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Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922286/nocardia-infections-in-solid-organ-and-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#1
Julien Coussement, David Lebeaux, Claire Rouzaud, Olivier Lortholary
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nocardia spp. is a gram-positive bacteria that may cause infections in humans. Nocardiosis has been described since the early years of transplantation. This review aims to provide an overview of present knowledge regarding posttransplant nocardiosis, with a focus on recent findings. RECENT FINDINGS: Nocardiosis is not rare among transplant recipients, especially after thoracic transplantation and/or in case of intense immunosuppressive regimen or use of tacrolimus...
September 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922285/what-where-and-why-exploring-fluorodeoxyglucose-pet-s-ability-to-localise-and-differentiate-infection-from-cancer
#2
Abby Douglas, Eddie Lau, Karin Thursky, Monica Slavin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the utility of FDG-PET imaging in detecting the cause of fever and infection in patients with cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: FDG-PET has been shown to have high sensitivity and accuracy for causes of neutropenic fever, leading to higher diagnostic certainty in this group. Recent advances in pathogen-specific labelling in PET to identify Aspergillus spp. and Yersinia spp. infections in mice, as well as differentiating between Gram-positive, Gram-negative and mycobacterial infections are promising...
September 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914640/machine-learning-novel-bioinformatics-approaches-for-combating-antimicrobial-resistance
#3
Nenad Macesic, Fernanda Polubriaginof, Nicholas P Tatonetti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a threat to global health and new approaches to combating AMR are needed. Use of machine learning in addressing AMR is in its infancy but has made promising steps. We reviewed the current literature on the use of machine learning for studying bacterial AMR. RECENT FINDINGS: The advent of large-scale data sets provided by next-generation sequencing and electronic health records make applying machine learning to the study and treatment of AMR possible...
September 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777109/influenza-immunization-of-pregnant-women-in-resource-constrained-countries-an-update-for-funding-and-implementation-decisions
#4
Justin R Ortiz, Kathleen M Neuzil
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In 2018, Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, is expected to review the strategy of maternal influenza immunization for potential investment in low-income countries. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical trial data confirm the efficacy of maternal influenza immunization to prevent influenza disease in both mothers and their infants during the first months of life. Trial and observational data indicate no significant adverse events in mothers or newborns. High-quality disease burden data, particularly for seasonal influenza in low-income and middle-income countries, are limited...
August 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731899/current-perspectives-on-invasive-nontyphoidal-salmonella-disease
#5
Andrea H Haselbeck, Ursula Panzner, Justin Im, Stephen Baker, Christian G Meyer, Florian Marks
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We searched PubMed for scientific literature published in the past 2 years for relevant information regarding the burden of invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella disease and host factors associated with nontyphoidal Salmonella infection and discuss current knowledge on vaccine development. The following search terms were used: Salmonella, non typhoidal/nontyphoidal, NTS, disease, bloodstream infection, invasive, sepsis/septicaemia/septicemia, bacteraemia/bacteremia, gastroenteritis, incidence, prevalence, morbidity, mortality, case fatality, host/risk factor, vaccination, and prevention/control...
August 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700363/prospects-for-elimination-of-soil-transmitted-helminths
#6
Kristjana H Ásbjörnsdóttir, Arianna R Means, Marleen Werkman, Judd L Walson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) are endemic in 120 countries and are associated with substantial morbidity and loss of economic productivity. Although current WHO guidelines focus on morbidity control through mass drug administration (MDA), there is global interest in whether a strategy targeting disease elimination might be feasible in some settings. This review summarizes the prospects for switching from control to an elimination strategy. RECENT FINDINGS: STH control efforts have reduced the intensity of infections in targeted populations with associated reductions in morbidity...
August 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737550/intestinal-cestodes
#7
Camille Webb, Miguel M Cabada
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cestodes infections in humans are among the most prevalent parasitosis worldwide. Although tapeworm infection is often asymptomatic, they can be associated with a range of symptoms. The landscape of cestode infections is changing with rapid diagnosis techniques and advanced molecular diagnosis aiding in identification of species specific epidemiology. RECENT FINDINGS: Traditional descriptions of species by location have been challenged with molecular diagnostic techniques, which show variation in distribution of species, thought to be because of globalization and importation of disease...
July 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731898/steady-progress-toward-a-malaria-vaccine
#8
Kirsten E Lyke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Great progress has been made in reducing malaria morbidity and mortality, yet the parasite continues to cause a startling 200 million infections and 500 000 deaths annually. Malaria vaccine development is pushing new boundaries by steady advancement toward a licensed product. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite 50 years of research, the complexity of Plasmoidum falciparum confounds all attempts to eradicate the organism. This very complexity has pushed the boundaries of vaccine development to new heights, yet it remains to be seen if an affordable vaccine can provide durable and high-level protection...
July 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719399/impact-of-rotavirus-vaccines-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#9
Kulandaipalayam Natarajan Chella Sindhu, Sudhir Babji, Santhosh Kumar Ganesan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Rotavirus vaccines are playing a pivotal role in improving lives of infants and young children in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Many of these countries have adopted the vaccine into their routine immunization, whereas others are considering introduction. This article provides an update on the impact of rotavirus vaccines in LMICs on morbidity and mortality in children aged less than 5 years, and their cost-effectiveness. RECENT FINDINGS: The WHO, in 2013, updated its recommendation to prioritize introduction of rotavirus vaccines in the routine immunization schedule, without age restrictions...
