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Current Opinion in Psychiatry

James C Harris
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December 28, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Jacqueline R Harris, Jill A Fahrner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sotos syndrome is among a growing list of disorders resulting from mutations in epigenetic machinery genes. These Mendelian disorders of the epigenetic machinery (MDEMs) exhibit phenotypic overlap broadly characterized by intellectual disability and atypical growth and behaviors. Manifestations of Sotos syndrome include a distinct facial appearance, overgrowth, intellectual disability, and behavioral issues. Herein we review key aspects of Sotos syndrome, focusing on the neurobehavioral phenotype...
December 28, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
René J F Melis, Miriam L Haaksma, Graciela Muniz-Terrera
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To date, most research in dementia has focused either on the identification of dementia risk prediction or on understanding changes and predictors experienced by individuals before diagnosis. Despite little is known about how individuals change after dementia diagnosis, there is agreement that changes occur over different time scales and are multidomain. In this study, we present an overview of the literature regarding the longitudinal course of dementia. RECENT FINDINGS: Our review suggests the evidence is scarce and findings reported are often inconsistent...
December 28, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Rachel Royston, Jane Waite, Patricia Howlin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Since the last review of Williams syndrome in Current Opinion (2001) there have been many advances in knowledge about the cognitive, social and psychological impairments that characterize the disorder. The present review focuses on current research in these areas. RECENT FINDINGS: Williams syndrome is associated with a wide range of cognitive, linguistic, social and other difficulties. When young, these deficits may appear relatively mild - for example, many children are highly sociable and talkative - but with age the impact of these difficulties becomes more evident...
December 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Brian J Shayota, Sarah H Elsea
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update of the most recent studies on Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) with a focus on the unique pattern of behavioral and sleep disturbances associated with the condition. RECENT FINDINGS: The recent literature on SMS has focused on the characteristic severe behavioral and sleep disturbances. A better understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and common clinical course has helped further characterize SMS, while much is left to be discovered in regard to effective treatment/management...
December 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Raja A S Mukherjee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Our understanding of the diagnosis and management of Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD), has been increasingly refined in the last 45 years: This review highlights current understanding and identifies future areas for research. RECENT FINDINGS: Newer techniques such as three-dimensional facial recognition and advanced brain imaging, have advanced our understanding. Despite this, there remain areas, such as the relationship with other neurodevelopmental disorders, that have been insufficiently explored...
December 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Sheng-Min Wang, Chang-Uk Lee, Hyun Kook Lim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Stem cell therapy has the potential to modify the disease of Alzheimer's disease. This article aims to describe the mechanisms of action, preclinical animal studies, human clinical trials, and challenges for the future direction of stem cell therapy for Alzheimer's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Stem cells of diverse origins (embryonic, placental or umbilical cord blood, and induced pluripotent stem cells) and cell types (neural and mesenchymal stem cells) are widely studied in both animals and humans...
December 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Tom C Russ, Stefan Reis, Martie van Tongeren
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The literature on air pollution and brain health is rapidly expanding and it is a universal finding that greater exposure to air pollution is associated with worse outcomes, whatever the measure of brain health used (clinical dementia, neuroimaging correlates, or cognitive impairment). However, there are a number of important questions which the studies currently published are not able to answer: when in the life course does exposure to air pollution most have the most impact?; which pollutant(s) or components are most important?; and since dementia describes a heterogeneous group of conditions, which is most affected by exposure to air pollution? RECENT FINDINGS: We briefly review and discuss the nine articles which have been published so far in 2018, so recently that they were not included in the four review articles also published this year...
December 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Wael K Karameh, Geetanjali Murari, Tom A Schweizer, David G Munoz, Corinne E Fischer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review presents the latest developments covered in the literature regarding psychosis in neurodegenerative disorders and discusses possible future research directions. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings in the field of psychosis and neurodegenerative disorders revolve around four main themes. The first theme is the impact of sex on the expression of psychosis in neurodegenerative disorders. The second theme focuses on the relationship between psychosis and neurodegenerative disease biomarkers...
December 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Monica Cations, Adrienne Withall, Brian Draper
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although young onset dementia (YOD) causes high levels of burden and distress, factors that contribute to its onset are not well understood. Identifying relevant modifiable risk and protective factors for YOD can inform efforts to prevent or delay onset of symptoms to later in life. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies of modifiable factors for YOD have increased in frequency in recent years. Poor educational attainment and low socioeconomic status, a history of heavy alcohol use, and poor cardiovascular health may be key targets for YOD prevention or delay...
