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Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095720/hiv-outcomes-among-migrants-from-low-income-and-middle-income-countries-living-in-high-income-countries-a-review-of-recent-evidence
#1
Jonathan Ross, Chinazo O Cunningham, David B Hanna
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Migrants living in high-income countries are disproportionately affected by HIV infection and frequently have characteristics associated with poor HIV clinical outcomes. HIV epidemiology among migrants is influenced by changes in migration patterns and variations in transmission risk behaviors. Here we review the recently published literature on known HIV outcomes among migrants from low-income and middle-income countries living in high-income countries. RECENT FINDINGS: High proportions of migrants acquire HIV after migration, and this group frequently presents to care late...
November 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095719/novel-and-preclinical-treatment-strategies-in-pneumococcal-meningitis
#2
Jan P Bewersdorf, Denis Grandgirard, Uwe Koedel, Stephen L Leib
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pneumococcal meningitis is the most frequent form of bacterial meningitis in Europe and the United States. Although early antimicrobial and adjuvant therapy with dexamethasone have helped to improve disease outcome in adults, mortality and morbidity rates remain unsatisfactorily high, emphasizing the need for additional treatment options. Promising targets for adjuvant therapy have been identified recently and will be the focus of this review. RECENT FINDINGS: Brain disease in pneumococcal meningitis is caused by direct bacterial toxicity and excessive meningeal inflammation...
November 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984642/viral-infections-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-novel-updates-and-a-review-of-the-classics
#3
Ghady Haidar, Nina Singh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize new discoveries in viral pathogenesis and novel therapeutic and prophylactic strategies in organ transplant recipients. RECENT FINDINGS: For decades, prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus (CMV) has been the standard preventive strategy, but new clinical trials are expected to determine the advantages of preemptive therapy over prophylaxis. Novel anti-CMV agents, such as maribavir and letermovir, are being studied for the treatment of resistant/refractory CMV as alternatives to foscarnet and cidofovir...
October 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984641/prospects-for-adoptive-t-cell-therapy-for-invasive-fungal-disease
#4
Gloria Castellano-Gonzalez, Leighton E Clancy, David Gottlieb
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Invasive fungal disease (IFD) is a cause of morbidity and mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. As more potent broad-spectrum antifungal agents are used in prophylaxis, drug resistance and less common fungal species have increased in frequency. Here we review current treatments available for IFD and examine the potential for adoptive T-cell treatment to enhance current therapeutic choices in IFD. RECENT FINDINGS: There is growing evidence supporting the role of T cells as well as phagocytes in antifungal immunity...
October 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938246/the-evolving-landscape-of-new-diagnostic-tests-for-invasive-aspergillosis-in-hematology-patients-strengths-and-weaknesses
#5
Dieter Buchheidt, Mark Reinwald, Martin Hoenigl, Wolf-Karsten Hofmann, Birgit Spiess, Tobias Boch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in hematologic patients is a complex composite of clinical preconditions and features, imaging findings, biomarker combinations from appropriate clinical samples and microbiological and/or histological findings. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent developments in the evolving landscape of diagnostic tests for invasive aspergillosis in adult hematology patients are highlighted. SUMMARY: Novel approaches and tools are currently under development...
September 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922286/nocardia-infections-in-solid-organ-and-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#6
Julien Coussement, David Lebeaux, Claire Rouzaud, Olivier Lortholary
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nocardia spp. is a gram-positive bacteria that may cause infections in humans. Nocardiosis has been described since the early years of transplantation. This review aims to provide an overview of present knowledge regarding posttransplant nocardiosis, with a focus on recent findings. RECENT FINDINGS: Nocardiosis is not rare among transplant recipients, especially after thoracic transplantation and/or in case of intense immunosuppressive regimen or use of tacrolimus...
September 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922285/what-where-and-why-exploring-fluorodeoxyglucose-pet-s-ability-to-localise-and-differentiate-infection-from-cancer
#7
Abby Douglas, Eddie Lau, Karin Thursky, Monica Slavin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the utility of FDG-PET imaging in detecting the cause of fever and infection in patients with cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: FDG-PET has been shown to have high sensitivity and accuracy for causes of neutropenic fever, leading to higher diagnostic certainty in this group. Recent advances in pathogen-specific labelling in PET to identify Aspergillus spp. and Yersinia spp. infections in mice, as well as differentiating between Gram-positive, Gram-negative and mycobacterial infections are promising...
September 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914640/machine-learning-novel-bioinformatics-approaches-for-combating-antimicrobial-resistance
#8
Nenad Macesic, Fernanda Polubriaginof, Nicholas P Tatonetti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a threat to global health and new approaches to combating AMR are needed. Use of machine learning in addressing AMR is in its infancy but has made promising steps. We reviewed the current literature on the use of machine learning for studying bacterial AMR. RECENT FINDINGS: The advent of large-scale data sets provided by next-generation sequencing and electronic health records make applying machine learning to the study and treatment of AMR possible...