July 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719400/dengue-vaccines-implications-for-dengue-control
#10
Matthew L Robinson, Anna P Durbin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dengue, the most common arbovirus, is an increasingly significant cause of morbidity worldwide. After decades of research, an approved tetravalent dengue vaccine is finally available. Models constructed using recently available vaccine efficacy data allow for a data-driven discussion of the potential impact of dengue vaccine deployment on global control. RECENT FINDINGS: Phase 3 efficacy trials demonstrated that the approved dengue vaccine, chimeric yellow fever-dengue-tetravalent dengue vaccine, has an efficacy of 60% against dengue illness of any severity...
July 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704226/antibiotic-resistance-in-helicobacter-pylori
#11
Claudio Alba, Ana Blanco, Teresa Alarcón
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Treatment of Helicobacter pylori is difficult nowadays because of its high resistance. The prevalence and mechanism of resistance, the different methods to detect it and the clinical implication of resistance were addressed in several research papers last year. RECENT FINDINGS: Clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori has been recognized by the WHO as 'high priority', for which new antibiotics are needed. Moreover, the Maastricht consensus recommended, in areas with high resistance, that susceptibility tests should be performed, at least after a treatment failure...
July 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873080/multiplex-molecular-diagnostic-tests-and-the-management-of-diarrhea-the-wave-of-the-future
#12
A Clinton White, Gagandeep Kang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872543/editorial-introductions
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661411/healthcare-associated-infections-in-the-elderly-what-s-new-erratum
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661410/approach-to-adenovirus-infections-in-the-setting-of-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#15
Yeon Joo Lee, Susan E Prockop, Genovefa A Papanicolaou
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review risk-based pre-emptive treatment for adenovirus (ADV) based on quantitative PCR (qPCR) and to provide an update on clinical trials of brincidofovir (BCV) and ADV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (ADV-CTLs). RECENT FINDINGS: ADV qPCR in various body compartments enables distinction of clinically significant infection and assessment of treatment responses. Plasma ADV qPCR monitoring and aggressive pre-emptive treatment is recommended for high-risk patients...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632511/zika-virus-a-cause-of-concern-in-transplantation
#16
Marilyn E Levi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Worldwide, the number of countries reporting Zika virus (ZKV) infection continues to increase. Although 80% of cases are asymptomatic, ZKV has been identified as a neurotropic virus associated with congenital microcephaly, Guillain-Barre' syndrome, and meningoencephalitis. Until recently, infection in transplant recipients has not been identified. This study will review the existing literature on ZKV infection, laboratory testing, and management in transplant recipients...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582313/outbreaks-in-the-neonatal-icu-a-review-of-the-literature
#17
Julia Johnson, Caroline Quach
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neonates in the neonatal ICU (NICU) are uniquely vulnerable to colonization and infection with pathogens such as multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria, which in turn are associated with increased infection-related morbidities and higher case-fatality rates. We reviewed the English, French, and German language literature published between 2015 and 2017, for reports of NICU outbreaks. RECENT FINDINGS: A total of 39 outbreaks in NICUs were reported with Gram-negative bacteria (n = 21; 54%) causing most, and extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing organisms being the most frequent resistance mechanism reported (n = 5)...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562486/diagnostics-and-laboratory-role-in-outbreaks
#18
Francesca Lee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review describes the investigative benefits of traditional and novel molecular epidemiology techniques, while acknowledging the limitations faced by clinical laboratories seeking to implement these methods. RECENT FINDINGS: Pulse-field gel electrophoresis and other traditional techniques remain powerful tools in outbreak investigations and continue to be used by multiple groups. Newer techniques such as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass-spectrometry and whole genome sequencing show great promise...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548990/outbreaks-of-nontuberculous-mycobacteria
#19
Geeta Sood, Nikki Parrish
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the emerging literature on nontuberculous mycobacteria outbreaks in healthcare settings. As our ability to identify mycobacterial species develops, we are better able to recognize epidemiologic connections and better understand the prevalence and importance of these outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks in healthcare settings. RECENT FINDINGS: The number of outbreaks related to nontuberculous outbreaks is increasing because of heightened awareness and better diagnostic tests for species level identification of mycobacteria...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542093/feasibility-and-applicability-of-antimicrobial-stewardship-in-immunocompromised-patients
#20
Elizabeth Robilotti, Marisa Holubar, Susan K Seo, Stan Deresinski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Antimicrobial stewardship is the primary intervention in the battle against antimicrobial resistance, but clinicians do not always apply many key antimicrobial stewardship principles to patients with significant immune defects due to lack of data and fear of bad outcomes. We review evidence regarding the application of stewardship principles to immunocompromised patients, with a focus on solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. RECENT FINDINGS: Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs), targeting immunocompromised patient populations such as oncology and transplant, are gaining traction...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
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