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Current Opinion in Psychiatry

Jeanne Wolstencroft, David Skuse
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Summarize the literature on the social skills and relationships of women with Turner syndrome and examine the biological and psychological factors that may contribute to social interaction difficulties. RECENT FINDINGS: Turner syndrome is often associated with impaired social-cognitive processing and executive function deficits. These cognitive abnormalities, together with a range of physical differences, may adversely affect social communication skills, which typically begin to impair quality of life during early adolescence...
November 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Linda O'Rourke, Kieran C Murphy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome have high rates of comorbid mental illness, particularly psychosis and schizophrenia. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent research in the area of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and psychosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Research over the past year has identified negative symptoms, functional impairment, dysphoric mood and a childhood diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder as important clinical predictors of psychosis risk in 22q11...
November 1, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Robin L Carhart-Harris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Psychedelics are reawakening interest from psychiatry, cognitive neuroscience and the general public with impressive outcomes in small-scale clinical trials, intriguing human brain imaging work and high-impact journalism. RECENT FINDINGS: This brief opinion piece offers a perspective on how psychedelics work in the brain that may help contextualize these developments. It attempts to link various scales of action, from the molecular (serotonin 2A receptor agonism) through to the anatomical and functional (heightened plasticity) and up to the dynamic (increased brain entropy), systems level (network disintegration and desegregation) and experiential...
November 1, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Bo Bach, David P Bernstein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Schema therapy conceptualizes personality disorders in terms of modes and underlying schemas. This article reviews the literature on schema therapy conceptualization of personality disorder functioning and traits, and proposes how these findings apply to novel personality disorder classification in ICD-11 and the DSM-5 Alternative Model of Personality Disorders (AMPD). RECENT FINDINGS: Maladaptive schemas and modes are generally associated with personality dysfunction and traits in conceptually coherent ways...
October 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Chad Bousman, Abdullah Al Maruf, Daniel J Müller
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The implementation of pharmacogenetic testing in psychiatry is underway but is not yet standard protocol. Barriers to pharmacogenetics becoming standard practice are the lack of translation of evidence-based recommendations and standardization of genetic testing panels. As for the latter, there are currently no regulatory standards related to the gene and allele content of testing panels used to derive medication selection and dosing advice. To address these barriers, we summarize the current gene-drug interaction knowledgebase and proposed a minimum gene and allele set for pharmacogenetic testing in psychiatry...
October 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Robert A Ackerman, M Brent Donnellan, Aidan G C Wright
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Definitions of narcissism have traditionally differed across psychiatry and subfields of psychology. This review aims to highlight emerging points of consensus and suggest further directions needed to obtain a more comprehensive and cohesive conceptualization of the construct. RECENT FINDINGS: An emerging consensus is that stable individual differences in the phenotypic expression of narcissism are best captured with a taxonomy that includes the core traits of entitlement, grandiosity, and vulnerability...
September 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Roger Mulder, Peter Tyrer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update of the recent studies, which have evaluated the radical changes in personality disorder classification in DSM-5 and ICD-11. RECENT FINDINGS: Although the DSM-5 Committee rejected the personality disorders Work Group proposal for personality disorder classification, the model was published in DSM-5 Section III. This Alternative Model of Personality Disorders (AMPD) has been widely adopted by the research community resulting in multiple studies evaluating its reliability and clinical utility...
September 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Alessandra D'Agostino, Mario Rossi Monti, Vladan Starcevic
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to review the most recent literature on psychotic symptoms in borderline personality disorder (BPD). RECENT FINDINGS: Both auditory hallucinations and delusional ideation (especially paranoid delusions) are relatively common in individuals with BPD. It is still difficult to distinguish these and related phenomena in BPD from the corresponding experiences in psychotic disorders and schizophrenia, despite numerous attempts to do so...
