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Current Opinion in Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333692/application-of-olfactory-tissue-and-its-neural-progenitors-to-schizophrenia-and-psychiatric-research
#1
Joëlle Lavoie, Akira Sawa, Koko Ishizuka
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review article is to introduce olfactory epithelium-derived cell/tissue models as a promising surrogate system to study the molecular mechanisms implicated in schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we particularly focus on the utility of their neural progenitors. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent investigations of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia using olfactory epithelium-derived tissue/cell models have provided insights about schizophrenia-associated alterations in neurodevelopment, stress response, and gene/protein expression regulatory pathways...
March 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306564/psychopharmacological-treatment-of-schizophrenia-during-pregnancy-and-lactation
#2
Alexandra B Whitworth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is necessary, in every-day clinical life when treating pregnant women with mental diseases, to reach quick decisions derived from recent comprehensive information. The knowledge of the use of antipsychotics in pregnancy has increased considerably in the last years. This review tries to summarize important considerations and facilitate clinical decisions. RECENT FINDINGS: This review will cover not only the effects of exposure during pregnancy on outcomes, postnatal adaption syndrome and lactation, but also pharmacokinetic considerations on the use of antipsychotics during pregnancy...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230632/schizophrenia-and-substance-abuse-is-schizophrenia-forgotten
#3
Lynn E DeLisi, Wolfgang W Fleischhacker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230631/aerobic-exercise-and-its-effects-on-cognition-in-schizophrenia
#4
Peter Falkai, Berend Malchow, Andrea Schmitt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Schizophrenia is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder with incomplete remission because of negative and cognitive symptoms in a large proportion of patients. Antipsychotic medication is successful in modulating positive symptoms, but only to a lower extent negative symptoms including cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, development of innovative add-on treatment is highly needed. In this review, recent evidence from clinical studies reveals effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive deficits in schizophrenia patients...
February 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230630/update-on-the-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-and-its-relevance-to-schizophrenia
#5
Lily Van, Erik Boot, Anne S Bassett
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Schizophrenia occurs in ∼25% of individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), the strongest known molecular genetic risk factor for schizophrenia. This review highlights recent literature in 22q11.2DS as it pertains to psychosis and schizophrenia. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in noninvasive prenatal testing allow for early detection of 22q11.2DS in utero, whereas premature birth has been shown to be a significant risk factor for development of psychotic illness in 22q11...
February 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212174/categorizing-and-assessing-negative-symptoms
#6
Paola Bucci, Silvana Galderisi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide a review on studies published in the last year relevant to the categorization and assessment of negative symptoms. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research supported the validity of the 'deficit/non-deficit schizophrenia' categorization. Few studies confirmed the validity of the category 'persistent negative symptoms', whereas no recent study explored the validity of the category 'predominant negative symptoms'. The two-factor structure of the negative dimension is supported by studies reporting different correlates for the two subdomains: diminished expression and avolition/apathy...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212173/prediction-of-conversion-to-psychosis-in-individuals-with-an-at-risk-mental-state-a-brief-update-on-recent-developments
#7
Anita Riecher-Rössler, Erich Studerus
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: So far, only little more than one-third of individuals classified as being at-risk for psychosis have been shown to actually convert to frank psychosis during follow-up. There have therefore been enormous efforts to improve the accuracy of predicting this transition. We reviewed the most recent studies in the field with the aim to clarify whether accuracy of prediction has been improved by the different research endeavors and what could be done to further improve it, and/or what alternative goals research should pursue...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212172/cognitive-decline-associated-with-anesthesia-and-surgery-in-the-elderly-does-this-contribute-to-dementia-prevalence
#8
Lisbeth Evered, David A Scott, Brendan Silbert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update on the current state of research investigating the effects of anesthesia and surgery on cognition in the elderly, including consideration of overlap with cognitive disorders in the community. RECENT FINDINGS: The studies reviewed here identify detrimental effects of anesthesia and surgery on cognition in a proportion of elderly individuals. Animal models demonstrate an association between anesthetic agents and Alzheimer's disease pathology...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212171/ability-based-emotional-intelligence-in-schizophrenia
#9
Beatrice Frajo-Apor, Alex Hofer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As one part of social cognition, emotional intelligence is a controversially discussed construct. Although well founded critique on the conceptualization of emotional intelligence has emerged over the last years, studies about emotional intelligence - especially the ability-based approach by Mayer and Salovey - can persistently be found in schizophrenia research. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies published between October 2015 and October 2016 were included in this review...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125440/fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-in-africa
#10
Colleen M Adnams
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to summarize data published in the scientific literature and available on official websites on fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) in Africa. RECENT FINDINGS: There is a paucity of published literature and evidence-based information on prenatal exposure to alcohol in the African continent and the majority of the continent's literature on FASD emanates from South Africa. A small number of scientific publications document FASD and drinking in pregnancy in other Sub-Saharan African countries and these findings provide evidence that FASD occurs across the continent...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125439/behavioral-and-psychiatric-manifestations-in-cornelia-de-lange-syndrome
