can be conceptualised in different ways and may vary from one person to another...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Anna Keski-Rahkonen, Linda Mustelin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Eating disorders - anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder - affect numerous Europeans. This narrative review summarizes European studies on their prevalence, incidence, comorbidity, course, consequences, and risk factors published in 2015 and the first half of 2016. RECENT FINDINGS: Anorexia nervosa is reported by <1-4%, bulimia nervosa <1-2%, binge eating disorder <1-4%, and subthreshold eating disorders by 2-3% of women in Europe...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Tatjana Crönlein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Accumulating data suggest that short sleep plays a role in the development of obesity in general population. Insomnia disorder is characterized by short sleep and may persist for years. The question whether these patients have a higher risk of obesity is of socioeconomic as well as therapeutic interest. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous recently published cross-sectional and longitudinal studies show positive as well as negative associations between short sleep and overweight...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Jennifer J Thomas, Sing Lee, Anne E Becker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes and contextualizes the recent epidemiologic data on eating disorders in the Asia and Pacific regions. RECENT FINDINGS: Gaps in epidemiologic data on eating disorders from the Asia and Pacific regions stem, in part, from omission of eating disorder-specific assessments in large nationally representative cohort studies of mental disorders. Available data - often from clinical and school-going cohorts - support that the prevalence of both eating disorders and associated attitudes and behaviors in many Asian and Pacific regions studied may be comparable to those reported in Europe and North America...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Marisol Perez, Tara K Ohrt, Hans W Hoek
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We reviewed the recent literature on prevalence rates, and application of evidence-based treatments for eating disorders among Hispanics/Latinos residing in the United States. RECENT FINDINGS: Lifetime prevalence rates of anorexia nervosa are lower among Hispanic/Latinos than non-Hispanic Whites. There are comparable rates of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder (BED) among Hispanic/Latinos and non-Hispanic Whites. BED is the most common eating disorder among Hispanic/Latinos...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Manohar J Shivananda, T S Sathyanaryana Rao
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sexual dysfunction is associated with many medical disorders. Lack of recognition of sexual dysfunction commonly occurs in medical practice. The impact of unrecognized sexual dysfunction affects quality of life, which in turn affects the recovery from medical illness. This article reviews the recent literature regarding sexual dysfunction in medical practice published in PubMed, Clinical key, Scopus, Google scholar from November 2014 to May 2016. RECENT FINDINGS: New findings suggest that sexual dysfunction is associated with most of the disorders affecting various systems...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Stephen F Smagula
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Rest-activity rhythm (RAR) measurements may aid in the detection of depression risk and serve as an important target for depression prevention. This review evaluates the strength of current evidence supporting these potential applications. RECENT FINDINGS: Depression is associated with lower activity levels, that is less regularly patterned, and potentially shifted earlier or later in the day. Specific RAR patterns (combinations of several RAR characteristics) in patients with clinical depression may be unique or partially shared across disorders...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Hans W Hoek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Belinda M Brown, Stephanie R Rainey-Smith, Romola S Bucks, Michael Weinborn, Ralph N Martins
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Suboptimal sleep has been reported as both a comorbidity and risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease. Previous research suggests that beta-amyloid (Aβ) may be central to this association, with reports indicating a bi-directional relationship between sleep and Aβ. Here, we review recent animal and human studies investigating the relationship between sleep and measures of Aβ, and explore the potential mechanisms underlying this association. RECENT FINDINGS: Two recent animal studies have provided further support for a bi-directional relationship between sleep and Aβ...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
José Luiz Pedroso, Pedro Braga-Neto, Alberto R M Martinez, Carlos R Martins, Flávio M Rezende Filho, Manoel A Sobreira-Neto, Lucila B F Prado, Gilmar F do Prado, Marcondes C França, Orlando G P Barsottini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article provides a description on clinical features and pathophysiology of the main sleep disorders observed in Machado-Joseph disease (MJD). RECENT FINDINGS: Pathological studies have clearly demonstrated that degenerative process in MJD is widespread in the nervous system, and not restricted to the cerebellum. Nonmotor manifestations are frequent and may include pain, cramps, dysautonomia, cognitive deficits, psychiatric manifestations, olfactory deficits, fatigue, nutritional issues, and sleep disorders...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Salvatore Caruso, Agnese M C Rapisarda, Stefano Cianci
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sexuality is an essential part of a healthy life. It can contribute significantly to the physical, psychological and social wellbeing of menopausal women, therefore, to their quality of life. This study is an overview of the most recent findings in the literature retrieved from searches of computerized databases. We extracted all notable information concerning definition, epidemiology, symptoms, diagnostic evaluation and management. RECENT FINDINGS: The experience of sexuality in menopause is fundamentally shaped by the biological and psychological changes that occur on a substrate of modifications linked to the ageing process...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
David R Kolar, Dania L Mejía Rodriguez, Moises Mebarak Chams, Hans W Hoek
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Eating disorders are currently not considered to be limited to Western culture. We systematically reviewed the existing literature on the prevalence of eating disorders in Latin America. RECENT FINDINGS: Of 1583 records screened, 17 studies from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela were included in the analysis. Most studies reported point-prevalence rates and only three studies provided lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Daphne van Hoeken, Jonathan K Burns, Hans W Hoek
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This is the first review of studies on the epidemiology of eating disorders on the African continent. RECENT FINDINGS: The majority of articles found through our search did not assess formal diagnoses, but only screened for eating attitudes and behaviors. Only four studies - including only one recent study - provided specific epidemiological data on anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and/or eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). No cases of anorexia nervosa according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV criteria were found among a total of 1476 (young) females...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Holly E Erskine, Harvey A Whiteford, Kathleen M Pike
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In 2015, the findings of the most recent Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD), GBD 2013, were published. Burden was quantified for two eating disorders: anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. RECENT FINDINGS: In GBD 2013, burden was attributed to both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa particularly in young females in high-income countries. As low- and middle-income countries continue to develop and undergo cultural change, the burden of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa in these countries will potentially rise...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Cynthia M Bulik, Susan C Kleiman, Zeynep Yilmaz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We capture recent findings in the field of genetic epidemiology of eating disorders. As analytic techniques evolve for twin, population, and molecular genetic studies, new findings emerge at an accelerated pace. We present the current status of knowledge regarding the role of genetic and environmental factors that influence risk for eating disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: We focus on novel findings from twin studies, population studies using genetically informative designs, and molecular genetic studies...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Mohan Isaac, Winfried Rief
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Rangaswamy Srinivasa Murthy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Understand recent developments in psychosocial and behavioral aspects of populations affected by humanitarian emergencies. The review covers the prevalence, longitudinal course, risk factors, posttraumatic growth, biological basis and interventions to address the needs. RECENT FINDINGS: Populations living in humanitarian emergencies, over 50 million worldwide, have higher risk of developing a range of mental disorders. There is evidence of persistence of these disturbances over long periods of time...
September 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
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