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Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351107/update-on-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections
#1
Matteo Bassetti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346119/the-role-of-tedizolid-in-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections
#2
Emilio Bouza, Patricia Muñoz, Almudena Burillo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tedizolid is a second-generation oxazolidinone with activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including MRSA isolates resistant to linezolid. Pivotal clinical trials showed that tedizolid at 200 mg once-daily for 6 days is not inferior to linezolid 600 mg twice daily for 10 days in patients with SSTI. The comparison of adverse events is favorable to tedizolid under the circumstances of the clinical trials. This is a review of recent literature on tedizolid, its use in special populations and potential adverse effects...
January 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346118/mycobacterium-avium-complex-pulmonary-disease-new-epidemiology-and-management-concepts
#3
Leah Lande, Jason George, Theodore Plush
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)-related pulmonary disease has been increasing because of environmental factors, changes in organism virulence, and evolving host susceptibility. Treatment is often complicated by adverse effects, development of drug resistance, and refractory disease, with recurrence rates as high as 25-45%. RECENT FINDINGS: Aerosolization of water, soil, or dusts are the likely sources of MAC-related pulmonary disease in susceptible individuals...
January 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337703/new-antibiotics-for-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#4
Matteo Bassetti, Antionio Vena, Nadia Castaldo, Elda Righi, Maddalena Peghin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria represents a global emerging problem. Delayed prescription of an adequate treatment for VAP has been associated with higher morbidity and mortality. New molecules have been developed to face the need of compounds that are active against resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. The aim of this review is to summarize the current scenario of new therapeutic options for the treatment of VAP...
January 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337704/the-what-when-and-how-in-performing-and-interpreting-microbiological-diagnostic-tests-in-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections
#5
Carolina Navarro-San Francisco, Patricia Ruiz-Garbajosa, Rafael Cantón
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize and classify the most recent and relevant microbiological studies for each type of skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). RECENT FINDINGS: Following Infectious Diseases Society of America and Food and Drug Administration classifications of SSTIs, we differentiate between two large groups, the superficial or uncomplicated infections and the complicated infections with deep involvement. It is not usually necessary to obtain microbiological samples in uncomplicated infections, except in cases of recurrences or for epidemiological control purposes...
January 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324505/when-to-switch-to-an-oral-treatment-and-or-to-discharge-a-patient-with-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections
#6
Matteo Bassetti, Christian Eckmann, Maddalena Peghin, Alessia Carnelutti, Elda Righi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Skin and soft tissue infections prevalence is increasing and represent a frequent cause of hospital admission. New guidelines have become available in order to better define these infections and their response to antimicrobial treatment. Gram-positive bacteria, in particular Staphylococcus aureus, remain the most frequently isolated pathogens in skin and soft tissue infections. To treat complicated forms and infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria, hospital admission and administration of intravenous antibiotics are often required, impacting on healthcare costs and patients' morbidity...
January 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324504/aspergillus-and-other-respiratory-fungal-infections-in-the-icu-diagnosis-and-management
#7
José-Artur Paiva, Paulo Mergulhão, José Manuel Pereira
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Filamentous fungi respiratory infections, namely because of Aspergillus, Mucorales, Fusarium, or Scedosporium, show rising incidence and occur more in populations which are not classically immunosuppressed. This and their persistent dismal prognosis are the focus of this review. RECENT FINDINGS: Both an early diagnosis, rooted on a high level of suspicion and based on clinical picture, radiology, cultural microbiological exams, fungal biomarkers, PCR and biopsy, and an early therapy, including immunorecovery, whenever possible, good antifungal selection, and surgery for source control, are paramount to maximize the outcome in these diseases...
January 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298166/the-role-of-dalbavancin-in-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections
#8
Matteo Bassetti, Maddalena Peghin, Alessia Carnelutti, Elda Righi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The increase of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) represents a major concern both in community and in the hospital setting. Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequently isolated pathogen, and the rise in infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been associated with inadequate antibiotic treatment and increased morbidity. RECENT FINDINGS: A number of new antimicrobials with activity against drug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens, including MRSA, have been recently approved for the treatment of SSTIs...
January 2, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283952/is-there-still-a-role-for-vancomycin-in-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections
#9
Alessia Savoldi, Anna M Azzini, David Baur, Evelina Tacconelli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Skin and soft-tissue infections (SSIs) are among the commonest infections encountered in clinical practice. Spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus SSIs continues to increase in both health care and community settings and presents a challenge for the best treatment choice. Vancomycin has been the mainstay of SSIs treatment, but recently its use has been questioned because of concerns about its efficacy, tolerability, and unfavorable pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile...
December 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278528/treatment-of-severe-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-a-review
#10
Jason P Burnham, Marin H Kollef
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the salient features of the management of severe skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), including toxic shock syndrome, myonecrosis/gas gangrene, and necrotizing fasciitis. RECENT FINDINGS: For severe SSTIs, intensive care, source control, and broad-spectrum antimicrobials are required for the initial phase of illness. There is an increasing focus on the utility of rapid diagnostic tests to help in selection and de-escalation of antimicrobials for SSTIs...
December 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251673/recent-epidemiology-of-sexually-transmissible-enteric-infections-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#11
Holly Mitchell, Gwenda Hughes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sexual transmission of enteric pathogens in men who have sex with men (MSM) has been described since the 1970s. Recently, an increasing number of enteric infection outbreaks have been reported in MSM. This article summarizes recent outbreaks and discusses the key issues for prevention and control. RECENT FINDINGS: Sexually transmissible enteric infections (STEIs) can spread rapidly and internationally within highly connected MSM populations and are often associated with antimicrobial resistance (AMR)...
