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Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212143/staphylococcus-aureus-infections-some-second-thoughts
#1
Willem J B van Wamel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is well known for its ability to cause life-threatening infections. On the other hand, this bacterium can thrive as a commensal on and in human tissues without causing much problems. How big a threat is S. aureus actually? Furthermore, commensalism is associated with biofilms, where can we find them, and which natural and artificial components activate biofilm formation? RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings on S. aureus carriage on skin, mucosa, and in wounds indicate the presence of large numbers of S...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177961/new-concepts-in-understanding-latent-tuberculosis
#2
Claire E Dodd, Larry S Schlesinger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), the etiologic agent of tuberculosis, is a prominent global health threat because of the enormous reservoir of subclinical latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Current diagnostic approaches are limited in their ability to predict reactivation risk and LTBI is recalcitrant to antibiotic treatment. The present review summarizes recent advances in our ability to detect, treat and model LTBI as well as our understanding of bacterial physiology during latency...
February 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177960/innate-immune-response-to-burkholderia-mallei
#3
Kamal U Saikh, Tiffany M Mott
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Burkholderia mallei is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes the highly contagious and often the fatal disease, glanders. With its high rate of infectivity via aerosol and recalcitrance toward antibiotics, this pathogen is considered a potential biological threat agent. This review focuses on the most recent literature highlighting host innate immune response to B. mallei. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies focused on elucidating host innate immune responses to the novel mechanisms and virulence factors employed by B...
February 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157786/campylobacter-jejuni-and-associated-immune-mechanisms-short-term-effects-and-long-term-implications-for-infants-in-low-income-countries
#4
Amanda E Schnee, William A Petri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Campylobacter jejuni is recognized as one of the most common causes of food-borne gastrointestinal illness worldwide, resulting in a self-limiting dysentery in developed countries. However, it is increasingly gaining attention due to its association with postinfectious complications such as Guillain-Barré Syndrome and recently recognized importance in early childhood diarrhea in developing countries. We hypothesize that the inflammation mediated by C. jejuni infection causes environmental enteric dysfunction, and with contribution from diet and the host, microbiome may be responsible for growth faltering in children and developmental disability...
February 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134679/pathogenic-mechanisms-of-intracellular-bacteria
#5
Hans Helmut Niller, Roland Masa, Annamária Venkei, Sándor Mészáros, Janos Minarovits
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We wished to overview recent data on a subset of epigenetic changes elicited by intracellular bacteria in human cells. Reprogramming the gene expression pattern of various host cells may facilitate bacterial growth, survival, and spread. RECENT FINDINGS: DNA-(cytosine C5)-methyltransferases of Mycoplasma hyorhinis targeting cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) dinucleotides and a Mycobacterium tuberculosis methyltransferase targeting non-CpG sites methylated the host cell DNA and altered the pattern of gene expression...
January 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118221/prevention-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#6
Gianluigi Li Bassi, Tarek Senussi, Eli Aguilera Xiol
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is an iatrogenic disease. Here we appraise recent advancements in the development and testing of strategies to prevent VAP. We also provide recommendations on the most promising interventions that should be applied. RECENT FINDINGS: In the last year, preventive bundles have consistently let to a reduction of VAP. A few trials on endotracheal tubes (ETTs) with novel cuffs failed to translate positive bench findings into clinical settings...
January 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118219/viral-meningitis-current-issues-in-diagnosis-and-treatment
#7
Fiona McGill, Michael J Griffiths, Tom Solomon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to give an overview of viral meningitis and then focus in on some of the areas of uncertainty in diagnostics, treatment and outcome. RECENT FINDINGS: Bacterial meningitis has been declining in incidence over recent years. Over a similar time period molecular diagnostics have increasingly been used. Because of both of these developments viral meningitis is becoming relatively more important. However, there are still many unanswered questions...
January 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118218/obesity-and-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-how-to-optimize-antimicrobial-usage-for-prevention-and-treatment
#8
Mordechai Grupper, David P Nicolau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are prevalent in the obese population, with rising trend expected. Although numerous antibiotics are available for the prevention and treatment of SSTIs, their characterization in obese patients is not a regulatory mandate. Consequently, information that carries importance for optimizing the dosing regimen in the obese population may not be readily available. This review focuses on the most recent pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data on this topic with attention to cefazolin for surgical prophylaxis as well as antibiotics that are active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)...
January 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079630/18f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-and-infectious-diseases-current-applications-and-future-perspectives
#9
Matteo Bassetti, Alessia Carnelutti, Daniele Muser, Elda Righi, Nicola Petrosillo, Fernando Di Gregorio, Thomas J Werner, Abass Alavi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography is a well-established technique for diagnosis and management of a number of neoplastic conditions. However, in recent years the body of literature regarding its potential role in infectious diseases has progressively increased, with promising results. RECENT FINDINGS: So far 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography has a well-established role and is recommended by guidelines only in a few settings, such as prosthetic valve endocarditis, vascular device infections, and chronic osteomyelitis...
January 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079629/duration-of-pneumonia-therapy-and-the-role-of-biomarkers
#10
Katerina Kaziani, Adamantia Sotiriou, George Dimopoulos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increasing antimicrobial resistance is a worldwide phenomenon that is threatening public health. Lower respiratory infections are one of the leading causes of morbidity that contribute to antibiotic consumption and thus the emergence of multidrug-resistant microbial strains. The goal of shortening antibiotic regimens' duration in common bacterial infections has been prioritized by antimicrobial stewardship programs as an action against this problem. RECENT FINDINGS: Data coming from randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews support the shortening of antimicrobial regimens in community-acquired, hospital-acquired, and ventilator-associated pneumonia...
