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Current Opinion in Psychiatry

Seema Mehrotra, Ravikesh Tripathi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this update is to provide an overview of the breadth of research studies published from April 2017 to April 2018 on mobile-based interventions for mental health, with a special emphasis on smartphone-based interventions. RECENT FINDINGS: Several studies during the review period have described the process of applying user-centred design in the development of mental health apps and novel approaches to enhance user-engagement. Studies on consumer perspectives indicate largely positive findings about open-ness to utilize mental health apps...
July 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Kevin J Li, Haley V Solomon, Lynn E DeLisi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To examine recent literature regarding the pharmacogenomics of clozapine (CLZ) efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and agranulocytosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Several genetic loci (FKBP5, NR3C1, BDNF, NTRK2) along the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis have been investigated as targets for CLZ response. Homozygous FKBP5-rs1360780, homozygous NTRK2-rs1778929, and homozygous NTRK2-rs10465180 conferred significant risks for CLZ nonresponse - 2.11x risk [95% confidence interval (CI) 1...
July 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Pia von Blanckenburg, Nico Leppin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update on recent studies about psychological interventions in palliative (mainly cancer) care with a focus on physical, psychological, spiritual, and social aspects. RECENT FINDINGS: Some promising psychological interventions for physical challenges, such as fatigue, pain, dyspnea, and insomnia do exist, but further research is needed. Regarding psychological aspects, current reviews showed small to large effects in the reduction of depression and anxiety symptoms through cognitive behavioral-based interventions, mindfulness-based interventions, and meaning-based interventions...
July 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Alessandra Lucchetti, Ricardo Barcelos-Ferreira, Dan G Blazer, Alexander Moreira-Almeida
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Academic recognition of the implications of religion/spirituality (R/S) for mental health is increasing, with a growing number of studies involving older adults. The present review provides an overview of these studies, highlighting the influence of R/S on older adults' mental health and the clinical implications of addressing R/S in the geriatrics and gerontology context. RECENT FINDINGS: The available evidence suggests that R/S involvement is usually associated with lower levels of depression, substance use/abuse, and cognitive declining and better quality of life, well being, and functional status in older persons...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Darryl Maybery, Andrea E Reupert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Having a parent with a mental illness is a major risk to children's wellbeing. The first step in developing policies and procedures that could assist these children is to determine the numbers of parents attending adult psychiatric services. This is the first systematic examination of the literature regarding the prevalence and family circumstances of parents attending adult psychiatric services. RECENT FINDINGS: Nine peer reviewed publications showed parent prevalence in adult services ranging from 12...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Rodrigo Marín-Navarrete, María Elena Medina-Mora, Alejandro Pérez-López, Viviana E Horigian
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this article is to present a state-of-the-art review of the scientific studies that have evaluated healthcare systems, services and programs for addiction treatment in Latin America. As a secondary aim, this article presents a brief description and analysis of the addiction prevention and treatment resources and programs available in Latin America, based on information from the ATLAS on Substance Use (ATLAS-SU) project led by the WHO. RECENT FINDINGS: Substance use disorders (SUDs) are among the main causes associated with global burden of disease...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Lidia Segura, Peter Anderson, Antoni Gual
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Alcohol is a leading risk factor for ill health and premature death. Regardless of poor levels of implementation achieved after more than 30 years of research and policy advice, alcohol screening and brief advice (SBA) remains one of the best policy options. This study updates the evidence by considering recent publications on SBA for heavy drinking and alcohol use disorder in primary healthcare at a timely moment, because researchers are, at present, debating future direction of research and policy in this field...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Shulamith L A Straussner, Christine H Fewell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update of recent studies of the incidence and impact of parental substance use disorders (SUDs) on children, and to identify effective treatment programs to assist parents with SUDs and their children. RECENT FINDINGS: Children of parents with alcohol and drug use disorders (COPADs) suffer from physical, mental and behavioral problems at higher rates than other children and are more likely to develop their own SUDs in adolescence...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
John B Saunders, Linda B Cottler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Thomas Becker, Giovanni de Girolamo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Steven W Gust, Judy McCormally