December 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Heidi Foo, Karen A Mather, Anbupalam Thalamuthu, Perminder S Sachdev
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronological age is a crude measure and may not be the best indicator of the ageing process. Establishing valid and reliable biomarkers to understand the true effect of ageing is of great interest. We provide an overview of biological and psychological characteristics that change with age and can potentially serve as markers of the ageing process, and discuss if an integration of these characteristics may more accurately measure the true age of a person. We also describe the clinicopathological continuum of these ageing-related changes...
November 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Jeanne Wolstencroft, David Skuse
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Summarize the literature on the social skills and relationships of women with Turner syndrome and examine the biological and psychological factors that may contribute to social interaction difficulties. RECENT FINDINGS: Turner syndrome is often associated with impaired social-cognitive processing and executive function deficits. These cognitive abnormalities, together with a range of physical differences, may adversely affect social communication skills, which typically begin to impair quality of life during early adolescence...
November 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Linda O'Rourke, Kieran C Murphy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome have high rates of comorbid mental illness, particularly psychosis and schizophrenia. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent research in the area of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and psychosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Research over the past year has identified negative symptoms, functional impairment, dysphoric mood and a childhood diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder as important clinical predictors of psychosis risk in 22q11...
November 1, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Jürgen Deckert, Angelika Erhardt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review complements previous reviews on prediction research in anxiety disorders with a focus on clinical, imaging and genetic as well as epigenetic factors and aims to provide recommendations for the design of future integrative studies in adults as well as children. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical factors predicting worse outcome such as a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder, comorbid depression and certain cognitive, behavioral and personality traits as well as low socioeconomic status were confirmed in large clinical studies...
January 2019: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Robin L Carhart-Harris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Psychedelics are reawakening interest from psychiatry, cognitive neuroscience and the general public with impressive outcomes in small-scale clinical trials, intriguing human brain imaging work and high-impact journalism. RECENT FINDINGS: This brief opinion piece offers a perspective on how psychedelics work in the brain that may help contextualize these developments. It attempts to link various scales of action, from the molecular (serotonin 2A receptor agonism) through to the anatomical and functional (heightened plasticity) and up to the dynamic (increased brain entropy), systems level (network disintegration and desegregation) and experiential...
January 2019: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Bo Bach, David P Bernstein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Schema therapy conceptualizes personality disorders in terms of modes and underlying schemas. This article reviews the literature on schema therapy conceptualization of personality disorder functioning and traits, and proposes how these findings apply to novel personality disorder classification in ICD-11 and the DSM-5 Alternative Model of Personality Disorders (AMPD). RECENT FINDINGS: Maladaptive schemas and modes are generally associated with personality dysfunction and traits in conceptually coherent ways...
January 2019: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Chad Bousman, Abdullah Al Maruf, Daniel J Müller
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The implementation of pharmacogenetic testing in psychiatry is underway but is not yet standard protocol. Barriers to pharmacogenetics becoming standard practice are the lack of translation of evidence-based recommendations and standardization of genetic testing panels. As for the latter, there are currently no regulatory standards related to the gene and allele content of testing panels used to derive medication selection and dosing advice. To address these barriers, we summarize the current gene-drug interaction knowledgebase and proposed a minimum gene and allele set for pharmacogenetic testing in psychiatry...
January 2019: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Robert A Ackerman, M Brent Donnellan, Aidan G C Wright
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Definitions of narcissism have traditionally differed across psychiatry and subfields of psychology. This review aims to highlight emerging points of consensus and suggest further directions needed to obtain a more comprehensive and cohesive conceptualization of the construct. RECENT FINDINGS: An emerging consensus is that stable individual differences in the phenotypic expression of narcissism are best captured with a taxonomy that includes the core traits of entitlement, grandiosity, and vulnerability...
January 2019: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Roger Mulder, Peter Tyrer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update of the recent studies, which have evaluated the radical changes in personality disorder classification in DSM-5 and ICD-11. RECENT FINDINGS: Although the DSM-5 Committee rejected the personality disorders Work Group proposal for personality disorder classification, the model was published in DSM-5 Section III. This Alternative Model of Personality Disorders (AMPD) has been widely adopted by the research community resulting in multiple studies evaluating its reliability and clinical utility...
January 2019: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Einar R Heiervang, Marianne A Villabø, Gro Janne Wergeland
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To present an updated review of recent studies into the effect of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents, ways to increase access to therapy, and predictors and moderators of therapy effect. RECENT FINDINGS: The evidence base of CBT for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents continues to grow, demonstrating short and long-term efficacy and effectiveness. However, compared with active control conditions its effect appear to be modest; and a substantial percentage of youth do not show stable long-term remission...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
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