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Current Opinion in Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079675/recent-advances-in-the-management-of-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in-dementia
#1
Orestes V Forlenza, Júlia Cunha Loureiro, Marcos Vasconcelos Pais, Florindo Stella
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present article addresses intriguing questions related to the clinical intervention in distinct neuropsychiatric syndromes of patients with dementia. RECENT FINDINGS: We reviewed 154 articles published between 2015 and 2016 targeting psychopharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions, and safety-tolerability concerns. We selected 115 articles addressing the purpose of this study. Of these, 33 were chosen because they were dedicated to subtopics: agitation (42), depression (33), apathy (18), sleep disorders/anxiety (8), and psychosis (4)...
January 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079674/borderline-intellectual-functioning-an-update
#2
Stephen Greenspan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) is a descriptive v-code that is often used, especially in forensic settings, as if it were a full-fledged disorder. Various historical and other aspects of this classification are reviewed, and commentary is made on the question of whether to upgrade BIF to a regular psychiatric category, or to eliminate it by folding it into an already recently expanded category of intellectual developmental disorder (IDD). RECENT FINDINGS: Full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) is an outmoded concept that is decreasingly being used...
January 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067728/advances-in-developmental-neuropsychiatry-autism-spectrum-disorder-cornelia-de-lange-syndrome-self-injurious-behavior-down-syndrome-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-and-borderline-intellectual-functioning
#3
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067727/psychological-and-physical-pain-as-predictors-of-suicide-risk-evidence-from-clinical-and-neuroimaging-findings
#4
Sakina J Rizvi, Adam Iskric, Raffaella Calati, Philippe Courtet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Suicide is a multidimensional clinical phenomenon with complex biological, social and psychological risk factors. Therefore, it is imperative for studies to focus on developing a unified understanding of suicide risk that integrates current clinical and neurobiological findings. A recent line of research has implicated different classifications of pain in understanding suicide risk, including the concepts of psychache and pain tolerance. Although psychache is defined as the experience of unbearable psychological pain, pain tolerance refers to the greatest duration or intensity of painful stimuli that one is able to bear...
January 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067726/autism-spectrum-disorder-outcomes-in-adulthood
#5
Patricia Howlin, Iliana Magiati
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Until recently, there has been little systematic study of adult life among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) but recognition of the high psychological and social costs of ASD has led to an increase in adult-focused research over the past decade. The aim of this review is to summarize recent empirical findings on outcomes for adults with ASD. RECENT FINDINGS: Most research on adult outcomes in ASD indicates very limited social integration, poor job prospects and high rates of mental health problems...
January 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030375/self-injurious-behaviour-in-people-with-intellectual-disability-and-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
Chris Oliver, Lucy Licence, Caroline Richards
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarises the recent trends in research in the field of self-injurious behaviour in people with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder. RECENT FINDINGS: New data on incidence, persistence and severity add to studies of prevalence to indicate the large scale of the clinical need. A number of person characteristics have been repeatedly identified in prevalence and cohort studies that: can be considered as risk markers (e...
December 26, 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009726/the-emergence-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-insights-gained-from-studies-of-brain-and-behaviour-in-high-risk-infants
#7
Kandice J Varcin, Shafali S Jeste
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review studies of infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), proposing that the earliest manifestations of disrupted brain development can shed light on prebehavioural markers of risk and mechanisms underlying the heterogeneity of ASD. RECENT FINDINGS: Prospective, longitudinal studies of infants at risk for ASD have revealed that behavioural signs of ASD are generally not observed until the second year of life. The developmental signs within the first year are often subtle and rooted in processes outside the core diagnostic domains of ASD, such as motor and visual perceptual function...
December 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009725/cognitive-decline-and-dementia-in-down-syndrome
#8
Rosalyn Hithersay, Sarah Hamburg, Bernice Knight, André Strydom
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Alzheimer's disease is most likely universal in older individuals with Down syndrome, due to having three copies of the amyloid precursor protein gene, resulting in amyloid-beta plaque deposition. Down syndrome is an important population in which to consider clinical trials of treatments to prevent or delay the development of dementia. However, assessment of subtler cognitive changes is challenging due to the presence of intellectual disability. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research confirmed that older adults with Down syndrome often present with cognitive decline: more than 80% may experience dementia by age 65 years...
December 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009724/current-opinion-in-alzheimer-s-disease-therapy-by-nanotechnology-based-approaches
#9
Shakeel Ahmed Ansari, Rukhsana Satar, Asma Perveen, Ghulam Md Ashraf
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nanotechnology typically deals with the measuring and modeling of matter at nanometer scale by incorporating the fields of engineering and technology. The most prominent feature of these engineered materials involves their manipulation/modification for imparting new functional properties. The current review covers the most recent findings of Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapeutics based on nanoscience and technology. RECENT FINDINGS: Current studies involve the application of nanotechnology in developing novel diagnostic and therapeutic tools for neurological disorders...
