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Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases

Stephen Baker, Hao Chung The
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diarrhoea is a major global health problem, and recent studies have confirmed Shigella as a major contributor to this burden. Here, we review recent advances in Shigella research; focusing on their epidemiology, pathogenesis, antimicrobial resistance, and the role of the gut microbiome during infection. RECENT FINDINGS: Enhanced epidemiological data, combined with new generation diagnostics, has highlighted a greater burden of Shigella disease than was previously estimated, which is not restricted to vulnerable populations in low-middle income countries...
August 30, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Vernon Ansdell, Yupaporn Wattanagoon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Angiostrongylus cantonensis eosinophilic meningitis is a neglected, yet important emerging disease, which has been increasingly recognized in travelers. In this review, we describe the occurrence of the disease in travelers, sources of infection, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and currently recommended treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Various intermediate hosts and/or paratenic hosts can be the source of infection in humans. Serological tests for antibody may be negative early in the course of the disease but PCR for antigen detection in the CSF has recently been developed and may help to make the diagnosis at an earlier stage...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Malick M Gibani, Carl Britto, Andrew J Pollard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Enteric fever remains a major global-health concern, estimated to be responsible for between 11.9 and 26.9 million cases annually. Long-term prevention of enteric fever will require improved access to safe drinking water combined with investment in sanitation and hygiene interventions. In the short-to-medium term, new control strategies for typhoid fever have arrived in the form of typhoid Vi-conjugate vaccines (TCVs), offering hope that disease control can be achieved in the near future...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Marija Stojković, Tim F Weber, Thomas Junghanss
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review draws attention to patients with cystic echinococcosis migrating from highly endemic to non-endemic countries with limited experience in cystic echinococcosis management, to ultrasound-based cyst staging, and to the WHO cyst classification as a powerful, to date underused tool to triage patients into the four currently available treatment modalities. RECENT FINDINGS: In non- and low-prevalence countries, cystic echinococcosis is often misclassified...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Camille M Webb, Miguel M Cabada
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims at describing the latest research in Fasciola epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and control in endemic countries. RECENT FINDINGS: The geographic distribution and range of reservoirs for Fasciola hepatica continues to expand. The impact of fascioliasis goes beyond human disease to affect food security and income in developed and developing countries. Promising serologic and molecular methods to diagnose fascioliasis have been described, but are not widely available...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Adrienne J Showler, Thomas B Nutman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With increasing international travel and mass global population migration, clinicians in nonendemic countries must be familiar with imported neglected tropical diseases including onchocerciasis, which is commonly known as 'river blindness'. RECENT FINDINGS: Imported onchocerciasis manifests differently in travelers compared with migrants from endemic areas and is likely underdiagnosed in both groups. Recent clinical studies confirm that eosinophilia is not a sensitive marker for Onchocerca volvulus, with one-third of patients having a normal eosinophil count...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Robert L Atmar, Sasirekha Ramani, Mary K Estes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Noroviruses are a major cause of gastroenteritis. This review summarizes new information on noroviruses that may lead to the development of improved measures for limiting their human health impact. RECENT FINDINGS: GII.4 strains remain the most common human noroviruses causing disease, although GII.2 and GII.17 strains have recently emerged as dominant strains in some populations. Histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) expression on the gut mucosa drives susceptibility to different norovirus strains...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
A Clinton White, Hector H Garcia
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is highlight recent developments regarding neurocysticercosis, including recently developed guidelines. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent diagnostic criteria highlight the importance of neuroimaging in establishing a diagnosis. Monoclonal antibody-based antigen detection and the enzyme-linked immunotransfer blot can be confirmatory. Management should be guided by the form of disease. Single enhancing lesions and one to two viable parenchymal cysticerci can be treated with short courses of albendazole and corticosteroid...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Louisa A Messenger, Caryn Bern
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Congenital transmission is an important route of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, both in Latin America and internationally, with considerable populations of infected women of child-bearing age residing in the United States and Europe. This review examines recent literature on congenital Chagas disease, with a focus on the changing clinical spectrum and potential new diagnostic tools. RECENT FINDINGS: Vertical transmission occurs in approximately 5-10% of births from T...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Aldo A M Lima, Pedro H Q S Medeiros, Alexandre Havt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review is to update the results on epidemiology, pathobiology, and genes related to virulence, clinical presentation, molecular diagnosis, antimicrobial resistance, and extraintestinal infection of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC). RECENT FINDINGS: EAEC subclinical infection was significantly associated with reduced length at 2 years of age and EAEC and coinfections were associated with reduced delta weight-for-length and weight-for-age z-scores in the first 6 months of age in the MAL-ED birth cohort study...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Ana A Weil, Edward T Ryan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we will examine updates in cholera epidemiology, advances in our understanding of pathogenesis and protective immunity, and changes to prevention strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: New modeling techniques and molecular epidemiology have led to advancements in our understanding of how Vibrio cholerae has persisted and re-emerged in new areas during the seventh pandemic. Use of next-generation sequencing has shed new light on immune responses to disease and vaccination, and the role of the gut microbiome in cholera...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Lona Mody