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: For more than 25 years, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has supported research-training programs, establishing a global research network and expanding the knowledge base on substance use disorders. International research to inform approaches to opioid addiction is particularly important and relevant to the United States, where opioid misuse, addiction, and overdose constitute an emerging public health crisis. This article summarizes the NIDA International Program and illustrates its impact by reviewing recent articles about treatment approaches for opioid use disorders (OUD)...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Allaman Allamani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review is a critical reflection on the effectiveness of evidence-based alcohol policies and their implementation, based on studies and observations that have arisen in recent years. RECENT FINDINGS: This article covers themes in recent literature of: the relationship between alcohol consumption and harm, the variability of country contextual factors and the interactions of both country contexts and alcohol policies on changes in alcohol consumption and harm...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Peter Anderson, Antoni Gual, Jürgen Rehm
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss the health risks due to exposure to alcohol, illegal drugs and nicotine and how these risks might be reduced. RECENT FINDINGS: In 2016, worldwide, alcohol, illegal drugs and nicotine were responsible for some 10 million deaths. There is evolutionary and biological evidence that humans are predisposed to consuming alcohol, illegal drugs and nicotine - present-day problems are caused by high levels of potency, exposure and drug delivery systems...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Balasingam Vicknasingam, Suresh Narayanan, Darshan Singh, Marek Chawarski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the literature on decriminalization of drug use from 2016 to 2017 and suggest the way forward. RECENT FINDINGS: The systematic review of the literature on decriminalization resulted in seven articles that discuss decriminalization as compared with 57 published articles on legalization. Decriminalization of drug use did not have an effect on the age of onset of drug use and the prices of drugs did not decrease after the implementation of drug decriminalization...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Judit Tirado-Muñoz, Juan I Mestre-Pintó, Magí Farré, Francina Fonseca, Marta Torrens
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cannabis is globally the most commonly cultivated, trafficked and consumed illicit drug of abuse. The current article provides an updated overview of existing comprehensive interventions for preventing and reducing cannabis use. RECENT FINDINGS: The PubMed database was searched for evidence regarding comprehensive interventions for preventing and reducing cannabis use from June 2016 to January 2018. The search resulted in 274 articles. Twenty-one studies were selected for assessment and 13 fulfilled the inclusion criteria...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Dominique Maciejewski, Manon Hillegers, Brenda Penninx
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Offspring of parents with mood disorders (major depressive and bipolar disorder) are at increased risk for developing mood disorders. In this review, an overview regarding the intergenerational transmission of mood disorders, screening, and preventive intervention is given for this vulnerable group. RECENT FINDINGS: Offspring of parents with depression have a 40% chance of developing a depression, whereas offspring of parents with bipolar disorder have a 10% chance of developing a bipolar disorder by adulthood...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Nadia Wang, Chuan-Yu Chen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current article reviews recent research (from 2016 onward) on drinking behaviors and alcohol-related problems among young people in Asia with an emphasis on population-based evidence. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent evidence concerning underage drinking in Asia was limited to certain countries and societies with most data derived from cross-sectional surveys. Measures of alcohol drinking or problems were less sophisticated. The prevalence of recent alcohol drinking varies widely with the highest estimates reported in Hong Kong and Korea (∼21%)...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Markus Koesters, Corrado Barbui, Marianna Purgato
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review provides an overview of key issues and concepts on the provision of mental healthcare to refugees with mental health conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Several barriers to mental healthcare for refugees have been described, and principles for good mental care in this group have been framed. Evidence for specific interventions for refugees is available for trauma-related mental health problems. The best evidence is available for psychosocial interventions for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Lynn E DeLisi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Jan Cosgrave, Katharina Wulff, Philip Gehrman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review is designed to give an overview of the latest developments in research exploring the relationship between sleep and psychosis, with particular attention paid to the evidence for a causal relationship between the two. RECENT FINDINGS: The most interesting avenues currently in pursuit are focused upon sleep spindle deficits which may hallmark an endophenotype; explorations of the continuum of psychotic experiences, and experimental manipulations to explore the evidence for bidirectional causality; inflammatory markers, psychosis and sleep disturbances and finally, treatment approaches for sleep in psychosis and the subsequent impact on positive experiences...
May 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
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