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Current Opinion in Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817418/neuromodulation-and-neurofeedback-treatments-in-eating-disorders-and-obesity
#1
Bethan Dalton, Iain C Campbell, Ulrike Schmidt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Psychological interventions are the treatment of choice for most eating disorders; however, significant proportions of patients do not recover with these. Advances in understanding of the neurobiology of eating disorders have led to the development of targeted treatments, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS), noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS), and neurofeedback. We review the emerging clinical evidence for the use of these interventions in eating disorders and obesity, together with their theoretical rationale...
August 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806269/affective-disorders-and-sexual-function-from-neuroscience-to-clinic
#2
Bernardo C de Abreu Barata
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sexual dysfunction is a frequent issue in patients with affective disorders, affecting its quality of life and posing challenges to the approach of these patients. RECENT FINDINGS: In recent years, human sexuality has attracted interest from the scientific community, and today we have a much deeper knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the sexual response. Paraphilias or sexual dysfunctions like low sexual desire, premature ejaculation, and erectile dysfunction, are frequent in affective disorders, and the frequency of each sexual problem varies according to the affective disorder...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806268/pharmacotherapy-of-eating-disorders
#3
Haley Davis, Evelyn Attia
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Medications are commonly prescribed in the treatment of eating disorders. In this review, we discuss relevant medications used for the treatment of bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder (BED), and anorexia nervosa. We focus on recent research developments, where applicable, in addition to discussing important findings from older studies to provide a complete synopsis of the current evidence base for eating disorder treatment using pharmacologic agents. RECENT FINDINGS: Medications are generally useful for patients with bulimia nervosa and BED...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795980/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-and-predictors-of-weight-loss-in-bariatric-surgery-patients
#4
Linda Paul, Colin van der Heiden, Hans W Hoek
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for morbid obesity. However, 20-30% of patients undergoing bariatric surgery experience premature weight stabilization or weight regain postoperatively. We report on the recent literature of predictors of weight loss and the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in bariatric patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Preoperative disordered eating behaviors do not appear to be significantly predictive of postoperative weight loss...
August 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777107/evidence-based-clinical-guidelines-for-eating-disorders-international-comparison
#5
Anja Hilbert, Hans Hoek, Ricarda Schmidt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current systematic review sought to compare available evidence-based clinical treatment guidelines for all specific eating disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Nine evidence-based clinical treatment guidelines for eating disorders were located through a systematic search. The international comparison demonstrated notable commonalities and differences among these current clinical guidelines. Consistency across guidelines was greatest for treatments with a larger evidence base, while those with a lower evidence base had recommendations that varied considerably...
August 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777106/treatment-of-eating-disorders-in-child-and-adolescent-psychiatry
#6
Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent research on the multimodal treatment of eating disorders in child and adolescent psychiatry has yielded a significant increase in randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews. This review aims to present relevant findings published during the last 2 years related to medical and psychological treatment of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID). RECENT FINDINGS: For anorexia nervosa, recent reports described the efficacy of different treatment settings, lengths of hospital stay and high vs...
August 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746068/editorial-introductions
#7
Winfried Rief, Mohan Isaac
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708737/factors-associated-with-sexual-health-and-well-being-in-older-adulthood
#8
Maria Kleinstäuber
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update of recent studies on factors associated with sexual well being in older people with a special focus on sexual activity, satisfaction and function. RECENT FINDINGS: Most recent studies confirmed the relationship between mental health status, especially negative affect and depressive symptoms, and sexual health in older adulthood. However, when this relationship is investigated more deeply, it seems that in fact positive psychological well being (positive affect and quality of life) accounts for sexual activity rather than the lack of depressive symptoms...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704238/perspectives-about-mental-health-illness-and-recovery
#9
Kuruthukulangara S Jacob
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patient and physician perspectives about mental health, illness, and recovery, which affect different aspects of help seeking and healthcare, needs to be understood and theorized. RECENT FINDINGS: People seem to simultaneously hold multiple and contradictory illness beliefs and seek help from diverse sources of cure and healing. Explanatory models elicited at baseline do not predict outcomes of illness, change over time, and are dependent on the interaction between the trajectory of individual's illness and the sociocultural milieu...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700360/stigma-and-substance-use-disorders-an-international-phenomenon
#10
Lawrence H Yang, Liang Y Wong, Margaux M Grivel, Deborah S Hasin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To collect and update published information on the stigma associated with substance abuse in nonclinical samples, which has not been recently reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Searching large databases, a total of only 17 articles were published since 1999, with the majority of studies conducted outside the United States. Using major stigma concepts from a sociological framework (stereotyping, devaluation in terms of status loss, discrimination, and negative emotional reactions), the studies reviewed predominantly indicated that the public holds very stigmatized views toward individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs), and that the level of stigma was higher toward individuals with SUDs than toward those with other psychiatric disorders...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682801/upping-the-ante-working-harder-to-address-physical-inactivity-in-older-adults
