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Current Opinion in Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324460/sex-differences-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Keith R Laws, Karen Irvine, Tim M Gale
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Women are more impacted by Alzheimer's disease than men - they are at significantly greater risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, and recent research shows that they also appear to suffer a greater cognitive deterioration than men at the same disease stage. The purpose of this article is to review recent studies on examining sex differences in cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: We searched electronically for articles, reviews and meta-analyses published between 1/2016 and 12/2017 and identified 298 articles on sex differences in cognition in Alzheimer's disease...
January 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278530/controversies-and-clarifications-in-the-classification-of-disorders-of-intellectual-development-new-genetic-findings-epilepsy-and-innovative-developmental-neuropsychiatric-treatments-deep-brain-stimulation-electroconvulsive-therapy-and-oxytocin
#2
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29256924/electroconvulsive-therapy-for-self-injurious-behaviour-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-recognizing-catatonia-is-key
#3
Lee Elizabeth Wachtel, Edward Shorter, Max Fink
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is a devastating condition frequently encountered in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) that can lead to dangerous tissue injury and profound psychosocial difficulty. An increasing number of reports over the past decade have demonstrated the swift and well tolerated resolution of intractable SIB with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) when psychopharmacological and behavioural interventions are ineffective. The current article provides a review of the salient literature, including the conceptualization of repetitive self-injury along the catatonia spectrum, and further clarifies the critical distinction between ECT and contingent electric shock...
December 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29256923/cannabinoids-for-the-treatment-of-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-pain-and-weight-loss-in-dementia
#4
Chelsea Sherman, Myuri Ruthirakuhan, Danielle Vieira, Krista L Lanctôt, Nathan Herrmann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Efficacious treatment for neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS), pain and weight loss for dementia patients is desperately needed. This review presents an up-to-date look at the literature investigating the use of cannabinoid for these symptoms in dementia. RECENT FINDINGS: We searched electronically for publications regarding cannabinoid use in dementia, with a focus on Alzheimer's disease. Seven studies and one case report have been conducted to examine the use of cannabinoids for the treatment of NPS of dementia, and three of these trials reported on the effect of cannabinoids on weight...
December 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29256922/sleep-disturbance-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-systematic-review-of-recent-findings
#5
Sharon L Naismith, Loren Mowszowski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Research interest in sleep as a risk factor for dementia has grown, warranting an update in advances over the last 18 months, particularly in the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) stage in which interventions may be best targeted. RECENT FINDINGS: The current systematic review includes empiric research articles published since 2016 that have investigated sleep (excluding obstructive sleep apnea) in MCI. Published articles include case-control studies, those examining clinical correlates of sleep problems, sleep microarchitecture, neuroimaging studies and novel cerebrospinal and blood-based markers...
December 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251670/the-road-to-11th-edition-of-the-international-classification-of-diseases-trajectories-of-scientific-consensus-and-contested-science-in-the-classification-of-intellectual-disability-intellectual-developmental-disorders
#6
Luis Salvador-Carulla, Marco Bertelli, Rafael Martinez-Leal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To increase the expert knowledge-base on intellectual developmental disorders (IDDs) by investigating the typology trajectories of consensus formation in the classification systems up to the 11th edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). This expert review combines an analysis of key recent literature and the revision of the consensus formation and contestation in the expert committees contributing to the classification systems since the 1950s...
December 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232252/nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-and-its-related-precursors-for-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Nady Braidy, Ross Grant, Perminder S Sachdev
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review discusses the biology and metabolism of the essential pyridine nucleotide nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) in the central nervous system. We also review recent work suggesting important neuroprotective effects that may be associated with the promotion of NAD+ levels through NAD+ precursors against Alzheimer's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Perturbations in the physiological homoeostatic state of the brain during the ageing process can lead to impaired cellular function, and ultimately leads to loss of brain integrity and accelerates cognitive and memory decline...
December 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232251/are-the-brain-s-vascular-and-alzheimer-pathologies-additive-or-interactive
#8
Rebecca Koncz, Perminder Sachdev
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Alzheimer's disease and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) commonly co-occur. Whether CVD promotes the progression of Alzheimer's disease pathology remains a source of great interest. Recent technological developments have enabled us to examine their inter-relationship using quantifiable, biomarker-based approaches. We provide an overview of advances in understanding the relationship between vascular and Alzheimer's disease pathologies, with particular emphasis on β-amyloid and tau as measured by positron emission tomography and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentration, and magnetic resonance imaging markers of small vessel disease (SVD)...
December 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227297/neuropsychiatric-effects-of-epilepsy-in-developmental-disorders
#9
Jay Salpekar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The overlap of neuropsychiatric illness and developmental disability continues to be prominently recognized in clinical practice and in the academic literature. Theoretical and practical considerations may represent a frontier for understanding brain and behavior relationships. The purpose of this review is to explore this common relationship and report on recent literature that helps advance the larger fields of psychiatry and neurology. RECENT FINDINGS: Overlap between developmental disability, epilepsy, and neuropsychiatric illness may be more common than originally thought...
December 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227296/lesch-nyhan-syndrome-and-its-variants-examining-the-behavioral-and-neurocognitive-phenotype
#10
James C Harris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome (LNS) is a metabolic disorder involving mutations in the HGPRT1 gene that result in hyperuricemia, intellectual disability, a dystonic movement disorder, and compulsive self-injury with self-mutilation. The aim of this review is to summarize recent research that documents the extended behavioral, neurologic, and neurocognitive phenotype in classic LNS, to describe milder variants of HGprt deficiency that do not self-injure and have less severe neurological and cognitive deficits, and to provide an update on treatment for associated psychiatric and behavioral disorders...
