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Current Opinion in Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858007/the-management-of-sleep-disorders-in-dementia-an-update
#1
Kirsi M Kinnunen, Anastasia Vikhanova, Gill Livingston
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sleep disorders in dementia cause distress and may lead to families being unable to care for someone with dementia at home. Recent Cochrane reviews found no interventions of proven effectiveness. There was no effect of light therapy and moderate evidence that melatonin was ineffective both given without knowledge of the patient's circadian rhythm. The current article updates this review by considering newer publications on interventions for sleep disorders or abnormalities of the sleep-wake cycle in people with dementia living in the community...
September 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877047/autism-spectrum-disorders-in-adolescence-and-adulthood-focus-on-sexuality
#2
Daniel Turner, Peer Briken, Daniel Schöttle
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The combination of the core symptoms, characterizing individuals with autism-spectrum disorder (ASD), can lead to problems in romantic relationships and sexual functioning. The purpose of this article is to review studies on sexuality in individuals with ASD published since January 2016. RECENT FINDINGS: Individuals with ASD and especially women show a higher diversity in sexual orientation in comparison with the non-ASD population. Furthermore, ASD women are more frequently in a relationship and usually report more previous sexual experiences...
September 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872468/sexual-disorders-beyond-dsm-5-the-unfinished-affaire
#3
Felipe Navarro-Cremades, Chiara Simonelli, Angel L Montejo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview of post-The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. classifications related to human sexuality. After reviewing the literature on classification and clinical practice of sexual disorders, some of the most important contributions on main sexological classifications and frameworks were selected, especially from January 2016 till June 2017. RECENT FINDINGS: New relevant contributions on psychiatric and sexological classifications and frameworks have been proposed, such as the international classification of diseases 11th revision (ICD-11), research domain criteria, the third edition of the Diagnostic Manual in Sexology and the person-centered psychiatry perspective...
September 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858008/school-start-time-effects-on-adolescent-learning-and-academic-performance-emotional-health-and-behaviour
#4
Kyla L Wahlstrom, Judith A Owens
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The investigation of the relationship between the time of day that school begins and the effects it could have on students began in the mid-1990s. Since that time, many articles have been written either for the medical literature or the educational literature. This review is intended to bridge that gap by examining together the findings for both academic and health outcomes, exploring what we know and what is needed in further investigation. RECENT FINDINGS: Teens who are sleep deficient (defined as obtaining less than 8 h per night) because of early starting time for their school are much more likely to engage in risky behaviours, such as drug, cigarette and alcohol use, have significant feelings of depression, get lower grades and are at greater risk for car crashes...
August 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858009/sleep-and-memory-mechanisms-and-implications-for-psychiatry
#5
Jonathan G Maier, Christoph Nissen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses current concepts on the relationship between sleep, memory formation and underlying neural refinements, with a particular focus on possible ways to use or modulate sleep in a targeted manner to augment psychiatric and psychotherapeutic treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: The most promising lines of research with regard to psychiatry and psychotherapy center on the targeted implementation or modulation of sleep to augment existing or create novel forms of treatment...
August 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777106/treatment-of-eating-disorders-in-child-and-adolescent-psychiatry
#6
Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent research on the multimodal treatment of eating disorders in child and adolescent psychiatry has yielded a significant increase in randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews. This review aims to present relevant findings published during the last 2 years related to medical and psychological treatment of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID). RECENT FINDINGS: For anorexia nervosa, recent reports described the efficacy of different treatment settings, lengths of hospital stay and high vs...
August 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825956/management-of-sexual-problems-the-approach-of-mindfulness
#7
Sandra Vilarinho
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: During the last 10 years mindfulness has been progressively integrated into protocols for the management of sexual problems. The purpose of this study is to systematize potential benefits of mindfulness in sexual well-being (considering mind, emotion, and body), and to shortly review current applications and effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions to the treatment of sexual problems. RECENT FINDINGS: The majority of evidence available focuses on women's sexual desire and arousal problems, although there are also preliminary findings for the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions in enhancing other components of the sexual response...
August 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825955/epidemiology-and-treatment-of-eating-disorders-in-men-and-women-of-middle-and-older-age
#8
Barbara Mangweth-Matzek, Hans W Hoek
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We summarized recent literature on the epidemiology and treatment of eating disorders in middle-aged and older women and men. RECENT FINDINGS: The prevalence of eating disorders according to DSM-5 criteria is around 3.5% in older (>40 years) women and around 1-2% in older men. The majority of those eating disordered persons are not in treatment. There are new terms like 'perimenopausal eating disorders' and 'muscularity-oriented eating disorders' indicating the impact of the aging process and sex-specific differences...
August 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825954/the-lifetime-prevalence-of-psychiatric-diagnoses-in-an-academic-gender-reassignment-service
#9
Gerhard P Grobler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the literature regarding the prevalence of mental health concerns, including psychiatric diagnoses in the TGNC community. RECENT FINDINGS: Gender dysphoria is not the only mental health concern experienced by some members of TGNC people. Stigma and discrimination play a role in the development of mental health concerns. Even after reassignment surgery some members of the TGNC community is almost five times more likely to attempt suicide...
