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Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632511/zika-virus-a-cause-of-concern-in-transplantation
#1
Marilyn E Levi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Worldwide, the number of countries reporting Zika virus (ZKV) infection continues to increase. Although 80% of cases are asymptomatic, ZKV has been identified as a neurotropic virus associated with congenital microcephaly, Guillain-Barre' syndrome, and meningoencephalitis. Until recently, infection in transplant recipients has not been identified. This study will review the existing literature on ZKV infection, laboratory testing, and management in transplant recipients...
June 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582313/outbreaks-in-the-neonatal-icu-a-review-of-the-literature
#2
Julia Johnson, Caroline Quach
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neonates in the neonatal ICU (NICU) are uniquely vulnerable to colonization and infection with pathogens such as multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria, which in turn are associated with increased infection-related morbidities and higher case-fatality rates. We reviewed the English, French, and German language literature published between 2015 and 2017, for reports of NICU outbreaks. RECENT FINDINGS: A total of 39 outbreaks in NICUs were reported with Gram-negative bacteria (n = 21; 54%) causing most, and extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing organisms being the most frequent resistance mechanism reported (n = 5)...
June 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570284/mathematical-models-of-infection-transmission-in-healthcare-settings-recent-advances-from-the-use-of-network-structured-data
#3
Rania Assab, Narimane Nekkab, Pascal Crépey, Pascal Astagneau, Didier Guillemot, Lulla Opatowski, Laura Temime
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mathematical modeling approaches have brought important contributions to the study of pathogen spread in healthcare settings over the last 20 years. Here, we conduct a comprehensive systematic review of mathematical models of disease transmission in healthcare settings and assess the application of contact and patient transfer network data over time and their impact on our understanding of transmission dynamics of infections. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently, with the increasing availability of data on the structure of interindividual and interinstitution networks, models incorporating this type of information have been proposed, with the aim of providing more realistic predictions of disease transmission in healthcare settings...
May 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562486/diagnostics-and-laboratory-role-in-outbreaks
#4
Francesca Lee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review describes the investigative benefits of traditional and novel molecular epidemiology techniques, while acknowledging the limitations faced by clinical laboratories seeking to implement these methods. RECENT FINDINGS: Pulse-field gel electrophoresis and other traditional techniques remain powerful tools in outbreak investigations and continue to be used by multiple groups. Newer techniques such as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass-spectrometry and whole genome sequencing show great promise...
May 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548990/outbreaks-of-nontuberculous-mycobacteria
#5
Geeta Sood, Nikki Parrish
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the emerging literature on nontuberculous mycobacteria outbreaks in healthcare settings. As our ability to identify mycobacterial species develops, we are better able to recognize epidemiologic connections and better understand the prevalence and importance of these outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks in healthcare settings. RECENT FINDINGS: The number of outbreaks related to nontuberculous outbreaks is increasing because of heightened awareness and better diagnostic tests for species level identification of mycobacteria...
May 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542093/feasibility-and-applicability-of-antimicrobial-stewardship-in-immunocompromised-patients
#6
Elizabeth Robilotti, Marisa Holubar, Susan K Seo, Stan Deresinski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Antimicrobial stewardship is the primary intervention in the battle against antimicrobial resistance, but clinicians do not always apply many key antimicrobial stewardship principles to patients with significant immune defects due to lack of data and fear of bad outcomes. We review evidence regarding the application of stewardship principles to immunocompromised patients, with a focus on solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. RECENT FINDINGS: Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs), targeting immunocompromised patient populations such as oncology and transplant, are gaining traction...
May 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542092/approach-to-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-in-non-hiv-immunocompromised-hosts
#7
Victoria E Burke, Fred A Lopez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Skin and soft tissue infections are frequent contributors to morbidity and mortality in the immunocompromised host. This article reviews the changing epidemiology and clinical manifestations of the most common cutaneous pathogens in non-HIV immunocompromised hosts, including patients with solid organ transplants, stem cell transplants, solid tumors, hematologic malignancies, and receiving chronic immunosuppressive therapy for inflammatory disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Defects in the innate or adaptive immune response can predispose the immunocompromised host to certain cutaneous infections in a predictive fashion...
May 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538249/norovirus-and-clostridium-difficile-outbreaks-squelching-the-wildfire
#8
Ann Fisher, Louise M Dembry
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gastrointestinal outbreaks in the healthcare setting cause increased morbidity and mortality in an already vulnerable population. Optimization of infection prevention measures can be a challenge in healthcare settings. This review describes new literature that may change the traditional infection prevention approach to such outbreaks. RECENT FINDINGS: Asymptomatic carriers of both norovirus and Clostridium difficile can pose risk of transmission to others and the environment...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538045/donor-derived-infections-in-solid-organ-transplant-patients-toward-a-holistic-approach
#9
Esther Benamu, Cameron R Wolfe, Jose G Montoya
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Solid organ demand far exceeds organ supply. Strategies to increase the donor pool include the liberalization of selection criteria without increasing the risk of unexpected donor-derived infection (DDI), a rare complication of transplantation carrying high morbidity and mortality. We review the challenging aspects in the prevention of DDI, focusing on the complexities of data sharing and efficient communication and the role infectious diseases specialists play in the process...
May 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538044/mycobacterium-chimaera-infections-associated-with-heater-cooler-units-in-cardiac-surgery
#10
Peter W Schreiber, Hugo Sax
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mycobacterium chimaera infections following cardiac surgery have been reported from an increasing number of countries. These infections are characterized by a poor prognosis with a case fatality rate around 50% despite treatment. Since the first description in 2013, our understanding has grown steadily. Several outbreak investigations, case series, and experiments with heater-cooler units (HCUs) have been published. This review summarizes the current knowledge. RECENT FINDINGS: M...