September 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095723/antiviral-treatment-of-severe-non-influenza-respiratory-virus-infection
#9
Nathan J Brendish, Tristan W Clark
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Non-influenza respiratory virus infections are a frequent cause of severe acute respiratory infections, especially in infants, the elderly, and the immunocompromised. We review here the current treatment options for non-influenza respiratory viruses and promising candidate antiviral agents currently in development. RECENT FINDINGS: Small molecule antiviral agents active against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), such as ALS-8176 and GS-5806, show considerable promise in challenge studies and are undergoing late-phase clinical trials in hospitalised adults and children...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095722/pcr-based-tests-for-the-early-diagnosis-of-sepsis-where-do-we-stand
#10
Andrew N Ginn, Catriona L Halliday, Abby P Douglas, Sharon C-A Chen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bloodstream infections are a major cause of hospital and ICU admission with high morbidity and mortality; however, early and targeted antimicrobial therapy reduces mortality in high-risk patients. This article focuses on the diagnosis of bloodstream infections by PCR-based approaches at an early stage to enable prompt treatment and prevent organ dysfunction. RECENT FINDINGS: PCR systems offering highly multiplexed targeting of bacterial and/or fungal pathogens (in whole blood) offer the best opportunity for clinical impact, as informed decisions can be made within 4-8 h of the blood draw...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095200/emerging-multidrug-resistant-candida-species
#11
Arnaldo L Colombo, João N de Almeida Júnior, Jesus Guinea
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the epidemiology, strategies for early detection, and clinical management of infections caused by the most commonly found multidrug-resistant (MDR) Candida spp. RECENT FINDINGS: Increasing numbers of reports describing invasive infections by MDR Candida auris and Candida glabrata has been reported in medical centers worldwide. SUMMARY: We checked all papers published along the last 10 years describing epidemiological, diagnostic, and clinical aspects of infections by MDR Candida spp...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873080/multiplex-molecular-diagnostic-tests-and-the-management-of-diarrhea-the-wave-of-the-future
#12
A Clinton White, Gagandeep Kang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737550/intestinal-cestodes
#13
Camille Webb, Miguel M Cabada
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cestodes infections in humans are among the most prevalent parasitosis worldwide. Although tapeworm infection is often asymptomatic, they can be associated with a range of symptoms. The landscape of cestode infections is changing with rapid diagnosis techniques and advanced molecular diagnosis aiding in identification of species specific epidemiology. RECENT FINDINGS: Traditional descriptions of species by location have been challenged with molecular diagnostic techniques, which show variation in distribution of species, thought to be because of globalization and importation of disease...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731899/current-perspectives-on-invasive-nontyphoidal-salmonella-disease
#14
Andrea H Haselbeck, Ursula Panzner, Justin Im, Stephen Baker, Christian G Meyer, Florian Marks
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We searched PubMed for scientific literature published in the past 2 years for relevant information regarding the burden of invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella disease and host factors associated with nontyphoidal Salmonella infection and discuss current knowledge on vaccine development. The following search terms were used: Salmonella, non typhoidal/nontyphoidal, NTS, disease, bloodstream infection, invasive, sepsis/septicaemia/septicemia, bacteraemia/bacteremia, gastroenteritis, incidence, prevalence, morbidity, mortality, case fatality, host/risk factor, vaccination, and prevention/control...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731898/steady-progress-toward-a-malaria-vaccine
#15
Kirsten E Lyke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Great progress has been made in reducing malaria morbidity and mortality, yet the parasite continues to cause a startling 200 million infections and 500 000 deaths annually. Malaria vaccine development is pushing new boundaries by steady advancement toward a licensed product. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite 50 years of research, the complexity of Plasmoidum falciparum confounds all attempts to eradicate the organism. This very complexity has pushed the boundaries of vaccine development to new heights, yet it remains to be seen if an affordable vaccine can provide durable and high-level protection...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704226/antibiotic-resistance-in-helicobacter-pylori
#16
Claudio Alba, Ana Blanco, Teresa Alarcón
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Treatment of Helicobacter pylori is difficult nowadays because of its high resistance. The prevalence and mechanism of resistance, the different methods to detect it and the clinical implication of resistance were addressed in several research papers last year. RECENT FINDINGS: Clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori has been recognized by the WHO as 'high priority', for which new antibiotics are needed. Moreover, the Maastricht consensus recommended, in areas with high resistance, that susceptibility tests should be performed, at least after a treatment failure...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777109/influenza-immunization-of-pregnant-women-in-resource-constrained-countries-an-update-for-funding-and-implementation-decisions
#17
Justin R Ortiz, Kathleen M Neuzil
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In 2018, Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, is expected to review the strategy of maternal influenza immunization for potential investment in low-income countries. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical trial data confirm the efficacy of maternal influenza immunization to prevent influenza disease in both mothers and their infants during the first months of life. Trial and observational data indicate no significant adverse events in mothers or newborns. High-quality disease burden data, particularly for seasonal influenza in low-income and middle-income countries, are limited...
August 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700363/prospects-for-elimination-of-soil-transmitted-helminths
#18
Kristjana H Ásbjörnsdóttir, Arianna R Means, Marleen Werkman, Judd L Walson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) are endemic in 120 countries and are associated with substantial morbidity and loss of economic productivity. Although current WHO guidelines focus on morbidity control through mass drug administration (MDA), there is global interest in whether a strategy targeting disease elimination might be feasible in some settings. This review summarizes the prospects for switching from control to an elimination strategy. RECENT FINDINGS: STH control efforts have reduced the intensity of infections in targeted populations with associated reductions in morbidity...
August 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661411/healthcare-associated-infections-in-the-elderly-what-s-new-erratum
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661410/approach-to-adenovirus-infections-in-the-setting-of-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#20
Yeon Joo Lee, Susan E Prockop, Genovefa A Papanicolaou
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review risk-based pre-emptive treatment for adenovirus (ADV) based on quantitative PCR (qPCR) and to provide an update on clinical trials of brincidofovir (BCV) and ADV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (ADV-CTLs). RECENT FINDINGS: ADV qPCR in various body compartments enables distinction of clinically significant infection and assessment of treatment responses. Plasma ADV qPCR monitoring and aggressive pre-emptive treatment is recommended for high-risk patients...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
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