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review describes our research experiences and efforts in advancing the field of infection prevention and control in nursing facilities including postacute and long-term care settings. RECENT FINDINGS: There are over two million infections in postacute and long-term care settings each year in the United States and $4 billion in associated costs. To define a target group most amenable to infection prevention and control interventions, we sought to quantify the relation between indwelling device use and microbial colonization in nursing facility patients...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
José G Montoya, Carlos A Gomez, Roy Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Ashrit Multani, Carlos A Gomez, José G Montoya
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Good syndrome is a profoundly immunocompromising condition with heterogeneous immune deficits characterized by the presence of thymoma, low-to-absent B-lymphocyte counts, hypogammaglobulinemia, and impaired cell-mediated immunity. Opportunistic infectious diseases associated with Good syndrome represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, given their protean clinical manifestations. Although these infectious complications have been reviewed in prior publications, recommendations regarding their prevention have been lacking...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Katja Saris, Jacques F Meis, Andreas Voss
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To give an update on the recent emergence of Candida auris. RECENT FINDINGS: C. auris is a pathogen, that evades present therapeutic options, that is highly virulent, causes disease in all types of patients, and spreads easily in the environment and among patients, thereby posing an imminent threat to our patients. The fact that C. auris, in addition, is more resilient to environmental disinfection and frequently misclassified during microbiological diagnostics only heightens its potential as a 'perfect villain...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Geeta Sood, Cynthia Argani, Khalil G Ghanem, Trish M Perl, Jeanne S Sheffield
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cesarean sections are common surgical procedures performed in a healthy population and are unique because of a relatively high rate of postoperative infection. There have been many important advances in understanding the pathogenesis of infection and evaluation of interventions to prevent post cesarean section infections in the last few years. Our purpose in this review is to analyze these new data, discuss unanswered questions, and propose changes in standard of care...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
John A Sellick, Thomas A Russo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Two pathotypes of Klebsiella pneumoniae cause human infections, classical (cKp) and hypervirulent (hvKp) K. pneumoniae. The present understanding of genetic elements, the need for an accurate test to identify hvKp, the clinical implications of infection, the knowledge gap on how and why hvKp colonization transitions to infection, and potential infection prevention and control issues for hvKp are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Infections because of hvKp are increasingly recognized worldwide...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Vageesh Jain, Adriano Duse, Daniel G Bausch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Less than two decades into the 21st century, the world has already witnessed numerous large epidemics or pandemics. These events have highlighted inadequacies in both national and international capacity for outbreak prevention, detection, and response. Here, we review some of the major challenges from a policy perspective. RECENT FINDINGS: The most important challenges facing policymakers include financing outbreak preparedness and response in a complex political environment with limited resources, coordinating response efforts among a growing and diverse range of national and international actors, accurately assessing national outbreak preparedness, addressing the shortfall in the global biomedical workforce, building surge capacity of both human and material resources, balancing investments in public health and curative services, building capacity for outbreak-related research and development, and reinforcing measures for infection prevention and control...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Jesse T Jacob, Loreen A Herwaldt, Francis T Durso
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Human factors engineering (HFE) approaches are increasingly being used in healthcare, but have been applied in relatively limited ways to infection prevention and control (IPC). Previous studies have focused on using selected HFE tools, but newer literature supports a system-based HFE approach to IPC. RECENT FINDINGS: Cross-contamination and the existence of workarounds suggest that healthcare workers need better support to reduce and simplify steps in delivering care...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Loreen A Herwaldt, Alexandre R Marra
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review summarizes new knowledge about Legionella epidemiology, clinical characteristics, community-associated and hospital-based outbreaks, molecular typing and molecular epidemiology, prevention, and detection in environmental and clinical specimens. RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence of Legionnaire's disease is rising and the mortality rate remains high, particularly for immunocompromised patients. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation may help support patients with severe respiratory failure...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
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