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Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771697/influenza-vaccine-strategies-for-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#1
Cédric Hirzel, Deepali Kumar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to highlight recent evidence on important aspects of influenza vaccination in solid organ transplant recipients. RECENT FINDINGS: Influenza vaccine is the most evaluated vaccine in transplant recipients. The immunogenicity of the vaccine is suboptimal after transplantation. Newer formulations such as inactivated unadjuvanted high-dose influenza vaccine and the administration of a booster dose within the same season have shown to increase response rates...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750672/infusion-of-cytotoxic-t-lymphocytes-for-the-treatment-of-viral-infections-in-hematopoetic-stem-cell-transplant-patients
#2
Katherine A Baugh, Ifigeneia Tzannou, Ann M Leen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has proven curative for a range of malignant and nonmalignant disorders. However, the clinical success of this therapy is marred by the morbidity associated with viral infections, which are frequent (cytomegalovirus 15.6-28%, adenovirus 3-21%, BK virus 18.5-20.7%) post-transplant. These infections occur as a consequence of transplant conditioning regimens designed to eliminate not only malignant cells but also host immune cells that might interfere with stem cell engraftment...
May 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746444/role-of-letermovir-for-prevention-of-cytomegalovirus-infection-after-allogeneic-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#3
Raymund R Razonable
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a common opportunistic infection after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). CMV surveillance-preemptive therapy is the current preferred approach for preventing CMV disease after HSCT. In contrast, antiviral prophylaxis is not commonly used due to myelosuppressive effects of valganciclovir. In this article, the role of the newly approved antiviral compound, letermovir, is reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Letermovir inhibits CMV by interfering viral terminase complex...
May 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738315/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-histoplasmosis-in-solid-organ-transplant-patients
#4
Kiran Gajurel, Reshika Dhakal, Stan Deresinski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Unlike immunocompetent hosts, solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients with posttransplant histoplasmosis (PTH) often present with disseminated disease and have an attributable mortality of approximately 10%. In this review, we discuss currently available diagnostic tests and treatment strategies in PTH. RECENT FINDINGS: None of the available tests have a 100% diagnostic accuracy. Histoplasma antigen assays are the most sensitive commercially available tests...
May 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738314/treatment-of-cryptococcosis-in-non-hiv-immunocompromised-patients
#5
Andrés F Henao-Martínez, Daniel B Chastain, Carlos Franco-Paredes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cryptococcosis has become a common opportunistic infection among non-HIV immunocompromised hosts. Recent reports have shown the incidence of Cryptococcosis among HIV-negative immunocompromised patients reaches close to half of the overall cases reported in the USA. Management of this infection in this population carries unique challenges. We aim to review relevant and recent research findings to develop treatment recommendations for this type of population. RECENT FINDINGS: Most of the recommendations for the management of non-HIV immunocompromised host are extrapolated from HIV studies...
May 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29634660/dolutegravir-resistance-mutations-lessons-from-monotherapy-studies
#6
José L Blanco, Anne-Geneviéve Marcelin, Christine Katlama, Esteban Martinez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dolutegravir (DTG) is a second-generation integrase strand transfer inhibitor (InSTI) with an outstanding antiviral potency, good tolerability, good pharmacokinetic profile with a lack of major drug-drug interactions, and a barrier to resistance higher than the other compounds of the class (raltegravir and elvitegravir) and allegedly as high as that of boosted protease inhibitors. For these reasons, DTG, after successful results in a context of triple therapy in various clinical scenarios, has been investigated mostly by independent investigators in less-drug regimens, including dolutegravir monotherapy, in the context of a growing clinical interest for adjusting successful antiretroviral therapy to the increasing number of limitations for standard antiretroviral therapy in some HIV-infected patients...
April 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601326/human-adenovirus-infections-update-and-consideration-of-mechanisms-of-viral-persistence
#7
Jay R Radke, James L Cook
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update on recent studies of human adenoviral (HAdV) infections and to explore the mechanisms of viral persistence and the role of persistent infection in disseminated disease in immunocompromised patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Human adenoviruses continue to be a problem in ophthalmology clinics and to cause periodic, limited, global outbreaks of respiratory disease. Ad14p1 remains in worldwide circulation and continues to result in miniepidemics of severe respiratory infections...
March 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601325/group-a-streptococcus-infections-in-children-from-virulence-to-clinical-management
#8
Anne Botteaux, Isolda Budnik, Pierre R Smeesters
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent findings have open new perspectives on group A Streptococcus (GAS) virulence understanding with special focus on the carrier stage and new hopes for an efficient vaccine against this important pathogen. RECENT FINDINGS: Understanding of carriage state, transmission and role of virulence factors in invasive infections have been recently active research fields questioning the link between carriage and infections and highlighting the potential to prevent invasive diseases...
March 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601324/neisseria-gonorrhoeae-vaccine-development-hope-on-the-horizon
#9
Jennifer L Edwards, Michael P Jennings, Kate L Seib
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neisseria gonorrhoeae is one of the most common causes of sexually transmitted infections, with an estimated more than 100 million cases of gonorrhea each year worldwide. N. gonorrhoeae has gained recent increasing attention because of the alarming rise in incidence and the widespread emergence of multidrug-resistant gonococcal strains. Vaccine development is one area of renewed interest. Herein, we review the recent advances in this area. RECENT FINDINGS: Vaccine development for N...
