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Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases

Carolina Navarro-San Francisco, Patricia Ruiz-Garbajosa, Rafael Cantón
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize and classify the most recent and relevant microbiological studies for each type of skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). RECENT FINDINGS: Following Infectious Diseases Society of America and Food and Drug Administration classifications of SSTIs, we differentiate between two large groups, the superficial or uncomplicated infections and the complicated infections with deep involvement. It is not usually necessary to obtain microbiological samples in uncomplicated infections, except in cases of recurrences or for epidemiological control purposes...
January 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Anne E O'Donnell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bronchiectasis, once thought to be an orphan disease, is being diagnosed with increased frequency in the United States and around the world. The present review aims to provide an update on recent publications on the diagnosis and management of bronchiectasis. RECENT FINDINGS: Two large bronchiectasis patient registries have published initial reports regarding demographics and other patient data in 2017. Updates on the microbiology, microbiome, and inflammation in patients with bronchiectasis are clarifying the complexities of airway infection in this disease...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Filipe Froes, João Gonçalves Pereira, Pedro Póvoa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The first guidelines on community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) were published in 1993, but since then many of the challenges regarding the outpatient management of CAP persist. These include the difficulty in establishing the initial clinical diagnosis, its risk stratification, which will dictate the place of treatment, the empirical choice of antibiotics, the relative scarcity of novel antibiotics and the importance of knowing local microbiological susceptibility patterns...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Silvia Corcione, Francesco Giuseppe De Rosa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the current finding on SSTIs/ABSSSIs treatment duration. RECENT FINDINGS: In 2013, the FDA approved the definition of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs). From a clinical point of view, the new definition may present some advantages: the definition of the severity of the disease, the measurement of reduction in lesion size, and effectiveness of treatment primary endpoint at 48-72 h after treatment initiation...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Matteo Bassetti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Emilio Bouza, Patricia Muñoz, Almudena Burillo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tedizolid is a second-generation oxazolidinone with activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including MRSA isolates resistant to linezolid. Pivotal clinical trials showed that tedizolid at 200 mg once-daily for 6 days is not inferior to linezolid 600 mg twice daily for 10 days in patients with SSTI. The comparison of adverse events is favorable to tedizolid under the circumstances of the clinical trials. This is a review of recent literature on tedizolid, its use in special populations and potential adverse effects...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Leah Lande, Jason George, Theodore Plush
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)-related pulmonary disease has been increasing because of environmental factors, changes in organism virulence, and evolving host susceptibility. Treatment is often complicated by adverse effects, development of drug resistance, and refractory disease, with recurrence rates as high as 25-45%. RECENT FINDINGS: Aerosolization of water, soil, or dusts are the likely sources of MAC-related pulmonary disease in susceptible individuals...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Matteo Bassetti, Antionio Vena, Nadia Castaldo, Elda Righi, Maddalena Peghin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria represents a global emerging problem. Delayed prescription of an adequate treatment for VAP has been associated with higher morbidity and mortality. New molecules have been developed to face the need of compounds that are active against resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. The aim of this review is to summarize the current scenario of new therapeutic options for the treatment of VAP...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Matteo Bassetti, Christian Eckmann, Maddalena Peghin, Alessia Carnelutti, Elda Righi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Skin and soft tissue infections prevalence is increasing and represent a frequent cause of hospital admission. New guidelines have become available in order to better define these infections and their response to antimicrobial treatment. Gram-positive bacteria, in particular Staphylococcus aureus, remain the most frequently isolated pathogens in skin and soft tissue infections. To treat complicated forms and infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria, hospital admission and administration of intravenous antibiotics are often required, impacting on healthcare costs and patients' morbidity...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
José-Artur Paiva, Paulo Mergulhão, José Manuel Pereira
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Filamentous fungi respiratory infections, namely because of Aspergillus, Mucorales, Fusarium, or Scedosporium, show rising incidence and occur more in populations which are not classically immunosuppressed. This and their persistent dismal prognosis are the focus of this review. RECENT FINDINGS: Both an early diagnosis, rooted on a high level of suspicion and based on clinical picture, radiology, cultural microbiological exams, fungal biomarkers, PCR and biopsy, and an early therapy, including immunorecovery, whenever possible, good antifungal selection, and surgery for source control, are paramount to maximize the outcome in these diseases...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Matteo Bassetti, Maddalena Peghin, Alessia Carnelutti, Elda Righi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The increase of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) represents a major concern both in community and in the hospital setting. Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequently isolated pathogen, and the rise in infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been associated with inadequate antibiotic treatment and increased morbidity. RECENT FINDINGS: A number of new antimicrobials with activity against drug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens, including MRSA, have been recently approved for the treatment of SSTIs...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Alessia Savoldi, Anna M Azzini, David Baur, Evelina Tacconelli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Skin and soft-tissue infections (SSIs) are among the commonest infections encountered in clinical practice. Spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus SSIs continues to increase in both health care and community settings and presents a challenge for the best treatment choice. Vancomycin has been the mainstay of SSIs treatment, but recently its use has been questioned because of concerns about its efficacy, tolerability, and unfavorable pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Jason P Burnham, Marin H Kollef
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the salient features of the management of severe skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), including toxic shock syndrome, myonecrosis/gas gangrene, and necrotizing fasciitis. RECENT FINDINGS: For severe SSTIs, intensive care, source control, and broad-spectrum antimicrobials are required for the initial phase of illness. There is an increasing focus on the utility of rapid diagnostic tests to help in selection and de-escalation of antimicrobials for SSTIs...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Gabriella Ugolini, Thiravat Hemachudha
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite great progress in decoding disease mechanisms, rabies remains one of the leading causes of human death worldwide. Towards the elimination of human rabies deaths by 2030, feasible and affordable post (PEP) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) must be available with expansion to rural areas in rabies endemic countries. Vaccination and population control of dogs, principal reservoirs and transmitters, must be done in concert. RECENT FINDING: Advances in the understanding of rabies neuropathogenesis and pathophysiology are reviewed, including recent experimental findings on host- and virus-specific mechanisms mediating neuronal survival and explaining clinical differences in furious and paralytic rabies...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Roland Nau, Jana Seele, Marija Djukic, Helmut Eiffert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The barriers surrounding the central nervous system (CNS) together with the emergence of multiresistant pathogens pose a therapeutic challenge for the effective treatment of CNS infections. RECENT FINDINGS: In addition to vancomycin, colistin and aminoglycosides, classically used for intrathecal injection, drug concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid after intrathecal injection of daptomycin and tigecyclin were recently studied. SUMMARY: The entry of antiinfectives into the CNS compartments is determined by the physicochemical properties of the drug and by conditions in the host...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Jens Lundgren, Amanda Mocroft, Lene Ryom
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the evidence linking use of HIV protease inhibitors with excess risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in HIV+ populations. RECENT FINDINGS: For the two contemporary most frequently used protease inhibitors, darunavir and atazanavir [both pharmacologically boosted with ritonavir (/r)], darunavir/r has been shown to be associated with increased CVD risk. The effect is cumulative with longer exposure increasing risk and an effect size comparable to what has been observed for previously developed protease inhibitors...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Caroline Foster, Sarah Fidler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A total of 1.8 million adolescents live with HIV and constitute the only age group in which HIV-associated mortality continues to rise. Meeting their healthcare needs as they transition from paediatric services to adult care is vital for their own health and in prevention of onward transmission to partners and offspring. In this review, we discuss the issues around transition, both within HIV health care and the wider transitions adolescents negotiate as they move out of childhood and into adult life...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Katherine Plewes, Gareth D H Turner, Arjen M Dondorp
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cerebral impairment and acute kidney injury (AKI) are independent predictors of mortality in both adults and children with severe falciparum malaria. In this review, we present recent advances in understanding the pathophysiology, clinical features, and management of these complications of severe malaria, and discuss future areas of research. RECENT FINDINGS: Cerebral malaria and AKI are serious and well recognized complications of severe malaria...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
E Jennifer Edelman, Emily C Williams, Brandon D L Marshall
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Unhealthy alcohol use is prevalent among people living with HIV (PLWH). We sought to identify the most current literature examining the impact of unhealthy alcohol on health outcomes and latest developments on how to best intervene. RECENT FINDINGS: New research shows that PLWH have heightened morbidity and mortality at lower levels of alcohol consumption compared with HIV-uninfected persons. Studies published since 2016 have further elucidated the effects of persistent unhealthy alcohol use on HIV treatment outcomes over time...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Christopher K Fairley, Lei Zhang, Eric P F Chow
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The rate of gonorrhoea is rising and is much higher in men who have sex with men (MSM) than heterosexuals. The purpose of this review was to describe research supporting a new paradigm of transmission of gonorrhoea in MSM and interventions that may result from this. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence is accumulating that gonorrhoea in MSM is transmitted differently than previously thought and that asymptomatic sites of infection may play a major role in the persistent of gonorrhoea at a population level...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
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