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Current Opinion in Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902513/editorial-introductions
#1
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875379/the-decision-neuroscience-perspective-on-suicidal-behavior-evidence-and-hypotheses
#2
Alexandre Y Dombrovski, Michael N Hallquist
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Suicide attempts are usually regretted by people who survive them. Furthermore, addiction and gambling are over-represented among people who attempt or die by suicide, raising the question whether their decision-making is impaired. Advances in decision neuroscience have enabled us to investigate decision processes in suicidal people and to elucidate putative neural substrates of disadvantageous decision-making. RECENT FINDINGS: Early studies have linked attempted suicide to poor performance on gambling tasks...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845947/preventing-suicide-in-indigenous-communities
#3
Simon Hatcher, Allison Crawford, Nicole Coupe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update on recent studies on suicide prevention in indigenous populations with a focus on recently colonised indigenous peoples in Canada, the United States, Australia and New Zealand. RECENT FINDINGS: There have been several recent reviews on suicide prevention in indigenous populations with high suicide rates. However most of them describe the problem and there is little new that is available on effective interventions. One randomized controlled trial of a package of measures focusing on cultural identity in Maori who had recently self-harmed compared to usual care found little effect on suicidal behavior but it did significantly reduce presentations to hospital for any reason after one year...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845946/global-trends-in-suicide-epidemiology
#4
Mark Sinyor, Robyn Tse, Jane Pirkis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Suicide is a major cause of mortality accounting for nearly 1 million deaths globally per year. Suicide occurs throughout the lifespan; therefore, large epidemiological samples are needed to identify patterns in suicide death. This review examines emerging evidence relating to risk and protective factors as well as preventive measures for suicide. RECENT FINDINGS: The global financial crisis, natural disasters, air pollution and second-hand smoke have all been associated with increased suicide rates...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798487/personality-disorders-and-pathological-gambling
#5
Krishna Vaddiparti, Linda B Cottler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To explore recent developments in the field of personality disorders and their association with pathological gambling or gambling disorder. The review covers literature published from 2015 to present time (August 2016) to understand the prevalence rates of common personality disorders among pathological gamblers. RECENT FINDINGS: Commonly seen personality disorders among pathological or problem gamblers represent Cluster B disorders. There are reports indicating prevalence of Clusters A and C personality disorders as well...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798486/medical-assistance-in-dying-special-issues-for-patients-with-mental-illness
#6
Kathleen Sheehan, K Sonu Gaind, James Downar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Medical Assistance in Dying (MAID) is now legal in many jurisdictions for competent adults who have intolerable suffering and/or have a terminal illness with a short prognosis. Mental illness can be a source of suffering for these individuals, but it can also affect their capacity to make medical decisions. Clinicians, and psychiatrists in particular, need to understand how to assess patients with mental illness who are requesting MAID, to determine the impact of their mental illness on the MAID request...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798485/culture-and-personality-disorder-a-focus-on-indigenous-australians
#7
Sivasankaran Balaratnasingam, Aleksandar Janca
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To examine the validity of concept and diagnosis of personality disorder in transcultural settings using Indigenous Australian people as an example. RECENT FINDINGS: There are significant deficits in comparative research on personality disorders across cultures. There is also a dearth of information regarding Indigenous Australians, and cultural applicability and clinical utility of the diagnosis of personality disorder in this group. SUMMARY: The concept of culture is generally ignored when making a diagnosis of personality disorder...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798484/executive-functioning-in-people-with-personality-disorders
#8
Domingo Garcia-Villamisar, John Dattilo, Marta Garcia-Martinez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes recent executive functions research to better delineate the nosology of personality disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: This review indicates that there are consistent impairments in executive functioning in people with personality disorders as compared with matched controls. Only five disorders were considered: borderline, obsessive-compulsive, antisocial, narcissistic, and schizotypal. Significant deficits are observed in decision-making, working memory, inhibition, and flexibility...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798483/recent-advances-in-differentiating-suicide-attempters-from-suicide-ideators
#9
E David Klonsky, Tianyou Qiu, Boaz Y Saffer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article summarizes findings from recent studies (published since 2015) examining differences between suicide attempters and suicide ideators. RECENT FINDINGS: Converging evidence suggests that the capability to attempt suicide (e.g., acquired capability, painful and provocative experiences, high tolerance for pain and distress) is higher in suicide attempters than suicide ideators. Other psychosocial and biological differences have also been identified but require replication...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764017/the-insomnia-with-short-sleep-duration-phenotype-an-update-on-it-s-importance-for-health-and-prevention
#10
Julio Fernandez-Mendoza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It was first proposed in the late 1990s that objective markers of sleep disturbance could serve as an index of the biological severity of insomnia. In 2013, a heuristic model of two insomnia phenotypes based on objective sleep duration was proposed. Herein, we review the studies conducted in the past 3 years on the insomnia with short sleep duration phenotype and its implications for a clinical research agenda. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies have shown that insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with physiologic hyperarousal and cardiometabolic and neurocognitive morbidity, whereas insomnia with normal sleep duration is not...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755142/current-understanding-of-the-relationships-between-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-personality-disturbance