January 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067676/severe-community-acquired-pneumonia-optimal-management
#11
Davide Leoni, Jordi Rello
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the leading cause of mortality among infectious diseases. Several efforts have been implemented to achieve better outcomes, but an important proportion of patients continue dying. This review focuses on the newest research on prognostic factors and diagnostics, opening new perspectives in the management of CAP. RECENT FINDINGS: CAP survival improved in recent years despite an increasing incidence of severe presentations...
January 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030371/antibiotic-dosing-for-multidrug-resistant-pathogen-pneumonia
#12
Mohd H Abdul-Aziz, Jeffrey Lipman, Jason A Roberts
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nosocomial pneumonia caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens is increasing in the ICU, and these infections are negatively associated with patient outcomes. Optimization of antibiotic dosing has been suggested as a key intervention to improve clinical outcomes in patients with nosocomial pneumonia. This review describes the recent pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic data relevant to antibiotic dosing for nosocomial pneumonia caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens. RECENT FINDINGS: Optimal antibiotic treatment is challenging in critically ill patients with nosocomial pneumonia; most dosing guidelines do not consider the altered physiology and illness severity associated with severe lung infections...
December 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984245/bacterial-pneumonia-as-an-influenza-complication
#13
Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Frank van Someren Gréve, Marcus J Schultz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The pathogenesis and impact of coinfection, in particular bacterial coinfection, in influenza are incompletely understood. This review summarizes results from studies on bacterial coinfection in the recent pandemic influenza outbreak. RECENT FINDINGS: Systemic immune mechanisms play a key role in the development of coinfection based on the complexity of the interaction of the host and the viral and bacterial pathogens. Several studies were performed to determine the point prevalence of bacterial coinfection in influenza...
December 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225711/reactive-oxygen-therapy-a-novel-therapy-in-soft-tissue-infection
#14
Matthew Dryden
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The global burden of disease in skin and soft tissue lesions is enormous. Many chronic, poorly healing lesions get treated with antibiotics despite the lack of evidence for long-term antibiotics. There is a global antibiotic resistance crisis driven largely by inappropriate use of large volumes of antibiotics. One solution is to reduce the selection pressure on bacteria by reducing the volume of antibiotic use in medicine, agriculture and the environment. There are few novel antimicrobials...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225358/editorial-introductions
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134678/what-is-new-in-the-management-of-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-in-2016
#16
Garyphallia Poulakou, Efthymia Giannitsioti, Sotirios Tsiodras
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are the most frequent infectious cause of referrals to emergency departments and hospital admissions in developed world, contributing to significant morbidity and healthcare expenditures. We sought to review recent literature covering epidemiology and management of SSTIs. RECENT FINDINGS: Incidence trends of SSTIs were increasing worldwide with Staphylococcus aureus and streptococci predominating and methicillin-resistant S...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134677/are-there-any-reasons-to-change-our-behavior-in-necrotizing-fasciitis-with-the-advent-of-new-antibiotics
#17
Francesco Menichetti, Simone Giuliano, Simona Fortunato
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The treatment of necrotizing fasciitis requires a multifaceted approach, consisting of surgical source control with immediate surgical debridement along with life support, clinical monitoring, and antimicrobial therapy. Many drugs are now available for the treatment of this life-threatening infectious disease, and the purpose of this review is to provide the reader with an updated overview of the newest therapeutic options. RECENT FINDINGS: Because most necrotizing soft tissue infections are polymicrobial, broad-spectrum coverage is advisable...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118220/respiratory-pathogen-panels-in-the-hospital-good-or-unnecessary
#18
Kelly A Cawcutt, Paul D Fey, Andre C Kalil
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aim to review the epidemiology of respiratory viral infections and the strengths and limitations of multiplex respiratory pathogen panels that are currently available along with their respective features and differences. RECENT FINDINGS: We give particular emphasis to the pathogens included on each test and evaluate their performance in the hospital setting. SUMMARY: We conclude with a discussion on the evidence for the clinical utility of respiratory pathogen multiplex panels in hospitalized patients, including the potential for coinfection with viral and bacterial pathogens...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079631/the-role-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections
#19
Matteo Bassetti, Alessia Carnelutti, Elda Righi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a major public health issue worldwide over the last years. MRSA is frequently implicated in the development of skin and soft tissue infections, leading to significant increases in morbidity, mortality and overall healthcare costs. RECENT FINDINGS: In order to face the threat of MRSA, major changes in clinical management of skin and soft tissue infections are required. The identification of populations at risk for the acquisition of infections due to MRSA, together with the improvement of the diagnostic techniques, is paramount...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067677/the-microbiome-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients
#20
Yudong Yin, Peter Hountras, Richard G Wunderink
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Discovery of a normal lung microbiome requires reassessment of our concepts of HAP/VAP pathogenesis and has important implications for clinical diagnosis and management. RECENT FINDINGS: Changes in the microbiome of dental plaque are associated with increased risk of HAP/VAP. A transition to a lung microbiome enriched with gut flora is found in ARDS with an increased inflammatory response in patients with this change in microbial flora. A characteristic microbiome pattern of higher amounts of bacterial DNA, lower community diversity, and greater relative abundance of a single species characterize pneumonia and occasionally identify bacteria not found in culture...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
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