December 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251672/the-role-of-omadacycline-in-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections
#12
Philippe Montravers, Alexy Tran Dinh, Sebastien Tanaka
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are among the most frequent infections, contributing to significant morbidity and healthcare costs. Although numerous antibiotics are available for this indication, several medical needs remain unmet, especially for treating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or mixed infections. This review summarizes the results achieved in the development of omadacycline, a new aminomethylcycline, which could have useful properties for the treatment of SSTIs...
December 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232277/scaling-up-hiv-self-testing-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-review-of-technology-policy-and-evidence
#13
Pitchaya P Indravudh, Augustine T Choko, Elizabeth L Corbett
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HIV self-testing (HIVST) can provide complementary coverage to existing HIV testing services and improve knowledge of status among HIV-infected individuals. This review summarizes the current technology, policy and evidence landscape in sub-Saharan Africa and priorities within a rapidly evolving field. RECENT FINDINGS: HIVST is moving towards scaled implementation, with the release of WHO guidelines, WHO prequalification of the first HIVST product, price reductions of HIVST products and a growing product pipeline...
December 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210712/optimizing-hiv-transition-services-for-young-adults
#14
Caroline Foster, Sarah Fidler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A total of 1.8 million adolescents live with HIV and constitute the only age group in which HIV-associated mortality continues to rise. Meeting their healthcare needs as they transition from paediatric services to adult care is vital for their own health and in prevention of onward transmission to partners and offspring. In this review, we discuss the issues around transition, both within HIV health care and the wider transitions adolescents negotiate as they move out of childhood and into adult life...
November 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176446/addressing-unhealthy-alcohol-use-among-people-living-with-hiv-recent-advances-and-research-directions
#15
E Jennifer Edelman, Emily C Williams, Brandon D L Marshall
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Unhealthy alcohol use is prevalent among people living with HIV (PLWH). We sought to identify the most current literature examining the impact of unhealthy alcohol on health outcomes and latest developments on how to best intervene. RECENT FINDINGS: New research shows that PLWH have heightened morbidity and mortality at lower levels of alcohol consumption compared with HIV-uninfected persons. Studies published since 2016 have further elucidated the effects of persistent unhealthy alcohol use on HIV treatment outcomes over time...
November 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176445/new-thinking-on-gonorrhoea-control-in-msm-are-antiseptic-mouthwashes-the-answer
#16
Christopher K Fairley, Lei Zhang, Eric P F Chow
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The rate of gonorrhoea is rising and is much higher in MSM than heterosexuals. The purpose of this review was to describe research supporting a new paradigm of transmission of gonorrhoea in MSM and interventions that may result from this. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence is accumulating that gonorrhoea in MSM is transmitted differently than previously thought and that asymptomatic sites of infection may play a major role in the persistent of gonorrhoea at a population level...
November 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176348/zika-virus-as-a-sexually-transmitted-pathogen
#17
Paul S Mead, Susan L Hills, John T Brooks
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Zika virus has recently emerged from an obscure mosquito-borne pathogen to an international public health concern. It is the first viral agent newly demonstrated to cause birth defects in several decades, and it is the only arbovirus now known to be transmitted sexually. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current understanding of sexual transmission of Zika virus and its possible clinical and public health consequences. RECENT FINDINGS: Sexual transmission of Zika virus has been reported from at least 13 countries without simultaneous mosquito-borne transmission; it is undoubtedly also occurring in countries with active arthropod transmission...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095720/hiv-outcomes-among-migrants-from-low-income-and-middle-income-countries-living-in-high-income-countries-a-review-of-recent-evidence
#18
Jonathan Ross, Chinazo O Cunningham, David B Hanna
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Migrants living in high-income countries are disproportionately affected by HIV infection and frequently have characteristics associated with poor HIV clinical outcomes. HIV epidemiology among migrants is influenced by changes in migration patterns and variations in transmission risk behaviors. Here we review the recently published literature on known HIV outcomes among migrants from low-income and middle-income countries living in high-income countries. RECENT FINDINGS: High proportions of migrants acquire HIV after migration, and this group frequently presents to care late...
November 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29293476/rabies-changing-prophylaxis-and-new-insights-in-pathophysiology
#19
Gabriella Ugolini, Thiravat Hemachudha
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite great progress in decoding disease mechanisms, rabies remains one of the leading causes of human death worldwide. Towards the elimination of human rabies deaths by 2030, feasible and affordable post (PEP) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) must be available with expansion to rural areas in rabies endemic countries. Vaccination and population control of dogs, principal reservoirs and transmitters, must be done in concert. RECENT FINDING: Advances in the understanding of rabies neuropathogenesis and pathophysiology are reviewed, including recent experimental findings on host- and virus-specific mechanisms mediating neuronal survival and explaining clinical differences in furious and paralytic rabies...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29293475/pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-antibiotics-in-central-nervous-system-infections
#20
Roland Nau, Jana Seele, Marija Djukic, Helmut Eiffert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The barriers surrounding the central nervous system (CNS) together with the emergence of multiresistant pathogens pose a therapeutic challenge for the effective treatment of CNS infections. RECENT FINDINGS: In addition to vancomycin, colistin and aminoglycosides, classically used for intrathecal injection, drug concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid after intrathecal injection of daptomycin and tigecyclin were recently studied. SUMMARY: The entry of antiinfectives into the CNS compartments is determined by the physicochemical properties of the drug and by conditions in the host...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
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