#11
Denise Taylor, Elizabeth Binns, Nada Signal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Physical inactivity in older adults is associated with declining functional capacity, sarcopenia, metabolic changes, and cognitive changes. Current Physical Activity Guidelines recommend 150 min of moderate-intensity exercise along with strengthening and balance exercises. Despite the guidelines there is little evidence of a population-based change in physical activity. RECENT FINDINGS: There is a growing body of research investigating the use of high-intensity interval training in older adult to improve health-related outcomes...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682800/advances-in-psychological-interventions-for-lifestyle-disorders-overview-of-interventions-in-cardiovascular-disorder-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#12
Paulomi M Sudhir
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review examines the recent advances in psychological interventions for two major lifestyle disorders in adults namely, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disorders. The review summarizes findings from studies carried out between the years 2015 and 2017. RECENT FINDINGS: The effectiveness of psychological interventions in the management of lifestyle disorders has been examined with respect to adaptation, self-care, adherence, negative emotions and improving quality of life...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661907/behavioural-interventions-for-life-style-diseases-where-are-we-now
#13
Mohan Isaac, Winfried Rief
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661906/mental-health-promotion-a-narrative-review-of-emerging-trends
#14
Avdesh Sharma, Sujatha D Sharma, Manasi Sharma
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review aims to provide an update on the recent work in mental health promotion with a special emphasis on emerging evidence and innovations in the field. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies reviewed across settings like the home, school, workplace, communities, and internet-based platforms, have indicated a growing evidence base for effective mental health promotion strategies that are holistic, multicomponent, and targeted at both, specific vulnerable groups and whole populations...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654462/depressed-gut-the-microbiota-diet-inflammation-trialogue-in-depression
#15
Margreet Koopman, Sahar El Aidy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: According to the WHO reports, around 350 million people worldwide suffer from depression. Despite its high prevalence, the complex interaction of multiple mechanisms underlying depression still needs to be elucidated. RECENT FINDINGS: Over the course of the last few years, several neurobiological alterations have been linked to the development and maintenance of depression. One basic process that seems to link many of these findings is inflammation...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632512/why-current-drug-adherence-programs-fail-addressing-psychological-risk-factors-of-nonadherence
#16
Antje D Arlt, Yvonne Nestoriuc, Winfried Rief
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview of a selection of largely neglected psychological risk factors for nonadherence, and to offer new approaches to improve medication adherence. RECENT FINDINGS: Current adherence research and intervention programs focus on a few risk factors for nonadherence, such as complexity of the drug regimen. In addition, other important risk factors of nonadherence are neglected or insufficiently addressed. There is good evidence for the significant role of the quality of the patient-healthcare provider relationship...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525398/likely-impact-of-the-un-convention-on-disability-on-mental-health-services
#17
Ina Jahn, Thomas Becker, Katarina Stengler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: After a large majority of UN member states ratified the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD), this article aims to provide an overview of its implementation and possible effects in the area of mental health services in individual contract states. RECENT FINDINGS: This article looks at the implementation processes of the UNCRPD in individual industrialized, emerging and developing countries. In addition to changes in national legislation, potential influences on the supply and support systems for persons with mental illness are considered...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505032/do-preventive-interventions-for-children-of-mentally-ill-parents-work-results-of-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Martina Thanhäuser, Gunnar Lemmer, Giovanni de Girolamo, Hanna Christiansen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The transgenerational transmission of mental disorders is one of the most significant causes of psychiatric morbidity. Several risk factors for children of parents with mental illness (COPMI) have been identified in numerous studies and meta-analyses. RECENT FINDINGS: Many interventions have been developed for this high-risk group, but data about their efficacy are heterogeneous. SUMMARY: The current meta-analysis reports on 96 articles including 50 independent samples from randomized controlled trials quantifying effects of preventive interventions for COPMI...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459731/occupational-therapy-interventions-in-the-treatment-of-people-with-severe-mental-illness
#19
Werner Höhl, Sandra Moll, Andreas Pfeiffer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Life expectancy of people with severe mental illness is considerably shortened and their risk for cardiovascular and metabolic disorders is increased. They spend more time in solitary and less time in structured activities than the general population.Engagement in healthy patterns of activity, including active, meaningful participation in the community can, therefore, be critical to recovery from severe mental illness. Occupational therapy is a profession that focuses on time use, activity patterns and occupational engagement, and the links to health and well-being...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459730/substance-use-and-addictive-disorders-in-dsm-5-and-icd-10-and-the-draft-icd-11
#20
John B Saunders
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review compares and contrasts the diagnostic entities and taxonomy of substance use and addictive disorders in the beta draft of the Eleventh Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD 11), which was released in November 2016, and the Fifth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which was published in mid-2013. Recently published papers relevant to these two classification systems are examined. New initiatives in diagnosis and assessment including the addictions neuroclinical assessment are noted...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
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