August 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817418/neuromodulation-and-neurofeedback-treatments-in-eating-disorders-and-obesity
#10
Bethan Dalton, Iain C Campbell, Ulrike Schmidt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Psychological interventions are the treatment of choice for most eating disorders; however, significant proportions of patients do not recover with these. Advances in understanding of the neurobiology of eating disorders have led to the development of targeted treatments, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS), noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS), and neurofeedback. We review the emerging clinical evidence for the use of these interventions in eating disorders and obesity, together with their theoretical rationale...
August 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806269/affective-disorders-and-sexual-function-from-neuroscience-to-clinic
#11
Bernardo C de Abreu Barata
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sexual dysfunction is a frequent issue in patients with affective disorders, affecting its quality of life and posing challenges to the approach of these patients. RECENT FINDINGS: In recent years, human sexuality has attracted interest from the scientific community, and today we have a much deeper knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the sexual response. Paraphilias or sexual dysfunctions like low sexual desire, premature ejaculation, and erectile dysfunction, are frequent in affective disorders, and the frequency of each sexual problem varies according to the affective disorder...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806268/pharmacotherapy-of-eating-disorders
#12
Haley Davis, Evelyn Attia
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Medications are commonly prescribed in the treatment of eating disorders. In this review, we discuss relevant medications used for the treatment of bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder (BED), and anorexia nervosa. We focus on recent research developments, where applicable, in addition to discussing important findings from older studies to provide a complete synopsis of the current evidence base for eating disorder treatment using pharmacologic agents. RECENT FINDINGS: Medications are generally useful for patients with bulimia nervosa and BED...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795980/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-and-predictors-of-weight-loss-in-bariatric-surgery-patients
#13
Linda Paul, Colin van der Heiden, Hans W Hoek
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for morbid obesity. However, 20-30% of patients undergoing bariatric surgery experience premature weight stabilization or weight regain postoperatively. We report on the recent literature of predictors of weight loss and the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in bariatric patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Preoperative disordered eating behaviors do not appear to be significantly predictive of postoperative weight loss...
August 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777107/evidence-based-clinical-guidelines-for-eating-disorders-international-comparison
#14
Anja Hilbert, Hans Hoek, Ricarda Schmidt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current systematic review sought to compare available evidence-based clinical treatment guidelines for all specific eating disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Nine evidence-based clinical treatment guidelines for eating disorders were located through a systematic search. The international comparison demonstrated notable commonalities and differences among these current clinical guidelines. Consistency across guidelines was greatest for treatments with a larger evidence base, while those with a lower evidence base had recommendations that varied considerably...
August 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746068/editorial-introductions
#15
Winfried Rief, Mohan Isaac
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708737/factors-associated-with-sexual-health-and-well-being-in-older-adulthood
#16
Maria Kleinstäuber
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update of recent studies on factors associated with sexual well being in older people with a special focus on sexual activity, satisfaction and function. RECENT FINDINGS: Most recent studies confirmed the relationship between mental health status, especially negative affect and depressive symptoms, and sexual health in older adulthood. However, when this relationship is investigated more deeply, it seems that in fact positive psychological well being (positive affect and quality of life) accounts for sexual activity rather than the lack of depressive symptoms...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704238/perspectives-about-mental-health-illness-and-recovery
#17
Kuruthukulangara S Jacob
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patient and physician perspectives about mental health, illness, and recovery, which affect different aspects of help seeking and healthcare, needs to be understood and theorized. RECENT FINDINGS: People seem to simultaneously hold multiple and contradictory illness beliefs and seek help from diverse sources of cure and healing. Explanatory models elicited at baseline do not predict outcomes of illness, change over time, and are dependent on the interaction between the trajectory of individual's illness and the sociocultural milieu...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700360/stigma-and-substance-use-disorders-an-international-phenomenon
#18
Lawrence H Yang, Liang Y Wong, Margaux M Grivel, Deborah S Hasin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To collect and update published information on the stigma associated with substance abuse in nonclinical samples, which has not been recently reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Searching large databases, a total of only 17 articles were published since 1999, with the majority of studies conducted outside the United States. Using major stigma concepts from a sociological framework (stereotyping, devaluation in terms of status loss, discrimination, and negative emotional reactions), the studies reviewed predominantly indicated that the public holds very stigmatized views toward individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs), and that the level of stigma was higher toward individuals with SUDs than toward those with other psychiatric disorders...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682801/upping-the-ante-working-harder-to-address-physical-inactivity-in-older-adults
#19
Denise Taylor, Elizabeth Binns, Nada Signal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Physical inactivity in older adults is associated with declining functional capacity, sarcopenia, metabolic changes, and cognitive changes. Current Physical Activity Guidelines recommend 150 min of moderate-intensity exercise along with strengthening and balance exercises. Despite the guidelines there is little evidence of a population-based change in physical activity. RECENT FINDINGS: There is a growing body of research investigating the use of high-intensity interval training in older adult to improve health-related outcomes...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682800/advances-in-psychological-interventions-for-lifestyle-disorders-overview-of-interventions-in-cardiovascular-disorder-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#20
Paulomi M Sudhir
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review examines the recent advances in psychological interventions for two major lifestyle disorders in adults namely, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disorders. The review summarizes findings from studies carried out between the years 2015 and 2017. RECENT FINDINGS: The effectiveness of psychological interventions in the management of lifestyle disorders has been examined with respect to adaptation, self-care, adherence, negative emotions and improving quality of life...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
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