August 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Einar R Heiervang, Marianne A Villabø, Gro Janne Wergeland
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To present an updated review of recent studies into the effect of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents, ways to increase access to therapy, and predictors and moderators of therapy effect. RECENT FINDINGS: The evidence base of CBT for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents continues to grow, demonstrating short and long-term efficacy and effectiveness. However, compared with active control conditions its effect appear to be modest; and a substantial percentage of youth do not show stable long-term remission...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Charline Grossard, Giuseppe Palestra, Jean Xavier, Mohamed Chetouani, Ouriel Grynszpan, David Cohen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over the past 10 years, the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) has increased in regard to the treatment of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). ICT support mechanisms (e.g. computers, laptops, robots) are particularly attractive and are adapted to children with ASD. In addition, ICT algorithms can offer new perspectives for clinicians, outside direct apps or gaming proposals. Here, we will focus on the use of serious games and robots because of their attractiveness and their value in working on social skills...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Tracey D Wade, Simon M Wilksch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Internet prevention of eating disorders is a relatively new field that is expanding rapidly. We review randomized controlled trial designs examining the efficacy of Internet prevention in eating disorders that have emerged from 2016. RECENT FINDINGS: Our literature search identified five studies that used randomized controlled trial designs to examine the efficacy of Internet prevention in eating disorders. All of the studies represented indicated prevention, that is, young women who have body image concerns...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Martie de Jong, Maartje Schoorl, Hans W Hoek
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to provide an update of the most recent (since January 2014) enhanced cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT-E) effectiveness studies (randomized controlled trials and open trials) on bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and transdiagnostic samples. RECENT FINDINGS: Out of 451 screened studies, seven effectiveness studies (five randomized and two open trials) were included in this review: of these, three had a bulimia nervosa sample and four a transdiagnostic sample (all conducted in an outpatient setting)...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Richa Bhatia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Nick Bass, David Skuse
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Investigation for genetic causes of intellectual disability has advanced rapidly in recent years. We review the assessment of copy number variants (CNVs) and the use of next-generation sequencing based assays to identify single nucleotide variation in intellectual disability. We discuss the diagnostic yields that can be expected with the different assays. There is high co-morbidity of intellectual disability and psychiatric disorders. We review the relationship between variants which are pathogenic for intellectual disability and the risk of child and adolescent onset psychiatric disorders...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Tamara Berends, Nynke Boonstra, Annemarie van Elburg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Relapse is common in patients with anorexia nervosa. The aim of this study is to systematically review the existing literature on relapse in anorexia nervosa. RECENT FINDINGS: A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, PsychInfo and CINAHL published up to April 2018. Of the 1527 studies screened, 16 studies were included in the present review. SUMMARY: This analysis shows that, of the patients included in this review, 31% relapsed after treatment...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Holly E Erskine, Harvey A Whiteford
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In 2013, binge eating disorder (BED) was officially recognized as a distinct eating disorder in the Fifth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The purpose of this review is to assess the available epidemiological data to determine whether BED should be considered for inclusion in global disease burden quantification efforts, such as the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD). RECENT FINDINGS: A systematic search of three electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO) found 32 studes meeting GBD inclusion criteria...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Jennifer J Thomas, Olivia B Wons, Kamryn T Eddy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) was added to the psychiatric nomenclature in 2013, but little is known about its optimal treatment. The purpose of this article is to review the recent literature on ARFID treatment and highlight a novel cognitive-behavioral approach, currently under study. RECENT FINDINGS: The current evidence base for ARFID treatment relies primarily on case reports, case series, and retrospective chart reviews, with only a handful of randomized controlled trials in young children...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
James Lock
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Family interventions for eating disorders are often recommended for the treatment of children and adolescents. Treatment studies and a range of treatment guidelines now recommend family-based treatment (FBT) for adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa. The current report focused on studies that have been conducted over the past 2 years, most of them aimed at augmenting or improving outcomes using a range of new family approaches or adding other forms of therapy to standard FBT...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Tobias Kube, Julia Anna Glombiewski, Winfried Rief
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent research suggests that expectations might be a particularly important subgroup of cognitions in major depression. The present study aimed to further specify the role of situation-specific dysfunctional expectations (SDEs) in the development of depressive symptoms. It was hypothesized that the effects of intermediate beliefs and dispositional optimism on depressive symptoms would be mediated via SDEs. RECENT FINDINGS: We examined 125 students (age M = 22...
September 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
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