May 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520621/outbreaks-in-the-adult-icus
#11
Hasan M Al-Dorzi, Yaseen M Arabi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Infectious disease outbreaks in the critical care setting are common and serious consequence. This article reviews and summarizes recent outbreaks in the adult ICUs. RECENT FINDINGS: Outbreaks of multidrug-resistant bacteria, fungi, and emerging viruses in ICUs from different countries are common. Outbreak investigation relies on epidemiologic methods, microbiologic studies, and molecular typing methods. Overuse of antibiotics, gaps in implementing infection prevention measures, and contaminated environment are common causes of ICU outbreaks...
May 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509673/immune-responses-to-invasive-aspergillosis-new-understanding-and-therapeutic-opportunities
#12
Tobias M Hohl
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Invasive aspergillosis is a worldwide disease that primarily affects immune-compromised patients, agricultural workers with corneal abrasions, individuals with structural lung disease, and patients with primary immune deficiency. The critical function of the immune system is to prevent the germination of airborne conidia into tissue-invasive hyphae. This review covers recent advances that shape our understanding of anti-Aspergillus immunity at the molecular and cellular level...
May 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505028/cytomegalovirus-disease-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-patients-current-and-future-therapeutic-options
#13
Shigeo Fuji, Hermann Einsele, Markus Kapp
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) has become one of the standard treatment for hematological diseases. Although the clinical outcome has improved significantly during the last decades, the morbidity and mortality after allo-HSCT are still obstacles to cure. Out of major morbidities, opportunistic virus infections such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection are important complications, in particular in patients who received human leukocyte antigen-mismatched HSCT...
May 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505027/automated-surveillance-of-healthcare-associated-infections-state-of-the-art
#14
Meander E Sips, Marc J M Bonten, Maaike S M van Mourik
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes recent advances in the field of automated surveillance of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), with a focus on data sources and the development of semiautomated or fully automated algorithms. RECENT FINDINGS: The availability of high-quality data in electronic health records and a well-designed information technology (IT) infrastructure to access these data are indispensable for successful implementation of automated HAI surveillance...
May 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362650/placental-transfer-of-antibody-and-its-relationship-to-vaccination-in-pregnancy
#15
Anna Calvert, Christine E Jones
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vaccination in pregnancy boosts maternal vaccine-specific antibody concentration and therefore increases transplacental transfer of antibody to optimize protection of the infant. The purpose of this review is to describe what is known about placental transfer of antibody in the context of vaccination in pregnancy, focussing on the recent literature and areas of debate, particularly about the timing of vaccination. RECENT FINDINGS: There is a debate about the timing of pertussis vaccination in pregnancy with some studies reporting that vaccination in the third trimester results in higher pertussis antigen-specific IgG concentrations in cord blood and others finding that the concentration is higher following vaccination in the second trimester...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338486/congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection-management-update
#16
Asma Khalil, Chrissie Jones, Yves Ville
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Until recently, management options in congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection have been either conservative or termination of pregnancy. However, medical therapies aimed at reducing the risk of infection and/or its severity have recently been investigated. RECENT FINDINGS: In a phase 2 open label, nonrandomized trial, valaciclovir (ValACV) was given to women carrying a CMV-infected fetus. ValACV was associated with a greater proportion of asymptomatic neonates when compared with a historical cohort (82 vs...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319472/infective-endocarditis-in-children-an-update
#17
Garth Dixon, Georgi Christov
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Infective endocarditis in children remains a clinical challenge. Here, we review the impact of the updated 2015 American Heart Association and European Society of Cardiology guidelines on management as well as the significance of the new predisposing factors, diagnostic and treatment options, and the impact of the 2007-2008 change in prophylaxis recommendations. RECENT FINDINGS: The new 2015 infective endocarditis guidelines introduced the endocarditis team, added the new imaging modalities of computer tomography and PET-computer tomography into the diagnostic criteria and endorsed the concept of safety of relatively early surgical treatment...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306563/antimicrobial-resistant-gram-negative-infections-in-neonates-burden-of-disease-and-challenges-in-treatment
#18
Laura Folgori, Julia Bielicki, Paul T Heath, Mike Sharland
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the main challenges of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the neonatal population with a special focus on multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative pathogens. RECENT FINDINGS: MDR-Gram-negative bacteria are a great concern in the neonatal population, with a worldwide rise in the reported incidence and with very limited therapeutic options. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have been reported as responsible for neonatal ICU outbreaks...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306562/chlamydia-trachomatis-and-chlamydia-like-bacteria-new-enemies-of-human-pregnancies
#19
Anne Ammerdorffer, Miloš Stojanov, Gilbert Greub, David Baud
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an update on the roles of Chlamydia trachomatis and the related Waddlia chondrophila and Parachlamydia acanthamoebae in miscarriage, stillbirths and preterm labour in humans. A broad audience, including microbiologist, infectiologists, obstetricians and gynaecologists, should be aware of the potential threat of these Chlamydiales for human reproduction. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite increasing laboratory techniques and possibilities to perform diagnostic tests, the cause of miscarriage is only identified in 50% of the cases...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212143/staphylococcus-aureus-infections-some-second-thoughts
#20
Willem J B van Wamel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is well known for its ability to cause life-threatening infections. On the other hand, this bacterium can thrive as a commensal on and in human tissues without causing much problems. How big a threat is S. aureus actually? Furthermore, commensalism is associated with biofilms, where can we find them, and which natural and artificial components activate biofilm formation? RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings on S. aureus carriage on skin, mucosa, and in wounds indicate the presence of large numbers of S...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
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