#11
Vladan Starcevic, Vlasios Brakoulias
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article aims to examine the relationships between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and personality disturbance, with a particular focus on the diagnostic, aetiological and treatment implications of these relationships. RECENT FINDINGS: Personality disorders are common in OCD. They interact in various ways and in accordance with a number of the proposed models. The relationship between OCD and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is the most important, but it can be conceptualised in different ways and may vary from one person to another...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676104/editorial-introductions
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662598/epidemiology-of-eating-disorders-in-europe-prevalence-incidence-comorbidity-course-consequences-and-risk-factors
#13
Anna Keski-Rahkonen, Linda Mustelin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Eating disorders - anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder - affect numerous Europeans. This narrative review summarizes European studies on their prevalence, incidence, comorbidity, course, consequences, and risk factors published in 2015 and the first half of 2016. RECENT FINDINGS: Anorexia nervosa is reported by <1-4%, bulimia nervosa <1-2%, binge eating disorder <1-4%, and subthreshold eating disorders by 2-3% of women in Europe...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648782/insomnia-and-obesity
#14
Tatjana Crönlein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Accumulating data suggest that short sleep plays a role in the development of obesity in general population. Insomnia disorder is characterized by short sleep and may persist for years. The question whether these patients have a higher risk of obesity is of socioeconomic as well as therapeutic interest. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous recently published cross-sectional and longitudinal studies show positive as well as negative associations between short sleep and overweight...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648781/updates-in-the-epidemiology-of-eating-disorders-in-asia-and-the-pacific
#15
Jennifer J Thomas, Sing Lee, Anne E Becker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes and contextualizes the recent epidemiologic data on eating disorders in the Asia and Pacific regions. RECENT FINDINGS: Gaps in epidemiologic data on eating disorders from the Asia and Pacific regions stem, in part, from omission of eating disorder-specific assessments in large nationally representative cohort studies of mental disorders. Available data - often from clinical and school-going cohorts - support that the prevalence of both eating disorders and associated attitudes and behaviors in many Asian and Pacific regions studied may be comparable to those reported in Europe and North America...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648780/prevalence-and-treatment-of-eating-disorders-among-hispanics-latino-americans-in-the-united-states
#16
Marisol Perez, Tara K Ohrt, Hans W Hoek
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We reviewed the recent literature on prevalence rates, and application of evidence-based treatments for eating disorders among Hispanics/Latinos residing in the United States. RECENT FINDINGS: Lifetime prevalence rates of anorexia nervosa are lower among Hispanic/Latinos than non-Hispanic Whites. There are comparable rates of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder (BED) among Hispanic/Latinos and non-Hispanic Whites. BED is the most common eating disorder among Hispanic/Latinos...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636599/sexual-dysfunction-in-medical-practice
#17
Manohar J Shivananda, T S Sathyanaryana Rao
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sexual dysfunction is associated with many medical disorders. Lack of recognition of sexual dysfunction commonly occurs in medical practice. The impact of unrecognized sexual dysfunction affects quality of life, which in turn affects the recovery from medical illness. This article reviews the recent literature regarding sexual dysfunction in medical practice published in PubMed, Clinical key, Scopus, Google scholar from November 2014 to May 2016. RECENT FINDINGS: New findings suggest that sexual dysfunction is associated with most of the disorders affecting various systems...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636598/opportunities-for-clinical-applications-of-rest-activity-rhythms-in-detecting-and-preventing-mood-disorders
#18
Stephen F Smagula
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Rest-activity rhythm (RAR) measurements may aid in the detection of depression risk and serve as an important target for depression prevention. This review evaluates the strength of current evidence supporting these potential applications. RECENT FINDINGS: Depression is associated with lower activity levels, that is less regularly patterned, and potentially shifted earlier or later in the day. Specific RAR patterns (combinations of several RAR characteristics) in patients with clinical depression may be unique or partially shared across disorders...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608181/review-of-the-worldwide-epidemiology-of-eating-disorders
#19
Hans W Hoek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27584712/exploring-the-bi-directional-relationship-between-sleep-and-beta-amyloid
#20
Belinda M Brown, Stephanie R Rainey-Smith, Romola S Bucks, Michael Weinborn, Ralph N Martins
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Suboptimal sleep has been reported as both a comorbidity and risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease. Previous research suggests that beta-amyloid (Aβ) may be central to this association, with reports indicating a bi-directional relationship between sleep and Aβ. Here, we review recent animal and human studies investigating the relationship between sleep and measures of Aβ, and explore the potential mechanisms underlying this association. RECENT FINDINGS: Two recent animal studies have provided further support for a bi-directional relationship between sleep and Aβ...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
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