December 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009723/adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-review-of-outcomes-social-attainment-and-interventions
#10
Kenneth K Poon, Dalvin J K Sidhu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With the increasing incidence of individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders, there is a need to develop programs to support them throughout their lifespan but research in adulthood support is still scarce. This article aims to provide an up-to-date review of the research on the core characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), social attainments, and efforts to improve their outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: The core social communication impairments continue into adulthood among persons with ASD, but the restrictive, repetitive patterns of behavior and activities have received less attention...
December 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002106/the-application-of-lipidomics-to-biomarker-research-and-pathomechanisms-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Matthew W Wong, Nady Braidy, Anne Poljak, Perminder S Sachdev
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia. There are still no disease modifying treatments that can cure or slow disease progression. Recently, Alzheimer's disease researchers have attempted to improve early detection and diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease, with the rationale that treatment of disease, or even prevention, may be more successful during the early preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease when neurodegenerative damage is not as widespread...
December 20, 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997454/-dementia-friendly-communities-and-being-dementia-friendly-in-healthcare-settings
#12
Shih-Yin Lin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses the concept of 'dementia-friendly communities' and summarizes the latest research and practice around such communities. This review also highlights important topic areas to be considered to promote dementia friendliness in healthcare settings. RECENT FINDINGS: Definitions of 'dementia-friendly communities' reflect the contemporary thinking of living with dementia (e.g., dementia as a disability, equal human rights, a sense of meaning)...
December 16, 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997453/editorial-no-health-without-cognitive-health
#13
Perminder S Sachdev
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 16, 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902513/editorial-introductions
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875379/the-decision-neuroscience-perspective-on-suicidal-behavior-evidence-and-hypotheses
#15
Alexandre Y Dombrovski, Michael N Hallquist
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Suicide attempts are usually regretted by people who survive them. Furthermore, addiction and gambling are over-represented among people who attempt or die by suicide, raising the question whether their decision-making is impaired. Advances in decision neuroscience have enabled us to investigate decision processes in suicidal people and to elucidate putative neural substrates of disadvantageous decision-making. RECENT FINDINGS: Early studies have linked attempted suicide to poor performance on gambling tasks...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845947/preventing-suicide-in-indigenous-communities
#16
Simon Hatcher, Allison Crawford, Nicole Coupe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update on recent studies on suicide prevention in indigenous populations with a focus on recently colonised indigenous peoples in Canada, the United States, Australia and New Zealand. RECENT FINDINGS: There have been several recent reviews on suicide prevention in indigenous populations with high suicide rates. However most of them describe the problem and there is little new that is available on effective interventions. One randomized controlled trial of a package of measures focusing on cultural identity in Maori who had recently self-harmed compared to usual care found little effect on suicidal behavior but it did significantly reduce presentations to hospital for any reason after one year...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845946/global-trends-in-suicide-epidemiology
#17
Mark Sinyor, Robyn Tse, Jane Pirkis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Suicide is a major cause of mortality accounting for nearly 1 million deaths globally per year. Suicide occurs throughout the lifespan; therefore, large epidemiological samples are needed to identify patterns in suicide death. This review examines emerging evidence relating to risk and protective factors as well as preventive measures for suicide. RECENT FINDINGS: The global financial crisis, natural disasters, air pollution and second-hand smoke have all been associated with increased suicide rates...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798487/personality-disorders-and-pathological-gambling
#18
Krishna Vaddiparti, Linda B Cottler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To explore recent developments in the field of personality disorders and their association with pathological gambling or gambling disorder. The review covers literature published from 2015 to present time (August 2016) to understand the prevalence rates of common personality disorders among pathological gamblers. RECENT FINDINGS: Commonly seen personality disorders among pathological or problem gamblers represent Cluster B disorders. There are reports indicating prevalence of Clusters A and C personality disorders as well...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798486/medical-assistance-in-dying-special-issues-for-patients-with-mental-illness
#19
Kathleen Sheehan, K Sonu Gaind, James Downar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Medical Assistance in Dying (MAID) is now legal in many jurisdictions for competent adults who have intolerable suffering and/or have a terminal illness with a short prognosis. Mental illness can be a source of suffering for these individuals, but it can also affect their capacity to make medical decisions. Clinicians, and psychiatrists in particular, need to understand how to assess patients with mental illness who are requesting MAID, to determine the impact of their mental illness on the MAID request...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798485/culture-and-personality-disorder-a-focus-on-indigenous-australians
#20
Sivasankaran Balaratnasingam, Aleksandar Janca
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To examine the validity of concept and diagnosis of personality disorder in transcultural settings using Indigenous Australian people as an example. RECENT FINDINGS: There are significant deficits in comparative research on personality disorders across cultures. There is also a dearth of information regarding Indigenous Australians, and cultural applicability and clinical utility of the diagnosis of personality disorder in this group. SUMMARY: The concept of culture is generally ignored when making a diagnosis of personality disorder...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
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