#11
Marco A Grados, Mustafa H Alvi, Siddharth Srivastava
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a rare genetic syndrome with clinical manifestations due to multiple affected organ systems including limbs, gastrointestinal, skin, and central nervous systems. Although the genetic basis of CdLS is now uncovered, how behavioral manifestations are associated with genetic and brain differences are less well understood. The current focused review systematically describes the main behavioral observations to date in individuals with CdLS, which have a significant impact on quality of life and adaptive functioning...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121777/editorial-introductions
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079675/recent-advances-in-the-management-of-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in-dementia
#13
Orestes V Forlenza, Júlia Cunha Loureiro, Marcos Vasconcelos Pais, Florindo Stella
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present article addresses intriguing questions related to the clinical intervention in distinct neuropsychiatric syndromes of patients with dementia. RECENT FINDINGS: We reviewed 154 articles published between 2015 and 2016 targeting psychopharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions, and safety-tolerability concerns. We selected 115 articles addressing the purpose of this study. Of these, 33 were chosen because they were dedicated to subtopics: agitation (42), depression (33), apathy (18), sleep disorders/anxiety (8), and psychosis (4)...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079674/borderline-intellectual-functioning-an-update
#14
Stephen Greenspan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) is a descriptive v-code that is often used, especially in forensic settings, as if it were a full-fledged disorder. Various historical and other aspects of this classification are reviewed, and commentary is made on the question of whether to upgrade BIF to a regular psychiatric category, or to eliminate it by folding it into an already recently expanded category of intellectual developmental disorder (IDD). RECENT FINDINGS: Full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) is an outmoded concept that is decreasingly being used...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067728/advances-in-developmental-neuropsychiatry-autism-spectrum-disorder-cornelia-de-lange-syndrome-self-injurious-behavior-down-syndrome-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-and-borderline-intellectual-functioning
#15
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067727/psychological-and-physical-pain-as-predictors-of-suicide-risk-evidence-from-clinical-and-neuroimaging-findings
#16
Sakina J Rizvi, Adam Iskric, Raffaella Calati, Philippe Courtet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Suicide is a multidimensional clinical phenomenon with complex biological, social and psychological risk factors. Therefore, it is imperative for studies to focus on developing a unified understanding of suicide risk that integrates current clinical and neurobiological findings. A recent line of research has implicated different classifications of pain in understanding suicide risk, including the concepts of psychache and pain tolerance. Although psychache is defined as the experience of unbearable psychological pain, pain tolerance refers to the greatest duration or intensity of painful stimuli that one is able to bear...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067726/autism-spectrum-disorder-outcomes-in-adulthood
#17
Patricia Howlin, Iliana Magiati
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Until recently, there has been little systematic study of adult life among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) but recognition of the high psychological and social costs of ASD has led to an increase in adult-focused research over the past decade. The aim of this review is to summarize recent empirical findings on outcomes for adults with ASD. RECENT FINDINGS: Most research on adult outcomes in ASD indicates very limited social integration, poor job prospects and high rates of mental health problems...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030375/self-injurious-behaviour-in-people-with-intellectual-disability-and-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
Chris Oliver, Lucy Licence, Caroline Richards
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarises the recent trends in research in the field of self-injurious behaviour in people with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder. RECENT FINDINGS: New data on incidence, persistence and severity add to studies of prevalence to indicate the large scale of the clinical need. A number of person characteristics have been repeatedly identified in prevalence and cohort studies that: can be considered as risk markers (e...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009726/the-emergence-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-insights-gained-from-studies-of-brain-and-behaviour-in-high-risk-infants
#19
Kandice J Varcin, Shafali S Jeste
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review studies of infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), proposing that the earliest manifestations of disrupted brain development can shed light on prebehavioural markers of risk and mechanisms underlying the heterogeneity of ASD. RECENT FINDINGS: Prospective, longitudinal studies of infants at risk for ASD have revealed that behavioural signs of ASD are generally not observed until the second year of life. The developmental signs within the first year are often subtle and rooted in processes outside the core diagnostic domains of ASD, such as motor and visual perceptual function...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009725/cognitive-decline-and-dementia-in-down-syndrome
#20
Rosalyn Hithersay, Sarah Hamburg, Bernice Knight, André Strydom
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Alzheimer's disease is most likely universal in older individuals with Down syndrome, due to having three copies of the amyloid precursor protein gene, resulting in amyloid-beta plaque deposition. Down syndrome is an important population in which to consider clinical trials of treatments to prevent or delay the development of dementia. However, assessment of subtler cognitive changes is challenging due to the presence of intellectual disability. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research confirmed that older adults with Down syndrome often present with cognitive decline: more than 80% may experience dementia by age 65 years...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
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