December 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206688/current-developments-in-the-genetics-of-rett-and-rett-like-syndrome
#11
Friederike Ehrhart, Nasim Bahram Sangani, Leopold M G Curfs
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the current molecular genetic studies, which investigate the genetic causes of Rett syndrome or Rett-like phenotypes without a classical MECP2 mutation. RECENT FINDINGS: As next generation sequencing becomes broadly available, especially whole exome sequencing is used in clinical diagnosis of the genetic causes of a wide spectrum of intellectual disability, autism, and encephalopathies. Patients who were diagnosed with Rett syndrome or Rett-like syndrome because of their phenotype but were negative for mutations in the MECP2, CDKL5 or FOXG1 genes were subjected to whole exome sequencing and the results of the last few years revealed yet 69 different genes...
December 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206687/a-review-of-clinical-trials-of-oxytocin-in-prader-willi-syndrome
#12
Lauren J Rice, Stewart L Einfeld, Nan Hu, C Sue Carter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: PWS is a severe developmental disability for which there is no known treatment. The oxytocin system is currently a primary target for intervention. The aim of this article is to review the evidence for the efficacy of intranasal oxytocin in PWS. RECENT FINDINGS: To date, there have been five clinical trials of oxytocin in PWS. Four of these studies reported that oxytocin improved behaviors. However, each of these studies suffered important limitations that likely influenced the findings...
December 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206686/adverse-childhood-experiences-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Daniel W Hoover, Joan Kaufman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent years have shown an uptick in studies assessing bullying and other adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This article reviews extant findings, and points to gaps in the literature. RECENT FINDINGS: Children with ASD are bullied by peers at a rate three to four times that of nondisabled peers with negative impacts on academic functioning and mental health symptoms, including increased risk for suicidality...
December 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206685/intelligence-and-specific-cognitive-functions-in-intellectual-disability-implications-for-assessment-and-classification
#14
Marco O Bertelli, Sally-Ann Cooper, Luis Salvador-Carulla
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current diagnostic criteria for intellectual disability categorize ability as measured by IQ tests. However, this does not suit the new conceptualization of intellectual disability, which refers to a range of neuropsychiatric syndromes that have in common early onset, cognitive impairments, and consequent deficits in learning and adaptive functioning. A literature review was undertaken on the concept of intelligence and whether it encompasses a range of specific cognitive functions to solve problems, which might be better reported as a profile, instead of an IQ, with implications for diagnosis and classification of intellectual disability...
December 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176393/editorial-mood-and-anxiety-disorders
#15
Sidney H Kennedy, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120917/personality-disorders-three-classifications-with-a-fly-in-the-ointment
#16
Charles B Pull, Aleksandar Janca
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120916/impulsivity-in-personality-disorders-current-views-and-future-directions
#17
Catherine McHugh, Sivasankaran Balaratnasingam
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Impulsivity is considered a trans-diagnostic feature of many mental disorders, yet our understanding of the concept and approaches to measurement have evolved significantly with advances in neuroimaging. This review will provide an overview of impulsivity as it is currently understood, its association with personality disorder and implications for treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Impulsivity is now considered to involve failure of inhibitory control, either motor or cognitive, and deficits of the reward valuation system...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120915/schema-therapy-for-emotional-dysregulation-in-personality-disorders-a-review
#18
Harold Dadomo, Marta Panzeri, Daniele Caponcello, Alessandro Carmelita, Alessandro Grecucci
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To give an update on the most recent studies regarding the role of schema therapy in the treatment of emotion dysregulation related to personality disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: In personality disorders, a lack of emotion regulation can be found. Schema therapy treats emotion dysregulation with a series of techniques, such as imagery rescripting, limited reparenting, chairwork, and cognitive restructuring to remove dysregulatory mechanism. SUMMARY: Schema therapy is one of the most efficient therapies for personality disorders...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120914/patients-with-anxious-depression-overview-of-prevalence-pathophysiology-and-impact-on-course-and-treatment-outcome
#19
Roxanne Gaspersz, Laura Nawijn, Femke Lamers, Brenda W J H Penninx
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Major depressive disorder with a comorbid anxiety disorder or with significant anxiety symptoms (here called anxious depression) is common and has been associated with poor clinical course trajectories. However, various dichotomous as well as dimensional definitions have been used to label anxious depression and it remains unclear to which extent these result in inconsistent findings. This review provides an overview of recent literature on the impact of anxiety in depressed patients on clinical course trajectories, treatment outcomes, and underlying neurobiological dysregulations...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084010/smart-phone-technologies-and-ecological-momentary-data-is-this-the-way-forward-on-depression-management-and-research
#20
Ellen Frank, Janice Pong, Yashvi Asher, Claudio N Soares
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Depression is a complex and burdensome condition; it often leads to personal, societal and economic costs. Despite advances in treatments, its management over time remains a challenge; many treated for depression do not achieve full recovery or remain well for long. Novel ways to monitor patients are warranted, as well as better understanding of contributors to relapse or sustained wellness. Mobile health technologies (m-Health) are emerging as useful tools for real-time assessments of moods, behaviours and activities in a more convenient and less burdensome manner...
January 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
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