March 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570495/the-impact-of-malnutrition-on-childhood-infections
#10
Judd L Walson, James A Berkley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Almost half of all childhood deaths worldwide occur in children with malnutrition, predominantly in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which malnutrition and serious infections interact with each other and with children's environments. RECENT FINDINGS: It has become clear that whilst malnutrition results in increased incidence, severity and case fatality of common infections, risks continue beyond acute episodes resulting in significant postdischarge mortality...
March 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570494/the-impact-of-paediatric-antimicrobial-stewardship-programmes-on-patient-outcomes
#11
Sanjay V Patel, Stefania Vergnano
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although there has been an unprecedented global effort to reduce the spread of antimicrobial resistance, little emphasis has been placed on children. This review aims to evaluate the impact of paediatric antimicrobial stewardship programmes as well as providing a practical approach for effectively implementing them in community-based settings and in hospitals. RECENT FINDINGS: Although rates of serious bacterial infection are low in children, the rates of antimicrobial use and resistance are comparable with adults...
March 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570493/does-anthrax-antitoxin-therapy-have-a-role-in-the-treatment-of-inhalational-anthrax
#12
Nicholas J Vietri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Inhalational anthrax is a rare disease and Bacillus anthracis is a likely pathogen to be used in a biological attack. The lack of clinical experience with anthrax has led experts to develop treatment guidelines. These guidelines recommend anthrax antitoxin to be used in conjunction with antibiotics for the treatment of patients with systemic anthrax infection, yet there is still a lack of human or animal data to support this recommendation. RECENT FINDINGS: The U...
March 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570492/when-do-coinfections-matter
#13
Andrew J McArdle, Anna Turkova, Aubrey J Cunnington
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Advances in diagnostic methods mean that coinfections are increasingly being detected in clinical practice, yet their significance is not always obvious. In parallel, basic science studies are increasingly investigating interactions between pathogens to try to explain real-life observations and elucidate biological mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: Coinfections may be insignificant, detrimental, or even beneficial, and these outcomes can occur through multiple levels of interactions which include modulation of the host response, altering the performance of diagnostic tests, and drug-drug interactions during treatment...
March 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698255/when-do-co-infections-matter
#14
Andrew J McArdle, Anna Turkova, Aubrey J Cunnington
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Advances in diagnostic methods mean that co-infections are increasingly being detected in clinical practice, yet their significance is not always obvious. In parallel, basic science studies are increasingly investigating interactions between pathogens to try to explain real-life observations and elucidate biological mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: Co-infections may be insignificant, detrimental, or even beneficial, and these outcomes can occur through multiple levels of interactions which include modulation of the host response, altering the performance of diagnostic tests, and drug-drug interactions during treatment...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489526/bronchiectasis-update
#15
Anne E O'Donnell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bronchiectasis, once thought to be an orphan disease, is being diagnosed with increased frequency in the United States and around the world. The present review aims to provide an update on recent publications on the diagnosis and management of bronchiectasis. RECENT FINDINGS: Two large bronchiectasis patient registries have published initial reports regarding demographics and other patient data in 2017. Updates on the microbiology, microbiome, and inflammation in patients with bronchiectasis are clarifying the complexities of airway infection in this disease...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373381/outpatient-management-of-community-acquired-pneumonia
#16
Filipe Froes, João Gonçalves Pereira, Pedro Póvoa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The first guidelines on community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) were published in 1993, but since then many of the challenges regarding the outpatient management of CAP persist. These include the difficulty in establishing the initial clinical diagnosis, its risk stratification, which will dictate the place of treatment, the empirical choice of antibiotics, the relative scarcity of novel antibiotics and the importance of knowing local microbiological susceptibility patterns...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356694/the-optimal-duration-of-treatment-for-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-and-acute-bacterial-skin-and-skin-structure-infections
#17
Silvia Corcione, Francesco Giuseppe De Rosa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the current finding on SSTIs/ABSSSIs treatment duration. RECENT FINDINGS: In 2013, the FDA approved the definition of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs). From a clinical point of view, the new definition may present some advantages: the definition of the severity of the disease, the measurement of reduction in lesion size, and effectiveness of treatment primary endpoint at 48-72 h after treatment initiation...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351107/update-on-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections
#18
Matteo Bassetti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346119/the-role-of-tedizolid-in-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections
#19
Emilio Bouza, Patricia Muñoz, Almudena Burillo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tedizolid is a second-generation oxazolidinone with activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including MRSA isolates resistant to linezolid. Pivotal clinical trials showed that tedizolid at 200 mg once-daily for 6 days is not inferior to linezolid 600 mg twice daily for 10 days in patients with SSTI. The comparison of adverse events is favorable to tedizolid under the circumstances of the clinical trials. This is a review of recent literature on tedizolid, its use in special populations and potential adverse effects...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346118/mycobacterium-avium-complex-pulmonary-disease-new-epidemiology-and-management-concepts
#20
Leah Lande, Jason George, Theodore Plush
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)-related pulmonary disease has been increasing because of environmental factors, changes in organism virulence, and evolving host susceptibility. Treatment is often complicated by adverse effects, development of drug resistance, and refractory disease, with recurrence rates as high as 25-45%. RECENT FINDINGS: Aerosolization of water, soil, or dusts are the likely sources of MAC-related pulmonary disease in susceptible individuals...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
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